Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

6 views

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- STK403-130
- Electrical Science-Vol 4
- Pump Vibration Article
- M-3420-SP
- Asked qun in iit on wave
- Upca Acoustics Jan 25,2007
- CATALOGO DE PLCS IDEC
- roleler_opto_coupler
- Submarine_energy_system.pdf
- Online Data Sheet IM12-04NPS-ZCK en 20111223 1929
- DEF STAN 59-113
- 63230-216-208C1_Sepam_Series_20_User_Manual.pdf
- Controls for a Paddle Wheel Generator
- Essay 2 - Creation & Manifestation-factors Affecting the Internal Psychophysiology of m.p.o. - l.e.r.m
- RF Basics
- Basics_RF
- Speed of Sound (Drinking Straw)
- Ref 2
- PEAES
- Deep Sea

You are on page 1of 9

version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/, or send a letter to Creative Commons, 559 Nathan Abbott Way, Stanford, California 94305, USA. The terms and conditions of this license allow for free copying, distribution, and/or modication of all licensed works by the general public. Resources and methods for learning about these subjects (list a few here, in preparation for your research):

Questions Question 1 What is the dierence between DC and AC electricity? Identify some common sources of each type of electricity. le 00028 Question 2 Alternating current produced by electromechanical generators (or alternators as they are sometimes designated) typically follows a sine-wave pattern over time. Using a calculator, or a set of trig tables, plot a sine wave on the following graph:

+1

+0.5

-0.5

le 00052

270o

360o

Question 3 Alternating current produced by electromechanical generators (or alternators as they are sometimes designated) typically follows a sine-wave pattern over time. Plot a sine wave on the following graph, by tracing the height of a rotating vector inside the circle to the left of the graph:

90o

180o

0o

270o

0o

90o

180o

270o

360o

To illustrate the principle here, I will show how the point is plotted for a rotation of 45 o :

90o

45o

180

0o

270o

0o

45o

90o

180o

270o

360o

You may wish to use a protractor to precisely mark the angles along the rotation of the circle, in making your sine-wave plot. le 00093

Question 4 Dene the following terms: Frequency Wavelength Cycle Hertz Amplitude le 00043 Question 5 Apply the following terms to this graph of an AC voltage measured over time: Frequency Period Hertz Amplitude

le 00054 Question 6 Frequency used to be expressed in units of cycles per second, abbreviated as CPS. Now, the standardized unit is Hertz. Explain the meaning of the obsolete frequency unit: what, exactly, does it mean for an AC voltage or current to have x number of cycles per second? le 00053 Question 7 If an AC voltage has a frequency of 350 Hz, how long (in time) is its period? le 00055

Question 8 Determine the frequency of a waveform having a period of 1.4 milliseconds (1.4 ms). le 03276 Question 9 Radio waves are comprised of oscillating electric and magnetic elds, which radiate away from sources of high-frequency AC at (nearly) the speed of light. An important measure of a radio wave is its wavelength, dened as the distance the wave travels in one complete cycle. Suppose a radio transmitter operates at a xed frequency of 950 kHz. Calculate the approximate wavelength () of the radio waves emanating from the transmitter tower, in the metric distance unit of meters. Also, write the equation you used to solve for . le 01819 Question 10 If the only instrument you had in your possession to detect AC voltage signals was an audio speaker, how could you use it to determine which of two AC voltage waveforms has the greatest period?

DC

output

le 00387

Answers Answer 1 DC is an acronym meaning Direct Current: that is, electrical current that moves in one direction only. AC is an acronym meaning Alternating Current: that is, electrical current that periodically reverses direction (alternates). Electrochemical batteries generate DC, as do solar cells. Microphones generate AC when sensing sound waves (vibrations of air molecules). There are many, many other sources of DC and AC electricity than what I have mentioned here! Answer 2

+1

+0.5

-0.5

Answer 3

270o

360o

90o

180o

0o

270o

0o

90o

180o

270o

360o

Answer 4 These terms are very easy to nd denitions for, from a wide variety of sources. Ill let you discover what they mean for yourself! Answer 5

+10 V +5 V

Frequency = 50 Hz

20 ms 30 ms Time

40 ms

Answer 6 Each time an AC voltage or current repeats itself, that interval is called a cycle. Frequency, being the rate at which an AC voltage or current repeats itself over time, may be represented in terms of cycles (repetitions) per second. Answer 7 Period = 2.8571 milliseconds Answer 8 f = 714.29 Hz Answer 9 316 meters Ill let you nd the equation on your own! Answer 10 Connecting the speaker to each AC voltage source, one at a time, will result in two dierent audio tones output by the speaker. Whichever tone is lower in pitch is the waveform with the greatest period.

Notes Notes 1 Discuss a bit of the history of AC versus DC in early power systems. In the early days of electric power in the United States of America, there was a heated debate between the use of DC versus AC. Thomas Edison championed DC, while George Westinghouse and Nikola Tesla advocated AC. It might be worthwhile to mention that almost all the electric power in the world is generated and distributed as AC (Alternating Current), and not as DC (in other words, Thomas Edison lost the AC/DC battle!). Depending on the level of the class you are teaching, this may or may not be a good time to explain why most power systems use AC. Either way, your students will probably ask why, so you should be prepared to address this question in some way (or have them report any ndings of their own!). Notes 2 For many students, this might be the rst time they realize trigonometry functions have anything to do with electricity! That voltage and current in an AC circuit might alternate according to a mathematical function available in their calculators is something of a revelation. Be prepared to discuss why rotating electromagnetic machines naturally produce such waveforms. Also, encourage students to make the cognitive connection between the independent variable of a sine function (angle, expressed in units of degrees in this question) to actual shaft rotation in a real generator. Notes 3 For many students, this might be the rst time they realize trigonometry functions have anything to do with electricity! That voltage and current in an AC circuit might alternate according to a mathematical function available in their calculators is something of a revelation. Be prepared to discuss why rotating electromagnetic machines naturally produce such waveforms. Also, encourage students to make the cognitive connection between the independent variable of a sine function (angle, expressed in units of degrees in this question) to actual shaft rotation in a real generator. Notes 4 The unit Hertz is an example of how an implicitly dened label like cycles per second (CPS) came to be replaced by one having no objective meaning at all. Similar to how Celsius replaced Centigrade as the ocial metric name for a unit of temperature measurement. Pardon me for stepping up on my soapbox here, but changes such as these really irritate me. It is important to understand that these terms apply to non-electrical phenomena as well as electrical. The wide applicability of such terms allows for easier comprehension. Ask your students to give common examples of these terms in everyday life. Hint: music is an excellent context for this question! Notes 5 As always, it is more important to be able to apply a term to a real-life example than it is to memorize a denition for that term. In my experience, many students prefer to memorize denitions for terms rather than to go through the trouble of understanding how those terms apply to real life. Make sure students realize just how and why these AC terms apply to a waveform such as this. Notes 6 Encourage your students to discuss the origins of the new unit (Hertz), and how it actually communicates less information about the thing being measured than the old unit (CPS). Notes 7 It is important for students to realize the reciprocal relationship between frequency and period. One is cycles per second while the other is seconds per cycle.

Notes 8 It is important for students to realize the reciprocal relationship between frequency and period. One is cycles per second while the other is seconds per cycle. Notes 9 I purposely omit the velocity of light, as well as the time/distance/velocity equation, so that students will have to do some simple research this calculate this value. Neither of these concepts is beyond high-school level science students, and should pose no diculty at all for college-level students to nd on their own. Notes 10 An audio speaker is an outstanding instrument to use in teaching AC theory, because it makes use of a human sense that most instruments do not. I have constructed a simple headphone-based listening instrument for my own lab use, and have found it invaluable, especially in the absence of an oscilloscope. There is so much the trained ear may discern about an AC waveform based on volume and tone!

- STK403-130Uploaded byDhanu85
- Electrical Science-Vol 4Uploaded byyprashant31
- Pump Vibration ArticleUploaded byamitmorajkar
- M-3420-SPUploaded byIx
- Asked qun in iit on waveUploaded byabh_omega
- Upca Acoustics Jan 25,2007Uploaded byfrances leana capellan
- CATALOGO DE PLCS IDECUploaded byAdan Rivera
- roleler_opto_couplerUploaded byfatihse2
- Submarine_energy_system.pdfUploaded byGuillermo Marquez
- Online Data Sheet IM12-04NPS-ZCK en 20111223 1929Uploaded byDan Eugenio
- DEF STAN 59-113Uploaded bydaymon
- 63230-216-208C1_Sepam_Series_20_User_Manual.pdfUploaded byTang Son
- Controls for a Paddle Wheel GeneratorUploaded byM J Rhoades
- Essay 2 - Creation & Manifestation-factors Affecting the Internal Psychophysiology of m.p.o. - l.e.r.mUploaded byjonsiek
- RF BasicsUploaded bymaheshreddi1
- Basics_RFUploaded bymaaster123
- Speed of Sound (Drinking Straw)Uploaded byJorge
- Ref 2Uploaded byapi-3806824
- PEAESUploaded byt_srikanth
- Deep SeaUploaded byJonas Crixel
- Ttdv Tstp Th3a CatalogUploaded bySebastian Agudelo
- Automatic PloughingUploaded bysinghshweta874
- Electrical Science- Vol 3Uploaded byyprashant31
- Procedimiento Bombas AtascadasUploaded byjhonalejandrovega
- PHYSICS PRACTICALS IMP.docxUploaded byMahir Kukreja
- Chapters 3 mUploaded byRama Krishna
- ScienceUploaded bytrixieeternal
- 20..item_list_-_jan_-_2019_-alpha_-Uploaded byvishesh bhatia
- ic600yr555Uploaded byZoran Spiroski
- UT233 Eng ManualUploaded byestacionelectronica

- Kty Sick SensorUploaded byDavid Martin
- International Lamp CharacteristicsUploaded byDavid Martin
- ThinkTop Setup GuideUploaded byDavid Martin
- 155922444-Burkert-POSITIONERS-pdf.pdfUploaded byDavid Martin
- WinLC_rtx_eUploaded byfoxberry1970
- CLM223.253 Manual EngUploaded byDavid Martin
- Photo_Sensor_Applications.pdfUploaded byDavid Martin
- Doc Mg33mi02Uploaded byMehtab Ahmed
- inverter manualUploaded byYaj Perez
- DS8681 InstallKits EU EnUploaded byDavid Martin
- hj0____0Uploaded byDavid Martin
- Manual Danfoss VLT Micro.pdfUploaded byn3ki
- Business Writing SampleUploaded bybarry_john06
- CDC UP Meeting Minutes TemplateUploaded byDavid Martin
- samson 3275.pdfUploaded byDavid Martin
- Photo Sensor ApplicationsUploaded byDavid Martin
- mdwi24Uploaded byDavid Martin
- SDE1 PressureUploaded byDavid Martin
- PPC-125T_DSUploaded byDavid Martin
- ac5215 ifm.pdfUploaded byDavid Martin
- Et200S DiagUploaded byDavid Martin
- s7300 Fm350 1 Operating Instructions en en-USUploaded byHiển Vũ
- 98278878_fb126_pniodiag_enUploaded byDavid Martin
- IM151-7_CPU_eUploaded byRamona Diaconu

- Surface modification and antibacterial activity of electrospun polyurethane fibrous membranes with quaternary ammonium moietiesUploaded byArmando Lerma
- Botulism in Chickens Ducks and OthersUploaded byEbenezer Aaron
- AHCC - Woodlands Patients GuideUploaded bycrisperez
- Tutorial SolidageUploaded byRonald Alarcón Cañari
- Chinese Med J 2009; p1587Uploaded byLenny Tandya
- Stress Strain Curve – Relationship, Diagram and Explanation - Mechanical BoosterUploaded byPraveen Prasad
- HONDA CR-V 2014 BrochureUploaded byfptstop
- Fiqui ParcialUploaded byCarlosCristobal
- DB31 - Pathophysiology of Diabetes Mellitus and HypoglycemiaUploaded byNeil Alcazaren かわいい
- Liber67Uploaded bysmptrmrk
- Training Report - iDENUploaded bynammur85
- WorkmanshipUploaded byEmmanuel Imhoitsike
- FunctionTCS7PA30Uploaded byNasser Abdel Raouf
- Analog Devices - Integrated, High Power Solutions for Xilinx FPGAsUploaded bymons
- Stanco Furniture BrochureUploaded byRichard Baldwin
- Flow ChartUploaded byFarah Saeki
- c4_hUploaded byLeonard Pistol
- FSP ORP Handout English Forearm Fractures Final-3Uploaded byAirindya Bella
- Supply Chain PptUploaded bymarkkishan
- master schedule folio 1Uploaded byapi-377472062
- Network monitoring and measurement.pptUploaded byArdi Syah
- CHP Bottoming-CyclesUploaded byfery662002
- 02 - Stresses in Flexible PavementsUploaded bylosmi91
- ASTM D 1599Uploaded bysantasatana
- ISTA STDUploaded byHARESH NIRMAL
- Heat Load Calculation PsychometricUploaded byahmaborashed
- Kuliah 1 Cair (1)Uploaded bykolasasa
- Bosch Masonry and Concrete DrillingUploaded byMarian Dragos
- Decarburization of SteelUploaded bySadeep Madhushan
- NDR030AEUploaded byernesto ordoñez