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Pumps move fluids in a wide variety of applications. In the manufacturing sector, pumps consume about 27% of all electricity moving product, transferring heat and producing useful power in hydraulic systems. In the buildings sector, pumps move water throughout buildings for heating and cooling, and between chillers and cooling towers. Thus, pump systems are widely used. Moreover, careful analysis can improve the energy efficiency of most pump systems. This chapter discusses fundamentals of pump systems, with an emphasis on energy-efficient design, retrofit and operation of pump systems. This chapter includes: • Derivation of the fluid work equation • Methods to calculate pressure loss through pipes and fittings • Introduction to piping system design • Key principles for designing low-energy piping systems • Pump systems • Key principles for low-energy pumping systems
Fluid Work Equation
The work required to move a fluid through a pipe or duct can be derived from an energy balance on the system. Assuming steady state conditions, an energy balance on the system in Figure 1 gives: Q 2 1
Figure 1. Control-volume diagram of pumping system.
Wf + m1(h + V2/2 + gz)1 - m2(h + V2/2 + gz)2 – Q = 0 Wf = m2(h + V2/2 + gz)2 – m1(h + V2/2 + gz)1 + Q
where Wf is the rate of work transmitted to the fluid, m is the mass flow rate, h is the specific enthalpy, V is the velocity, g is the acceleration of gravity, z is the height above a
fixed reference and Q is the rate of heat loss from the system. From conservation of mass and from the definition of enthalpy: m1 = m2 = m h = u + Pv. Substituting m1 = m2 = m and h = u + Pv into Equation 1 gives: Wf = m [ (u + Pv + V2/2 + gz)2 – (u + Pv + V2/2 + gz)1 + q ] Wf = m [ (Pv + V2/2 + gz)2 – (Pv + V2/2 + gz)1 + (q + u2 – u1) ] Wf = m [ (Pv + V2/2 + gz)2 – (Pv + V2/2 + gz)1 ] + (Q + U2 – U1) where u is the specific internal energy, U is the internal energy, P is the pressure and v is the specific volume. Assuming the density ρ of the fluid does not change, ρ1 = ρ2 = ρ . Substituting ρ1 = ρ 2 = ρ , m = V ρ and v = 1/ ρ gives: Wf = V ρ [ (P/ρ + V2/2 + gz)2 – (P/ρ + V2/2 + gz)1 ] + (Q + U2 – U1) Wf = V [ (P + ρV2/2 + ρgz)2 – (P + ρV2/2 + ρgz)1 ] + (Q + U2 – U1) Wf = V [ (P2 – P1) + ρ/2(V22- V12) + ρg(z2 – z1) ] + (Q + U2 – U1) where V is the volume flow rate. The term (Q + U2 – U1) represents the net energy added to the fluid from friction with the pipe/duct walls. To be consistent with the other terms, it is useful to write (Q + U2 – U1) in terms of pressure drop. Thus: (Q + U2 – U1) = m (q + u2 – u1) = V ρ (q + u2 – u1) = V ρ (hl) where hl is the “headloss” in units of specific energy (Btu/lb or J/kG) due to friction between the fluid and pipes, ducts and fittings. Substituting (Q + U2 – U1) = V ρ (hl) gives: Wf = V [ (P2 – P1) + ρ/2(V22- V12) + ρg(z2 – z1) + ρ(hl) ] 
A number of interesting observations can be made about Equation 2. First, each of the terms (P2 – P1), ρ/2(V22- V21), ρg(z2 – z1) and ρ(hl) have units of pressure. Thus, the fluid work necessary to propel the fluid can be written in terms of W = V ∆P. The term (P2 – P1) represents the “static pressure difference” between the inlet and outlet. The term ρ/2(V22- V12) represents the “velocity pressure difference” between the inlet and outlet. The term ρg(z2 – z1) represents the “elevation pressure difference” between the inlet and outlet. The term ρ(hl) represents the “friction pressure drop” as the fluid flows through the pipes or ducts. Thus, the equation for the energy required to move an incompressible fluid through pipes or ducts, Wf, can be written as: Wf = V [ ∆Pstatic + ∆Pvelocity + ∆Pelevation + ∆Pfriction ] = V ∆Ptotal 
The first three components of the total pressure loss (∆Pstatic , ∆Pvelocity , ∆Pelevation) refer to differences between the inlet and outlet of the system. The forth component of the total pressure loss, ∆Pfriction, refers to irreversible friction losses in the pipes and ducts and is always present (non-zero) in all real pump/fan applications. Thus, the total pressure drop can also be written as: ∆Ptotal = (∆Pstatic + ∆Pvelocity + ∆Pelevation )inlet-outlet + ∆Pfricition And the equation for Wf can be written as: Wf = V [(∆Pstatic + ∆Pvelocity + ∆Pelevation )inlet-outlet + ∆Pfricition]
Pressure and Head
Historically, pressure was often measured using a manometer, and the pressure difference between a fluid and the atmosphere was expressed in terms of the difference in height between levels of liquid in the manometer. Using a manometer, pressure difference is: ∆P = g ρ ∆ h 
where g is the acceleration of gravity, ρ is the density of the fluid in the manometer, and ∆h is the height of the fluid column. When a pressure difference is characterized in terms of ∆h, it is frequently called head. Thus, when pressure loss due to friction in pipes or ducts measured in terms of ∆h, it is often called friction head or head loss. Similarly, when the pressure required to lift a fluid against the force of gravity is measured in terms of ∆h, it is often called elevation head. When the fluid in the manometer is water, the relationship between pressure and head is: ∆h = ∆P / (g ρH20) In pump systems, head is often expressed as the difference in height, ∆h, between levels of a water-filled manometer in units of feet of water, ft-H20 or, equivalently, ft-wg. In fan systems, ∆h is typically measured in inches of water, in-H20, or, equivalently, in-wg. Common conversions between pressure and manometer height are: 1 lb/in2 = 27.7 in-H20 = 2.31 ft-H20
Dimensional Equation for Fluid Work in Pump Systems
In U.S. units, a useful dimensional equation to calculate the fluid work, in horsepower, to move water at standard conditions (P = 1 atm, T = 60 F) through pipes is: Wf = V ∆Ptotal = V (g ρ ∆h) Wf (hp) = V (gal/min) ∆htotal (ft-H20) / 3,960 (gal-ft-H20/min-hp)
The volume flow rate in this equation is the product of the mass flow rate and density of the fluid. Thus, this equation is easily modified for any fluid with a density different than water at standard conditions by including term for the specific gravity of the fluid, SGf. Specific gravity is the ratio of the density of the fluid to the density of water at standard conditions. SGf = ρf / ρ H20 Wf (hp) = V (gal/min) ∆htotal (ft-H20) SGf / 3,960 (gal-ft-H20/min-hp) Example Calculate the work added to the fluid (hp) by a pump pumping 100 gpm of water at standard conditions if the pressure rise across a pump was 30 psi. ∆h = ∆P / (g ρ) = 30 psi x 2.31 ft-H20 / psi = 69.3 ft-H20 Wf (hp) = V (gal/min) ∆htotal (ft-H20) SGf / 3,960 (gal-ft-H20/min-hp) Wf (hp) = 100 gpm x 69.3 (ft-H20) 1.0 / 3,960 (gpm-ft-H20/hp) = 1.75 hp
Inlet/Outlet Pressure Changes
The total pressure rise that a pump must generate to move a fluid through a pipe system is the sum of the pressure rise required to meet inlet and outlet conditions and the pressure rise to overcome friction in the pipe system. The pump must generate a pressure rise to meet inlet and outlet conditions whenever the pressures, fluid velocities or elevations are different between the inlet and outlet of the pipe system. The total pressure rise required to compensate for different inlet and outlet conditions is the sum of ∆Pstatic , ∆Pvelocity and ∆Pelevation,. If the inlet and outlet pressures, velocities and/or elevations are the same, the corresponding term will evaluate to zero. If the inlet and outlet fluid pressures, velocities and/or elevations are different, the corresponding terms must be evaluated. Closed Loop Systems In closed-loop systems, such as the one shown below, fluid is pumped through a continuous loop. Thus, the inlet and outlet of the system are at the same location. Hence the pressure, velocity and elevation of the inlet and outlet are identical, and the changes in static, velocity and elevation pressures are zero.
Figure 2. Closed loop piping system
7 psia = 10 psi ∆hstatic = 10 psi x 2. then the required static head is: ∆Pstatic = P2 – P1 = Ppres tank – Patm = (10 + 14. In these cases. elevation and velocity pressures between the inlet and outlet to the system must be considered. Example If a fluid is pumped from an open tank to a pressurized tank at 10 psig. however. such as the flow of water through a pipe. of the system are surfaces of open tanks. careful definition of the inlet and outlet locations can minimize the complexity of the calculations. ∆Pvelocity = ρ/2(V22. both the inlet and outlet pressures.V12) = 0 Pump Systems 5 . If so. 2. such as the one shown below. Static Pressure and Head: In an open system. P1 and P2. and the change in static pressure is zero. fluid is pumped from one location to a different location. are equal to atmospheric pressure.31 ft-H20/psi = 23. Open piping system.1 ft-H20 Velocity Pressure and Head: For internal incompressible flow. if the pipe diameter remains constant.Open Systems In open systems. In open systems the change between static. the inlet and outlet pressures are different. the required static pressure or static head must be calculated. 1. fluid velocity is inversely proportional to the square of the pipe diameter. the inlet and outlet velocities are equal.7) psia – 14. however. it is frequently possible to define the inlet and outlet locations so that the inlet. and the change in velocity pressure is zero. Open Tank 2 P-26 Open Tank 1 Figure 3. and outlet. ∆Pstatic = P2 – P1 = Patm – Patm = 0 In some cases. Thus.
0155 [10. the change in velocity pressure must be calculated. for water at standard conditions is: ∆helevation (ft-H20) = ∆Pelevation / (ρH20 g ) = ρfluid g (z2 – z1) / (ρH20 g ) = (z2 – z1) ft Example If water at standard conditions is pumped from one open tank to another open tank with a surface 10 feet higher than the first open tank. is: V (ft/s) = 0.55 ft/s V2 (ft/s) = 0.61 ft-H20 . in terms of water filled manometer height. V.0. then the required elevation head is: ∆helevation = 10 ft – 0 ft = 10 ft-H20 Pump Systems 6 .0155 [2.0155 [V (ft/s)]2 Example If 100 gpm of water is pumped through a pipe with an inlet diameter of 4 inches and discharged from a pipe with an outlet diameter of 2 inches. for water at standard conditions is: hvelocity = Pvelocity / ρH20 g = ρfluid / [2 V2 ρH20 g] h velocity (ft-H20) = 0.h velocity1 = 1.2 ft/s h velocity1 (ft-H20) = 0.10 ft-H20 = 1. A useful dimensional relationship to calculate velocity V from volume flow rate. the required velocity head is: V1 (ft/s) = 0. and pipe diameter.4085 V (gpm) / [d (in)]2 = 0. d.61 ft-H20 ∆h velocity = h velocity2 .4085 100 (gpm) / [2 (in)]2 = 10.55 (ft/s)]2 = 0. V.4085 V (gpm) / [d (in)]2 A useful dimensional relation to calculate the velocity head associated with a velocity.4085 V (gpm) / [d (in)]2 = 0.51 ft-H20 Elevation Pressure and Head: The change in elevation pressure is: ∆Pelevation = ρfluid g (z2 – z1) The change in elevation head.0155 [V2 (ft/s)]2 = 0.2 (ft/s)]2 = 1.4085 100 (gpm) / [4 (in)]2 = 2.When the inlet and outlet velocities are different.10 ft-H20 h velocity2 (ft-H20) = 0.0155 [V1 (ft/s)]2 = 0.
∆hfriction = ∆hp + ∆hf The next two sections describe how to calculate pressure loss due to friction through pipes and fittings. ∆Pfriction = ∆Pp + ∆Pf Similarly. ∆Pp. ∆Pf. ∆hp. and the total pressure loss from friction through the fittings. the total friction loss. ∆hf. ∆hfriction. Pressure Loss Due to Friction through Pipes Friction Factor Method The total pressure loss from friction with the pipes and ducts. Pump Systems 7 . can be calculated from ∆Pp = (f L ρfluid V2) / (2 D) where f is the friction factor. is the sum of the total pressure loss from friction with the pipes. as fluid flows through pipes is the sum of the head loss from friction with the pipes. ∆Pfriction. ρ is the fluid density and D is the pipe/duct diameter. ∆Pp. The friction factor f can be calculated from various relations or determined from charts such as the Moody Diagram. and the head loss from friction through the fittings.Pressure Loss Due to Friction Total pressure loss due to friction. L is the pipe/duct length.
Typical values for pipe roughness factors. Pipe roughness.71 lbm/h-ft). 2000). e.044 ft2/h). The Reynolds number is: Re = V D / ν = ρfluid V D / µ where ν is the kinematic viscosity (νair at 60 F = 0. are shown in the figures below. 1985). Figure 5. Use of the Moody diagram requires calculation of the Reynolds number and ratio of the tube roughness to tube diameter.Figure 4. and µ is the dynamic viscosity (µair at 60 F = 0.043 lbm/h-ft and µ water at 60 F = 2. (Mott. Pump Systems 8 .572 ft2/h and νwater at 60 F = 0. Moody Diagram (Incropera and DeWitt.
This relationship is valid for all ranges of Reynolds numbers.387 lbm/ft-s2 ∆h = ∆P / (g ρ) = 5.316 ft/min x 60 min/hr x (3/12) ft / 0.481 gal/ft3) / 0.000600 f = 0.316 ft/min Re = V D / ν = 272.835 e/D(steel pipe) = (1.27 lbm/ft3) ∆h = 2.316 ft/min)2 / (2 x 3/12 ft x (60 s/min)2) = 5.5 x 10-4) ft / (3/12) ft = .14159 x (3/12)2 / 4 = 0. f. A = π D2 / 4 = 3.Example Calculate the friction head loss (ft-H20) to pump 100 gpm of water through 100 ft of 3in diameter steel pipe using the friction-factor method and Moody Diagram.27 lbm/ft3 x (272. pg 2.2 ft/s2 x 62.044 ft2/hr = 92.69 ft-H20 (per 100-ft pipe) An explicit algebraic expression for friction factor.387 lbm/ft-s2 / (32.021 x 100 ft x 62.049087 ft2 = 272.049087 ft2 V = V / A = (100 gal/min / 7. 2005. Pump Systems 9 . was developed by Churchill.7.021 (from Moody) ∆P = (f L ρ V2) / (2 D) = 0. and is more accurate than reading the Moody diagram: Source: ASHRAE.
08943E-07 f = 8[(8/Re)^12 + (A+B)^-1.835 e/D(steel pipe) = (1.5 x 10-4) ft / (3/12) ft = .2 ft/s2 x 62.530/Re]^16 = 5.021 x 100 ft x 62.69 ft-H20 (per 100-ft pipe) Monograph Method Alternately. head loss due to friction for water flow through pipes. A = π D2 / 4 = 3.27 lbm/ft3) ∆h = 2.27e/D))^-1)]^16 = 4.3862E+20 B = [37.387 lbm/ft-s2 ∆h = ∆P / (g ρ) = 5.9 + (0.457 ln(((7/Re)^0.27 lbm/ft3 x (272.5]^(1/12) = 0.000600 A = [2.049087 ft2 V = V / A = (100 gal/min / 7. can be determined from monographs such as shown below.316 ft/min)2 / (2 x 3/12 ft x (60 s/min)2) = 5.0210 (from Churchill) ∆P = (f L ρ V2) / (2 D) = 0.481 gal/ft3) / 0.14159 x (3/12)2 / 4 = 0.044 ft2/hr = 92.316 ft/min Re = V D / ν = 272.049087 ft2 = 272. ∆hp.316 ft/min x 60 min/hr x (3/12) ft / 0. Pump Systems 10 .Example Calculate the friction head loss (ft-H20) to pump 100 gpm of water through 100 ft of 3in diameter steel pipe using the friction-factor method and Churchill relation.387 lbm/ft-s2 / (32.
2005) Pump Systems 11 . Pipe friction loss (ASHRAE.Figure 6.
5 ft-H20 per 100-ft pipe. can be calculated from: ∆hf = ∆Pf / (ρΗ20 g ) = kf ρfluid V2 / (2 ρΗ20 g) In US units. Thus. and pipe diameter. Pressure Loss Due to Friction through Fittings The total pressure loss from friction through the fittings. where K. a useful dimensional relationship is: ∆hf (ft-H20) = kf V2 / (2 g) = kf [V (ft/s)]2 / 64. it would be necessary to use the next largest size of schedule 80 plastic pipe compared to schedule 40 steel pipe.L. d. From the monograph in Figure 6. hence.M refers to pipe thickness and affects the interior diameter. Thus. is: V (ft/s) = 0.0 ft-H20 “Schedule” refers to wall thickness.Example Calculate the friction head loss in ft-H20 for pumping 100 gpm of water through 200 ft of 3-in diameter steel pipe using the ASHRAE monographs. V. this height is commonly measured in ft-H20 for pumping systems. Thus. ∆hf. from volume flow rate. the pressure drop for a given “nominal diameter” plastic pipe is greater than for the same “nominal diameter” steel pipe. Thus to achieve energy savings from reducing friction. the head loss through 200 ft of pipe is: ∆h = 2. even though the plastic pipe is smoother. total pressure loss from friction through a fitting is calculated as: ∆Pf = kf ρfluid V2 / 2 where V is velocity and kf is measured empirically and reported by fitting manufacturers. The same is true for the copper pipe. the head loss for a flow rate of 100 gpm through a 3in diameter steel pipe is 2. Thus.4 ft/s2 = kf 0. For water flow through pipe fittings. The constant of proportionality depends on the fitting. ∆Pf. the reduced diameter increases friction loss.4085 V (gpm) / [d (in)]2 Pump Systems 12 . with schedule 80 being thicker than schedule 40.0155 [V (ft/s)]2 A useful dimensional relationship to calculate velocity. The head loss from friction through the fittings. the schedule 80 plastic pipe in the preceding monograph has a smaller interior diameter than the schedule 40 steel pipe. V. is proportional to the velocity pressure.5 ft-H20 per 100-ft pipe x 200 ft-pipe = 5.
kf. Loss Coefficients (Kreider and Rabl.Loss coefficient data. Figure 7. for pipe fittings are shown in the figures below. 1994) Pump Systems 13 .
required to move 100 gpm of water through 200 ft of 3-in diameter steel pipe with for four flanged welded 90-degree standard elbows assuming that 1 and 2 are open to the atmosphere and at the same elevation. Wf.Source: ASHRAE Fundamentals 2005. Pg 36. 2 Pump Systems 14 .2. 1 Wf P2 = P1 because 1 and 2 are open the atmosphere. Example Find the fluid work.
but result in Pump Systems 15 .960 (gal-ft-H20/min-hp) Wf (hp) = 100 gpm x 4. select fittings. Thus: ∆hpres = ∆hvel = ∆helev = 0 ∆htotal = ∆hpres + ∆hvel + ∆helev + ∆hp + ∆hf = ∆hp + ∆hf From monograph in Figure 6 at 100 gpm and 3-in diameter steel pipe. flow requirements and piping distances are typically known.54 ft/s From the ASHRAE table.960 (gal-ft-H20/min-hp) = 0.54 ft-H20 + 0. the friction head loss through the pipe is: ∆hp = 2.0155 [V (ft/s)]2 ∆hf (ft-H20) = 4 x 0.0 / 3.V2= V1 because the area of duct at 1 and 2 are the same.0155 [4.34 x 0. kf = 0.4085 V (gpm) / [d (in)]2 = 0.4085 100 (gpm) / [3 (in)]2 = 4. Large diameter pipes have a higher initial cost. Based on this information.34 for a 3-inch flanged welded 90-degree standard elbow.5 ft-H20 per 100-ft pipe x 200 ft-pipe = 5. determine a piping configuration that results in sufficient flow to the end uses.43 ft-H20 = 4. and determine the total pressure drop caused by the piping system. The friction head loss through four elbow fittings is: ∆hf (ft-H20) = nf x kf x 0. both of which are highly dependent on pipe diameter. Initial Selection of Pipe Diameter The selection of pipe diameter generally involves a tradeoff between the first cost of the pipe and pumping energy costs of the lifetime of the system. the engineer must then must select pipe diameter.125 hp Piping System Design When designing a piping system.97 ft-H20 The work added to the fluid is: Wf (hp) = V (gal/min) ∆htotal (ft-H20) SGf / 3.97 (ft-H20) 1.54 (ft/s)]2 = 0.43 ft-H20 The total head loss through ducts and fittings is: ∆htotal = ∆hp + ∆hf = 4.0 ft-H20 The velocity is: V (ft/s) = 0. z2 = z1 because 1 and 2 are at the same elevation.
0 to 2. the total pressure drop for sizing the pump and calculating pump energy costs is the total pressure drop for the path with the highest pressure drop. A B C D A B C D Figure 9. Figure 8. the economically optimum pipe diameter will be larger than that suggested by the design guideline. Serial Flow In serial flow systems. a) Direct return.reduced friction losses and pumping costs. such as the one shown below. In many cases. Closed loop. Parallel Flow Many piping designs employ parallel flow. The figure below shows two common piping configurations that employ parallel flow. the total friction pressure drop is the sum of the friction pressure losses in the pipes and fittings. A rule of thumb that is often used as a starting place for selecting pipe diameters is to select the pipe diameter such that: ∆hfriction ~ 4. In parallel flow designs. For closed piping systems. Pump Systems 16 . Parallel flow piping systems. Using this as a starting place. The total pressure drop for sizing the pump and energy calculations is the total pressure loss due to friction plus the sum of the elevation. velocity and static pressure differences are all zero. the inlet and outlet are at the same location and the elevation.5 ft-H20 / 100 ft-pipe This design guideline insures that the fluid velocity is low enough to avoid pipe erosion and excess noise. serial flow piping system. and provide a reasonable balance between the cost of the pipes and pumping energy costs. velocity and static pressure differences between the inlet and outlet. subsequent design iterations can identify economically optimum pipe diameters. b) Indirect return.
In this configuration. Reduce Elevation Difference Many pumping applications involve lifting fluids from lower to higher elevations. The total pressure difference through the piping system must include this elevation pressure difference. Substitution gives: ∆Pp = f L ρ (V / A)2 / (2 D) = f L ρ (V / π D2 )2 / (2 D) = f L ρ V2 / (2 π2 D5 ) Thus. inside-out approach”. In this configuration. The “inside-out” part of the approach describes the preferred sequence of analysis. the pressure drop and flow through all legs are equal. The configuration on the right is called indirect return. if no balancing valves were installed. the total pressure drop for flow through leg A is less than the total pressure drop for flow through leg D. indirect return guarantees equal flow through all legs in the absence of balancing or flow control valves. Thus. Reduce System Pressure Drop: Increase Pipe Diameter Friction head loss in internal flow is strongly related to the diameter of the pipe/duct. and the total pressure drop across the pump would be set by the pressure drop through leg D. In our experience. use of this approach results in systems with lower operating costs and lower initial costs. In some applications. Small pipes and ducts dramatically increase the velocity of the fluid and friction head loss. followed by an analysis of the energy distribution system. and finally an analysis of the primary energy conversion system on the “outside”.The configuration on the left is called direct return. Thus. which begins at the point of the energy’s final use “inside” of the process. delivery and end-use system. more fluid would flow through leg A than D. Whole-System Inside-Out Approach to Low-Energy Piping Systems The most effective approach for designing low-energy fluid flow systems and for identifying energy savings opportunities in existing fluid flow systems is the “wholesystem. Doing so reduces the total system pressure difference and pump energy use. it may be possible to reduce the elevation pressure difference by increasing the height of the fluid in the supply tank or reducing the height of the fluid in the outlet tank. The friction pressure loss through pipes and ducts is: ∆Pp = (f L ρ V2) / (2 D) The velocity V is the quotient of volume flow rate V and area A. friction loss through pipes is inversely proportional to the fifth power of the diameter ∆Pp ~ C / D5 Pump Systems 17 . The “whole-system” part of this approach emphasizes the importance of considering the entire conversion.
the optimum diameter was found to be 250 mm and energy use was reduced by 50%.5-inch and 1-inch diameter schedule 40 steel pipes. When the cost of the pump was also included in the analysis. Example Pump Systems 18 .5-inch = 1.3) / 17 = 92% Optimum pipe diameter is often calculated based on the net present value of the cost of the pipe plus pumping energy costs. This illustrates the importance of considering the whole system. 1991) optimum pipe diameter was found to be 200 mm. Using this method in the figure below (Larson and Nilsson. 1991). Reduce System Pressure Drop: Use Smooth Pipes Smooth pipes result in less friction head loss than rough pipes. Optimum pipe diameter (Larson and Nilsson.This means that doubling the pipe/duct diameter reduces friction pressure loss by about 97%! Example Calculate the percentage reduction in friction head loss if pumping 4 gpm of water through 0. Figure 10.3 ft-H20/100 ft ∆h1-inch = 17 ft-H20/100 ft The percent reduction in friction head loss from doubling the diameter of the pipe would be about: (17 – 1. From the monogram: ∆h 0.
“Low flow at high pressure” applications include hydraulic power systems and typically employ positive-displacement pumps. The percent reduction in friction headloss from the use of plastic pipe would be about: (0. From the previous table of surface roughness. ε = 0.018) / 0.021 – 0.027 1 0.017 6 0.018. including turns. the table below. Mott. and long radius elbows reduce the friction head loss by 50% compared to standard radius elbows.00015 ft / (3/12) ft = 0.00060 From the Moody Diagram. where kf = (Le/D) ft Steel Pipe Diameter (inches) ft ½ 0.014 12-16 0.023 2 0.018 = 17% Reduce System Pressure Drop: Use Low Pressure-Drop Fittings Minimizing fittings.012 Source: Applied Fluid Mechanics. Pump Systems 19 . The use of fully-open gate valves instead of globe valves reduces the friction head loss through the valve by 98%. the use of swing type check valves instead of butterfly valves reduces the friction head loss through the valve by 33%.015 8-10 0. The majority of fluid-flow applications are “high flow at low pressure” and use centrifugal pumps. fsteel = 0. Similarly. 2000 Pump Types Pumping applications can generally be divided into two categories: “low flow at high pressure” and “high flow at low pressure”.019 4 0. Consider for example. ε/Dsteel = 0. Thus.021 and fplastic = 0.000 through 3-inch plastic (smooth) and schedule 40 steel pipe.013 18-24 0.Consider pumping water with Re = 100.00015 ft. and the use of low-pressure drop fittings can significantly reduce friction head loss.
The curve defines the range of possible operating conditions for the pump. the fluid enters along the centerline of the pump. A schematic of a centrifugal pump is shown below.In centrifugal pumps. manufacturers typically plot a separate pump curve for each size of impellor on the same pump performance chart. Smaller impellors produce less pressure at lower flow rates. Typical pump performance charts with multiple pump curves are shown below. is pushed outward by the rotation of the impeller blades. The possible combinations of total pressure and volume flow rate for a specific pump can be plotted to create a pump curve. Centrifugal pump Pump Curve Pumps can generate high volume flow rates when pumping against low pressure or low volume flow rates when pumping against high pressure. If a pump is offered with multiple impellers with different diameters. Figure 11. Pump Systems 20 . and exits along the outside of the pump.
Power that is not converted into kinetic energy is lost as heat. (McQuiston and Parker. Typically. 1994) The power required to push the fluid through the pipe. fluid work is represented by the area under the rectangle defined by the operating point on a pump performance chart. The power required by the pump. the efficiency of the pump at converting the power supplied to the pump into kinetic energy of the fluid is also plotted on the pump performance chart.Figure 12. which is called the “shaft Pump Systems 21 . Wfluid. is the product of the volume flow rate and system pressure drop.Typical pump performance charts. Pump efficiencies typically range from about 50% to 80%. Wfluid = V ∆Ptotal Graphically.
The total pressure caused by a piping system is the sum of the pressure due to inlet and outlet conditions and the pressure required to overcome friction through the pipes and fittings. hence. consider the equation for total pressure in a piping system. velocity and elevation pressures must be calculated. For closed loop piping systems. velocity and elevation pressures between the inlet and outlet of the piping system. Calculating the work supplied to the pump using the preceding equation and comparing it to the value indicated on a pump performance graph is a useful exercise. pressure loss due to friction increases with increasing fluid flow. the differences in static. and efficiency values from the pump curve. In a piping system. Pump efficiency is the ratio of fluid work to shaft work. Note that these curves show work required by the pump including the efficiency of the pump. In many pumping applications. System Curve The total pressure that the pump must produce to move the fluid is determined by the piping system. can be calculated from the flow rate. To determine the form of a system curve. the inlet and outlet are at the same location. Wpump = Wfluid / Effpump = V ∆Ptotal / Effpump A useful dimensional version of this equation for pumping water at standard conditions is: Wpump (hp) = V (gal/min) ∆htotal (ft-H20) / [3. thus. and inlet/outlet pressure is simply the sum of the static and elevation heads. This total pressure of the piping system is the sum of the pressure due to inlet and outlet conditions and the pressure loss due to friction. the inlet/outlet pressure is independent of flow and is represented on a pump performance chart as the pressure at zero flow. the static. also plot curves showing the work required by the pump to produce a specific flow and pressure. For open systems. The operating point of a pump is determined by the intersection of the pump and system curves. total pressure. Pump Systems 22 . ∆Ptotal = (∆Pstatic + ∆Pvelocity + ∆Pelevation )inlet-outlet + ∆Pfricition Inlet/Outlet Pressure The inlet/outlet pressure that the pump must overcome is the sum of the static. including those shown above. velocity and elevation pressure differences are all zero.work” or “brake horsepower”. system curves have positive slopes on pump performance charts. . using the following equation.960 (gal-ft/min-hp) x Effpump] Many pump performance graphs. In these cases. the velocity pressure difference between the inlet and outlet is zero or negligible.
The coefficient C2 can be determined if the operating point is known by substituting the known pressure drop and flow rate into the equation and solving for C2.Friction Pressure Drop The equations for pressure loss from friction through pipes and through fittings are: ∆Pp = (f L ρfluid V2) / (2 D) ∆Pf = kf ρfluid V2 / 2 These equations clearly show that for a given pipe system. system curves have a flow-independent component (of inlet/outlet pressure) and a flow-dependent component that varies with the square of flow rate (of friction pressure). sometimes called the static head. the pressure drop is proportional to the square of the velocity. is zero. and hence the square of the volume flow rate. ∆Pfriction = C1 V2 = C2 V2 This quadratic relationship can be plotted on the pump curve to show the “system curve”. The curve passes through the origin because the inlet/outlet pressure difference. Plotting System Curves As the preceding discussion showed. The curve is a parabola of the form ∆hheadloss = C2 V2. The fluid work required to push the fluid through the pipe is the product of the volume flow rate and system pressure drop and is represented graphically by the area under the rectangle defined by the operating point. Pump Systems 23 . A system curve for a closed-loop piping system with no inlet/outlet pressure difference is shown below.
1996. Pump Systems 24 . This system curve is of the form ∆hheadloss = A + C2 V2.System curve for closed-loop piping system with no inlet/outlet pressure difference.Figure 13. the coefficient C2 can be determined if the operating point and inlet/outlet pressure are known by substituting the known values into the equation and solving for C2. where A is the “static” or “inlet/outlet” pressure drop. As before. A system curve for an open-loop piping system with a “static” or “inlet/outlet” pressure of 40 ft is shown below. Source of original pump curve: Kreider and Rabl.
1996. they perform like a single pump with twice the flow rate at the same pressure drop. When two pumps are operated in parallel. Multiple Pumps Operating In Parallel Many pumping systems employ multiple pumps in parallel rather a single large pump. and allows the system to function at full capacity even when one pump is being serviced. The figure below shows the pump curve of a single pump A. it is common to design a pumping system with three pumps in parallel configuration. in many applications. even though no more than two pumps would ever run simultaneously. two pumps operating in parallel B. One advantage of specifying multiple pumps in a parallel configuration is redundancy in case of failure. Finally. The third pump provides redundancy in case of failure. it is more energy efficient to operate multiple smaller pumps in parallel rather than operating a single large pump. For example. and the system curve C. System curve for open-loop piping system with 40 ft-H20 inlet/outlet pressure difference Source of original pump curve: Kreider and Rabl. Another advantage of parallel pumping configuration is the ability to vary flow by turning one or more of the pumps on and off.Figure 14. Pump Systems 25 .
000 8.000 12.00106 x V + (3.180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 2. Pump Motor Work Pumps and fans are typically driven by electrical motors. the equation of the system curve can be estimated by fitting a quadratic equation through the origin and the design operating point: ∆h (ft H20) = (2.4 x 10-6) x V2 1) where V is the flow rate in gpm. Thus. power transmission and motor all incur losses.000 V gpm 10. The power required by the motor is greater than the fluid work because the pump/fan.Pump and systems curves for secondary chilled water loop.500 gpm Note that the total volume flow rate of two pumps operating in parallel is less than twice the flow rate of a single pump operating alone (at the intersection of C and A). fluid work must be divided by the product of the efficiencies of all components of the pump energy-delivery system to determine the electricity required by the motor. Because head loss varies with the square of flow rate.000 Head ft-H20 A B C 4. The equation for curve B can be estimated by the fitting a regression equation through the data points on the curve: ∆h (ft H20) = 149 + 0.000 6.000 A (One pump) B (Two pumps in parallel) C (System) Figure 15.000 14.65 x 10-7) x V2 (2) The operating point of curve B for two pumps in parallel can be found from Equations 1 and 2 to be about: ∆h = 135 ft H20 V = 7. The system curve C describes the relationship of pressure drop and flow rate for the given piping system with no static head.000 16. Pump Systems 26 .
960 (gal-ft/min-hp) x Effpump x Effdrive x Effmotor) Qloss =10 Qloss = 8 Qloss = 25 Wmotor 100 Wdrive 90 Wpump 83 Wfluid 58 ηmotor = 90% ηdrive = 92% ηpump = 70% Figure 16 Pump system efficiency. For example.73 Wf Pump Affinity Laws The fundamental fluid mechanic relationships developed thus far can be modified to generate other useful relations between fan parameters. The two most important relationships are derived below. using U. is: Welec (hp) = V (gal/min) ∆htotal (ft-H20) / (3. the electrical energy use required by the motor would be 73% greater than the required fluid work.fan x Efficiencydrive x Efficiencymotor) A dimensional version of this equation. fluid work is proportional to the cube of volume flow rate Wf = V ∆Pfriction = V C2 V2 = C2 V3 Since Wf / V3 is constant. it follows that: (Wf / V3)1 = C = (Wf / V3)2 Pump Systems 27 .Welec = Wf / ( Efficiencypump. if the efficiency of the motor at converting electrical energy to motor shaft work is 90%. the efficiency of belt drives at transferring motor shaft work to pump is 92%. ∆Pfriction = C1 V2 = C2 V2 By substitution. As shown in the section of system curves. Welec = Wf / ( 90% x 92% x 70%) = 1. units for pumping water at standard conditions.S. These relationships are known as fan affinity laws. and the efficiency of a pump at converting pump shaft work to fluid work is 75%. friction head loss is proportional to the square of the volume flow rate.
it is important to select the best method of flow control for a given application. Because peak conditions occur infrequently. For example. volume flow rate varies in proportion to pump/fan speed. many pump systems operate a less than peak flow. Flow Control Most pump systems are designed for peak conditions. it follows that: (V / RPM)1 = C = (V / RPM)2 V2 = V1 (RPM2 / RPM1) Thus. This is the least energy-efficient method of flow control.Wf1 (1 /8)] / Wf1 = 1 – (1/8) = 88% Another useful relation can be derived from the relationship between volume flow rate V and the rotational speed of the pump fan. Although pump energy decreases as flow decreases. flow is typically controlled by one of four methods: • • • • Bypass Flow-control valves Impellor size Pump speed Bypass diverts fluid around a process and then returns the fluid to the piping system so that the pump always pumps a constant volume of fluid. and causes the operating point on the pump curve to move to the left. In centrifugal pumps and fans. In pump systems.Wf2 = Wf1 (V2 / V1)3 This relation shows that a small reduction in the volume flow rate results in a large reduction in the fluid work. reduce flow. Flow-control valves increase system pressure drop. the volume flow rate is proportional to the rotational speed of the pump fan. Because pumping energy use is highly dependent on the type of flow control. V = C RPM Since V/RPM is constant. Pump Systems 28 . reducing the volume flow rate by one half reduces fluid work by 88%! Wf2 = Wf1 (1/2)3 == Wf1 (1/8) (Wf1 – Wf2) / Wf1 = [Wf1 . this method does not produce significant energy savings at reduced flow.
771 $2. Because of this.800 $8. This is a very efficient method of flow control.854 $6.When the flow requirement does not vary over time.233 $2.211 $2.417 $5. If a motor is to be rewound.784 $6. the pump impellor diameter can be increased or decreased to generate the required flow rate. Cost with 25% contractor markup on drive Horsepower 5 10 15 20 25 50 100 w/bypass $1.028 $2.600 Controls $2.000 $2.008 $2.458 $2. slowing the motor speed reduces the torque on the motor and can result in significant energy savings. slowing the pump by increasing the diameter of the pump pulley or decreasing the diameter or the motor pulley would generate the same savings. the motor may need to be upgraded if it is not a premium efficiency motor.332 $3. In these cases. it may be possible to simply reduce the flow to a fixed rate rather than vary it continuously. These voltage spikes can “punch” through traditional winding insulation.653 $2.515 $1.050 $5. VSDs subject motors to voltage spikes and fast voltage rise and fall times.049 Wiring $500 $579 $658 $737 $816 $1. be sure to specify rewinding characteristics for PWM VSD motors. Most energy-efficient motors are suitable PWM VSDs. In some applications.553 $5.000 $2.021 w/o bypass $1.000 $2.557 $4. When the flow requirement does not vary over time.000 $2.649 Pump Systems 29 .354 $5.000 $2.344 $7. VSDs should only be coupled to motors that the manufacturer specifies as suitable for PWM VSDs.000 Installation $400 $463 $526 $589 $653 $968 $1.955 $5.000 $2. the most energy efficient method of flow control is to vary the rotational speed of the pump by installing a variable speed drive (VSD) in the power supply to the pump motor. Variable Speed Drives Electronic variable speed drives (VSDs) control the speed of AC motors by converting the frequency and voltage of the AC line supply from fixed to variable values. In variable torque applications.621 w/o bypass $4.240 $8. VSDs are used in both constant and variable torque applications. Because VSDs work best with premium efficiency motors. such as pumping and fan systems.033 $11.772 $4.523 $12. Typical installed costs of VSDs are shown below.000 Total Cost w/bypass $4. These savings can be estimated using the Pump/Fan Affinity Laws.
electrical energy savings from trimming pump impellors or slowing pump speed may not be reduced as much as the pump affinity law suggests. the magnitude of the decrease in pump efficiency depends on the individual pump. As with decreasing impeller size. pump efficiency declines from about 75% at full speed to about 55% at half speed while following the system curve with zero static head. For example. The pump performance charts shown above show the decrease in pump efficiency with smaller impellers. Pump efficiency also decreases as the rotational speed of a pump is reduced. when a pump runs at a slower speed.Note: 2006 costs assuming existing motor is suitable for inverter use. Motor and Pump Efficiencies at Reduced Speed Slowing pump speed reduces flow rate and friction losses. the decrease in pump efficiency with decreasing impeller size is small since the lines of constant pump efficiency are nearly parallel to the system curves. according to the cube of the reduction in flow rate: Wf2 = Wf1 (V2 / V1)3 However. pump efficiency is greatest when the largest possible impeller is installed in a pump casing. pump efficiency usually declines when a smaller impellor is used in the same pump volute. Pump efficiency decreases when smaller impellers are installed in a pump because of the increased amount of fluid that slips through the space between the tips of the impeller blades and the pump casing. Similarly. which in turn reduces the work supplied to the fluid. Wf. the efficiency of the electric motor and the efficiency of the VFD may decline. as defined by the intersection of the system and pump curves. Pump Systems 30 . Thus. the efficiency of the pump. in the pump performance chart shown below. For example. Close inspection of the pump performance charts above reveals that in most cases. The magnitude of the decrease in efficiency depends on the operating points. VSD.
Using these relationships. The “Pumping Systems Field Monitoring and Application of the Pumping System Assessment Tool PSAT” (U.283 pl – 0.0142 pl2 + (5.187(1 – e-0.834 x 10-5) pl3 Pump Systems 31 . Typical motor and VSD efficiency curves at part load are shown below. motor and VSD efficiency can be approximated as: ηmotor = 94.87 + 1.Figure 17. Department of Energy. 1991) For other pumps.0904 pl) ηVSD = 50.S. 2002) states that in general pump efficiency at variable speeds remains approximately constant for pumping systems following a system curve with zero static head. the magnitude of the decrease in pump efficiency may be negligible.. Typical chilled water pump/piping configurations (Source: Nadel et al.
but not for the backup pump. Motor and VSD Efficiency as a Function of Percent of Motor Nameplate Load (Bernier and Bourret. With the retrofit.0 in the pump affinity law as shown below.Figure 18. 2) Close valves all by-pass pipes. flow through each process load would be controlled at the load. Welec2 = Welec1 (V2 / V1)2. Determine the pressure drop needed to guarantee sufficient flow through the farthest process load at this point. the by-pass pressure relief valve would be closed. The device marked dP is a differential-pressure sensor which would control the speed of the VSD. the Figure 18 A shows a typical industrial cooling configuration using a constant speed pump. one VSD is generally needed for each operational pump. Pump Systems 32 . Control the speed of the VSD to maintain this differential pressure. motor and VFD efficiency at reduced flow is to use an exponent of about 2. and the VSD would modulate pump speed based on the differential pressure between the supply and return headers. In parallel pumping configurations. Figure 18 B shows the system after a VSD retrofit.5 VSD Pump Retrofits VSD pump retrofits typically require making three changes to the existing pumping system: 1) Install a VSD on power supply to the pump motor.5 rather than 3. VSD Pumping: Industrial Example For example. 3) Install a differential-pressure sensor between the supply and return headers at the process load located the farthest distance from the pump. 1999) A common method to account for the effects of reduced pump.
The flow of chilled water through the cooling coils is varied to maintain the temperature of the air leaving the cooling coils at a constant temperature. In some cases. A) constant volume and B) variable volume pumping system VSD Pumping: Commercial Building Example Another common application for variable volume pumping is on the loop supplying chilled water to air handlers. the bypass valves would be closed.cooling tower bypass / pressure relief valve dP 7. The three-way valves direct chilled water either through the cooling coil or around the cooling coil via the bypass loop. it may be necessary to replace the three-way valves with two-way valves if the three-way valves were not designed to handle larger pressure drops in a VSD situation.5 hp pump cooling water to process loads city water make-up reservoir warm water cool water 25 hp pump VSD process water return Figure 19. In a VSD retrofit. Figure 19 shows a schematic of the typical piping configuration at the air handler cooling coils in a constant-volume chilled-water supply system. and a differential-pressure sensor would be installed between the supply and return headers at the air handler located farthest from the pump. Pump Systems 33 .
however. more systems are using a primary-only design with a flow control and bypass valve to guarantee minimum flow to the chillers.C C T C C T Chilled Water Return Chilled Water Supply Figure20. Conventionally. Recently. Figure 21 shows typical chilled water pump/piping configurations in commercial buildings. while allowing variable flow in the secondary loop to the air handlers. buildings with multiple chillers used a primary-secondary configuration to guarantee constant flow through each chiller. Pump Systems 34 . Piping configuration at air handling untis.
Pump Systems 35 . This approach can tends to multiply savings and result in smaller. inside-out approach”. which begins at the point of the energy’s final use “inside” of the process. 2002) Whole-System Inside-Out Approach to Energy-Efficient Pump Systems We have found that the most effective approach for designing energy efficient pump/fan systems and for identifying energy savings opportunities in existing fluid flow systems is the “whole-system. more efficient and less costly systems. Typical chilled water pump/piping configurations in commercial buildings (Taylor. followed by sequential investigations the energy distribution and primary energy conversion systems. The “whole-system” part of this approach emphasizes the importance of considering the entire conversion. delivery and end-use system. inlet/outlet conditions. Wf = V [(∆Pstatic + ∆Pvelocity + ∆Pelevation )inlet-outlet + ∆Pfricition] This provides a useful guide for characterizing energy efficiency opportunities. and system friction. The “inside-out” part of the approach describes the preferred sequence of analysis. The fluid work equation shows that energy required by fan/pump systems is a function of the volume flow rate.Figure 21.
friction pressure loss through pipes is inversely proportional to the fifth power of the diameter ∆Pp ~ C / D5 This means that doubling the duct diameter reduces friction pressure loss by about 97%! Similarly. reducing system pressure drop without modifying the pump causes the pump to pump more fluid. steel. However. concrete. The progression from smoothest to roughest pipe is: plastic. The following example demonstrates this Pump Systems 36 . including turns. and the use of low-pressure drop fittings can significantly reduce head loss through fittings. For example. thus ∆Pp = ρ f L (V / A)2 / (2 D) = ρ f L (V / π D2 )2 / (2 D) = ρ f L V2 / (2 π 2 D5 ) Thus. Reduce Pump Speed to Realize Savings from Reducing Friction It may seem that reducing friction losses in a piping system would automatically reduce pump energy use. This increased volume flow rate actually increases pump energy consumption. Finally. fluid velocity or elevation between the inlet and outlet of the pump system.Energy Savings from Reducing Inlet/Outlet Pressure Differences Inlet outlet pressure difference in open pump systems can be reduced by reducing the increase in static pressure. minimizing fittings. The friction pressure loss through pipes and ducts is: ∆Pp = ρ f L V2 / (2 D) The velocity V is the quotient of volume flow rate V and area A. it is important to reduce the diameter of the pump impellor or slow the pump so that the volume flow rate remains the same as it was in the high friction in order to realize energy savings. Thus. Energy Savings from Reducing Friction The primary methods to reduce friction in a pipe system are: • • • Increasing pipe diameter Using smooth pipes Using low pressure-drop fittings Friction head loss in internal flow is strongly related to the diameter of the duct. use of the smoothest pipe possible for a given application reduces pipe friction losses. copper. tank levels or tank position can sometimes be maintained to reduce the elevation gain between the inlet and outlet tanks. Small ducts dramatically increase the velocity of the fluid and friction pressure loss.
Source: Nadel et al. would cause the pump to operate at point B.74 = 14. The figure below shows a set of pump curves with two system curves.2 hp Pump Systems 37 .960 gpm-ft-H20/hp = 11.70 = 16.5 hp PB = 11.5 hp – 16. at the different system pressure drops. Reducing the system pressure drop from 180 ft-H20 at point A to 140 ftH20. WfA and WfB.7 hp = -2. The friction pressure drop through the piping system is then reduced by 40 psi by increasing pipe diameter. the areas enclosed by the rectangles defined by each operating point represent the fluid power requirements. without altering the pump impellor or speed.importance of modifying the pump to realize savings from reducing piping system pressure drop. The pump originally operates at point A.7 hp Thus.7 hp / . using low-flow fixtures or using smoother pipe.7 hp The power. 1991 WfA = 235 gpm x 180 ft-H20 / 3.7 hp / . required by the pump is the fluid power requirements divided by the pump efficiency. decreasing system pressure drop without altering the pump impellor or speed would cause the pump to consume more energy. P. PA = 10. hence. Savings = PA – PB = 14.7 hp WfB = 330 gpm x 140 ft-H20 / 3.960 gpm-ft-H20/hp = 10. and the system curve for the original piping systems extends from the origin to A. not less.. The power required to pump a fluid is the product of the volume flow rate and pressure drop.
it is necessary to slow the pump speed or decrease the size of the impellor. it is necessary to develop a system curve for the new pipe system. the pump would be about 65% efficient. The inside-out approach to low-energy pump systems recommends reviewing all end-use applications to determine the required flow. it is necessary to determine how the flow is currently controlled and consider more energy-efficient options. would be about: Savings = PA – PC = 14. Pressure drop through piping systems varies with the square of flow rate.To realize energy savings from reducing pressure drop. C = ∆h / V2 = 140 / 3302 = 0. Thus. which would be the operating point of the pump with a 5.001286 2352 = 71 ft-H20 The flow rate of 235 gpm and 71 ft-H20 defines point C. Once the required flow is determined. and the pump power draw would be about: WC = 235 gpm x 71 ft-H20 / (3. Energy Savings from Energy-Efficient Flow Control Most pump systems are designed to handle peak conditions. the pressure drop through the new duct system at 235 gpm would be about: ∆h = C V2 = 0. At this operating point. Inefficient methods of flow control.5 hp Thus. before proceeding “upstream” with the analyses of the piping and pumping systems. the equation for a system curve that passes through the origin can be written as: ∆h = C V2 The coefficient.0 hp This example demonstrates the importance of modifying the pump to realize savings from reducing system friction loss.5 hp = 8. To determine the pump speed required to deliver the initial flow of 235 gpm with the new low-pressure drop pipe system.960 gpm-ft-H20/hp x 0.65) = 6.5 hp – 6. substantial energy savings are possible by controlling fluid flow rate to match actual demand.001286 Thus. the savings from reducing the pressure drop in the pipe system. Since peak conditions typically occur infrequently. are: Bypass Throttling Intermittent pump operation Pump Systems 38 .5-in impeller. for the new system curve can be found by substituting the values of pressure drop and volume flow rate for point B. in order of worst to better. C. if the pump impeller diameter were reduced.
Thus. Throttling: Controlling flow by closing a flow-control valve downstream of the pump increases pressure drop and causes the operating point to move up and left on the pump curve. Bypass: Many processes use constant speed pumps with variable process loads. When the required flow rate is constant and less than the current capacity of the pump. Bypass and throttling are energy inefficient compared to the other methods and immediately signal the potential for cost-effectively reducing energy costs. Energy use in variable flow applications can frequently be substantially and cost-effectively reduced through use of variable speed drives. GPM 7-CD. however. The following examples demonstrate savings for each case. Intermittent and multiple pump operation are relatively energy efficient.Efficient methods of flow control are: Reducing impellors diameter Slowing pump speed Continuous pump operation with smaller impeller or at lower speed. Bypass is the least efficient method of flow control. Technical Information. the flow of water through the pumps remains nearly constant even as the flow of water through the process varies. pumping energy use can sometimes be reduced by pumping at low flow rates for longer periods rather than pumping at high flow rates for shorter periods of time. since Pump Systems 39 . This results in relatively small energy savings. Source: Gould Pumps. Valves are opened or closed to direct water through the process or through a bypass loop. since pump power remains nearly constant even as the load varies. We recommend switching from inefficient method of flow control to efficient methods whenever possible. trimming pump impellers and slowing pump rotational speed by changing pulley sizes are typically highly costeffective due to their relatively low implementation costs.
74) = 22. pump speed can be slowed and varied with a variable speed drive (VSD). pump power could be calculated as: WA = 1. According to the chart. If the transmission between the pump and motor uses belts and pulleys. the operating point would move along the pump curve to 900 gpm at 62 ft-H20.6 hp If the flow were reduced to 900 gpm with a flow control valve. pump speed can be slowed by changing the increasing the diameter of the pump pulley. since: Wf2 = Wf2 (V2 / V1)3 The following example compares energy savings from reducing flow with a flow-control valve to energy savings from reducing flow by slowing pump speed. If multiple pumps operate in parallel. Pump Slow” principle. Alternately. it may be possible to simply run fewer pumps more continuously. the required power to the pump at this operating point is about 23 hp. which alters the frequency of current to the motor. then application of the “pump long. Because friction losses are proportional to the square of flow. pump power could be calculated as: W = 900 gpm x 62 ft-H20 / (3.960 gpm-ft-H20/hp x 0.70) = 20. throttling is an energy inefficient method of flow control. The figure below shows pump performance at various speeds and a system curve. Alternately. Alternately. According to the chart. If a single pump operates intermittently. We call this the “Pump Long. is 1. pump slow” principal would require installing a smaller pump. pump slow” opportunities may exist whenever pumps run intermittently. A.200 gpm x 55 ft-H20 / (3.200 gpm at 55 ft-H20. Pump Slow”): In some applications.1 hp Pump Systems 40 . Intermittent Pump Operation (“Pump Long. “Pump long. the required power to the pump at this operating point is about 20 hp. it is more energy-efficient to pump a lower volume flow rate for a longer period of time. Assume the original operating point. Slowing pump rotational speed by increasing pulley diameter: Reducing flow by installing a smaller diameter impeller or slowing pump speed results in relatively large energy savings.Wf2 = V2 ∆P2 where V2 < V1 but ∆P2 > ∆P1 Thus.960 gpm-ft-H20/hp x 0. trimming the impeller or slowing the pump rotational speed. pumps may operate at a relative high flow rate for part of the time and then be turned off until needed again. The savings from reducing impellor diameter are similar to the savings from reducing pump speed.
960 gpm-ft-H20/hp = 16. Reducing the pump speed from 1.1 hp = 2.67) = 10. required by the pump at point B can be read from the chart to be about 10 hp. the flow could be reduced from 1.. and the system pressure drop would be reduced from 55 ft-H20 to 30 ft-H20. the power could be calculated as: WB = 900 gpm x 30 ft-H20 / (3.6 hp – 20.8 hp The power. the pump power savings from reducing flow from 1. hence.5 hp Alternately. WA and WB.7 hp WB = 900 gpm x 30 ft-H20 / 3.1 hp Pump power savings would be the difference between PA and PB.960 gpm-ft-H20/hp = 6. 1991 WA = 1.Thus.960 gpm-ft-H20/hp x 0.200 rpm at point A to 900 rpm at point B would reduce the volume flow rate from 1. at the different flow rates. The power required to pump a fluid is the product of the volume flow rate and pressure drop.200 gpm x 55 ft-H20 / 3. the areas enclosed by the rectangles defined by each operating point represent the fluid power requirements. Pump Systems 41 .200 gpm to 900 gpm. The reduced volume flow rate would also generate less friction. Alternately.200 gpm to 900 gpm by slowing the pump speed with a VSD.200 gpm to 900 gpm with a flow-control valve would be about: 22. Source: Nadel et al. WB.
6 hp at 1. S. and Nilsson. Applied Fluid Mechanics. L. we would estimate PB for 900 gpm to be about: PB = PA (VB/VA)2 = 22. R. McGraw-Hill Inc. Theoretically. 1977. 363-377. John Wiley and Sons.6 hp x (900 gpm / 1200 gpm) 2 = 12..7 hp This would give a slightly conservative estimate of savings. S.J. Using this relationship. Inc.6 hp x (900 gpm / 1200 gpm) 3 = 9.D. pump work varies with the cube of volume flow rate.5 hp The 9. ASHRAE Transactions. A.5 hp When estimating power savings from reducing the volume flow rate. we conservatively estimate that pump/fan work varies with the square of flow rather than the cube of flow.1 hp = 11. 1985. pump and motor typically decline as flow rate decreases.Savings = PA – PB = 22. Katz.. Bernier and Bourret. G. Use of the cubic relationship would predict: PB = PA (VB/VA)3 = 22. and Almeida. Prentice Hall. Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning.200 gpm. Heating and Cooling of Buildings.. 1994.. if we measured PA to be 22. GPM 7-CD. ASHRAE Journal. 1985. In practice.6 hp – 10. “Energy Efficient Motor Systems”. References ASHRAE Handbook: Fundamentals. December.C. American Counsel for an Energy Efficient Economy. Gould Pumps. 1999. John Wiley and Sons. “Electricity Use and Efficiency in Pumping and Air Handling Systems. Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer. pgs. Shepard. Mott. Incropera and DeWitt. 2005. M. Washington D.. 1991. E. 1991.1 hp predicted by the pump curve.5 hp predicted by the pump-affinity law is less than the 10. This example demonstrates how use of the cubic relationship typically exaggerates savings. Larson. resulting in slightly less savings than would be predicted using this ‘cubic’ relationship. 2000. ASHRAE. 1994. Pump Systems 42 . Greenberg. “Pumping Energy and Variable Frequency Drives”. Thus. the efficiencies of the VSD. McQuiston and Parker.. L. Technical Information. Nadel. Kreider and Rabl. engineers frequently rely on pump affinity laws. Inc.
“Primary-Only vs. Primary Secondary Variable Flow Systems”. The energy imparted to a fluid by a pump is measured as the head (in meters) per unit weight of fluid.(v2^2 -v1^2)/ (2 g ) dH = Fluid Head developed across pump ...S.m Z1 = Fluid Supply Level.. Pump Systems 43 . U. Department of Energy. February.N/m2 P2 =Pressure into which fluid is discharged . S..m P1 =Pressure over Supply Fluid. ASHRAE Journal..Taylor. 2002m “Pumping Systems Field Monitoring and Application of the Pumping System Assessment Tool PSAT”. 2002.Kg/m3) g = Acceleration due to gravity 9.81 m / s2 v12 Fluid velocity at pump inlet m/s v22 Fluid velocity at pump discharge m/s Normally the velocity head and the height head is ignored for initial selection of the pump. pgs 25-29.N/m2 ρ = Fluid Density.Z1) + ( P2 -P1 )/ (ρ g ) .. 2002.m Z2 = Fluid Discharge Level.. dH = (Z2 ..
26 meter /second.14 * r^2 * 24. Note: For accurate calculations the difference in height of the pump suction and out discharge flanges and the difference in velocity head should be considered.0074 m Diameter = r *2 = 0. Q = 45000 Liters = 45 m^3 = 45/3 m^3 = 15 m^3 / Day / pump = 15/3600=0.00417 = 76.The head developed is therefore approximated to the static pressure difference expressed as a column of the liquid pumped in meters of fluid.00417m^3 /sec/ pump Q = Area x Velocity Q = 3.81*30 ] V = 24.015 m Pump Systems 44 .1764 *r^2 r = 0. To convert the differential head developed to pressure difference in N/m^2 p (N/m^2 ) = dH * ρ g V = sq rt [2*g*h ] V = sq rt [2*9.26 m^3/sec 0.
Head lost due to friction : A rule of thumb that is often used as a starting place for selecting pipe diameters is to select the pipe diameter such that: H_friction ~ 1.75 m -H20 / 220 m-pipe Pump Systems 45 .2 m -H20 / 34 m-pipe Total H_friction ~ 7.
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