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Soil-free Agricultural Applications to Widely Use in Supporting Sustainable Regional Economic Development by Means of Vocational Education Tools (2008-1-TR1-LEO04-03081-1)


June 2009

by CVT Georgki Anaptixi

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1 INTRODUCTION......................................................................................................................................................2 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY..............................................................................................................................5 3 LEARNING PRINCIPLES ......................................................................................................................................5 4 INNOVATION THROUGH THE RESEARCH METHODS ...............................................................................6 5 DISTANCE LEARNING NEW APPROACHES AND DIFFERENCES TO TRADITIONAL LEARNING ..............................................................................................................................................................................7 6 KEY REQUIREMENTS FOR A SOUND TRAINING .........................................................................................8 7 STAGES IN TRAINING DEVELOPMENT.........................................................................................................12 8 CHARACTERISTICS OF ADULT EDUCATION..............................................................................................13 9 MODERN TRAINING METHODS AND TOOLS..............................................................................................14 10 REFERENCE LIST ..............................................................................................................................................27


1.1. Who this Training Methodology is for This Training Methodology is written to help the interesting target group strengthen their understanding of the principles and practice of tutoring in Training Process (Traditional and distance learning), mainly for the teachers and trainers using training courses in Hydroponics for their trainees (agricultural producers, agricultural engineers, students of agriculture and life science, decision makers, employers and small and medium sized agribusiness enterprises).

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It is one of the objectives considered under the Lifelong Learning Program Leonardo da Vinci for Partnerships, no 2008-1-TR1-LEO04-03081-1, titled Soil-free agricultural applications to widely use in supporting sustainable regional economic development be means of vocational education under call 2008, which aims to achieve the dissemination of a proven technique for encouraging the target groups to produce high quality products and to develop additional ways of improving their works in harmony with the environemt. This Training Methogodoly has been prepared by an Editorial Team of CVT Georgiki Anaptixi Greece. It address to you if your role involves one of the following: Providing training, guidance, educational support and assessment through consistent

contact with traditional and distance learners engaged in a specific course of the project. Working with trainers, as a colleague, administrator or course author.

The most frequent used term for this role is tutor; other terms are instructor or trainer. By reading this Training Methodology and completing the activities, every interesting person has the opportunity to: Explore how the principles of traditional and distance learning training affect the

approaches of tutoring and training process; Explore areas of tutor skills: supportive, administrative and facilitative. Consider how these skill areas are applied to specific tutor roles and responsibilities. Practice skills in each of above areas by completing activities that are relevant to the

context and experience of the project.

1.2. Characteristics of Training Methodology The Lisbon Summit, held in 2000, designated a strategic objective for the European Union: to make knowledge-based economy more competitive and dynamic, able to promote a sustainable economic growth with more and better employment and social cohesion. In this strategic framework the training has a fundamental role as it means evolving towards an innovative and

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knowledge based society and therefore towards the creation of better jobs and the preparation of human resources able to face the new challenges on the dynamic market. The enlargement of the European Union has brought new dimensions together with a number of challenges, opportunities and requirements for its new members to be integrated as partners in future cooperation on education and training initiatives at European level. Multimedia, New Techniques and Internet technologies are opening new pathways to lifelong learning in universities, schools, organizations, enterprises and workplaces. Knowledge and the ability to create, access and use it effectively has long been a key driver of economic and social development. The Commission is giving a new impulse to e-Learning and knowledge society skills by providing financial support to innovative projects to encourage co-operation, networking and exchange of good practice at European level. The principal output from the Project Soil-free agricultural applications to widely use in supporting sustainable regional economic development by means of vocational education tools-Aquafarm is a training Hydroponic, primarily but not exclusively, for those carrying out hydroponic tasks for agricultural purposes. It will be argued below that the training that meets the requirements of those carrying out hydroponic will also be suitable for training those carrying out relevant tasks in other contexts, including those working for private industrial and agriculture market clients. The training content for such training ought to be based upon best practice in hydroponic so that those taking the training programme learn what best practice in this area is. It also should be realistic and recognize that producers may not necessarily follow best practice or, indeed, may not be permitted to follow best practice, for example, because of legal prescription of the hydroponic methods to be used. The training contentneeds to recognize the methods used in practice so that the target groups taking the training are made aware of these and their limitations. The training that is produced from the Project is being validated through research. It is important to test the quality of this research through the normal process of peer review, hence the need to prepare the results for dissemination. A training that is the result of rigorously reviewed research should have enhanced validity. The training is planned to be developed by the Project Partners in order to be tested under a specific period.

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The present report is aimed to provide support to the Steering Committee in selecting the most appropriate methods and tools to enable an effective transfer of knowledge to the participants in the Hydroponic training. The ultimate purpose of this text is to help the Project Partners and the concerned training providers as stakeholders for the project to plan and to conduct training sessions at a high level of performance.


Research approaches for a training program is very essential and important for the whole process. This is depending on the target group and other factors such as the educational institutions, financial aspects, trainers etc. In our project and in order to have better results there will be a combination of traditional and innovative research methods. Both types could be ideal for our learning cohort.


A combination of different learning resources becomes available to the learner, via the internet, manuals, face-to-face learning and networking. The learning resources and principles include: A flexible learning environment, adjusted to individual personal needs, personal style and pace of learning. Learning through exchange of experience, acting as a teacher and learner at the same time.

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Learning in a individual situation, real or virtual and building personal learning networks. Flexible Time. Providing human resources to facilitate learning. Guiding the learning process through a number of themes that are pertinent to hydroponic tasks. Relevant learning to real life situations through case studies. Characteristic methods are the following: Training in classroom can be applied through seminars, face to face training etc. The trainers in this occasion have to be well skilled, with the appropriate didactic experience in the field. Dialogue embedded in relational practices would be easy to underestimate the impact of the procedures and competence development methodology on working relations in the company, especially where basic grade managers are concerned.


New different, efficient and satisfying:

ways of intelligent learning solutions, knowledge management. tools from integrated business processes, networked cooperation, controlling of increase of knowledge, skills and competences.

policies for stronger cooperation of all actors in economy, agriculture, public structural policies and human resources.

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strategies for upgrade in good time the needed and anticipated qualifications matched with job requirements in the hydroponic market.

approaches for managing the shift to targeting learning and business developments to achieve corporate performance.

visions to introduce learning initiatives that are tied to organisational and individual performance objectives.

ideas to achieve the highest scale of impact through training. methods to innovating and streamlining business-wide training. options for strategic plans, environmental topics and development. solutions to reach and involve.


Looking the process of learning and teaching in distance education from the point of view of pedagogics, in its traditional form it is a matter of a more or less integrated combination of the forms of learning that was developed in form the past until now. Particularly the traditional education includes: Learning by reading printed material (handbooks, manuals, lexicons, scientific literature, lecture and notes). Learning by means of guided self-teaching (counseling at the start of studies, counseling by tutors, reading lists). Learning by means of independent scientific work (preparation from written examinations, interim tests, preparing papers, final examinations). Learning by means of personal communications (counseling, discussions with other trainees, practical casework, case studies, and seminars).

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Learning with the help of tapes and audiovisual media (radio and television, audiovisual networks of several similar locations in different places). Learning by participants in traditional educational teaching (lectures, seminars, classes, laboratory work, and exercises). Using the typical teaching methods (narration, attendance, etc.) It is clear that distance learning education is on the one hand neither new nor alien. It has its roots in, and makes use of, the teaching forms used in traditional learning. On the other hand, it is exactly these forms of teaching that demonstrate the special pedagogic structure of distance education, because it is in fact combined and integrated with other focal points, above all through the much greater emphasis laid on learning by reading and the considerable restrictions on learning by attending lectures, seminars and classes. It also uses new techniques and methods and takes into consideration the characteristics of the adults (anxiety, memories, challenges to beliefs, differing expectations, ageing, motivation, the pleasure of learning). In the near future distance learning education will cover key developments in computer, telecommunications, television and entertainment technologies and industries. Most common to this aspect are the following: Increasing power and sophistication of multimedia computer development, thus rapidly increasing its educational potential. Decrease of the cost, making the distance learning education available to the general public. Use of new technologies for better and easily access to new educational methods. Moves towards developing public learning networks on the information technology.


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In order to find the most appropriate training approach the administrator of training must make an objective assessment that should consider a number of criteria. In this respect the next questions have to be answered: Who is the training for? What types of training are to be thought? Who will be developing the training? What is the appropriate technology based training? What features are needed? How will the training be delivered? How well is the training supported? What will it all cost?

Depending on the answers to this check list the suitable options are to be developed: Who is the training for? The answer to this question requires: Target groups. Number of trainees. Rate of dispersion. Level of professional skills, etc.

What types of training are to be thought? The answer to this question requires: Subjects. Training methods and tools (group discussions, etc.). Involvement of trainers.

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Type of classroom (attending room, virtual room), etc.

Who will be developing the training? The answer to this question requires: Team of trainers, etc. Administrative assistants. Computer specialists, etc.

What is the appropriate technology based training? The answer to this question requires: Traditional training in the classroom whiteboard, flipchart, overheads Technology based training: - Computer based training. - Web-based training. Interactive multimedia training.

On-line learning support of trainee using a computer network

What features are needed? The answer to this question requires: Question types multi-choice, open ended, true/false, form filling, etc. Multimedia support. Special devices specific training equipments. Graphics and colors. Interface with specific software. Practice.

How will the training be delivered? The answer to this question requires:


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What equipment will be used type, storage, devices, networking. Courseware - manuals, handbooks, guides, CDs. Intranet/ extranet. Videos, audio tapes. PowerPoint presentations. Trainer notes Word, Acrobat, etc. Trainers.

How well is the training supported? The answer to this question requires: Evaluation forms. Hopes and expectations. Final tests, exercises, etc. Necessary updates and improvements, etc.

What will it all cost? The answer to this question requires: Assessment of resources. Time.

Another way to develop a training is to approach it by its main components: The input the description of what should be learned (the curriculum). The process a description of the way in which the learning will take place (that will include the location, time needed, learning methods, tools, etc.). The outcome: the level of competence that the trainee is expected to achieve (learning outcomes).


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All these require training professionals (teachers, planners) to be directly involved in the planning of inputs and processes in order to meet the required outcomes. In this respect it is important to design the training by considering the three components in close relationship in order to track changes in technology and to adjust the range of variations.


1. goals and objectives. 2. 3.

Training needs assessment needs and strengths assessment provides

invaluable information that will assist the target groups in developing appropriate training

Defining an Appropriate Plan, Training Goals, and Objectives Setting Goals and Objectives Goals are broad, general statements of what one hopes to accomplish as a result of the training.

Objectives should describe the hoped-for changes in knowledge, attitudes, skills, or behaviors in very precise terms.

4. Appropriate Training Methods 5. Collection of Audiovisual Materials The primary purposes of training media are to support the explanations (by illustrating, demonstrating, and emphasizing) and to provide motivation (by increasing sensory appeal, adding variety to the instructional approach, saving time, and retaining participant interest). 6. Creating a Safe and Comfortable Learning Environment Adults learn best when the training environment is emotionally safe and physically comfortable. 7. Facilitating the Training Experience


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The goal is to help participants learn new information and build skills. The best way to help people learn is to use facilitation techniques that recognize and build on the knowledge, skills, and experiences they already have. 8. Evaluating the Training It is important to give participants an opportunity to give feedback about the content of the training, the trainer(s), and the concept of the training. There are a number of ways trainings can be evaluated-some more formal and some less formal. Finally, in order for evaluations to be most useful, there is the need to develop an action plan for incorporating useful feedback into future trainings.


The adult learner enters the training or educational environment with a deep need to be selfdirecting and to take a leadership role in his or her training process. Adult is the person who has achieved a self-concept of being in charge of his or her own decisions and living with the consequences; this carries over into the instructional setting. Thus, training leaders, traines and instructors can help learners acquire new knowledge and develop new skills, but they cannot do the learning for learners. In addition adults bring to a learning situation a background of experience that is a rich resource for themselves and for others. In adult education, there is a greater emphasis on the use of experiential learning methods (discussion methods, case studies, problem-solving exercises) that tap into the accumulated knowledge and skills of the learners and methods such as exercises and practice that provide learners with experiences from which they can learn by analyzing them. A rich, adult-focused instructional approach takes into account the experiences and knowledge that adults bring to the session. It then expands upon and refines this prior knowledge by connecting it to new learning, making the instruction relevant to important issues and tasks in the adults' lives.


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However adults have their own respect which expressed as "esteem." The taining leader, trainer or instructor of adults must show deferential regard for the learner by acknowledging an adult learner's experience and creating an environment in the learning setting that conveys respect. In this case adults are more open to learning if they feel respected. If they feel that they are being talked down to, patronized, or otherwise denigrated, their energy is diverted from learning to dealing with these feelings. Moreover differing aptitudes, abilities, and experiences have caused individuals to develop a preference for sending and receiving information through one sense over another, with different way. Most often adults prefer auditory or visual input; however, some other have a preference for face to face learning. It is general accepted that the physical environment in which instruction takes place and the structure of the activities in the course can also affect learning positively or negatively. People react differently to such factors as room temperature, arrangement of the room (e.g., closeness of seats), time of day (early morning versus late in the day), brightness of the lighting, and sound (e.g., noise distractions from nearby construction or talking among participants). In addition, adults differ with regard to whether they prefer to work alone or in groups. Adults bring a wide range of experiences, self examination and perspectives to any instructional setting, and are most likely to be motivated when they see a connection between the learning objectives and activities and their own work or life. Adults also bring preferences for how they want to learn as well as varying aptitudes, prospectives, wishes, skills, knowledge and abilities. Ultimate trainers provide opportunities for adults to use what they already know and apply and what they are learning in the instructional setting.



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Using a variety of methods during training can help to maintain participants interest and structure of the sessin content. The method that is selected depends on the learning objectives and participants knowledge. Changes in activities often involve different methods of learning, which will help to increase the trainees retention rates. An approach to structure the training methods is related to the way the information is transferred, as follows:

9.1. Information Sharing - Participants share information from their own experiences in dealing with various situations. The appropriate tools are the following: a) Facilitated discussion The training leader encourages learners to share their knowledge and experiences, but doesnt inform participants what is right or wrong. This provides the learner with guiding information for continual learning about the subject. Discussion is a training method that is related to the questions answers method. Both of these methods have the goal to carry out the learning though a dialogue between the training leader and the learners or in between the learners. The difference is in the following: The questions answers method is examining an issue less systematically than the discussion method. The questions that are made are numerically restricted and they dont demand indepth preparation of the trainer/leader. The questions are often done unsolicited in an improvised shape, when the trainer in a point of a learning procedure tries to discover the opinions of the learners, boosting their interest. On the contrary, the goal of the discussion is to have an in-depth elaboration of the subject. In order to achieve that, the trainer has foreplaned an inductive sequence of questions (verbal or written), with which he can approach gradually the subject. The discussion could be conducted either with the plenum of the learners, in couples or in working groups. The training leader is co-coordinating the discussion and follows the same specifications that are applied for the questions answers technique.


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b) Brainstorming Participants share ideas in response to an open-ended question or scenario. All ideas and solutions are recorded, no matter how impractical or unusual they may seem. This encourages and stimulates creative thought. This method is recommended in a multileveled exploration of a subject or of a central concept through the instigation of the learners to a free, unsolicited expression of ideas. The training leader is asking the learners to propose as more ideas they can think of on the questions he places. He instigates them to express them quickly, one after the other, in a shape of a brainstorming. It is not important if they know the subject. The goal is to get them involved in the examination of the subject with any idea or a proposal that comes to their mind, even if it seems fantastic or unrealizable. Criticism is not applied while the ideas are being displayed, but the participants will be invited later on to explain. The training leader marks their ideas tracks faithfully on the board, without indicating anything. Afterwards he is examining the written words and he is sorting them in categories. In continuing, he utilizes the questions answers or the discussion method, leading the team to discuss about the categories that appeared. At the end, he accounts into a composition of what has been said.

c) Small groups The trainer divides participants into small groups to increase the dialogue and incorporate movement during the session. Participants may be grouped randomly by assigning numbers, or based on a common interest, such as a hobby. Small groups of two to six individuals are recommended. It is a training method that can be applied flexibly in a combination with other methods in every educational chapter of any program of professional proficiency.

d) Case studies The training leader presents a real or fictitious situation related to the subject being covered. Time is allowed for the group to discuss and develop solutions. The case study may be 16

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presented through printed materials, role playing, video, etc. This allows participants to practice skills they have learned in training. It is a pattern of a complex practice, which has the following characteristics: a real or a hypothetical example, that reflexes a wider situation, is presented to the learners, with a goal to an in-depth analysis and to widen the solutions to the problems that emerge. This training method has two fields of application. On one hand, it is used to establish and apply the theoretical knowledge that has been attained. On the other hand it is adopted when the acquisition of needed knowledge hasnt been finished yet and the goal is to stimulate the learning. In both cases, after thorough examination of parts of the case, conclusions are taken (or at least cases are formulated) for the whole. The stages that are followed in the report of a case are the following: The training leader chooses a case the nearest possible to the reality. He/she demonstrates the case that is to be reported and the framework too. The presentation can be done in the shape of a speech or text writing, a film or a voice record. The training leader should obtain clarifications: which is the goal of the studying of the case, which are the expected results and how the learners will process the matter. He/she answers if there are any questions and he/she makes sure that the exercise is understood. He doesnt affect the learners presenting his/her personal opinion. He/she determines the time for the elaboration of the exercise. The learner are executing the exercise. It is preferred that it is done in groups so that there is interaction. They use the information that they have been given, their knowledge and experience too, in order to process the issue and to result in proposals. In continuing, the learners (through team representatives) are representing in plenum the result of their work, the route they followed, the difficulties that they encountered and the conclusions to which they came. The training leader composes a synthesis with the basic marks that were represented by the teams, comments, forms additional conclusions.


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9.2. Information Creation - Information creation is the most active type of learning and, therefore, is the method most likely to help participants retain information.

a) Pair and share Participants independently consider a question, discuss it with a partner, and create an action plan or develop solutions to a question. This ensures that everyone has an opportunity to speak and encourages participants to create their own ideas.

b) Flip charts For important discussion questions, a volunteer can be asked to write participant responses on a flip chart. This allows the group to review the sessions highlights and provides a summary of the content discussed. Flip charts can also be used to note a question or topic that would be better discussed at the end of the session.

c) Voting Participants can indicate their preference among a list of topics by placing a mark next to the one or two they are most interested in. This activity allows participants to read information on their own and evaluate it for better retention before they indicate their preference. This is a quick needs assessment of participant interests and concerns.

d) Role play Group members act out assigned roles to demonstrate a specific idea or situation. This strategy works best with small groups where participants will not feel inhibited. It is a training method in which the learners are playing roles that are connected with an examined situation in a professional or social sector. The goal is to understand better the situation by living a role and their reactions to it. The role play is applied when the intention


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is to analyze a problematic or conflictive situation, that concern capabilities, attitudes, communication and behavior.

- Introduces problem situation with a different way. - Provides opportunity for learners to assume roles of others and have another belief for this point. - Permits for better solutions. - Prrovides opportunity to acquire skills and knowledge.

- People may be too sceptical. - It is recommended for small groups. - Normally people may feel ashamed.

- Trainer has to define whole situation and to specify the roles clearly to everyone. - Trainer must give very clear instructions to involved persons.

e) Exercises Exercise is considered to be every shape of a personal or collective work, that is conducted in the frame of an educational unity and the goal is to lead the learners to practical work, which is followed by analysis from the obtained experience, deduction of the general principles and connection with the theory. The exercise, when it takes place in the frame of an educational room or a laboratory, can last from a couple of minutes to few hours. Also, it can employ a big variety of patterns: elaboration of questions, a solution of a problem or experimentation. Exercise in the use of software program, the manipulation or the construction of a subject under the supervision of the training leader. So we come to the conclusion, that exercise can also be certain methods that we met in the previous under chapters of the chapter, like for example, answering of a questionnaire or avalanche of ideas. Also, exercises are considered to be certain other methods that we will be dealing with next, for example discussion of a case, a solution to a problem or a demonstration. Consequently, the content of this practice can be defined as: it is mentioned in


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the multitude of different exercises that are conducted during the theoretical proficiency and that cannot be ranked in the semantic frame of other basic training methods.

f) Solution to a problem This method essentially represents an extended report of a case. Its deployment can last from few hours till several days. It is good to combine it with other active educational techniques. However, the determinant difference of this technique is that it focuses to the presentation of a real or a hypothetical problem that the trainees are directly interested with and it involves them to analysis and the seeking of a solution and at the end it guides them to process the ways of applying the solution that they have chosen.

g) Self directional learning It is an training method, according to which, learning has its source in a determinative level from the actions of the learners themselves, and it comes from their direct contact with the learning sources. The contestants are proceeding gradually to the understanding of the learning subject, based on their strength. The trainers role is to create the appropriate circumstances and to give them guidance. In this way he raises vertically the ability of the contestants to learn how to learn, to boost their self-esteem and their accountability to the progress of learning. The basic requirement for the success of the operation is the strong commitment of the learners to everything that concerns the accomplishment of the learning goal and the trust in their strength. The method of the self directional learning is possible to be applied, for a certain time, in the frame of any educational or training program. The phases of self directional learning The following phases are usually followed: Determination of the goal.


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Determination of the precise subject: we examine what exactly interests the learners that are in relation with the goal, and how deep will they examine that subject, considering their strength and they time they have in disposal. Setting of questions concerns to explore.

9.3. Information Giving - In this method, the trainer gives information to the participants. Information flow is most effective when detailed information is new.

a) Lectures Information is delivered in a planned oral presentation. While lecturing allows the training leader to control the situation, audience participation is limited and passive, and retention is low. Lecture is best used when combined with another training method.

- Presents real material in direct, logical manner. - Contains experience which knowledge. - Stimulates thinking to open discussion and thought. - Useful for many groups.

- Experts are not always good trainers. - Audience is passive. - Learning is difficult to be understanding. - Communication is only in one way and not interactice

- Necessity of needs of clear introduction and summary. - Necessity of needs of time and content limit to be effective. - Should include Examples and other practices.

b) Questions and answers Participants have the opportunity to ask questions about the material presented. This strategy works best at the end of a session.


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When a trainer wants to avoid the introduction monologue, the most simple and practical way to do it is to place questions to the learners, to record their answers and in continuing to review or correct them and synthesize / summarize the opinions. In this way the following is accomplished: The learners are stimulated to tell their opinion, to think autonomous. They also discover by themselves the different folds of the subject that is investigated. That way the self - activity and involvement is encouraged in their scholastic process. At the same time they learn to express themselves, to formulate and develop their thoughts, to utilize their knowledge and experiences, which will result into increased self-esteem and confidence. Every learner should let the others know his/her opinion, learn from each other and build a team spirit. Everyone should make questions about the subjects that hes interested in. To express different opinions. That way, it can be proved that the existence of different points of view is natural, but that also shows that a synthesis of different opinions can be constructed and that the differences should be turned into advantage, if they enrich the common examination. The trainer and tutor has the opportunity to discover the learning needs and capabilities of the team and to review his tactics if needed.

c) Distance education Materials (written, audio, video, computer-assisted instruction) are used to present information to participants who are unable to attend on-site training, due to geographic or time constraints. Feedback may be provided via a self-check format included with learning materials or by the training leader, after receiving participant exercises. This is generally provided through connection to a central host that supplies and administers the training. Frequently a Learning Management System will keep track of the progress of the learner and include the results of assessment tests. There may be accompanying


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documentation and often the programme will have realistic simulations. There are many providers of this type of training and a wide range of subject material.

d) Interview from an expert Educational sources do not represent only what the trainer and the learners know and create or what the different forms of educational material include. A learning source can also be an expert or someone experienced that is invited to the educational / training program, and has a goal to transfer his experience to the trainees. In this case, the training technique that is used is interview from an expert.


Evaluation in the field of education constitutes the tool of assessment of results of the educational program. The main aim of evaluation is acquired the essential information, observations or even indications on their further utilisation by the experts so that are improved the way and the method of education. The design of evaluation differs each time and it is modified depending on what is wanted to be acquired from this evaluation. valuation constitutes means of assessment of educational and vocational system for its continuous improvement, because the big volume of information that acquires somebody from this. Also constitutes basic piece of education and training of adults education because exist expenses and costs, which are connected with the trainees time that do not exist in the obligatory education (e.g. high school). An other very important reason for the existence of evaluation in adults education and training is that such type programs are materialised to provide with new qualifications, skills and faculties the manpower of society. In case that these programmes are not essential, this would be an unsolved problem for the society (increase of unemployed skilled persons, etc.).As a result of having effective programs of adult education and training is doubly important. Society can ill


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afford to have ineffective programs for adult education and training, and individuals cannot afford to participate in such programs if they are not likely derive substantial benefits from them. Some of the reasons that evaluation in adult education is important are the following: The improvement of trainers performance. If a trainer wants to evaluate his/her performance he/she has to make some questions of quality, of accountability, of protecting his/her work, of being effective, which are important not just for promoters and organizers but also for his/her participants (trainees) and for himself/herself. Trainer is needed to assess what they are doing and ask whether they are doing it well, in order to do it well. The planning of new strategies, making choices and establishing priorities, to determine where they are in the teaching-learning process at present and what to do next to identify helps and hindrances and decide what must be changed or modified. The assessment how much progress has been made, in which direction and how much further must be followed. Evaluation is an essential part of learning. The evaluation can be carried out by the body that organizes the program or some inspectors or external validating body, which is the external and occasional evaluation or by the trainer in the course of the learning program, which is the internal and more regular evaluation. The training organization that organize the program and/or those, to whom they are accountable for example seniors or coordinators or specific evaluators, etc, will be assessing how far the program objectives are being met. Below are mentioned some questions that the target group has to answer in order to evaluate if the objectives of the program and the trainees are met:

What kind of trainees are they getting in these groups? These who the program is primarily
intended for or those who feel to be in most need?

Are they learning the expected aims from the program? Are the courses meeting their needs? The aims of the course are completed in high level?
In addition the promoters want to ensure the quality in order to use the resources that they have in their disposal in the most effective way having thus the possibility give priority in some being


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specific tasks (e.g. improvement of training material, etc). In order to become this feasible and to plan accordingly, are required certain criteria to be determined if some courses are better comparing them with others. The trainers also evaluate their work but they will have different questions to ask. They are concerned with whether they are being effective as trainers whether the objectives they have set are the right ones and at the right level, as well as whether they are being met. They will be assessing progress and the match between intentions and outcomes the results of the teachinglearning process. They will be looking for to measure change, appraise efforts and identify new needs, strengths and weakness. They need to test whether the trainees are ready to move on to the next stage or not. They will want to see clearly the intended program of learning, the implemented program and whether the again differs from the received program. Both organization and trainer, then, evaluate for their own needs and to plan changes (if is necessary). But trainers also built evaluation into the teaching-learning process for the trainees learning. They use evaluation for motivation. What is more, an ongoing program of evaluation is a necessary part of the learning process itself and becomes part of the work of the whole group. The trainees also evaluate in the course of learning. Evaluation is an essential tool for developing new skills, knowledge, attitudes and understanding. The trainees are well informed and indeed expert in evaluating their own learning aspects. Thinking and error learning in particular is based on evaluation, but most other kinds of learning methods rely on this process for effective changes. After that the trainees engage in formative evaluation in order to learn. They will also pursue summative self-evaluation for self learning assessing their own progress and performance, determining how far they have progressed and whether it is in the right direction, in order to diminishing or rekindling their enthusiasm for the learning goals in the right of their achievements. Some approaches adopt tools of evaluation, such, as appropriately named SWOT analysis: to assess the strengths and the weaknesses of the training or something else; to assess the opportunities which it opens and which may or may not have been taken up; and to assess the threats which will hamper the effectiveness of the program and which need to be addressed if the goals of the program are to be achieved. This type of evaluation has specific advantages, and


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helps us to look beyond the normal assessment of outcomes and achievements, to explore other possibilities and the risks faced in the program. The learning objectives need to be submitted to evaluation not just in terms of how far they are being met, but also in terms of whether they are the right goals/aims. The evaluators need to identify how far the intentions of the program of learning are clear in their minds and in the minds of the trainees before they submit them to some form of assessment. The definition of the aims will need to be very clear and specific if they are to engage in meaningful evaluation. Perhaps the trainers take for granted that the aims of their training are the right ones, selfevaluation. But these assumptions need to be examined in more depth. Are they in fact the most appropriate aims for this particular set of trainees? What criteria should be used to evaluate this? Are they open or closed aims? To assess the previews things, it should be needed tests, questionnaires, interviews at the end of the training. To assess the after, it should be needed to engage in follow-up procedures some time after the end of the learning program (two or three months of in some times later) to be seen if and how the new learning is being used. Moreover it is necessary to evaluate if these aims and objectives of the program were accomplished, the intentions of both the trainers and the trainees are being achieved and whether the program of learning is providing effective. Indicative questions of evaluation: Is the design of the didactic unit in this way, so as to be distinguished for the clarity and right definition of the aims of the training? How you evaluate the relationship between trainer and trainee? Which subjects, should be developed more during the training? What new did you find in the training?


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Indicative close questions (5=high degree, 4=good, 3=medium, 2=under medium, 1=little): The material that distributed, was helpful for the understanding of the object of the project? 5 4 3 2 1

Organization and preparation. 5 4 3 2 1

Was there cohesion among the subject that developed during the project? 5 4 3 2 1


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Chambers, E., (1995). Course Evaluation and Academic Quality in Lockwood, F., Open and Distance Learning Today. Routledge studies in distance education. Courtenay, B., C. (1996). Evaluation of Adult Education in Tuijnman, A., C. International Encyclopedia of Adult Education and Training. Pergamon, Oxford. Edmunds, C., K. Lowe, M. Murray, and A. Seymour, (1999). Adult Learning. In the web site Hellenic Ministry of Employment and Social Care (2006). Program of trainers training Educational Material for the Trainers of Theoritical Training (Tome 1). Greece: EKEPIS. Hellenic Ministry of Employment and Social Care (2006). Program of trainers training Educational Material for the Trainers of Theoritical Training (Tome 2). Greece: EKEPIS. Hellenic Ministry of Employment and Social Care (2006). Program of trainers training Educational Material for the Trainers of Theoritical Training (Tome 3). Greece: EKEPIS. Knowles, M. (1990). The adult learner: A neglected species (4th ed.). Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company. Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. Kroenhart: G. (1995). Basic training for trainers: A handbook for new trainers (2nd ed.). Sydney: McGraw-Hill Book Company. Noy, D., Piveteau, J. (1999). Practical Manual of Trainer. Publications: Metechmio Greece. Race, P. (1997). Open Learning Handbook Promoting Quality in Designing and Delivering Flexible Learning. Second edition. London: Kogan Page Limited. Reppa, A., Koutouzis, M., Maurogiorgos, G., Nitsopoulos, B., Chalkiotis, D., (1999). Management of Educational Organizations Educational Management and Polici (Tome A). Publications: Hellenic Open University. Petters, O. (2001). Learning and Teaching in Distance education. London: Kogan Page Limited. Paul, R. (1990). Open Learning and Open Management. Leadership and Integrity in Distance Education. London: Kogan Page Limited. Rogers, A. (1999). Adults Education. Publications: Metechmio Greece. 28

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Rogers, A. (2002). Teaching Adults. Third edition. Buckingham: Open University Press. Rogers, J. (2001). Adults Learning. Fourth edition. Buckingham: Open University Press. Tuijnman, A., C. (1996). Evaluation and Measurement in Tuijnman, A., C. International Encyclopedia of Adult Education and Training. Pergamon, Oxford. Vella, J. (1994) Learning to listen learning to teach: The power of dialogue in educating adults. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.