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EXPERIMENT NO. 2. TWO STAGE RC-COUPLED AMPLIFIER 1.

AIM: To Design and Study the response of a two stage RC-coupled amplifier. To Obtain gain and band width from the analysis. 2. COMPONENTS: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. BJT (BC107BP) Resistors (47k, 2.2k, 10k, 10k, 1k) Capacitors (10UF, 10UF, 10UF, 100UF,100UF) DC source AC source Oscilloscope 2No. 10No. 5No. 1No. 1No. 1No.

3. THEORY: As the gain provided by a single stage amplifier is usually not sufficient to drive the load, so to achieve extra gain multi-stage amplifier are used. In multi-stage amplifiers output of onestage is coupled to the input of the next stage. The coupling of one stage to another is done with the help of some coupling devices. If it is coupled by RC then the amplifier is called RC-coupled amplifier. Frequency response of an amplifier is defined as the variation of gain with respective frequency. The gain of the amplifier increases as the frequency increases from zero till it becomes maximum at lower cut-off frequency and remains constant till higher cut-off frequency and then it falls again as the frequency increases. At low frequencies the reactance of coupling capacitor CC is quite high and hence very small part of signal will pass through from one stage to the next stage. At high frequencies the reactance of inter electrode capacitance is very small and behaves as a short circuit. This increases the loading effect on next stage and service to reduce the voltage gain due to these reasons the voltage gain drops at high frequencies. At mid frequencies the effect of coupling capacitors is negligible and acts like short circuit, where as inter electrode capacitors acts like open circuit. So, the circuit becomes resistive at mid frequencies and the voltage gain remains constant during this range.

4. CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

5. PROCEDURE: i. Open multisim software by clicking the icon on desktop. ii. Place the AC source, DC source, Ground, Oscilloscope and other components on circuit window by selecting them from component toolbar. iii. Connect the components as shown in the figure. iv. Simulate the circuit by clicking run button on simulation toolbar. v. Observe the input and output waveforms on oscilloscope by double on it. vi. Stop the simulation by clicking stop button on simulation toolbar. vii. Now select simulate analysis AC analysis for frequency response. viii. Set the start frequency, stop frequency, sweep frequency and vertical scale, then click the output tab select the output variable for analysis and click the simulate button. ix. Observe the graph on graph viewer. Note down the output voltage for different frequencies and calculate voltage gain, lower cutoff frequency, upper cutoff frequency and bandwidth by plotting on semi-log graph.

6. OBSERVATIONS:
S.NO

FREQUENCY VOUT

GAIN= VOUT /VIN

GAIN in dB =20*log(VOUT/VIN)

7. CALCULATIONS: i. ii. Determine lower cut-off frequency (fL) and upper cut-off frequency (fH) from the graph. Calculate Band width = (fH fL)

9. RESULT: Hence studied the response of a two stage RC-coupled amplifier and calculated gain and band width. i. ii. iii. Lower cut-off frequency (fL) = Upper cut-off frequency (fH) = Band width (fH fL) =