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# Protection, Substation Automation, Power Quality and Measurement

## 6.2 Protection Systems

The setting values for the relay at station B are: Pickup current: Ip / IN = 1.1 Time multiplier Tp = 0.11 Given these settings, the operating time of the relay in B for a close fault in F3 can also be checked: The short-circuit current increases to 2,690 A in this case (g. 6.2-116). The corresponding I / Ip value is 12.23. With this value and the set value of Tp = 0.11, an operating time of 0.3 s is obtained again (g. 6.2-117). Station A: Adding the time grading interval of 0.3 s, the desired operating itme is tA = 0.3 + 0.3 = 0.6 s. Following the same procedure as for the relay in station B, the following values are obtained for the relay in station A: Pickup current: Ip / IN = 1.0 Time multiplier Tp = 0.17 For the close-in fault at location F4, an operating time of 0.48 s is obtained. The normal way To prove the selectivity over the whole range of possible shortcircuit currents, it is normal practice to draw the set of operating curves in a common diagram with double log scales. These diagrams can be calculated manually and drawn point-by-point or constructed by using templates. Today, computer programs are also available for this purpose. Fig. 6.2-118 shows the relay coordination diagram for the selected example, as calculated by the Siemens program SIGRADE (Siemens Grading Program). Note: To simplify calculations, only inverse-time characteristics have been used for this example. About 0.1 s shorter operating times could have been reached for high-current faults by additionally applying the instantaneous zones I>> of the 7SJ60 relays. Coordination of overcurrent relays with fuses and low-voltage trip devices The procedure is similar to the above-described grading of overcurrent relays. A time interval of between 0.1 and 0.2 s is usually sufcient for a safe time coordination. Strong and extremely inverse characteristics are often more suitable than normal inverse characteristics in this case. Fig. 6.2-119 shows typical examples. Simple distribution substations use a power fuse on the secondary side of the supply transformers (g. 6.2-119a). In this case, the operating characteristic of the overcurrent relay at the infeed has to be coordinated with the fuse curve.

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## Normalinverse 0.14 t = Tp(s) (I / Ip)0.02 1

Strong inverse characteristics may be used with expulsion-type fuses (fuse cutouts), while extremely inverse versions adapt better to current limiting fuses. In any case, the nal decision should be made by plotting the curves in the log-log coordination diagram. Electronic trip devices of LV breakers have long-delay, shortdelay and instantaneous zones. Numerical overcurrent relays with one inverse-time and two denite-time zones can closely be adapted to this (g. 6.2-119b).

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