Bush Doctrine

1

Bush Doctrine
The Bush Doctrine is a phrase used to describe various related foreign policy principles of former United States president George W. Bush. The phrase was first used by Charles Krauthammer in June 2001 to describe the Bush Administration's "unilaterally withdrawing from the ABM treaty and rejecting the Kyoto protocol".[1] After 9/11 the phrase described the policy that the United States had the right to secure itself against countries that harbor or give aid to terrorist groups, which was used to justify the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan.[1][2] Different pundits would attribute different President Bush makes remarks in 2006 during a press conference in the Rose meanings to "the Bush Doctrine", as it came to Garden about Iran's nuclear ambitions and discusses North Korea's nuclear describe other elements, including the test controversial policy of preventive war, which held that the United States should depose foreign regimes that represented a potential or perceived threat to the security of the United States, even if that threat was not immediate; a policy of spreading democracy around the world, especially in the Middle East, as a strategy for combating terrorism; and a willingness to unilaterally pursue U.S. military interests.[3][4][5] Some of these policies were codified in a National Security Council text entitled the National Security Strategy of the United States published on September 20, 2002.[6] The phrase "Bush Doctrine" was rarely used by members of the Bush administration. The expression was used at least once, though, by Vice President Dick Cheney, in a June 2003 speech in which he said, "If there is anyone in the world today who doubts the seriousness of the Bush Doctrine, I would urge that person to consider the fate of the Taliban in Afghanistan, and of Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq."[7]

National Security Strategy of the United States
The main elements of the Bush Doctrine were delineated in a document, the National Security Strategy of the United States, published on September 17, 2002.[8] This document is often cited as the definitive statement of the doctrine.[9][10][11] It was updated in 2006[12] and is stated as follows:[13]

The security environment confronting the United States today is radically different from what we have faced before. Yet the first duty of the United States Government remains what it always has been: to protect the American people and American interests. It is an enduring American principle that this duty obligates the government to anticipate and counter threats, using all elements of national power, before the threats can do grave damage. The greater the threat, the greater is the risk of inaction – and the more compelling the case for taking anticipatory action to defend ourselves, even if uncertainty remains as to the time and place of the enemy’s attack. There are few greater threats than a terrorist attack with WMD. To forestall or prevent such hostile acts by our adversaries, the United States will, if necessary, act preemptively in exercising our inherent right of self-defense. The United States will not resort to force in all cases to preempt emerging threats. Our preference is that nonmilitary actions succeed. And no country should ever use preemption as a pretext for aggression.

and the Americans. which want to deal with the matter by judicial means. It would be premature at this stage to say that the US administration has had a fundamental change of heart and shed its long-ingrained reflexes in dealing with Russia. ” . The American position flies in the face of the European approach. four main points are highlighted as the core to the Bush Doctrine: Preemption. President Bush articulates his discrete concept of the Bush Doctrine. and our interests at home and abroad by identifying and destroying the threat before it reaches our borders." deployed "unilateralism." "Confront threats before they fully materialize.Bush Doctrine 2 Components The Bush Doctrine has been defined as a collection of strategy principles."[22] Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld remarked thus in 2006. We are menaced less by fleets and armies than by catastrophic technologies in the hands of the embittered few. and the Spread of Democracy. and a set of rationales and ideas for guiding United States foreign policy." Unilateralism Unilateral elements were evident in the first months of Bush's presidency.[23][24] There is some evidence that Bush's willingness for the United States to act unilaterally came even earlier. The purpose is to develop closer cooperation within NATO in dealing with geopolitical problems from the Middle East to Eurasia. The first is unilateralism. his doctrine consisted of four "prongs. "Make no distinction between terrorists and the nations that harbor them--and hold both to account. An opposition is taking shape here between the leading European capitals.[14][15] The George W. 3. 2.[14] Two main pillars are identified for the doctrine: preemptive strikes against potential enemies and promoting democratic regime change. 4. of which the missile shield is a particularly telling example. coiner of the term "Bush Doctrine. specifically regarding the president's decision to withdraw from the ABM treaty. in the Middle East. Bush administration claimed that the United States is locked in a global war."[19] In his 2010 memoir Decision Points.[14][16][17][18][19][20] Out of the National Security Strategy. Bulgaria and Albania) but also. the Caucasus and Central Asia.[21] The document emphasized preemption by stating: "America is now threatened less by conquering states than we are by failing ones. They are the following: (In his words) 1. a war of ideology. the American people." three of them practical. New Multilateralism. and one idealistic. which is based on ABM talks and multilateralism." and required "defending the United States. It called for a dramatic expansion of NATO not only in Eastern Europe (with the Baltic States. who want to push ahead and create a fait accompli. According to the President. The differences seem to point toward three fundamental values which underpin the Bush administration's image of Europe. The program therefore takes a broad and rather fuzzy view of Europe. in which its enemies are bound together by a common ideology and a common hatred of democracy. but we have not found the formula as a country. I would say we probably deserve a D or D+ as a country as how well we're doing in the battle of ideas that's taking place. Conservative Charles Krauthammer. When it comes to the future of Europe. and most significantly. I'm not going to suggest that it's easy. in a statement taken to reflect his view of the Doctrine's efficacy: "If I were rating." "Advance liberty and hope as an alternative to the enemy's ideology of repression and fear. Military Primacy." in February 2001 to refer to the president's increased unilateralism in foreign policy. Americans and Europeans differ on key issues. practical policy decisions. The International Journal of Peace Studies 2003 article "The Bush administration's image of Europe: From ambivalence to rigidity" states:[25] “ The Republican Party's platform in the 2000 presidential elections set the administration's tone on this issue." "Take the fight to the enemy overseas before they can attack us again here at home. Romania.

S. Department of State specialists.S. 2001 (audio only) The doctrine was developed more fully as an executive branch response in the wake of the September 11. [the President] announced what became known as the 'Bush Doctrine'". argued by Vice President Dick Cheney.[26] In an address to the nation on the evening of September 11. in every region. and there was no evidence that they had any foreknowledge of the attacks. developed after the Cold War. Either you are with us.Bush Doctrine 3 Attacking countries that harbor terrorists At a joint session of Congress President Bush pledges to defend America's freedom against the fear of terrorism. And our security will require all Americans to be forward-looking and resolute. now has a decision to make. and made clear the role pre-emptive war would play in the future of American foreign policy and national defense:[31] “ We cannot defend America and our friends by hoping for the best. We cannot put our faith in the word of tyrants.S. 2002. Every nation. foreign policy. These policies.[32] Two distinct schools of thought arose in the Bush Administration regarding the question of how to handle countries such as Iraq. Pre-emptive strikes Bush addressed the cadets at the U. Iran. or you are with the terrorists. since it was not Afghanistan that had initiated the attacks. Bush stated his resolution of the issue by declaring that "we will make no distinction between the terrorists who committed these acts and those who harbor them.[30] This policy was used to justify the invasion of Afghanistan in October 2001. If we wait for threats to fully materialize. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld and a number of influential Department of Defense policy makers such as Paul Wolfowitz and Richard Perle. to be ready for preemptive action when necessary to defend our liberty and to defend our lives. but also enable the democracy to flourish in the rest of the Middle East. ” The stance of the US administration was that the harsh measures to spread the democracy around the globe are inevitable and efficacious. the White House Press Secretary at the time. in which for instance. who solemnly sign non-proliferation treaties. 2001 attacks. held that direct and unilateral action was both possible and . Secretary of State Colin Powell and National Security Advisor Condoleezza Rice. "In a speech hailed by the press and by Democrats. as well as U. The attacks presented a foreign policy challenge.[29] The first published reference after the 9/11 attacks to the terror-fighting doctrine appeared September 30 in an op-ed by political scientist Neal Coates.[2] and has since been applied to American military action against Al Qaeda camps in North-West Pakistan. we will have waited too long — Our security will require transforming the military you will lead — a military that must be ready to strike at a moment's notice in any dark corner of the world. September 20. The opposing view. Military Academy (West Point) on June 1. later wrote in an autobiographical account of that address. and then systemically break them. sought to establish a multilateral consensus for action (which would likely take the form of increasingly harsh sanctions against the problem states. 2001 address to a Joint Session of Congress:[28] “ We will pursue nations that provide aid or safe haven to terrorism. any nation that continues to harbor or support terrorism will be regarded by the United States as a hostile regime. and North Korea (the so-called "Axis of Evil"[33] states). From this day forward. ” Ari Fleischer. argued for what was essentially the continuation of existing U."[27] President Bush made an even more aggressive restatement of this principle in his September 20. summarized as the policy of containment). liberating Iraq will not only plant democracy in the area.

Bush expanded on his view of American foreign policy and global intervention. in a January 2004 speech at National Defense University. 1998.[40] Several central persons in the counsel to the George W. Bush said: "The defense of freedom requires the advance of freedom. Mr. as a strategy for combating the threat of terrorism. and on January 26. have a seriously destabilizing effect on the entire Middle East.Bush Doctrine justified and that America should embrace the opportunities for democracy and security offered by its position as sole remaining superpower. who also became disgruntled with the outcome of the Gulf War[35][36] and United States foreign policy under Bill Clinton.[36][40] sparking them to call for change towards global stability[36][41] through their support for active intervention and the democratic peace theory. who know that freedom is the right of every person and the future of every nation. 4 Democratic regime change In a series of speeches in late 2001 and 2002. but later spoke of a peace dividend towards the end of the Cold War with economic benefits of a decrease in defense spending. As you have rightly declared. and a significant portion of the world’s supply of oil will all be put at hazard. The Reagan Doctrine was strongly criticized[37][38][39] by the neoconservatives. Such uncertainty will. President.[35][36] and it was considered to be a step from the political realism of the Reagan Doctrine. the PNAC sent a public letter to then-President Bill Clinton stating: “ As a result. by itself. ” After his second inauguration. just before Bill Clinton became president of the United States. of our friends and allies like Israel and the moderate Arab states. It hardly needs to be added that if Saddam does acquire the capability to deliver weapons of mass destruction." Neoconservatives and the Bush Doctrine held that the hatred for the West and United States in particular does not exist because of actions perpetrated by the United States. but rather because the countries from which terrorists emerge are in social disarray and do not experience the freedom that is an intrinsic part of democracy. ” . The liberty we prize is not America's gift to the world.[14][19] The Bush Doctrine holds that enemies of United States are using terrorism as a war of ideology against the United States.[36][42][43][44][45][46] Neoconservatives are widely known to long have supported the overthrow of Saddam Hussein in Iraq. Bush declared:[34] “ Americans are a free people. in the not-too-distant future we will be unable to determine with any reasonable level of confidence whether Iraq does or does not possess such weapons. The Reagan Doctrine was considered anti-Communist and in opposition to Soviet Union global influence. declaring that the United States should actively support democratic governments around the world. as he is almost certain to do if we continue along the present course. it is God's gift to humanity. In his 2003 State of the Union Address. The responsibility of the United States is to protect itself and its friends by promoting democracy where the terrorists are located so as to undermine the basis for terrorist activities. without the approval of international bodies such as the United Nations. and that the United States had the right to act unilaterally in its own security interests. especially in the Middle East.[3][4][5] This represented a departure from the Cold War policies of deterrence and containment under the Truman Doctrine and post–Cold War philosophies such as the Powell Doctrine and the Clinton Doctrine. the safety of American troops in the region. Bush administration considered themselves to be neoconservatives or strongly support their foreign policy ideas. the security of the world in the first part of the 21st century will be determined largely by how we handle this threat.[14][19] Influences on the Bush Doctrine Neoconservatives The development of the doctrine was influenced by neoconservative ideology.[35][37] The Reagan Doctrine was considered key to American foreign policy until the end of the Cold War.

comments: "While the West faces uncertainties in the struggle against militant Islam’s armies of darkness. who are thought to have adopted neoconservative foreign policy thinking include Vice President Dick Cheney and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. democratic institutions and its all-encompassing ideology of freedom. since democratic countries are more peaceful. and neoconservative reasoning. Bush. his Vice President Dick Cheney. and strategically wise. Bush's defense secretary Donald Rumsfeld." or leadership by example.S." or the direct application of United States power. later expressed regret over the Iraq invasion and ultimately put the blame for the invasion on President George W.[14][19][20][49] The Bush Doctrine. his deputy defense secretary Paul Wolfowitz. a war of ideology where the United States must take responsibility for security and show leadership in the world by actively seeking out the enemies and also change those countries who are supporting enemies. and the presence of a nationalist domestic ideology. U.[48] The Bush Doctrine. Military Academy Combating Terrorism Center at West Point. He examines two contending approaches to the long-term promotion of democracy: "exemplarism. Bush’s Vice President Dan Quayle. in line with long-standing neoconservative ideas. held that the United States is entangled in a global war of ideas between the western values of freedom on the one hand. Neoconservative Richard Perle."[20] 5 Natan Sharansky Another part of the intellectual underpinning of the Bush Doctrine was the 2004 book The Case for Democracy. which Bush has cited as influential in his thinking. and breed less terrorism than dictatorial ones. George W. and that the enemy of United States must be destroyed pre-emptively before they attack — using all the United States' available means. since it leads to greater freedom for the citizens of such countries.[50] The book argues that replacing dictatorships with democratic governments is both morally justified. written by Israeli politician and author Natan Sharansky and Israeli Minister of Economic Affairs in the United States Ron Dermer. including the use of coercive force.[36] PNAC member and the chairman of the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee (DPBAC). He claims that the Bush Doctrine promotion of democracy abroad was held as vital by the Bush administration to the success of the United States in the "war on terror".[14][19][20] On the book Winning the War on Terror Dr. and Democracy Promotion in U. and extremism seeking to destroy them on the other. and while it is true that we do not yet know precisely how it will end. in his 2005 International Security journal article "The Roots of the Bush Doctrine: Power. James Forest.Bush Doctrine Among the signatories to Project for the New American Century's original statement of Principals is George H. Expanding United States influence Princeton University research fellow Dr. Jonathan Monten.[47] Other than Bush and Rumsfeld. resources and influences to do so. held that containment of the enemy as under the Realpolitik of Reagan did not work. Nationalism.. . W. It was also a key objective of the administration's grand strategy of expanding the political and economic influence of the United States internationally.S. what has become abundantly clear is that the world will succeed in defeating militant Islam because of the West’s flexible. and "vindicationism. and his brother Jeb Bush.[51] attributed the Bush administration's activist democracy promotion to two main factors: the expansion of material capabilities. Whereas exemplarism largely prevailed in the 20th century. Strategy". vindicationism has been the preferred approach of the Bush administration.

He said in an interview about the book: "I wrote this book because of my conviction that the Bush Doctrine has a more compelling logic and historical pedigree than people realize. their defensive projects. With the adherence to liberal and universal political ideals. public policy professor and member of The Shadow Financial Regulatory Committee.[14] Robert G. "the World Island". Hendrickson argued that it reflects a turn away from international law. the United States historically played its role as an agent of liberal change in international arena. and perceived obligations to disseminate the norms internationally.[25][52] Peter D. including the United States. polls showed there was more anti-Americanism than before the Bush administration formed the Bush Doctrine." Zbigniew Brzezinski. His prescient theories.[70] . as he called it.[69] Political scientist Karen Kwiatkowski in 2007 wrote on her article "Making Sense of the Bush Doctrine": We are killing terrorists in self-defense and for the good of the world." [16] The Bush Doctrine was polarizing both domestically and internationally. solely because we love them.[55][56][57] In his 2007 book In the Defense of the Bush Doctrine.[67][68] Patrick J.[66] This doctrine is argued to be contrary to the Just War Theory and would constitute a war of aggression. Feaver. One of the drafters of the National Security Strategy of the United States.[53] And yet there are inspections that indicate such strategies that are concentrated on liberalism and democracy follow the mainstream of American diplomatic traditions. We are taking over foreign countries. setting them up with our favorite puppets "in charge. published in 1904. who later served as State Department counselor under Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice. "Indeed. their dress codes. I believe the assertion that there is such a doctrine lends greater coherence to the administration's policies than they deserve. Zelikow. Tucker and David C. and marks the end of American legitimacy in foreign affairs. their movements. Mackinder warned that any single power dominating Eurasia.[62] Anup Shah’s at Globalissues. evangelism.[65] Others have stated that it could lead to other states resorting to the production of WMD or terrorist activities. Buchanan writes that the 2003 invasion of Iraq has significant similarities to the 1996 neoconservative policy paper A Clean Break: A New Strategy for Securing the Realm.[59] In 2008. a result of implementing the Bush doctrine and conservative foreign policy. at least partially.[63] and Nat Parry’s April 2004 article at ConsortiumNews. have rightly shaped American grand strategy since World War II.com.[60][61] Foreign interventionism The foreign policy of the Bush Doctrine was subject to controversy both in the United States and internationally. would have the potential to dominate the world." controlling their economy. "I actually never thought there was a Bush doctrine. and their dreams.[25][51] Critics of the policies were suspicious of the increasing willingness of the United States to use military force unilaterally."[58] Kaufman is a political scientist. you see. Some published criticisms include Storer H.[54] Experts on geopolitical strategy note that Halford Mackinder's theories in "The Geographical Pivot of History" about the "Heartland" and world resource control are still as valid today as when they were formulated. and apparently can’t live without them." said Philip D. which is commonly mistakenly referred to as the "Bush Doctrine. Kaufman wrote: "No one grasped the logics or implications of this transformation better than Halford Mackinder. who worked on the Bush national security strategy as a staff member on the National Security Council.Bush Doctrine 6 Criticism and analysis The Bush Doctrine resulted in criticism and controversy. said he thought there was no "single piece of paper" that represents the Bush doctrine. Jimmy Carter's national security adviser.[64] Robert W." demurred at investing the statement with too much weight. first set forth in Geographical Pivot of History. this increase was probably. said he has counted as many as seven distinct Bush doctrines.org. Rowley’s June 2002 article in the Chicago Tribune.

[35][71][72][73][74][75] Initially. Some commentators interpreted voter turnout figures as evidence of "large-scale fraud". "It remains to be seen if U. Sima Samar. after seven years of war.[75] but by the end of the Bush administration.Bush Doctrine 7 Radical departure According to Buchanan and others. In 69 instances the country became less democratic after the intervention.S.S. ally. John A. like John Micklethwait in the book The Right Nation. as a form of social control. and claimed in an interview that the Bush administration has continued to exploit a "window of opportunity that opens up in a state of shock".S. it is a rubber stamp. In many respects.[48][78][79] Polarization Anti-war critics have claimed that the Bush Doctrine was strongly polarizing domestically. these commentators draw attention to the number of unpopular (but U.-friendly) warlords achieving "legitimating" positions under U.S.[92] .[59] Compassionate belief and religious influence Bush often talked about his belief in compassionate conservatism[80][81] and liberty as "God's gift". had estranged allies of the United States.S.[82][83][84][85] Author Naomi Klein wrote in her book The Shock Doctrine about a recurrent metaphor of shock. 96.[34] In his Claremont Institute article Democracy and the Bush Doctrine. Everything has already been decided by the powerful ones. claim that Bush was deceived by neoconservatives into adopting their policies.[37][48][76][77] Critics. caused no change in the country's democracy. "This is not a democracy. In the remaining 63 cases. it is argued that parliamentary democracy was downplayed by the US and power concentrated in the hands of the Afghan president Hamid Karzai. second look at the Bush Doctrine. At the same time.[76] The representation of prominent neoconservatives and their influences on the Bush Doctrine had been highly controversial among the United States public.[74] Charles R. followed by a comforting rationale for the public.S. the Bush Doctrine was a radical departure from former United States foreign policies. it is the export version of compassionate conservatism."[90] Of the elections in Afghanistan.[87] For example. and a continuation of the radical ideological roots of neoconservatism. stated. voters. but rather US-friendly regimes installed by diplomats acting on behalf of the United States. using Freedom House data. a U. a country became more democratic.[89] Sonali Kolhatkar and James Ingalls have written. supervision of the elections. government and U." Sociopsychological strategy and effects There is also criticism on the Bush Doctrine practices related to their sociopsychological effects saying they create a culture of fear. policy maker Zalmay Khalilzad.[70] and belied Bush's stated desire to be a "uniter. "As he begins his second term. Kesler wrote. former Afghan Minister for Women's Affairs. and intended only to seem democratic to U."[91] Most studies of American intervention have been pessimistic about the history of the United States exporting democracy. Tures examined 228 cases of American intervention from 1973 to 2005.[88] The election of Karzai has been described as the result of manipulation on the parts of the U.S. not a divider". anti-Americanism was high and criticism of the Bush Doctrine was widespread.[75][76] nonetheless the doctrine still had support among some United States political leaders. support for the United States was high. in the case of Afghanistan. policy makers will ever allow anything approaching democracy to break out in Afghanistan and interfere with their plans.[86] Democratization Some commentators argue that the Bush Doctrine has not aimed to support genuine democratic regimes driven by local peoples.[92] A plurality of interventions. the president and his advisors must take a hard.

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net/democracy-americanpower/war_law_4028. (html version) (http://www. (Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff) (March 2005) (PDF). June 12. =The National Military Strategy of the United States of America (http://www. Michael May (March/April 2005). Retrieved 2008-09-15. (2005). 166 [91] " "Tempers Flare At Loya Jirga" (http:/ / news.archives.htm). Paul (October 1. Bleeding Afghanistan: Washington. "U..pdf). [87] Kolhatkar.org. • Speed. Bryan.2968/061002012. doi:10.cgs. "The Bush Doctrine and War With Iraq" (http://www. opendemocracy.carlisle.. php?title=Defense_Policy_Guidance_1992-1994).army. Ingalls (2007). New York Times. uk/ I/ hi/ world/ south_asia/ 2039665.. After Words. S.mil/usawc/ parameters/03spring/record.com/ content/9pmqq53321645902/?p=6c87f9990b144762b89212774e97d8fb&pi=11). OpenDemocracy. Parameters. 2002.. Retrieved 2003-01-19. Center for Global Studies. "War. Franklin Foer (October 8. Law. Naomi. 2006).pdf) (PDF.net. • Record. Jeffery (Spring 2003). edu/ projects/ diplomacy/ archives/ 09_tures. 11 External links • Bush. • Tyler. [88] Kolhatkar & Ingalls 2007 [89] Krugman. budgets and strategy for the remainder of the decade. Pentagon's Document Outlines Ways to Thwart Challenges to Primacy of America" (http://work. Chip Pitts (October 24. Retrieved 2008-11-15. "Getting Beyond the Bush Doctrine" (http://www.mil/news/Mar2005/d20050318nms. The White House.mil/usawc/Parameters/ 03spring/record. The Whitehead Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations (Winter/Spring): 97–111. [92] Tures.sourcewatch.army. • Bush. (December 2006). Edward A. • Long. • Kolodziej.gov/nsc/nss/2002/index. New York Times. 2007). BBC News online.uiuc. and American Democracy" (http://www.jsp). Strategy Plan Calls for Insuring No Rivals Develop A One-Superpower World. SourceWatch. General Richard B. Roger. . bbc. (March 2006). "The document is known in Pentagon parlance as the Defense Planning Guidance. "America's lost respect".org/index.adelsoninstitute.metapress. ' The National Security Strategy of the United States of America (http:// nssarchive.S. The White House. Patrick E.html). ' The National Security Strategy of the United States of America (http:// georgewbush-whitehouse. George W.org. C-SPAN.org) 61 (2): 38." • "Defense Policy Guidance 1992–1994" (http://www.il/FullArticleViewer.edu/ resources/occasional_papers/bushdoctrine.htm)).Bush Doctrine [86] Klein. ".carlisle. stm). shu. (March 8.aspx?id=255&member=a) April 2006 . 2004).defenselink. J. George W. • Myers. "Operation Exporting Freedom: The Quest for Democratization via United States Military Operations" (http:/ / blogs. . The policy guidance is typically prepared every two years. pdf) (PDF).pdf) (PDF). ISBN 1-58322-731-8.colum. "Dangerous Doctrine" (http://thebulletin. (September 2002). edu/~amiller/wolfowitz1992. an internal Administration policy statement that is distributed to the military leaders and civilian Defense Department heads to instruct them on how to prepare their forces.. p. 1992). com/ watch?v=iSP37XQd0Zs). warlords and the propaganda of silence. • Dissident President (http://www. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (http://thebulletin. "The Shock Doctrine: Naomi Klein on C-SPAN" (http:/ / www. co. [90] Kolhatkar & Ingalls 2007. youtube. John A.us/?page_id=29).

Washington. pp. 2007 ISBN 978-0-86372-321-6 . Lawrence and William Kristol The War over Iraq: Saddam's Tyranny and America's Mission. Greg Empire's Workshop: Latin America. 2008. Metropolitan Press. University of Georgia Press. Steven. ISBN 0-9764437-4-0 • Tremblay. Ltd. New York. 2006. Andrew J.) Philosophy 9/11: Thinking about the War on Terrorism. • Dolan. 2004. • Shanahan. Ashgate Publishing. Harvard University Press. Kanet (eds. Cambridge. Ira Monsters To Destroy: The Neoconservative War on Terror and Sin. Deadly Dogma. ISBN 0-7546-4234-8.S. Chris J. West Conshohocken. New York. • Donnelly.C. Palgrave Macmillan.google. Simon & Schuster. The United States. Edward A. New York: HarperCollins. San Francisco. ISBN 978-1-4000-6678-0 • Bacevich. The United States and Persian Gulf Security: The Foundations of the War on Terror. Institute for Research: Middle Eastern Policy. Striking First: The Preventive War Doctrine and the Reshaping of U. American Enterprise Institute Press. Grant F. Open Court. ISBN 0-8050-7738-3 • Hayes. ISBN 978-0-521-76648-7.+Foreign+Policy). 2004. Betty Glad (2004). 2005. Paradigm Publishers.. Washington. com/books/about/Chaucer_s_official_life. PA. ISBN 1-4039-6548-X. Boulder. 229. New York.com/?id=mQ1pQgAACAAJ&dq=Striking+First:+The+Preventive+ War+Doctrine+and+the+Reshaping+of+U.) From Superpower to Besieged Global Power: Restoring World Order after the Failure of the Bush Doctrine. and the Rise of the New Imperialism. ISBN 0-7432-5547-X • Wright. 2005. Why We Fight: Moral Clarity and the War on Terrorism. Rodrigue The New American Empire. The Doctrines of US Security Policy . 2008. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-8447-4229-5 • Gaddis. Regnery Publishing. and Roger E. IL. Cambridge University Press. 2003. MA. Security. 232. Bob Plan of Attack.S. Heiko.google. Chicago & LaSalle. ISBN 0-06-072346-7. New York & London. D. 2004. ISBN 0-674-01174-0 • Grandin. 2005 ISBN 0-8126-9582-8 • Smith. John Lewis Surprise. The Brain: Paul Wolfowitz and the Making of the Bush Doctrine. 2006 ISBN 1-59451-276-0 • Dolan. Timothy (ed. CO. 2006. Ithaca Press. ISBN 0-7414-1887-8 • Woodward. Inc. 2003. Stephen (2005). Random House. 2010. William J. Thomas The Military We Need: The Defense Requirements of the Bush Doctrine. Infinity. Athens. GA. • Kaplan. ISBN 1-893554-69-4 • Kolodziej.html?id=17wLAAAAYAAJ). ISBN 0-385-50680-5 • Chernus. ISBN 978-0-8203-3074-7 • Meiertöns. The New American Militarism: How Americans Are Seduced By War. In War We Trust: The Bush Doctrine And The Pursuit Of Just War (http://books. DC.Bush Doctrine 12 Books • Weisberg..An Evaluation under International Law. Jacob The Bush Tragedy. Encounter Books. Foreign Policy (http://books. pp. Chris J (2005). and the American Experience. ISBN 0-19-517338-4 • Bennett.

Subsurd. Jt.php?title=File:BUSHPC2. Non Curat Lex.org/licenses/by-sa/3. Cosand. Song of the lark.php?title=File:President_George_W. The Thing That Should Not Be. Will Beback. KnowledgeOfSelf. Danny oldsen. Ashdurbat. Rdsmith4. Descendall. Textmatters. California-View. Rbakker99. Cab88.taylor. Nathan Johnson. SummerPhD. Ljj0421. Bobo192. Fences and windows. Ed Poor. Station1. Anothergreenbus. Clayoquot. Northwesterner1. Ahoerstemeier. Tzartzam. Richard75. Good Olfactory. George Nassas. Vulcanstar6. Haus. Clngre. Kesal. Nsaa. Khaighle. Anand011892. Cj. Zbxgscqf. JStripes. Frederikton. Gazpacho. 718 anonymous edits Image Sources. EdzuiK. Pupster21. Bush address to the nation and joint session of Congress Sept. The Eye of Timaeus. Tjmayerinsf. Metaphysics44. Ajc625. Oren0. Robertson-Glasgow. Hohum.wikipedia. Kuralyov. Lightmouse. Work permit. Eastlaw. Ocollard. Breno. Ospalh. Zsero. Andy Marchbanks. Grick. The Cunctator. Chealer. Mikedelsol. NoSeptember. Joseph Solis in Australia.wikipedia Image:President George W.org/w/index. Afrique. SpaceFrog. Afasmit. JavierMC. Lionelt. Matamoros. Male1979. Draeco. Hmains. Antandrus. Rjensen. Qazin. ERcheck. HaroldatState. Elipongo. Robert1947. JzG. Amtiss. Guyzero. MaulYoda. Hede2000. Framed0000. Gsmarshall. Pwt._20. JamesTeterenko. Edward. Aridd. Lawikitejana. Causeitoldyouoncenowitoldyoutwice. Tony Fox. Jdforrester. Perceval. Sadads. Aeusoes1. Freakofnurture. Pgarret. Acooley. Commander. Enno. ZooFari. InverseHypercube. Neilc. CWH.5. Finance trader. Doc1978. AdamRetchless. Chanting Fox. Treybien. Radon210. Ihaveafordv8. Kaotix.Article Sources and Contributors 13 Article Sources and Contributors Bush Doctrine  Source: http://en. Hephaestos. Bushhopper. Lampman. Lihaas. JVortex888. DGaw. Gary King. Henry Cassini. ScierGuy. Ebe123. A Nobody. Homer Landskirty. Rotblats09.wikipedia. ByronHudson. Andy120290. Benny the wayfarer. Bleaney. Carolmooredc. Davidfhayes. Auntof6. Trasman. Watermouth.delanoy. Farcaster. Home Computer. Anjin-san. Erik E. Playmobilonhishorse. TBSchemer. Postdlf. DMCer. Razor2988.0 Unported //creativecommons. Jj137._Bush_address_to_the_nation_and_joint_session_of_Congress_Sept. Wetman. Tcncv. NuclearWarfare. Madhero88. Nikai. Finlay McWalter. Wikibofh. Jmanigold. KuduIO. Earthlyreason. Gabbe. Mydogtrouble. JCDenton2052. Phoenixrod. Can't sleep. Witan. Atropos. Ynot4tony2. RoyBoy. Atomicgurl00. TutterMouse. Kwamikagami.. Kenatipo. 123ew. AManWithNoPlan. Levineps. Pichpich.jpg  License: Public Domain  Contributors: White House photo by Eric Draper License Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3. Bedford. Minesweeper. Uwmad. Daniel Santos. Embryomystic. Ato. Ice Cold Beer. Sardanaphalus. Msavidge. AndrewTutt. VeryVerily. Jclemens. QueenofBattle. Switters2008.org/w/index. CWenger. Fred Bauder. CdnCommenter. WhiteheadSchool. White. Walterego. Primalchaos. Lepore64. Ruhrjung. Jries34. Arj. Technopilgrim. Sympleko. Pakaran. Niteowlneils. Jiang. Lowellian. George100. Hairy Dude. Wahrhaft. Jgchao. Nick123. Marshman. KillerChihuahua. Ulric1313.jpg  Source: http://en. Soulpatch. RexNL. Glen. Nescio.0/ . Smug Irony. The Duke of Waltham. Eaefremov. Woohookitty. Threeafterthree. Chernus. Tassedethe. Bryan Derksen. Michael A. Skomorokh. Xdenizen. Neurolysis. Mrzaius. Bonsai8. Dwbang. Darling137. Glorioussandwich. Wizzlefizzlez. The Original Wildbear. Ryangodfrey. Sgt Pinback. Zzuuzz. AbdullahMo. KJS77. Krisidious. Drivinghighway61. Ruy Lopez. Avono. BigFatBuddha. Bmdavll.jpg  Source: http://en. BDD. Harro5. Essexmutant. Commandr Cody. 20. ViriiK. Petiatil. Cicero79. Timwi. Kaisershatner. Steve10c. Prester John. NeilN. UnitedStatesIndia. ESkog. Skew-t. Petri Krohn. Gunnar Hendrich. Rahga. Gensanders. Ashmoo. Licenses and Contributors File:BUSHPC2. Passargea. JQF. Korny O'Near. Jlauses. Izanbardprince.org/w/index. Emurphy42. Brianga. Rjd0060.wikipedia. Denelson83. EHSFFL2010. Rougher07. Iqinn. Jere7my. GRBerry. SteveSims. MER-C. Zoeld. 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