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Submitted to

Uttar Pradesh Technical University
in partial fulfillment of the requirement for award of the degree Of



To:-Mr. Vijay Kumar BY:-MAYANK (0831131405) RASTOGI

PUNIT KUMAR (0831131406) PUNIT (0831131407) RAHUL (0831131408) SHARMA KUMAR

www.final-yearproject.com | www.finalyearthesis.com NITIN KANT (0831131000)

CERTIFICATE To whom it may concern

This is to certify that the work which is being presented in the project report titled “POWER SAVING STREET LIGHT” in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of B.Tech and submitted to the department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, COER, is an authentic record of the work carried out by MAYANK RASTOGI,PUNIT KUMAR,PUNIT SHARMA, RAHUL KUMAR,NITIN KANT , during the academic session 20112012. The matter presented in this report has not been submitted by the candidates for the award of any other degree.

Mr. Vijay Kumar (HOD& Project Coordinator). E.C. Deptt.

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We are grateful to Dr. Priyanka, Sr. Lecturer, Electronics & Telecommunication Department, College of Engineering Roorkee for her constant encouragement and guidance during the preparation of this work. We express our sincere gratitude to Mr. B.D.Patel, HoD, Electronics & Telecommunication Department, College of Engineering Roorkee, for his invaluable suggestions and constructive criticism regarding this report. Last but not the least, we are thankful to all those who helped us in any way to prepare this report.

Mayank Rastogi Punit Kumar Punit Sharma Rahul Kumar Nitin Kant

The word T stands for the word technique unless there is technique. C.finalyearthesis.com | www. it is impossible to complete the project. OJ-This letters signifies the overhead expenses in un estimated expenses that may occur in the manufacture design or layout of the project.Signifies the word engineering.final-yearproject.It is associate with the word resources which guides to promote planning.Signifies the phenomenon of planning which deals with symbolic nation and proper arrangement of sense and suggestion receptivity accordingly to the needs.com MEANING OF PROJECT The project gives the significance of the following field of engineeringP. T. R. .www.Signifies the convey about phenomenon of construction low cost. E.


Embedded is the combination of both hardware and software. This system shows the advancement in technology as well as it also saves the energy.finalyearthesis. INTRODUCTION “POWER SAVING STREET LIGHT” is an embedded project.com 5. . technology is enhancing and hence we have designed a system for electricity saving of the street lights on the highway.WEBSITE 1. And we are presenting in this project how the power could be saved using power saving street light which automatically gets off in day time and gets on in night .final-yearproject.com | www. Hardware in this field is electronics hardware where as the software is the programming of the microcontroller. Since automation is the need of hour.www.It also sense moving vehicles and people travelling on road and gets on at that time.2.

20 pin controller according to the requirement.PLATFORM USED SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS 1. Pads for PCB designing HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS .com | www. Batronix Prog Studio for programming of Microcontroller 2. Microcontroller is similar to the microprocessor but the basic difference between two is the inbuilt memory in the controller which make it a cheap IC costs about Rs 50 where as the cost of the processor is about Rs 400.www. This heart of this project is ATMEL microcontroller and the controller available in the market has to be used so we have used 89C2051. technology is enhancing and hence we have designed a system for electricity saving of the street lights on the highway. 1.final-yearproject.1. Since automation is the need of hour.com Microcontroller is the decision making device. This system shows the advancement in technology as well as it also saves the energy.finalyearthesis. Orcad for Circuit Designing 3. it works on two logic 0 and 1.

8. AIM OF THE PROJECT .final-yearproject. 5. 4. 2.2. 10.www. Microcontroller 89c2051 Crystal Oscillator Resistors Capacitors Connectors Diode White Led Yellow light Pressure sensors Led Reflectors Light Dependent Resistance 6.finalyearthesis. 11. 9. 1. 3.com 1.com | www. 7.

Different sensors has been used here for sensing whether any vehicle is on the track or not.com The aim of the project is to design such system through which we can save the electricity of the street light on the highways using the microcontroller. 2. or any person is on pedestrian or not . This project presenting the working of the power saving street light which make itself turn on and off as per requirement.by making use of microcontroller it automatically turn on and off the street light. BLOCK DIAGRAM: . BLOCK DIAGRAM: Figure below shows the block diagram of “Power Saving Street Light”.www.finalyearthesis.com | www.final-yearproject.

4.www.1.com | www.1 LDR Fig.com POWER SUPPLY MICROCONTROLLER STREET LIGHT LIGHT Fig. 2.1 VEHICLE 2. WORKING OF THE PROJECT .final-yearproject.finalyearthesis.

final-yearproject.finalyearthesis.2. There are three LDRs used in our project. 2.www. Now the question arises what about the pedestrian so there are pressure sensor switches which will get press as soon as any passerby passes through the road. two for detection of light from the vehicle as soon as the vehicle comes near to the street light poles the corresponding Led will glow and also there is an LDR for sensing the Day and night mode if it is daytime then the LEDs will remain off.com | www. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM .com Now as our objective is to save the electricity we have used LDRs to sense the light.

3.1 project diagram Attach the hard copy of the ckt diagram Component list Attach hard copy of component list 2.www.2.com | www.finalyearthesis.final-yearproject. CIRCUIT DESCRIPTION POWER SUPPLY SECTION: POWER SUPPLY .com Fig.2.

RIPPLE = [ripple voltage(rms)] / [dc voltage] = (Vr(rms)/Vdc Diagram of power supply: Fig.3. A diode rectifier then provides a full wave rectified voltage that is initially filtered by a simple capacitor filter to produce a dc voltage.final-yearproject. RLMT Connector--.It is a connector used to connect the step down transformer to the bridge rectifier. .www.com The ac voltage 120v rms is connected to a transformer which steps that ac voltage down to the level for the desired dc output. The output voltage of a filter circuit has dc level and the rms value of the output voltage. This resulting dc voltage has some ripple or ac voltage variation.finalyearthesis.com | www. A regulator circuit can use this dc input to provide a dc voltage that not only has much less ripple voltage but also remains the same dc value even if the input dc voltage varies somewhat or the load connected to the output dc voltage changes.1 Consists of: 1. 2.

com | www.final-yearproject. 9-15v ac made by transformer is converted into dc with the help of rectifier. ----. Regulator: 5.finalyearthesis. ----LM7805 is used to give a fixed 5v regulated supply. 6. Capacitor is the component used to pass the ac and block the dc. Bridge Rectifier --.www. 3. 4.com 2. Capacitor: MICROCONTROLLER SECTION: .It is a full wave rectifier used to convert ac into dc .It is a ceramic capacitor used to remove the spikes generated when frequency is high (spikes). So the output of supply section is 5v regulated dc. Capacitor: -----It is an electrolytic capacitor of rating 1000M/35V used to remove the ripples. Capacitor: -----It is again an electrolytic capacitor 10M/65v used for filtering to give pure dc.

x1 and pin no.finalyearthesis. +5v supply: This +5v supply is required for the controller to get start which is provided from the power supply section. The clock generated is used to determine the processing speed of the controller. Reset section: It consists of an RC network consisting of 10M/35V capacitor and one resistance of 1k. 1.com | www.x2 to generate the frequency for the controller.18.9 of AT89c51.www.31and 40 of the 89c2051 controller. Crystal Oscillator: A crystal oscillator of 12 MHz is connected at pin no. 2.19. .com Requires three connections to be successfully done for it’s operation to begin.final-yearproject. Two capacitors are also connected one end with the oscillator while the other end is connected with the ground. This section is used to reset the controller connected at pin no. The crystal oscillator works on piezoelectric effect. 3. As it is recommended in the book to connect two ceramic capacitor of 20 pf—40pf to stabilize the clock generated. This supply is provided at pin no.

www.com 3.final-yearproject.finalyearthesis.com | www.PCB LAYOUT Attach the hard copy of the component layout Attach the hard copy of the pcb layout .

•Dry the negative in the photo cure machine. •Now place the negative on the top of the PCB in the UV machine. •Now clean the film by placing it in the tray containing water for 1 min. •Take the PCB board of the size of the layout and clean it with steel wool to make the surface smooth.5 minute and switch on the UV light at the top. dip the film in the fixer solution for 1 min.com 3.final-yearproject. •Switch on the machine by pressing the push button for 5 sec. •Cut the photo film (slightly bigger) of the size of the layout. •Now wash it under the flowing water. •After this.finalyearthesis. •Now clip the PCB next to the negative in the photo cure machine. with the help of dip coat machine. •Dip the film in the solution prepared (developer) by mixing the chemicals A & B in equal quantities in water. STEPS FOR MAKING PCB •Prepare the layout of the circuit (positive). now the negative of the Circuit is ready. set the timer for about 2.com | www.www. •Now dip the PCB in the liquid photo resist. Make sure that the bromide (dark) side of the film is in contact with the layout. drying for approximate 10-12 minute.1. . •Place the layout in the photo printer machine with the photo film above it.

www.com | www. •After this. and the PCB is ready. wipe it a dry cloth softly.com •Take the LPR developer in a container and rigorously move the PCB in it. •After etching. wash it with water very gently.Programming Attach hard copy programming .2.final-yearproject. •Then apply LPR dye on it with the help of a dropper so that it is completely covered by it.finalyearthesis. •Now clamp the PCB in the etching machine that contains ferric chloride solution for about 10 minutes. 3. •Finally rub the PCB with a steel wool. wash the PCB with water.

com | www.final-yearproject.www.finalyearthesis.com 4. SENSING UNIT DESCRIPTION LDR .

www. . 4. The photoresistor is facing rightwards. 4.com | www.finalyearthesis. and controls whether current flows through the heater which opens the main power contacts.com In this circuit we are using a LDR sensor for providing command to fire alarm system this system is interfaced to the alarm section and water pump section of the test area whenever it sense a hazardous condition a particular pin of Microcontroller become high or low accordingly this signal is sensed by our microcontroller according to the signal sensed microcontroller of alarm system generate signal for Alarm Section and water pump. At night. energizing the street light.1 A light dependent resistor Fig. closing the power contacts. the heater cools. Photo resistor Fig. The heater/bimetal mechanism provides a built-in time-delay.final-yearproject.2 The internal components of a photoelectric control for a typical American streetlight.

g.com | www.com A photoresistor or light dependent resistor or cadmium sulfide (CdS) cell is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. since the electrons do not have as far to jump.e. lower energy photons (i. clock radios..www. silicon. e. also called dopants. If light falling on the device is of high enough frequency. They are also used in some dynamic compressors together with a small incandescent lamp or light emitting diode to control gain reduction. • Applications Photoresistors come in many different types. street lights.final-yearproject. It can also be referenced as a photoconductor. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner) conduct electricity. . there will be extra electrons available for conduction. A photoelectric device can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. If a sample of silicon has some of its atoms replaced by phosphorus atoms (impurities). Extrinsic devices have impurities. Inexpensive cadmium sulfide cells can be found in many consumer items such as camera light meters. photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons enough energy to jump into the conduction band. An intrinsic semiconductor has its own charge carriers and is not an efficient semiconductor. longer wavelengths and lower frequencies) are sufficient to trigger the device. This is an example of an extrinsic semiconductor. A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. and hence the photon must have enough energy to excite the electron across the entire bandgap. thereby lowering resistance. and outdoor clocks. added whose ground state energy is closer to the conduction band. alarms.finalyearthesis. In intrinsic devices the only available electrons are in the valence band.

www.final-yearproject. Circuit symbol Below is a symbol for a photoresistor as used in some circuit diagrams.1. Ge:Cu photoconductors are among the best far-infrared detectors available. and are used for infrared astronomy and infrared spectroscopy. 4. Fig.com | www.MICROCONTROLLER UNIT Microcontroller AT89C2051 Features • Compatible with MCS-51™ Products .3 4.com Lead sulfide and indium antimonide LDRs are used for the mid infrared spectral region.finalyearthesis.

on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. a full duplex serial port. In addition. 15 I/O lines. high-performance CMOS 8-bit microcomputer with2K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read only memory (PEROM). The power-down mode saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip functions until the next hardware reset. By combining versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip. two 16-bit timer/counters. Pin Configuration . The AT89C2051 provides the following standard features: 2K bytes of Flash.final-yearproject. serial port and interrupt system to continue functioning. the AT89C2051 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. a five vector two-level interrupt architecture.000 Write/Erase Cycles • 2. The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industrystandard MCS-51 instruction set.www. a precision analog comparator. 128bytes of RAM. the Atmel AT89C2051 is a powerful microcomputer. timer/counters.finalyearthesis. The Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM. which provides a highly flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications.com • 2K Bytes of Re programmable Flash Memory – Endurance: 1.7V to 6V Operating Range • Fully Static Operation: 0 Hz to 24 MHz • Two-level Program Memory Lock • 128 x 8-bit Internal RAM • 15 Programmable I/O Lines • Two16-bit Timer/Counters • Six Interrupt Source • Programmable Serial UART Channel • Direct LED Drive Outputs • On-chip Analog Comparator • Low-power Idle and Power-down Modes Description TheAT89C2051 is low-voltage.com | www.

com Fig.www.1. P1. Port pins P1.1 VCC: GND: Supply voltage Ground Pin Description Port 1: Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port. The Port 1 output buffers can sink 20 m A and can drive LED displays directly. respectively.7 provides internal pull-ups.finalyearthesis.1 also serve as the positive input (AIN0) and the negative input (AIN1).2 toP1.2 to P1.com | www.7 are used as inputs and are externally .final-yearproject. When pins P1. they can be used as inputs. of the on-chip precision analog comparator. P1.0 and P1.0 and P1.1 require external pull-ups. When 1s are written to Port 1 pins. 4.

Port 1 also receives code data during Flash programming and verification.7 are seven bi-directional I/O pins with internal pull-ups. Port 3: Port 3 pins P3. Holding the RST pin high for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running resets the device. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. The Port 3 output buffers can sink 20 MA.www. All I/O pins are reset to 1s as soon as RST goes high.final-yearproject. Port 3 also serves the functions of various special features of theAT89C2051 as listed below: Port 3 also receives some control signals for Flash programming and verification.6 is hard-wired as an input to the output of the on-chip comparator and is not accessible as a general purpose I/O pin.com pulled low. RST: Reset input. Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL) because of the pull-ups. XTAL1: . P3.finalyearthesis. P3. Each machine cycle takes 12 oscillator or clock cycles. they will source current (IIL) because of the internal pull-ups.0 to P3. As inputs.5.com | www.

but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must be observed.4. XTAL2: Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.1.2 Note: C1. respectively.com Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. There are no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal. of an inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator. C2 = 30 PF ア10 PF for Crystals . To drive the device from an external clock source.com | www.www. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be used. XTAL2 should be left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 2.final-yearproject. as shown in Figure 1. Figure 1: Oscillator Connections Fig. since the input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop.finalyearthesis. Oscillator Characteristics: XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output.

Note that not all of the addresses are occupied and unoccupied addresses ay not be implemented on the chip. User software should not write 1s to these unlisted locations.1. In that case.www. since they may be used in future products to invoke new features. Read accesses to these addresses will in general return random data.final-yearproject. External Clock Drive Configuration Fig. and write accesses will have an indeterminate effect.com = 40 PF ア10 PF for Ceramic Resonators Figure 2.finalyearthesis. the reset or inactive values of the new bits will always be 0 Table 1:AT89C2051 SFR Map and Reset Values . 4.3 AT89C2051 4 Special Function Registers A map of the on-chip memory area called the Special Function Register SFR) pace is shown in the table below.com | www.

com . For example.final-yearproject. Fig. .It contains 2K bytes of flash program memory. LJMP 7E0Hwould be a valid instruction for the AT89C2051 (with 2K of memory) . which is2K for the AT89C205 This should be her responsibility of the software programmer. 4. and can be programmed using the MCS-51 instruction set.com | www.1.finalyearthesis. All the instructions related to jumping or branching should be restricted such that the destination address falls within the physical program memory space of the device. whereas JMP 900H would not.www. It is fully compatible with the MCS-51 architecture.4 Restrictions on Certain Instructions: The AT89C2051 and is an economical and cost-effective member of Atmel’s growing family of micro controllers . However there are a few considerations one must keep in mind when utilizing certain instructions to program this device.

]. in the T89C2051 the stack depth is limited to128 bytes..com  Branching instructions LCALL. A typical 80C51 assembler will still assemble instructions. AJMP... CJNE [.finalyearthesis.final-yearproject.] instructions should be included in the program. JZ.  MOVX-related instructions. Data Memory The AT89C2051 contains 128 bytes of internal data memory. ACALL.. JNZ With These conditional branching instructions the same rule above applies. Program Memory Lock Bits . SJMP. JB. even if they are written in violation of the restrictions mentioned above. JC. the amount of available RAM. Therefore. Thus. JNB.. LJMP.com | www. JMP @A+DPTR These unconditional branching instructions will execute correctly as long as the programmer keeps in mind that the destination branching address must fall within the physical boundaries of the program memory size (locations 00H to7FFH for the 89C2051). no MOVX [.]. nor is external PROGRAM memory execution. Violating the physical space limits May cause unknown program behavior. Again.www. External DATA memory access is not supported in this device. violating the memory boundaries may cause erratic execution . JBC. JNC.For applications involving interrupts the normal interrupt service routine address locations of the 80C51 family architecture have been preserved. It is the responsibility of the controller user to know the physical features and limitations of the device being used and adjust the instructions used correspondingly.. DJNZ [.

To eliminate the possibility of an unexpected write to a port pin when Idle is . The content of the on-chip RAM and all the special functions registers remain unchanged during this mode. the device normally resumes program execution.0 and P1. The mode is invoked by software. Idle Mode In idle mode. but access to the port pins is not inhibited. On-chip hardware inhibits access to internal RAM in this event.com | www. the CPU puts itself to sleep while all the on chip peripherals remain active.finalyearthesis. The idle mode can be terminated by any enabled interrupt or by a hardware reset. or set to “1” if external pull ups are used. It should be noted that when idle is terminated by a hardware reset.1 should be set to “0” if no external pull ups are used. from where it left off.www. P1.com On the chip are two lock bits which can be left un programmed (U) or can be programmed (P) to obtain the additional features listed in the table below: Lock Bit Protection Modes (1) Note: 1 The Lock Bits can only be erased with the Chip Erase operation.final-yearproject. up to two machine cycles before the internal reset algorithm takes control.

and the instruction that invokes power down is the last instruction executed. to reprogram any non-blank byte the entire memory array needs to be erased electrically. Internal Address Counter: The AT89C2051 contains an internal PEROM address counter.. Programming The Flash The AT89C2051 is shipped with the 2K bytes of on-chip PEROM code memory array in the erased state (i. Set pin RST to “H” .0 and P1. Programming Algorithm: To program the AT89C2051.the following sequence is recommended. The on-chip RAM and Special Function Registers retain their values until the power down mode is Terminated.finalyearthesis. Power-down Mode In the power down mode the oscillator is stopped. contents= FFH) and ready to be programmed. Reset redefines the SFR s but does not change the on-chip RAM. Power-up sequence: Apply power between VCC and GND pins Set RST and XTAL1 to GND 2.com | www. or set to “1” if external pullups are used.final-yearproject.1 should be set to “0” if no external pull-ups are used. Once the array is programmed.e. the instruction following the one that invokes Idle should not be one that writes to a port pin or to external memory. The reset should not be activated before VCC is restored to its normal operating level and must be held active long enough to allow the oscillator to restart and stabilize.www.com Terminated by reset. The code Memory array is programmed one byte at a time. P1. The only exit from power down is a hard ware reset. which is always reset to000H on the rising edge of RST and is advanced by applying a positive going pulse to pin XTAL1. 1.

The byte-write cycle is self-timed and typically takes 1. Ready/Busy: The Progress of byte programming can also be monitored by the RDY/BSY output signal.com Set pin P3. an attempted read of the last byte written will result in the complement of the written data on P1.7.2 once to program a byte in the PEROM array or the lock bits. true data is valid on all outputs.2 goes High during programming to indicate BUSY. 6. Power-off sequence: Set XTAL1 to “L” Set RST to “L” Turn VCC power off Data Polling: The AT89C2051 features Data Polling to indicate the end of a write cycle. 5.1 is pulled low after P3. lower RST from 12V to logic “H” level and set pins P3.com | www. Repeat steps 5 through 8.3 to P3.1 is pulled High again when programming is done to indicate READY. pulseXTAL1 pin once to advance the internal address 9. changing data and advancing the counter.2 to “H” 3. and the next cycle may begin. Data Polling may begin any time after a write cycle has been initiated. P3.3. 7. Address counter for the entire 2K bytes array or until the end of the object file is reached.7 to the appropriate levels. Apply data for Code byte at location 000H to P1.0 to P1. Raise RST to 12V to enable programming.5.final-yearproject. .7 to select one of the programming operations shown in the PEROM Programming Modes table. During a write cycle. 10. P3. Output data can be read at the port P1 pins. To Program and Verify the Array: 4.www. Apply new data to the port P1 pins. Apply the appropriate combination of “H” or “L” logic levels to pins P3. P3. To verify the programmed data. P3. 8.2 ms.4. Once the write cycle has been completed.7. Pulse P3. Pin P3. To program a byte at the next address location.finalyearthesis.

The code array is written with all “1”s in the Chip.7 must be pulled to logic low. Chip Erase: The entire PEROM array (2K bytes) and the two Lock Bits are erased electrically by using the proper combination of control signals and by holding P3. 2. All major programming vendors offer worldwide support for the Atmel micro controller series. (000H) = 1EH indicates manufactured by Atmel (001H) = 21H indicates 89C2051 Programming Interface: Every code byte in the Flash array can be written and using the appropriate combination of control signals can erase the entire array. Apply the appropriate control signals for Read Code data and read the output data at the port P1 pins.com Program Verify: If lock bits LB1 and LB2 have not been programmed code data can be read back via the data lines for verification: 1. Reading the Signature Bytes: The signature bytes are read by the same procedure as a normal verification of locations 000H.2 low for 10 ms. Verification of the lock bits is achieved by observing that their features are enabled.5 and P3. Flash Programming Modes . will automatically time itself to completion. 4. The values returned are as follows. 3.finalyearthesis. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until the entire array is read . The write operation cycle is self timed and once initiated.final-yearproject. Pulse pin XTAL1 once to advance the internal address counter. Reset the internal address counter to 000H by bringing RST from “L” to “H”.The lock bits cannot be verified directly. and 002H.www. 5. Read the next code data byte at the port P1 pins.com | www. 001H. Please contact your local programming vendor for the appropriate software revision. Erase operation and must be executed before any nonblank memory byte can be re-programmed. except that P3.

finalyearthesis.final-yearproject. P3. 2.1. The internal PEROM address counter is reset to 000H on the rising edge of RST and is advanced by a positive pulse at XTAL 1 pin. Programming the Flash Memory Figure 4.com Fig.1 is pulled Low during programming to indicate RDY/BS Figure 3. Verifying the Flash Memory Fig.com | www. 3.5 Notes: 1. 4.1. Chip Erase requires a 10 ms PROG pulse.6 Flash Programming and Verification Characteristics .www.4.

4.1.finalyearthesis.www.com Fig.com | www.final-yearproject.7 Flash Programming and Verification Waveforms .

4.1.finalyearthesis.www.4.final-yearproject.com | www.1.8 Fig.com Fig.8 .

com | www.www.final-yearproject.finalyearthesis.com .

finalyearthesis.4.1.10 .com | www.www.final-yearproject.9 Serial Port Timing: Shift Register Mode Test Conditions Shift Register Mode Timing Waveforms Fig.1.com Fig.4.

11 .4.1.finalyearthesis.www.com Fig.com | www.final-yearproject.

com | www.4.www.finalyearthesis. Pressure is usually expressed in terms of force per unit area.1. A pressure sensor usually acts as a transducer.12 Pressure Sensor/Switch A pressure sensor or switch measures pressure. it generates a signal as a function of .com Fig.final-yearproject.

final-yearproject.1.com the pressure imposed. 3) Vacuum pressure sensor This sensor is used to measure pressure less than the atmospheric pressure at a given location. and most importantly the type of pressure they measure. 4) Differential pressure sensor This sensor measures the difference between two or more pressures introduced as inputs to the sensing unit.finalyearthesis. In terms of pressure type.13 Pressure sensors can be classified in term of pressure ranges they measure.com | www. 2) Gauge pressure sensor This sensor is used in different applications because it can be calibrated to measure the pressure relative to a given atmospheric pressure at a given location. pressure sensors can be divided into five categories: 1) Absolute pressure sensor This sensor measures the pressure relative to perfect vacuum pressure. Fig.4.www. temperature ranges of operation. 5) Sealed pressure sensor This sensor is the same as the gauge pressure sensor except that it is previously calibrated by manufacturers to measure pressure relative to sea level pressure. .

This is the most commonly employed sensing technology for general purpose pressure measurement. bourdon tube. . Common technologies use metal.1. or bellows) to measure strain (or deflection) due to applied force (pressure) over an area.These types of electronic pressure sensors generally use a force collector (such a diaphragm.10.Uses a diaphragm and pressure cavity to create a variable capacitor to detect strain due to applied pressure.14 1. ceramic.final-yearproject. or liquid.These types of electronic pressure sensors use other properties (such as density) to infer pressure of a gas. (ii) Other types . Generally. the strain gauges are connected to form a wheat stone bridge circuit to maximize the output of the sensor.1 Pressure Sensing Technology Operation of pressure switch There are two basic categories of analog pressure sensors: (i) Force collector types .com | www.finalyearthesis.com Fig:4. Here we’ll discuss only about Force collector type of pressure sensors. piston. Capacitive .www. Force collecting pressure sensors are of following types: Piezoresistive Strain GaugeUses the piezoresistive effect of bonded or formed strain gauges to detect strain due to applied pressure. and silicon diaphragms.

Potentiometric .finalyearthesis. .final-yearproject. Differential and Gauge) Electromagnetic .com | www. these technologies are most applied to low pressures (Absolute.com Generally.Measures the displacement of a diaphragm by means of changes in inductance (reluctance).Uses the motion of a wiper along a resistive mechanism to detect the strain caused by applied pressure . Optical . LVDT.Uses the physical change of an optical fiber to detect strain due to applied pressure. Piezoelectric .Uses the piezoelectric effect in certain materials such as quartz to measure the strain upon the sensing mechanism due to pressure. This technology is commonly employed for the measurement of highly dynamic pressures.www. Hall Effect. or by eddy current principal.

Most of which is linked with the other coil in which it produces mutually induced e-m-f of the second coil c-k-t is closed. It does so without a change of forge.www. The physical basis of transformer is mutual induction between two circuit linked by a magnetic field. An alternating flux is set up in the laminated core. which are electrically separated but magnetically linked through a path of low reluctance as shown in fig.finalyearthesis.final-yearproject.2. Transfer electric power from one ckt to another. while the losses produced in the core are called no-load losses. it consists of two inductive coils.COMPONENTS DESCRIPTION TRANSFORMER: A transformer is a static device by means of which electric power in one circuit is transformed into electric power of the same frequency . In bried a transformer is a device. is called primary winding and the other from which energy is drown.The first coil in which electric energy is fed from the ac main supply. a current flows in it and so electric energy is transformed from the first coil to the second coil .In another circuit. In its simplest form. 1. It accomplishes this by electromagnetic inductive influence of each other Transformer losses: Transformer losses are produced by the electrical current flowing in the coils and the magnetic field alternating in the core.com 4. out is called secondary winding. . The two coils are connected to a source of alternating voltage. 2. The losses associated with the coils are called the load losses. 3.com | www. It can lower the voltage in the circuit but with a corresponding decreases or increase in current.

WHAT ARE NO-LOAD LOSSES? No-load losses are caused by the magnetizing current needed to energize the core of the transformer. They can only change the resistance or R part of the I2R by using a material that has a low resistance per cross-sectional area without adding significantly to the cost of the transformer.com WHAT ARE LOAD LOSSES? Load losses vary according to the loading on the transformer. or I2R losses. heat losses equal (I) (RI) or I2R. According to Ohm’s law. size. V=RI. multiplied by the current.www.com | www. Most transformer designers have found copper the best conductor considering the weight. which are determined by the load requirements.finalyearthesis. They include heat losses and eddy currents in the primary and secondary conductors of the transformer. They are constant and . and do not vary according to the loading on the transformer. or the voltage drop across a resistor equals the amount of resistance in the resistor. R. The electron motion causes the conductor molecules to move and produce friction and heat. They are created by resistance of the conductor to the flow of current or electrons. cost and resistance of the conductor.final-yearproject. Transformer designers cannot change I. in the winding materials contribute the largest part of the load losses. Heat losses. Designers can also reduce the resistance of the conductor by increasing the cross-sectional area of the conductor. The energy generated by this motion can be calculated using the formula: Watts = (volts)(amperes) or VI. flowing in the resistor. or the current portion of the I2R losses. Hence. I.

dielectric losses and I2R losses due to no-load current are small and consequently often neglected. They can be categorized into five components: hysteresis losses in the core laminations.finalyearthesis. regardless of the load. eddy current losses in the core laminations. it is known as a bridge rectifier.www. The bridge recitifier provides full wave rectification from a two wire AC input (saving the cost of a center tapped transformer) but has two diode drops rather than one reducing efficiency over a center tap based design for the same output voltage. and dielectric losses. means "to lag" and refers to the fact that the magnetic flux lags behind the magnetic force. hysteresis. Hysteresis losses and eddy current losses contribute over 99% of the no-load losses. Choice of size and type of core material reduces hysteresis losses BRIDGE RECTIFIER A diode bridge or bridge rectifier is an arrangement of four diodes connected in a bridge circuit as shown below. The Greek word. while stray eddy current. .com occur 24 hours a day. I2R losses due to no-load current.com | www. 365 days a year. for conversion of alternating current (AC) input into direct current (DC) output. that provides the same polarity of output voltage for any polarity of the input voltage. When used in its most common application. This resistance by the molecules causes friction that results in heat. Hysteresis losses come from the molecules in the core laminations resisting being magnetized and demagnetized by the alternating magnetic field.final-yearproject. stray eddy current losses in core clamps. Thinner lamination of the core steel reduces eddy current losses. The biggest contributor to no-load losses is hysteresis losses. bolts and other core components. hence the term no-load losses.

The voltage provided at the output under no load condition is reduced when load current is drawn from the supply.www.1 Fig. the one on the left is a diode bridge Fig. The amount the dc voltage changes between the no load and load condition is described by the voltage regulation VOLTAGE REGULATION= [no-load voltage-full load voltage]/[full load voltage] .com | www.finalyearthesis.com Diodes.4.2.final-yearproject.4.2 Schematic of a diode bridge: VOLTAGE REGULATION Another factor of importance in a power supply is the amount the dc output voltage changes over a range of ckt operation.2.

Voltage regulators are available in a variety of outputs. typically 5 volts.com | www.9 volts . A regulator converts varying input voltage and produces a constant "regulated" output voltage.finalyearthesis.www. Name LM7805 LM7809 LM7812 LM7905 LM7909 LM7912 Voltage + 5 volts + 9 volts + 12 volts .5 volts .com VOLTAGE REGULATORS: A Voltage Regulator (also called a "regulator") has only three legs and appears to be a comparatively simple device but it is actually a very complex integrated circuit. 9 volts and 12 volts.final-yearproject.12 volts . The last two digits in the name indicate the output voltage.

finalyearthesis.com LM7805 Integrated Circuit Internal Schematic Fig.www.final-yearproject.4. For applications requiring negative input the "LM79XX" series is used.com | www.3 The "LM78XX" series of voltage regulators are designed for positive input.2. .

control device. and overload protection all in a single IC. The fixed voltage regulator has an unregulated dc input voltage vi. .from a second terminal.com | www. a regulated dc output voltage . A LM7805 Regulator Fig.4.ICdevice specifications list a voltage range over which the input voltage can vary to maintain a regulated output voltage over a range of load current.com Symbol for a Voltage Regulator. affixed negative voltage or an adjustably set voltage. for a selected regulator . but it is actually a complex Integrated Circuit.www. comparator amplifiers.finalyearthesis.4 IC VOLTAGE REGULATOR Regulator IC units contain the circuitry for reference source.2. applied to one input terminal. He specification also list the amount of output voltage changes resulting from a change in load current or in input voltage. This device looks like a Transistor.final-yearproject. THREE TERMINAL VOLTAGE REGULATORS The basic connection of a three terminal voltage regulator IC to a load. with the third terminal connected to the ground. IC units provides regulation of either a fixed positive voltage .

these component description are described as bellow.com The series 78 regulators provides fixed regulated voltage from 5 to 24v. DIODE SEMICONDUCTOR DIODE- A PN junctions is known as a semiconductor or crystal diode.final-yearproject.finalyearthesis.A crystal diode has two terminal when it is connected in a circuit one thing is decide is weather a diode is forward or . AN UNREGULATED INPUT VTG IS filtered by capacitor c1 and connected to the IC’s IN terminal. Vdc=vm-(Idc/4fc) Where vm is the peak rectifier voltage. ACTIVE COMPONENTActive component are those component for not any other component are used its operation. The IC’S out terminal provides a regulated +5v which is filtered by a capacitor c2. The third terminal connected to the ground. CAPACITOR FILTER A very popular filter circuit is the capacitor filter is connected at the rectifier output and a dc voltage is obtained across the capacitor. I used in this project only function diode. IC 7805 is connected to provide voltage regulation with output from this is +5V DC.com | www.www. Idc is the load current in milliampand cis the filter capacitor in microfarads.

the diode is forward biased. 2. the diode is the reverse bias. 1.T Bar of the symbol.finalyearthesis.2.6 .4. Fig.final-yearproject. So following method are available. If arrowhead of diode symbol is positive W. g By127 by 11 4 crystal diode manufacture by b e b.T bar.2. If the external CKT is trying to push the conventional current in the direction of error.R. the diode is forward biased.com reversed biased. One the other hand if the conventional current is trying is trying to flow opposite the error head. The arrowhead of diode symbol is negative W.4. There is a easy rule to ascertain it. the diode is reversed biased putting in simple words. Fig. When we used crystal diode it is often necessary to know that which end is arrowhead and which end is bar. Some manufactures actually point the symbol on the body of the diode e.com | www.R.5 1.www.

On the other hand. . ZENER DIODEIt has been already discussed that when the reverse bias on a crystal diode is increased a critical voltage. a lightly doped diode has a higher break down voltage. Red mark do not arrow where’s blue mark indicates bar e .4. it is called zener diode .com 2.7 A properly doped crystal diode. which has a shaped break down voltage.com | www. Sometimes red and blue marks are on the body of the crystal diode.www.g oa80 crystal diode. If the diode is heavily doped depletion layer will be thin and consequently the break down of he junction will occur at a lower reverse voltage. . Fig.2. is known as a zenor diode. The break down or zener voltage depends upon the amount of doping.finalyearthesis. called break down voltage.final-yearproject.

Ordinary L-C oscillators using conventional inductors and capacitors can achieve typically 0.1 percent frequency stability. AM radio stations must have a carrier frequency accurate within 10Hz of its assigned frequency.www. . Some digital modes used in weak signal communication may require frequency stability of less than 1 Hz within a period of several minutes.01 to 0. this is slightly more than 0. This is important in any application where anything to do with time or exact measurement is crucial. but an error of 10 parts per million would result in an error of about a half an hour per year. but another matter to produce one of relatively precise frequency and stability.001%. which would be about 3 minutes a year. An ordinary quartz watch must have an oscillator accurate to better than a few parts per million.com | www. . about 100 to 1000 Hz at 1 MHz. A clock such as this would need resetting about once a month. At 440 MHz. It is relatively simple to make an oscillator that produces some sort of a signal. By careful design and component selection. This might not sound like much.finalyearthesis. which may be from 530 to 1710 kHz. and with rugged mechanical construction. Narrow band SSB communications at VHF and UHF frequencies still need 50 Hz frequency accuracy. One part per million will result in an error of slightly less than one half second a day. and more often if you are the punctual type. SSB radio systems used in the HF range (2-30 MHz) must be within 50 Hz of channel frequency for acceptable voice quality.com Crystal Oscillator It is often required to produce a signal whose frequency or pulse rate is very stable and exactly known.01 to 0. A programmed VCR with a clock this far off could miss the recording of part of a TV show. and within 10 Hz for best results.0005%) stability can be achieved.1 part per million. This is OK for AM and FM broadcast receiver applications and in other low-end analog receivers not requiring high tuning accuracy. The better figures will undoubtedly employ temperature compensation components and regulated power supplies.final-yearproject. The carrier frequency must be known to fractions of a hertz in some cases. or even better (.

but triangles.finalyearthesis. But these receivers were extremely expensive. This is usually a sine wave. before the widespread use of digital frequency synthesis. In fact. or other waveforms can be produced. the condition for oscillation is satisfied. or square wave. An oscillator is basically an amplifier and a frequency selective feedback network (Fig 1).8 . large. Many modern consumer grade AM. FM. and the total phaseshift at this frequency is zero. at a particular frequency.final-yearproject. This has been done in some communications receivers used by the military and commercial HF communication receivers built in the 1950-1965 era.2.www. and shortwave receivers employing crystal controlled digital frequency synthesis will do as well or better from a frequency stability standpoint. Transistors Fig. and heavy. several different waveforms often are simultaneously produced by the same circuit. or some multiple of 360 degrees.com | www. the loop gain is unity or more. impulses.com together with environmental control (good ventilation and ambient temperature regulation) and “battleship” mechanical construction. It is also possible to have several frequencies produced as well. at different points. although this is generally undesirable. and the circuit will produce a periodic waveform of this frequency.4. When.

com A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. It is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material. and its presence is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems.com | www. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current flowing through another pair of terminals. By design. such as field-effect transistors. Some transistors are packaged individually but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. and so BJTs are classified as minoritycarrier devices.2. most of the BJT collector current is due to the flow of charges injected from a high-concentration emitter into the base where they are minority carriers that diffuse toward the collector. and emitter. A small current at the base terminal (that is. flowing from the base to the emitter) can control or switch a much larger current between the collector and emitter terminals.final-yearproject. A bipolar (junction) transistor (BJT) is a three-terminal electronic device constructed of doped semiconductor material and are may so be named used because in amplifying or their operation switching involves applications. with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. Charge flow in a BJT is due to bidirectional diffusion of charge carriers across a junction between two regions of different charge concentrations.4. This mode of operation is contrasted with unipolar transistors. in which only one carrier type is involved in charge flow due to drift.9 . Because the controlled (output)power can be much more than the controlling (input) power. Fig. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. A bipolar transistor has terminals labeled base. the transistor provides amplification of a signal. Bipolar transistors both electrons and holes. collector.www.finalyearthesis.

allowing greater currents and faster operation. 10 NPN is one of the two types of bipolar transistors. because electron mobility is higher than hole mobility in semiconductors.finalyearthesis.com | www.4. an NPN transistor is "on" when its base is pulled high relative to the emitter. 2) PNP The other type of BJT is the PNP with the letters "P" and "N" referring to the majority charge carriers inside the different regions of the transistor. in which the letters "N" and "P" refer to the majority charge carriers inside the different regions of the transistor. Most bipolar transistors used today are NPN.2. NPN transistors consist of a layer of P-doped semiconductor (the "base") between two N-doped layers.4. A small current entering the base in common-emitter mode is amplified in the collector output.2. In other terms. Fig.final-yearproject.com Types of BJT 1) NPN Fig. The arrow in the NPN transistor symbol is on the emitter leg and points in the direction of the conventional current flow when the device is in forward active mode.10 .www.

com | www. The arrow in the PNP transistor symbol is on the emitter leg and points in the direction of the conventional current flow when the device is in forward active mode. Active mode of Transistors .www.finalyearthesis.com PNP transistors consist of a layer of N-doped semiconductor between two layers of P-doped material. A small current leaving the base in common-emitter mode is amplified in the collector output.final-yearproject. a PNP transistor is "on" when its base is pulled low relative to the emitter. In other terms.

the emitter current. they vary in the same way.11 The diagram above is a schematic representation of an NPN transistor connected to two voltage sources. and the value of this gain for AC signals is referred to as hfe. making a current through the base connection to form the base current. At room temperature. VBE must be above a minimum value sometimes referred to as the cut-in voltage.final-yearproject. the majority carriers in the base. The cut-in voltage is usually about 600 mV for silicon BJTs at room temperature but can be different depending on the type of transistor and its biasing. the symbol β is used It should also be noted that the emitter current is related to VBE exponentially. IE. the ratio of the collector current to the base current is called the DC current gain. As shown in the diagram.com (i) Active-mode NPN transistors in circuits Fig. when there is no particular frequency range of interest.e. This gain is usually 100 or more. In active mode.4.www. The remainder of the electrons recombine with holes. the electric field existing between base and collector (caused by VCE) will cause the majority of these electrons to cross the upper P-N junction into the collector to form the collector current IC.com | www. In the diagram. This applied voltage causes the lower P-N junction to 'turn-on' allowing a flow of electrons from the emitter into the base. but robust circuit designs do not depend on the exact value (for example see op-amp).finalyearthesis. ). In active mode. To make the transistor conduct appreciable current (on the order of 1 mA) from C to E. Because the base current is approximately proportional to the collector and emitter currents. IB. The value of this gain for DC signals is referred to as hFE.2. the arrows representing current point in the direction of conventional current – the flow of electrons is in the opposite direction of the arrows because electrons carry negative electric charge. an increase in VBE by approximately 60 mV increases the emitter current by a factor of 10. However. which is the sum of the other terminal currents (i. . is the total transistor current.

finalyearthesis. which is the sum of the other terminal currents (i. In the diagram..12 The diagram shown is a schematic representation of a PNP transistor connected to two voltage sources. the symbol β is used It should also be noted that the emitter current is related to VEB exponentially.4. and the value of this gain for AC signals is referred to as hfe. the arrows representing current point in the direction of conventional current – the flow of holes is in the same direction of the arrows because holes carry positive electric charge. the emitter current. is the total transistor current. IE. ). IB. Because the base current is approximately proportional to the collector and emitter currents. At room temperature.2.com (ii) Active-mode PNP transistors in circuits Fig. This applied voltage causes the upper P-N junction to 'turn-on' allowing a flow of holes from the emitter into the base. the majority carriers in the base. VEB must be above a minimum value sometimes referred to as the cut-in voltage. The value of this gain for DC signals is referred to as hFE. when there is no particular frequency range of interest. an increase in VEB by approximately 60 mV increases the emitter current by a factor of 10. In active mode. This gain is usually 100 or more. . making a current through the base connection to form the base current. the ratio of the collector current to the base current is called the DC current gain. As shown in the diagram.com | www. The remainder of the holes recombine with electrons. but robust circuit designs do not depend on the exact value.final-yearproject. In active mode. they vary in the same way. the electric field existing between the emitter and the collector (caused by VCE) causes the majority of these holes to cross the lower P-N junction into the collector to form the collector current IC.e. However. The cut-in voltage is usually about 600 mV for silicon BJTs at room temperature but can be different depending on the type of transistor and its biasing.www. To make the transistor conduct appreciable current (on the order of 1 mA) from E to C.

com | www. .13 .2.final-yearproject. Transistors are commonly used as electronic switches.www.finalyearthesis.4.com Transistor as a switch Fig. for both high power applications including switched-mode power supplies and low power applications such as logic gates.

capacitance. In practice. This field stores energy and produces a mechanical force between the conductors. and for many other purposes. Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits to block the flow of direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. The transistor is then said to be saturated. and the collector voltage drops because of the collector load resistor. They are used in resonant circuits in radio frequency equipment to select particular frequencies from a signal with many frequencies. to filter out interference.www.finalyearthesis. The conductors and leads introduce an equivalent series resistance and the dielectric has an electric field strength limit resulting in a breakdown voltage. as the base voltage rises the base and collector current rise exponentially. The transistor is acting as a switch. hence capacitor conductors are often called plates.final-yearproject. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value. values of input voltage can be chosen such that the output is either completely off or completely on. . even with higher base voltage and current. the supply voltage shown as 6V If VCE could fall to 0 (perfect closed switch) then Ic could go no higher than VCC / RC. to smooth the output of power supplies. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. The effect is greatest when there is a narrow separation between large areas of conductor.com In a grounded-emitter transistor circuit. The relevant equations: VRC = ICE × RC. the voltage across the load (the lamp with resistance RC) VRC + VCE = VCC.com | www. CAPACITOR A capacitor or condenser is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator). Hence. and this type of operation is common in digital circuits where only "on" and "off" values are relevant. such as the light-switch circuit shown. which is measured in farads. an electric field is present in the dielectric. the dielectric between the plates passes a small amount of leakage current. When a potential difference (voltage) exists across the conductors.

.2.com | www. 4.final-yearproject.2.15 Charge separation in a parallel-plate capacitor causes an internal electric field. A dielectric (orange) reduces the field and increases the capacitance.com Fig.4.finalyearthesis.www.14 Theory of operation Main article: Capacitance Fig.

4.16 A simple demonstration of a parallel-plate capacitor A capacitor consists of two conductors separated by a non-conductive region.The nonconductive substance is called the dielectric medium. although this may also mean a vacuum or a semiconductor depletion region chemically identical to the conductors. defined as the ratio of charge ±Q on each conductor to the voltage V between them Sometimes charge buildup affects the mechanics of the capacitor. is given by: . a capacitance of one farad means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt across the device. the charge separation persists and energy is stored in the electric field.www. capacitance is defined in terms of incremental changes: In SI units. and the dielectric contains an electric field. The work done in establishing the electric field. The conductors thus contain equal and opposite charges on their facing surfaces. causing the capacitance to vary. If charge is later allowed to return to its equilibrium position.com Fig. Energy storage Work must be done by an external influence to move charge between the conductors in a capacitor.2. When the external influence is removed. A capacitor is assumed to be self-contained and isolated. the energy is released.com | www. The capacitor is a reasonably general model for electric fields within electric circuits.final-yearproject.finalyearthesis. An ideal capacitor is wholly characterized by a constant capacitance C. In this case. with no net electric charge and no influence from an external electric field. and hence the amount of energy stored.

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Current-voltage relation The current i(t) through a component in an electric circuit is defined as the rate of change of the charge q(t) that has passed through it. Physical charges cannot pass through the dielectric layer of a capacitor, but rather build up in equal and opposite quantities on the electrodes: as each electron accumulates on the negative plate, one leaves the positive plate. Thus the accumulated charge on the electrodes is equal to the integral of the current, as well as being proportional to the voltage (as discussed above). As with any antiderivative, a constant of integration is added to represent the initial voltage v (t0). This is the integral form of the capacitor equation,

. Taking the derivative of this, and multiplying by C, yields the derivative form,[12]

. The dual of the capacitor is the inductor, which stores energy in the magnetic field rather than the electric field. Its current-voltage relation is obtained by exchanging current and voltage in the capacitor equations and replacing C with the inductance L. DC circuits


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A simple resistor-capacitor circuit demonstrates charging of a capacitor. A series circuit containing only a resistor, a capacitor, a switch and a constant DC source of voltage V0 is known as a charging circuit. If the capacitor is initially uncharged while the switch is open, and the switch is closed at t = 0, it follows from Kirchhoff's voltage law that

Taking the derivative and multiplying by C, gives a first-order differential equation,

At t = 0,

the voltage across the capacitor is zero and the voltage across the resistor is V0.

The initial current is then i (0) =V0 /R. With this assumption, the differential equation yields

where τ0 = RC is the time constant of the system. As the capacitor reaches equilibrium with the source voltage, the voltage across the resistor and the current through the entire circuit decay exponentially. The case of discharging a charged capacitor likewise demonstrates exponential decay, but with the initial capacitor voltage replacing V0 and the final voltage being zero.


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Resistors are used to limit the value of current in a circuit. Resistors offer opposition to the flow of current. They are expressed in ohms for which the symbol is ‘Ω’. Resistors are broadly classified as (1)Fixed Resistors (2)Variable Resistors

Fixed Resistors:
The most common of low wattage, fixed type resistors is the molded-carbon composition resistor. The resistive material is of carbon clay composition. The leads are made of tinned copper. Resistors of this type are readily available in value ranging from few ohms to about 20MΩ, having a tolerance range of 5 to 20%. They are quite inexpensive. The relative size of all fixed resistors changes with the wattage rating. Another variety of carbon composition resistors is the metalized type. It is made by deposition a homogeneous film of pure carbon over a glass, ceramic or other insulating core. This type of film-resistor is sometimes called the precision type, since it can be obtained with an accuracy of ± 1%. Lead Colour Coding Fig.4.2.18 Fixed Resistor Tinned Copper Material Molded Carbon Clay Composition

A Wire Wound Resistor :
It uses a length of resistance wire, such as nichrome. This wire is wounded on to a round hollow porcelain core. The ends of the winding are attached to these metal pieces inserted in the core. Tinned copper wire leads are attached to these metal pieces. This assembly is coated with an enamel coating powdered glass. This coating is very smooth and gives mechanical protection to winding. Commonly available wire wound resistors have

The third band is for the number of zeros that follow the second digit.final-yearproject. Therefore. The fourth band represents the manufacture’s tolerance. . of the resistance value. it represents a multiplying factor of 0. moulded composition resistor four colour bands are printed on one end of the outer casing.01.com | www.www. However there are some resistors that are too small in size to have numbers printed on them. In case the third band is gold or silver.com resistance values ranging from 1Ω to 100KΩ.finalyearthesis.1to 0. Coding Of Resistor: Some resistors are large enough in size to have their resistance printed on the body. For fixed. The first and second band represents the first and second significant digits. and wattage rating up to about 200W. The colour bands are always read left to right from the end that has the bands closest to it. a system of colour coding is used to indicate their values.

2. orange and gold Then its range will be— Yellow=4.com RESISTOR COLOUR CHART 0 black 1 brown 2 red 3 orange 4 yellow 5 green 6 blue 7 purple 8 silver 9 white 0 black 1 brown 2 red 3 orange 4 yellow 0 black 1 brown 2 red 3 orange 4 yellow 5 green 6 blue 7 purple 8 silver 9 white 0 black 1 brown 2 red 3 orange 4 yellow 5 green 6 blue 7 purple 8 silver 9 white 6 blue 5 purple 7 green 8 silver 9 white Fig. gold=±5% =47KΏ ±5% =2.19 For example. • The second band gives the second digit. orange=10³. • The third band indicates the number of zeros.com | www. violet=7. violet.finalyearthesis.www.final-yearproject. • The fourth band is used to show the tolerance (precision) of the resistor. if a resistor has a colour band sequence: yellow.35KΏ Most resistors have 4 bands: • The first band gives the first digit. .4.

yellow (4 zeros) and gold bands. (7). silver bands represent 56 × 0. violet. green. the brightness of a television picture etc. for red the fourth band ±2%. For example: red.01 = 0. To show these small values two special colours are used for the third band: gold.2.final-yearproject.finalyearthesis. If no fourth band is shown the tolerance is ±20%. the smaller variable resistors commonly used in electronic circuits are called potentiometers.4.20 This resistor has red (2). . The standard colour code cannot show values of less than 10 .39 = 351 and 390 + 39 = 429 (39 is 10% of 390). Although the variable resistors are usually called rheostats in other applications.1 = 2. brown tolerance: ±1%.7 The fourth band of the colour code shows the tolerance of a resistor. sometimes it becomes necessary to adjust the values of currents and voltages. VARIABLE RESISTOR: In electronic circuits. For example a 390 resistor with a tolerance of ±10% will have a value within 10% of 390 .www. Tolerance is the precision of the resistor and it is given as a percentage.com | www. violet So its value is 270000 = 270 k .com Fig. For n example it is often desired to change the volume of sound. A special colour code is used silver ±10%. between 390 . which means × 0.56 represent 27 × 0. gold ±5%. The first and second bands represent the digits as normal.01. gold bands blue.1 and silver which means × 0. Such adjustments can be done by using variable resistors.

7 k = 39K means 39 1M0 means 1. To read the code: replace the letter with a decimal point. Power ratings of resistors are rarely quoted in parts lists because for most circuits the standard power ratings of 0.4.com | www.www.com Resistor shorthand: Resistor values are often written on circuit diagrams using a code system which avoids using a decimal point because it is easy to miss the small dot.2.finalyearthesis.0 M = 1000 k 560 2700 k Power Ratings of Resistors High power resistors (5W top. then multiply the value by 1000 if the letter was K. For the rare cases where a higher power is required .final-yearproject. but if the resistance is low (or the voltage across the resistor high) a large current may pass making the resistor become noticeably warm. For example: 560R means 2K7 means 2. The resistor must be able to withstand the heating effect and resistors have power ratings to show this.5W are suitable.21 Electrical energy is converted to heat when current flows through a resistor. Instead the letters R. Usually the effect is negligible. or 1000000 if the letter was M. K and M are used in place of the decimal point. 25W bottom) Photographs © Rapid Electronics Fig. The letter R means multiply by 1.25W or 0.

21W. developed in a resistor is given by: P = I² × R where: P = power developed in the resistor in watts (W) or P = V² / R I = current through the resistor in amps (A) R = resistance of the resistor in ohms ( ) V = voltage across the resistor in volts (V) Examples: • • A 470 resistor with 10V across it. .finalyearthesis. P. In this case a standard 0. The power.final-yearproject.25W resistor would be suitable. needs a power rating P = V²/R = 10²/470 = 0. needs a power rating P = V²/R = 10²/27 = 3.com | www.22 Waste heat is produced in transistors due to the current flowing through them. If you find that a transistor is becoming too hot to touch it certainly needs a heat sink! The heat sink helps to dissipate (remove) the heat by transferring it to the surrounding air.www. A high power resistor with a rating of 5W would be suitable.7W. these will be circuits using low value resistors (less than about 300 ) or high voltages (more than 15V). A 27 resistor with 10V across it.com it should be clearly specified in the parts list. Heat sinks are needed for power transistors because they pass large currents.2. Heat sink Fig.4.

power losses. in order to reduce multimodal propagation and eliminate erratic reflection coefficients.www. APC-7 3.final-yearproject. There are two types of connectors they are male and female. is female and other is male. Here we use connectors for having interface between PCB and 8051 Microprocessor Kit.com CONNECTORS Connectors are basically used for interface between two. Seven types of microwave coaxial connectors are as follows: 1. The standardization of coaxial connectors during World War II was mandatory for microwave Operation to maintain a low reflection coefficient or a low voltage standing wave ratio.finalyearthesis. SMC 6. TNC 7.com | www. Type N . and signal distortion. APC-3. which is with pins inside. For high frequency operation the average circumference of a coaxial cable must be limited to about one wavelength.5 2. The one. SMA 5. These connectors are having bus wires with them for connection. BNC 4.

In LED. the efficiency of the device may be described in terms of the quantum efficiency which is defined as the rate of emission of photons divided by the rate of supply of electrons.final-yearproject. there is a transition of electron from the conduction band to the valence band. The pn junction of LED is made from heavily doped material. These excess minority carrier diffuse away from the junction and recombine with majority carriers. In radiative transition. In LED the supply of high-energy electron is provided by forward biasing the diode. thus injecting electrons into the n-region and holes into p-region. emitted light comes from the hole electron recombination.finalyearthesis. can emit light or exhibit electro luminescence. is usually proportional to the carrier injection rate and hence to the total current flowing.com LED (LIGHT EMITTING DIODE) A junction diode. This is termed as minority injection. In practice. The number of radiative recombination. For direct transition from conduction band to valence band the emission wavelength. Electro luminescence is obtained by injecting minority carriers into the region of a pn junction where radiative transition takes place. every injected electron takes part in a radiative recombination and hence gives rise to an emitted photon. . Under reverse bias no carrier injection takes place and consequently no photon is emitted. every electron does not take part in radiative recombination and hence. majority carriers from both sides of the junction cross the potential barrier and enter the opposite side where they are then minority carrier and cause local minority carrier population to be larger than normal. On forward bias condition. that take place. which is made possibly by emission of a photon. such as LED. Thus.com | www. What is required is that electrons should make a transition from higher energy level to lower energy level releasing photon of wavelength corresponding to the energy difference associated with this transition.www.

e. This works in the infrared region.finalyearthesis. GaAs has E= 1. . This also makes easier interfacing as compared to filament incandescent and electric discharge lamps.com LED Materials: One of the first materials used for LED is GaAs. This material has a special feature in that it changes from being direct band gap material. sealed packages developed for LEDs exhibit high resistance to mechanical shock and vibration and allow LEDs to be used in severe environmental conditions where other light sources would fail.. • The rugged. This is a direct band gap material. it exhibits very high probability of direct transition of electron from conduction band to valence band. Infrared LEDs are suitable for optical coupler applications.com | www. ADVANTAGES OF LEDs: • Low operating voltage. Gallium phosphide is an indirect band gap semiconductor and has poor efficiency because band to band transitions are not normally observed. Gallium Arsenide Phosphide is a tertiary alloy. current. i. The wide band gap materials such as GaN are one of the most promising LEDs for blue and green emission.www. GaP and GaAsP are higher band gap materials. and power consumption makes Leds compatible with electronic drive circuits. Blue LEDs are of recent origin.44 eV.final-yearproject.

without surge currents or the prior “warm-up”. Temperature dependence of radiant output power and wave length. Circuit response of LEDs is fast and stable. 3. yellow. period required by filament light sources. and green-provides the designer with added versatility.com • LED fabrication from solid-state materials ensures a longer operating lifetime.final-yearproject. Theoretical overall efficiency is not achieved except in special cooled or pulsed conditions. Sensitivity to damages by over voltage or over current.finalyearthesis.com | www.www. LEDs exhibit linearity of radiant power output with forward current over a wide range. LEDs have certain limitations such as: 1. . 2. • • • • The range of available LED colours-from red to orange. thereby improving overall reliability and lowering maintenance costs of the equipment in which they are installed. LEDs have low inherent noise levels and also high immunity to externally generated noise.

but we believe we have laid the groundwork to enable it to improve out of sight. The achievement of this project are i. The product developed is ready for implementation and can bring financial benefits too by sale in the market. So. ii.finalyearthesis.com | www. The project has achieved its set target well in “Time” and “Budget”.www.com 5.CONCLUSION This project is successfully completed and helped us to develop the better understanding about the controller and made us realize the power of the controller.final-yearproject. we conclude that the Power saving street light is still far away from the perfect. The developing of this project has been a learning experience for all team members and would prove as a milestone in their academic career. iii. We can design any thing with the help of the decision making power of the controller. Based on cutting edge technology called Embedded development which is niche in the market today and its future is much bright. Since this project is embedded project so it helped us to clear many concepts about the controller. .

Chand & Co.com 6. New Delhi Circuit .final-yearproject. “ Principles of Electronics “ S.www..finalyearthesis.. New Delhi  Intel “Microcontroller and Features “ Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Ltd...K.. New Delhi  Millman Jacob & Halkias C. Ltd. New Delhi  Boylstead Robert & Nasceslsky Louis “ Electronic Devices & Theory” Prentice Hall of India Private Ltd.REFERENCE BIBLIOGRAPHY  Mehta V.com | www. Christos “Integrated Electronics “ Tata Mc Graw Hill Publishing Ltd.

datasheets.finalyearthesis.microtutorials.atmel.www.com  www.com | www.archives.com  www.com .com  www.nationalsemiconductors.com WEB SITES  www.final-yearproject.seimens.com  www.com  www.com  www.fairchildsemiconductors.

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