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8B.

ritual is a sacred thing that is often done by most people to fulfill their religious obligation, or for special occasions. one way to perform the ritual is the performing arts. Performing arts for example cultural performance, give extra flavours and add lustre to ritual occasions. To relate ritual to the various forms of the performing arts, applying some philosophical theories of art to the field of ritual is also can be used. Ritual not only relates to text or drama but also music, dance, sculpture, painting, and architecture. (Michael stausberg, Zoroastrian Rituals In Context. Boston: Brill, 2004. p. 131) (Jorgen hellman, Performing The Nation.Copenhagen: NIAS Press, 2003. p. 78) 9B. art is a form of expression of a beauty in which there are hallmark features of aesthetics, ethics and logic. Arts has been involved in our daily life or even been part of everyday life. Visual communication, is the way of communication that relies on vision. in short, i can conclude that the relations between arts and visual communication is a way to display art in a visual form in purpose to presented it in the social life.compared to other way of communication, the visual communication is the most frequently used by humans to present art. 2A. we all know humans are social beings, and basically we can not live alone. as well as the culture, culture can not grow just based on a single individual. culture can grow because of the habits from a group of people that are conducted together, and occurs repeatedly. culture and society are closely related terms. each society has a culture that differing them with other societies. every society has developed a set of norms, roomates are the customary, conventional, expected ways of acting, thinking and feeling in that society. So, individual habits can not create a culture of intact. (Paul B.Horton and Robert L.horton, Personal Learning Aid for Introductory Sociology. illinois: dow jones irwin, 1982. P.6) 3A. culture is one thing that can not be separated from society. Instead, each community has their own culture, the culture itself Consist of all the learned patterns of acting, feeling and thinking shared by the members of particular society. from this statement, we can conclude that we can learn about the culture from other societies, we can learn it without having to implement those culture into our own culture. we can learn how a community do something, feel something, and how their thinking about life. . (Paul B.Horton and Robert L.horton, Personal Learning Aid for Introductory Sociology. illinois: dow jones irwin, 1982. P.6) 5A. in doing a scientific work, we need a method. This method is used to facilitate us to do the work of our scientific. every discipline or field of study, is a science to the extent that is uses scientific methods of study, and develops a body of verified knowledge based upon scientific investigation. scientific method Consist of the following steps: first, we have to formulate the problem, we must determine what topics will we examine. Second, plan the research design. we must determine what data that is needed, and where we should looking for it . third, collect the data. we are looking for data in according to the research plans that we have. fourth, analyze the data. after receiving the data, we have to re-check the data that will actually be used. The last is, draw the conclusion from the research we have done. (Paul B.Horton and Robert L.horton, Personal Learning Aid for Introductory Sociology. illinois: dow jones irwin, 1982. P.2)

7A. art is something that can not be separated from the human race. Art has also been known to the world since hundreds of years ago. as a work of culture, there are three functions of art in the life of society. first, the art has a role as a means of education for the audience. a performance art has moral values that we can learn. Second, from the economic aspect, seni has a funtion as a job. for some people, the art world is a place where they make money. third, arts has aspects of ideology, which means art is a cultural identity of a nation. all of these aspects should be applied in balance , so no concern that dominate other concern. (Prof.Dr.Timbul Haryono. M.Sc,seni pertunjukan dan seni rupa dalam prespektif arkeologi seni. Solo: ISI Press Solo, 2008. P.130,131) 7B. language and culture are like the two sides of the same coin. we use language to tell a culture, while culture is a tool to encourage or develop the language itself. language represents the reality of different cultures, because the value that are applied to the speaking activities are different. Culture guide human in creating of ideas, behavior, and make something for themselves. Language plays a role to tell those things to other culture. language is also a means to solve problems that occur in society in a culture. in short, the culture and language are two entities that can not be separated. 4A. Cultural behavior : is behavior exhibited by humans (and, some would argue, by other species as well, though to a much lesser degree) that is extrasomatic or extragenetic, in other words, learned. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cultural_behavior) Cultural knowledge : is made up of culture general and culture specific knowledge. cultural knowledge is an understanding of the knowledge that exists in a culture. Knowledge about culture includes the history, beliefs, customs, practices, traditions, and accomplishments of a particular group and how others have benefited from the groups experience. (http://volunteeralberta.ab.ca/intersections/staff/buildingcultural-knowledge/cultural-knowledge) (etta R. Hollins,culture in school learning: revealing the deep meaning.new jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum associates, 1996. P.13) Cultural artifact : is a term used in the social sciences, particularly anthropology, ethnology and sociology for anything created by humans which gives information about the culture of its creator and users. cultural artefact also has a definition as a means to present the culture through the cultural heritage objects itself. example of such artefact include rare collection of flora and fauna, archeologist finds, and antiquities. (Risto Hilpinen .Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.) (Barbara T.hoffman, Art And Cultural Heritage: Law, Policy And Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge university press, 2009. P.65) 2B. There are many forms of culture, every point of view has its own sense of cultural forms. I will explain the cultural forms based on the sociology perspective. There are two forms of culture, non material and material forms. Non material cultures refers to all the non physical products of society that are created over time and shared: knowledge, beliefs, customs, values, morals, symbols and so on. Different with the material forms, it includes the physical artifacts that shape or reflect the lives of members of a particular society: distinctive clothing, buildings, inventions, food, artworks, music and so on. In short, the difference between material and nonmaterial is the shape of the content. material is something you can touch, while non-material is something that untouchable, but to grow and thrive in the community (David Newman, Sociology: Exploring the Architecture of Everyday Life (fifth edition). london:SAGE publications, 2004. P.93)