Ancient Man and His First Civilizations

How did Jesus and the Hebrews become WHITE?

How did the Hebrews turn White? Of course they didn't really; just in the imaginations, and then the histories of White people. Who for probably practical reasons, decided that Hebrews, and also the Blacks who originally lived in the Country's that they took over, should all become White for posterity's sake. Seeing as how it only takes three generations to turn a Black person into a White person (and visa versa). No doubt there came a time when as Europe's formerly bi-racial populations, became more homogeneously White, White people decided that they could no longer acknowledge that all that they knew and had, was derived from the minds and labors of Black people - even down to their religious beliefs. The logic no doubt being that Whites could not progress to their full potential, if they were always looking up to Blacks, as the personification of knowledge and wisdom. So a change had to be made, and at some point, by somebody, that change began. Of course, we have no way of knowing when this process of Whitinizing Blacks began, or who did it, or where it was first done. But we do have some materials by which we can track the process, somewhat. But first, let us go back to see what Hebrews REALLY looked like. The earliest authentic pictures of real Hebrews that we have, date back to before Christ. They are Assyrian relief's showing Hebrews, and others that they conquered, in pictorial scenes detailing the battles fought, with associated text. These relief's decorated Assyrian palaces, and were no doubt used to gloat over their conquest of the Hebrews and others. Here we are using pictures of: Assyrian King Shalmaneser IIIs "Black Obelisk" (858 B.C.). Assyrian king Tiglath-pilesar III’s relief's of his conquest of a city near the Sea of Galilee (730 B.C.). Assyrian King Sennacherib’s relief's of the conquest of the Judean City of Lachish (701 B.C.). The four pictures below, are from those Assyrian relief's. (These relief's are stored in the British Museum, London England).

It is worth mentioning, that the Hebrews were just as literate, and just as artistic as the other Black civilizations around them. The reason that we have to depend on outside sources for pictures of them, is because Whites destroyed all that the Hebrews ever created. Even down to the very religious writings that they claim to worship by. That fact is that ALL Hebrew writings, even the SEPTUAGINT {the original Bible}, which was only roughly Hebrew (it was made for the Greek King of Egypt, Ptolemy II (Philadelphus) in 282-246 B.C.), has been destroyed. Everything except for the "Dead Sea Scrolls" which were found in 1947, in Qumran, a village situated about twenty miles east of Jerusalem. The Scrolls are under the joint custody of the Catholic Church and the Israelis. The translated contents of those Scrolls has never been made public, and probably never will be no doubt the differences in teachings and facts would be irreconcilable. (A few inconsequential snippets have been made public - the entire Scrolls is a huge work, which contains the entire old Testament plus many other works). Why wasn't the material in these pages destroyed? Because after it's fall, Assyria came under the control of the Persian Empire, which was itself a Black Empire. It then came under the control of Greeks, who were at that time, seeking to merge with the Black Persians, not in denying that they were Black people. Then Assyria again came under Persian control, and then finally under the control of the original Black Arabs. So at the time when Whites were destroying vestiges of Black history, they had no access to the Assyrian artifacts. But at those times when Whites did have control of an area, they seem to have been very through in destroying all vestiges of the former Black inhabitants; there is nothing left to suggest that Carthage was a Black city, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilizations are some of the oldest known, yet very little is left - next to nothing in the Indus valley. Ancient Anatolia (Turkey), was home to many great and famous civilizations, but very little has been found there. The Egyptian artifacts, of which there are many, were mostly recovered in modern times, when Whites rather than simply destroy, instead modify artifacts; sometimes just by breaking the noses off, in order to make them look like White people, and then proudly display them as proof of the White mans greatness. The Khazars, a Turkish tribe who had established a Kingdom in the Caucasus region, and converted to Judaism in the 8th century A.D. Must have seen the doings of the Romans and Greeks, and seen it as an opportunity for them to take over the Hebrew identity, and thus control of the orthodox branch of the Hebrew religion - which indeed they did. They logically thinking that if Jesus can be White, why not then, the entire Hebrew nation - which was by then a diaspora anyway. The Islamist side-stepped the entire issue by forbidding imagery of any kind.

this was probably the basis of this accusation being directed at Christianity.com (Link) The Alexamanos Graffito. XAMENOS. with our pictorial essay of how Jesus. depicting the Healing of the Paralytic.Let us proceed then. dating from about 235 AD. singular of graffiti) was discovered in 1857 in a guardroom on Palatine Hill near the Circus Maximus in Rome. SEBETE. . the Hebrews TURNED WHITE! Thanks to Religion Facts. dating from c. "Alexamenos worships his god. The text in Greek reads: ALE. which means." Before Christianity. to which a youth is raising his hand as if in prayer. THEON. The drawing shows a man with an ass's head being crucified. It is now part of the Dura Europos collection at the Yale University Gallery of Fine Arts. the Hebrews had already been charged with worshipping an ass. This early graffito (wall-scratching. and thus. is an interesting early parody of Christianity. and is now in the Palatine Antiquarian Museum. This wall painting.200 AD or earlier. is the earliest known representation of Jesus. The painting was found in 1921 on the left-hand wall of the baptismal chamber of the house-church at Dura-Europos on the Euphrates River in modern Syria.

but the use of the red and green lines to divide the space (similar to the chambers under San Sebastiano) has suggested the first half or middle of the 3rd century for this fresco. The image of Jesus as the Good Shepherd was an especially popular motif in the early Christian centuries. and is also an adaptation of a popular pagan image. The construction of the vault itself has been dated to the second half of the 2nd century. including the 23rd Psalm and sayings of Jesus. This fresco of the Good Shepherd was found on the ceiling of the Vault of Lucina in the Catacomb of Callixtus in Rome. . and is also an adaptation of a popular pagan image. The construction of the vault itself has been dated to the second half of the 2nd century.This fresco of the Good Shepherd was found on the ceiling of the Vault of Lucina in the Catacomb of Callixtus in Rome. It was based on several biblical passages. but the use of the red and green lines to divide the space (similar to the chambers under San Sebastiano) has suggested the first half or middle of the 3rd century for this fresco. including the 23rd Psalm and sayings of Jesus. It was based in several biblical passages. The image of Jesus as the Good Shepherd was an especially popular motif in the early Christian centuries.

representing a parousia. Christ at the Second Coming. devoted to the two Greek brothers. The basilica. the Temple of Romulus is the best preserved pagan temple in Rome. "The extent to which the type of the apostolic group as been developed suggests a 4th-century origin" for this particular fresco. The basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano is one of the ancient churches of Rome called tituli. with the Pantheon. According to W. projected by Orazio Torriani and directed by Luigi Arrigucci. who had been worshipped in the nearby Temple of Castor and Pollux. king of the Ostrogoths. was closed. In 1947. It is possible that the temple was in origin the temple of "Iovis Stator" or the one dedicated to Penates. bringing it equal with the Campo Vaccino. through the Temple of Romulus. . Domitilla in Rome. which is actually the lower part of the first church. a cloister was added. Cosmae et Damiani is Giovanni Cheli. the restorations of the Imperial Forums gave a new structure to the church. the Second Coming of Christ at the end of time.This fresco of Christ Among the Apostles is in an arcosolium of the Crypt of Ampliatus in the Catacombs of St. The Temple of Romulus was dedicated by Emperor Maxentius to his son Valerius Romulus. to this church. also known as the Forum of Peace. thus avoiding the infiltration of water. martyrs and saints Cosmas and Damian. perhaps in the ninth century.F. when Theodoric the Great. Volbach. A new entrance was opened on the opposite side (on via dei Fori Imperiali). Also. The ancient Roman fabric was Christianized and dedicated to Sancti Cosma et Damiano in 527. He holds the scroll of the Law in his left hand. Pope Urban VIII ordered the restoration of the basilica. in contrast with the ancient pagan cult of the two brothers Castor and Pollux. The Catacombs of Domitilla date from the 2nd through 4th centuries. Cosmas and Damian. and that Maxentius restored it before the re-dedication. of which cardinals are patrons as deacons: the Cardinal Deacon of the Titulus Ss. In the center of the apse mosaic is Christ standing on red clouds (representing the dawn). dressed in golden robes labeled with the monogram I. and the temple restored to its original forms. doctors. who died in 309 and was rendered divine honours. The old floor of the basilica is still visible in the lower church. The bodies of Saints Mark and Marcellian were translated. is located in the Forum of Vespasian. where they were rediscovered in 1583 during the reign of Pope Gregory XIII. In 1632. The pope united the two buildings to create a basilica devoted to two Greek brothers and saints. The old entrance. The apse was decorated with a Roman-Byzantine mosaic. and his daughter Amalasuntha donated the library of the Forum of Peace (Bibliotheca Pacis) and a portion of the Temple of Romulus to Pope Felix IV. The works. raised the floor level seven metres.

and some likewise "Black looking" Apostles.D.D.whose arch gives access to the cloister.1308 A. The last judgment by Pietro Cavallini . The Duccio-di-Buoninsegna above. and through this to the side of the basilica. Jesus' appearance from behind locked doors. and the beginnings of the total lie. St Cecilia Trastevere.1293 A. . seems to mark the end of Black Jesus. by Duccio-di-Buoninsegna . No non-White depiction of Jesus is known to have been made after this time .by White people. which still has a "somewhat" Black looking Jesus. Rome.

who allegedly had healed Constantina. Later. The Church was originally a mausoleum.Santa Costanza is a church in Rome. Constantina's magnificent porphyry sarcophagus was moved to the Vatican Museums. Since Consantina was venerated as saint. After the church was restored in 1620 by Cardinal Fabrizio Veralli. next to the cemetery of Sant'Agnese fuori le mura. Santa Costanza mosiac .Another fresco of Christ Among the Apostles is in an arcosolium of the Crypt of Ampliatus in the Catacombs of St. Constantine's daughters Constantina and Helena were buried here. it might be okay to paint Jesus as White. Constantina was venerated as saint. built under Emperor Constantine I and place of burial (mausoleum) of his daughters Constantina and Helena. Probably from a later time than the first fresco. Is this the beginning of the Whitinization of Black People? It may be that later artists felt that since this fresco didn't cause the artist to immediately burn in Hell. the mausoleum was consecrated as a church in 1254 by Pope Alexander IV. where Saint Agnes. probably by Constantinia. . The church was built under Constantine. Domitilla in Rome. After their deaths. with the Italian name of Costanza. was buried. and the church was dedicated to her.

D. as the Romans prepared to destroy Jerusalem.Dead Christ . This is in the context of Titus Caesar. . Museum Poldi Pezzoli. Milan The Modern Jesus The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A.D. who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea. 1460 A.Giovanni Bellini.) had these thoughts on the origins and customs of the Hebrews.

Tacitus: History Book 5 1. was ever displaying his gracefulness and his energy in war. With this force Titus entered the enemy's territory. Hence a passion for propagating their race and a contempt for death. however. the Jews have purely mental conceptions of Deity. consulted the oracle of Hammon. because this day brought with it a termination of their toils. assign a very distinguished origin to the Jews. The people. but to trust to themselves. There is a famous mountain in Crete called Ida. and. 3. the Idaei. and the 15th. wishing to secure for the future his authority over the nation. EARLY in this year Titus Caesar. they abstain from intercourse with foreign women. By his courtesy and affability he called forth a willing obedience. who in the time of king Cepheus were driven by fear and hatred of their neighbours to seek a new dwelling-place. who called the city which they founded Hierosolyma after their own name. Others. however. Most writers. when a herd of wild asses was seen to retire from their pasture to a rock shaded by trees. and in which they founded a city and a temple. broke out over Egypt. and they sacrifice the ox. after a while the charm of indolence beguilded them into giving up the seventh year also to inaction. led by Hierosolymus and Judas. We are told that the rest of the seventh day was adopted. It is a crime among them to kill any newly-born infant. whom he had withdrawn from Alexandria. either from the primitive elements of their faith having been transmitted from the Idaei. till one of the exiles. much less in their temples. alleging that they were the Solymi. and always ready to give battle. This force was accompanied by twenty cohorts of allied troops and eight squadrons of cavalry. brought to them their contributions and presents. and have this lesson first instilled into them. lastly. to disown their country. took possession of part of Egypt. they are singularly prone to lust. to despise all gods. that king Bocchoris. and that many of the heavenly bodies complete their revolutions and courses in multiples of seven. they bestow the same care on the dead. 2. as also did the fact. agree in stating that once a disease. and he often mixed with the common soldiers. They hold that the souls of all who perish in battle or by the hands of the executioner are immortal. forsaken as they were of both. came to be called Judaei by a barbarous lengthening of the national name. that among themselves they are inflexibly honest and ever ready to shew compassion. warned them not to look for any relief from God or man. they sleep apart. They therefore do not allow any images to stand in their cities. and. the 10th. As I am about to relate the last days of a famous city. say that they were a race of Ethiopian origin. They believe that Being to be supreme and eternal. or from the circumstance that of the seven stars which rule the destinies of men Saturn moves in the highest orbit and with the mightiest power. in consideration of what they suffered when they were infected by the leprosy to which this animal is liable. is upheld by its antiquity. opposed to all that is practised by other men. which horribly disfigured the body. as one in essence. distressed them so much as the scarcity of water. This worship. Others describe them as an Assyrian horde who. This furnished relief. by a strong contingent of Arabs. as armies and provinces emulated each other in their attachment to him. not having sufficient territory. children. and who had gained distinction as a soldier while both were still subjects. Moyses followed them. though they regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies. Others assert that in the reign of Isis the overflowing population of Egypt. After a continuous journey for six days. They slay the ram. and some men belonging to the 18th and 3rd. who hated the Jews with the usual hatred of neighbours. by the two kings Agrippa and Sohemus. Quite different is their faith about things divine. and to convey into some foreign land this race detested by the gods. and in utter ignorance began to advance at random. made without leaven. all old troops of Vespasian's. The Egyptians worship many animals and images of monstrous form. who had been collected after diligent search. At last he encamped near Jerusalem. They agreed. anxious to be thought superior to his station. preserving strict order on his march. however introduced. The most degraded out of other races. Moyses by name. gave them a novel form of worship. again. guided by the appearance of a grassy spot. seemingly in derision of Hammon. and they hold the same belief about the lower world. He found in Judaea three legions. Some say that the Jews were fugitives from the island of Crete. and though. without impairing his dignity as general. Moyses. the 5th. and they had sunk ready to perish in all directions over the plain. scorning their national beliefs. Evidence of this is sought in the name. it seems appropriate to throw some light on its origin. as a nation. among themselves nothing is unlawful. Those who come over to their religion adopt the practice. The young man himself. and the Jewish bread. began to rise in power and reputation. and set at nought parents. following in this the Egyptian custom. from which they expelled the inhabitants. reconnoitring every spot. which are at once perverse and disgusting. and was bidden to cleanse his realm. By their frequent fasts they still bear witness to the long hunger of former days. They abstain from swine's flesh. They sit apart at meals. Still they provide for the increase of their numbers. owe their strength to their very badness. . is retained as a memorial of their hurried seizure of corn. Things sacred with us. They are wont to bury rather than to burn their dead. all their other customs. Many. who settled on the nearest coast of Africa about the time when Saturn was driven from his throne by the power of Jupiter. nor of decay. But others say that it is an observance in honour of Saturn. seeking a remedy. while working or marching. finding themselves left in a desert. taking for their heaven-sent leader that man who should first help them to be quit of their present misery. lying on the borders of Syria. who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea. because the Egyptians worship it as Apis. discovered an abundant spring of water. again. and founded cities of their own in what is called the Hebrew country. while they allow what with us is forbidden. by the auxiliary forces of king Antiochus. In their holy place they have consecrated an image of the animal by whose guidance they found deliverance from their long and thirsty wanderings. discharged itself into the neighbouring countries. This augmented the wealth of the Jews. on the seventh they possessed themselves of a country. They call those profane who make representations of God in human shape out of perishable materials. 5. Circumcision was adopted by them as a mark of difference from other men. sat for the most part in a stupor of grief. Nothing. a nation celebrated in the poems of Homer. who are said to have shared the flight of that God. 4. To these he added the 12th from Syria. the neighbouring tribe. and to have founded the race. by many persons brought from the capital and from Italy by private hopes of securing the yet unengaged affections of the Prince. neither capable of representation. and brethren. with them have no sanctity.

some have thought that they worshipped father Liber. From the fact. Egyptians.This flattery is not paid to their kings. and Black identity theft. Before every ancient Black figure encountered in a museum or book was explained away as a Nubian-Ethiopian. or a servant: All people knew Hebrews to be Black people. however. for Liber established a festive and cheerful worship. that their priests used to chant to the music of flutes and cymbals. and that a golden vine was found in the temple. nor this honour to our Emperors. and Osman Turks are the new Berbers. while the Jewish religion is tasteless and mean. Arabs. though their institutions do not by any means harmonize with the theory. and Middle-Easterners. But before the modern era of pathetic White racism. and depicted them as Black people. the conqueror of the East. a Slave. and to wear garlands of ivy. . with it's White fright of all things Black. Where Khazar Turks are the new Hebrews.

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which the other party had occupied. he captured only with difficulty. without making any defence.For histories and images of some of the first Christians: Click Here >>> Selected historical quotes regarding the Hebrews Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus (155 A. left them in charge of a garrison.D. They built to him a temple that was extremely large and beautiful. the regions in that quarter had been subdued. They have also another name that they have acquired: the country has been named Judaea. on learning of this superstitious awe of theirs. They are distinguished from the rest of mankind in practically every detail of life. As it was. he could not have got possession of it. I do not know how this title came to be given to them. he took without any trouble. was a Roman consul and a noted historian writing in Greek. Cassius Dio Roman History Book XXXVII 14 . and Aristobulus was carried away. they made an excavation of what are called the days of Saturn. but believing him to be unnamable and invisible. whoever he is.3: After the death of Mithridates all portions of his dominion except a few were subjugated. he was defeated by them. who were quarrelling themselves. but show extreme reverence for one particular divinity. but had trouble in besieging Jerusalem. as it chanced. made no serious attempts the rest of the time. and when he would surrender neither the money nor the garrison. but on those days. while Syria and Phoenicia had become tranquil. Pompey turned against Aretas. They never had any statue of him even in Jerusalem itself. Their rulers were two brothers. because its inhabitants had ravaged Phoenicia. and if they had continued defending it on all days alike. and Phraates remained quiet. and especially by the fact that they do not honour any of the usual gods. as far as the Red Sea. After this he more easily overcame the rest. although of alien race. assaulted most vigorously. The kingdom was given to Hyrcanus. as he was received by the party of Hyrcanus. among many other most . and all the wealth was plundered. since the latter had no force worthy of note. to be sure. and by shutting up Aristobulus in a certain place he compelled him to come to terms. Hyrcanus and Aristobulus. This was the course of events at that time in Palestine. for this is the name that has been given from of old to the whole country extending from Phoenicia to Egypt along the inner sea. but nevertheless continued the war at that time. he threw him into chains. Pompey accordingly marched against him and his neighbours. The latter. who affect their customs. Thence he proceeded against Syria Palaestina. Thus the defenders were captured on the day of Saturn. A few garrisons which at that time were still holding forts outside of Bosporus. Previously he had done the greatest injury to Syria and had on this account become involved in a battle with the Romans who were defending it. and. not so much because they were minded to resist Pompey as because they were afraid that others might seize the money which they were guarding and lay the blame upon them. on which. now subjects of the Romans. and the people themselves Jews. but the temple itself. but it applies also to all the rest of mankind. when they came round in succession. For it was on high ground and was fortified by a wall of its own. overcoming them without effort. This class exists even among the Romans. then. Pompey immediately won over Hyrcanus without a battle. they worship him in the most extravagant fashion on earth. When. 16 Most of the city. to circa after 229). and were creating factions in the cities on account of the priesthood (for so they called their kingdom) of their god. and likewise dedicated to him the day called the day of Saturn. The latter was king of the Arabians. wishing to show everything to Pompey himself. hence they waited. except in so far as it was open and roofless. did not immediately come to terms. and by doing no work at all on those days afforded the Romans an opportunity in this interval to batter down the wall. and though often repressed has increased to a very great extent and has won its way to the right of freedom in its observances.

when a herd of wild asses was seen to retire from their pasture to a rock shaded by trees. Quite different is their faith about things divine. on the other hand. alleging that they were the Solymi. however. We are told that the rest of the seventh day was adopted. is retained as a memorial of their hurried seizure of corn. and how they got their superstitious awe of him. it seems appropriate to throw some light on its origin. Things sacred with us. the third to Mars. and that a golden vine was found in the temple. at any rate the ancient Greeks never understood it. the other is as follows. and a few sentences of Numbers. Others describe them as an Assyrian horde who. then omitting the next two name the lord of the fourth. Others. forsaken as they were of both. 4. they are singularly prone to lust. who settled on the nearest coast of Africa about the time when Saturn was driven from his throne by the power of Jupiter. according to Zunz. But since it is now quite the fashion with mankind generally and even with the Romans themselves. and that many of the heavenly bodies complete their revolutions and courses in multiples of seven. the 10th. Many ancient customs that are not found in other sources are described in this work. 3. anxious to be thought superior to his station. Tacitus: History Book 5 [1] 1. By their frequent fasts they still bear witness to the long hunger of former days. which are not difficult of comprehension. I wish to write briefly of it. ascribed to R. Still they provide for the increase of their numbers. part of Exodus. This flattery is not paid to their kings. as a nation. Some say that the Jews were fugitives from the island of Crete. brought to them their contributions and presents. without impairing his dignity as general. As I am about to relate the last days of a famous city. From the fact. however. The people. This force was accompanied by twenty cohorts of allied troops and eight squadrons of cavalry. and the seventh to the Moon. seeking a remedy. They agreed. to despise all gods. and you then go back and repeat the process with the orbits and their presiding divinities in this same manner. the neighbouring tribe. They call those profane who make representations of God in human shape out of perishable materials. that their priests used to chant to the music of flutes and cymbals. consulted the oracle of Hammon. and moreover these matters have naught to do with this history. which are at once perverse and disgusting. Many. Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer is an aggadic-midrashic work on Genesis. owe their strength to their very badness. Now as for him. discovered an abundant spring of water. neither capable of representation. began to rise in power and reputation. to disown their country. the Idaei. and set at nought parents. who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea. and if you repeat the process. they abstain from intercourse with foreign women. Moyses by name. and always ready to give battle. and they hold the same belief about the lower world. and brethren. by the auxiliary forces of king Antiochus. The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A. They believe that Being to be supreme and eternal. while working or marching. wishing to secure for the future his authority over the nation. preserving strict order on his march. This furnished relief. and to be merely a fragment of a larger work. so far as I am aware. because this day brought with it a termination of their toils. all old troops of Vespasian's. with them have no sanctity. finding themselves left in a desert.E. some have thought that they worshipped father Liber. took possession of part of Egypt. say that they were a race of Ethiopian origin. There is a famous mountain in Crete called Ida. as the Romans prepared to destroy Jerusalem. lastly.). This is one of the explanations given. who had been collected after diligent search. nor this honour to our Emperors. is the tradition. you will find that the first hour of the following day comes to the Sun. But others say that it is an observance in honour of Saturn. who in the time of king Cepheus were driven by fear and hatred of their neighbours to seek a new dwelling-place. thinks that it was compiled from two previous . Evidence of this is sought in the name. They are wont to bury rather than to burn their dead. in the order in which each of them revolves. by which the whole universe of heaven is divided into regular intervals. The most degraded out of other races. for Liber established a festive and cheerful worship. they bestow the same care on the dead. Moyses followed them. because the Egyptians worship it as Apis. lying on the borders of Syria. and founded cities of their own in what is called the Hebrew country. and the 15th. then. though their institutions do not by any means harmonize with the theory. by the two kings Agrippa and Sohemus.D. by a strong contingent of Arabs. that among themselves they are inflexibly honest and ever ready to shew compassion. each day will receive its appropriate god. the fifth to Venus. and after this passing over two others reach the seventh. the 5th. as also did the fact. This augmented the wealth of the Jews. Most writers. was ever displaying his gracefulness and his energy in war. but is now found among all mankind. again. and to convey into some foreign land this race detested by the gods. a nation celebrated in the poems of Homer. distressed them so much as the scarcity of water. The Egyptians worship many animals and images of monstrous form. the fourth to the Sun. This is in the context of Titus Caesar. legends and folklore. Sachs. they undertake no serious occupation. however. They abstain from swine's flesh. the next to Jupiter. Some parts appear to be written as late as the 8th century CE. in consideration of what they suffered when they were infected by the leprosy to which this animal is liable. S. which horribly disfigured the body. gave them a novel form of worship. Nothing. And if you carry on the operation throughout the next twenty-four hours in the same manner as with the others. reconnoitring every spot. The young man himself. who are said to have shared the flight of that God. following in this the Egyptian custom. Circumcision was adopted by them as a mark of difference from other men. It is a crime among them to kill any newly-born infant.peculiar observances. agree in stating that once a disease. The Pirke appears. and in utter ignorance began to advance at random. much less in their temples. they sleep apart. and though. sat for the most part in a stupor of grief. after a while the charm of indolence beguilded them into giving up the seventh year also to inaction. and beginning at the outer orbit assigned to Saturn. while the Jewish religion is tasteless and mean. After a continuous journey for six days. In their holy place they have consecrated an image of the animal by whose guidance they found deliverance from their long and thirsty wanderings. as well as astronomical discussions related to the story of the Creation. To these he added the 12th from Syria. nor of decay. though they regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies. till one of the exiles. that king Bocchoris. Moyses. but to trust to themselves. who he is and why he has been so honoured. though its adoption has been comparatively recent. If you begin at the first hour to count the hours of the day and of the night. broke out over Egypt. not having sufficient territory. and who had gained distinction as a soldier while both were still subjects. and the Jewish bread. and have this lesson first instilled into them. and some men belonging to the 18th and 3rd. By his courtesy and affability he called forth a willing obedience. and to wear garlands of ivy. came to be called Judaei by a barbarous lengthening of the national name. Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer comprises ethical guidelines. or from the circumstance that of the seven stars which rule the destinies of men Saturn moves in the highest orbit and with the mightiest power. They sit apart at meals. With this force Titus entered the enemy's territory. taking for their heaven-sent leader that man who should first help them to be quit of their present misery. a disciple of Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakai and teacher of Rabbi Akiva. again. Those who come over to their religion adopt the practice. They hold that the souls of all who perish in battle or by the hands of the executioner are immortal. guided by the appearance of a grassy spot. of referring the days to the seven stars called planets was instituted by the Egyptians. discharged itself into the neighbouring countries. children. 2. and in which they founded a city and a temple. and. assign a very distinguished origin to the Jews. as one in essence. from which they expelled the inhabitants. all their other customs. however introduced. and he often mixed with the common soldiers. The custom. scorning their national beliefs. is upheld by its antiquity. among themselves nothing is unlawful. and to have founded the race. Others assert that in the reign of Isis the overflowing population of Egypt. EARLY in this year Titus Caesar. accounts have been given by many. although there are older elements. They therefore do not allow any images to stand in their cities. and if you proceed similarly through the rest. the sixth to Mercury. and they sacrifice the ox. you will dedicate the first hour of the third day to the Moon. He found in Judaea three legions. I have heard two explanations. the conqueror of the East. telling how and in what way it has been so arranged. This. seemingly in derision of Hammon. who called the city which they founded Hierosolyma after their own name. by many persons brought from the capital and from Italy by private hopes of securing the yet unengaged affections of the Prince. it is true. who hated the Jews with the usual hatred of neighbours. Eliezer ben Hyrcanus (80-118 C. assigning the first to Saturn. as armies and provinces emulated each other in their attachment to him. 5.) had these thoughts on the origins and customs of the Hebrews. warned them not to look for any relief from God or man. on the seventh they possessed themselves of a country. Hence a passion for propagating their race and a contempt for death. They slay the ram. according to the order of the cycles which the Egyptians observe. and. and they had sunk ready to perish in all directions over the plain. assigning them to the several days. made without leaven. whom he had withdrawn from Alexandria. At last he encamped near Jerusalem. who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea. you will find all the days to be in a kind of musical connection with the arrangement of the heavens. though they involve certain theories. while they allow what with us is forbidden. and was bidden to cleanse his realm. however. This worship. the Jews have purely mental conceptions of Deity. either from the primitive elements of their faith having been transmitted from the Idaei. It comprises fifty four chapters. opposed to all that is practised by other men. For if you apply the so-called "principle of the tetrachord" (which is believed to constitute the basis of music) to these stars. led by Hierosolymus and Judas. to be incomplete.

Jost was the first to point out that in the 30th chapter. 11But Naaman was wroth. he lighted down from the chariot to meet him. are also quoted. my master hath spared Naaman this Syrian. that this man doth send unto me to recover a man of his leprosy? wherefore consider. the work might be ascribed to the beginning of the 9th century. This blackness was not as dark as Ham's raven similied black skin. 18In this thing the LORD pardon thy servant. and honourable. and he leaneth on my hand. If a statement in ch. said. Is all well? 22And he said. and six thousand pieces of gold. rivers of Damascus. 3And she said unto her mistress. 16But he said. and ten changes of raiment. I will receive none. Am I God. I pray thee. the Holy One of Israel. and took with him ten talents of silver. was a great man with his master. saying. 17And Naaman said. Behold. but also from the fact that nearly all the authorities he quotes are from the Land of Israel. and call on the name of the LORD his God. xxiii. the names of Fatima and Ayesha occur beside that of Ishmael. 9So Naaman came with his horses and with his chariot. Ethiopia and Seba for thee. 19And he said unto him. Would God my lord were with the prophet that is in Samaria! for he would recover him of his leprosy. and stood at the door of the house of Elisha. behold. and they departed. Be content. did not point to an even earlier date. the LORD pardon thy servant in this thing. and they bare them before him. who are from Babylonia. that he rent his clothes. in which at the end the author distinctly alludes to the three stages of the Muslim conquest. better than all the waters of Israel? may I not wash in them. and I will send a letter unto the king of Israel. he and all his company. the servant of Elisha the man of God. And he departed. As in ch. of Spain. while the book itself the Pirḳe Abot is quoted. He will surely come out to me. and I bow myself in the house of Rimmon: when I bow down myself in the house of Rimmon. approximately the same date might be inferred from the enumeration of the four powerful kingdoms and the substitution of Ishmael for one of the four which are enumerated in the Talmud and the Mekilta. because by him the LORD had given deliverance unto Syria: he was also a mighty man in valour. in not receiving at his hands that which he brought: but. daf 28a. I pray thee. wouldest thou not have done it? how much rather then. Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt? and the Philistines from Caphtor. My master hath sent me. and xx. indicating that the work was edited or additions were made to it after the time of R. when Elisha the man of God had heard that the king of Israel had rent his clothes. Go and wash in Jordan seven times. I pray thee. and had brought away captive out of the land of Israel a little maid.". before whom I stand. although he was a tanna. and he shall know that there is a prophet in Israel. 10And Elisha sent a messenger unto him. saying. the exceptions being Rav Mesharshia and Rav Shemaiah. xxix. 7And it came to pass. I have therewith sent Naaman my servant to thee.). when he saith to thee. All is well. black and beautiful. like Shemaiah (ch. and said. and said. The author seems to have been a rabbi of the Land of Israel. and recover the leper. Supposedly a 10th century Palestinian Jewish author gives the word of Roman era Ribbi Eli`ezer Hyrkanus that "[God] blessed Shem and his sons. And he urged him to take it. that when my master goeth into the house of Rimmon to worship there. but in Israel: now therefore. thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy ransom.works by the same author. now I know that there is no God in all the earth. after whose reign the Messiah shall come. captain of the host of the king of Syria. Go in peace.). . be given to thy servant two mules' burden of earth? for thy servant will henceforth offer neither burnt offering nor sacrifice unto other gods. even now there be come to me from mount Ephraim two young men of the sons of the prophets: give them. As the LORD liveth. 5And the king of Syria said.). which may be divided into seven groups. and bound two talents of silver in two bags. 20But Gehazi. and spake unto him. 21So Gehazi followed after Naaman. 13And his servants came near. but unto the LORD. when the king of Israel had read the letter. and thou shalt be clean. and bestowed them in the house: and he let the men go. Wash. I thought. that he sent to the king. xliv. for about that time the two sons of Harun al-Rashid. So he departed from him a little way. xiii. go. and the Syrians from Kir? Isaiah 43: (King James Version) 3: For I am the LORD thy God. Late Talmudic authorities belonging to the 3rd century C. and came. Shall there not then. and thy flesh shall come again to thee. the text giving merely the story of the Bible. and the commentary being intended for reading during the ten days of penitence. And he urged him. And when Naaman saw him running after him. 15And he returned to the man of God. and said.). El-Amin and El-Mamun. Wherefore hast thou rent thy clothes? let him come now to me. My father. and dipped himself seven times in Jordan. xxviii. Meir ha-Levi Horwitz thinks that the author developed those Bible stories which bore relation to the entire nation. xlii. O children of Israel? saith the LORD. and he was clean. two brothers reigning simultaneously are mentioned. saying. 12Are not Abana and Pharpar. that of Arabia. this appears not only from the fact that some of the customs to which he refers (in ch.. Behold. were ruling over the Islamic realm. Behold. and Shila (ch. Eliezar. and stood before him: and he said. saying. with two changes of garments. if the prophet had bid thee do some great thing. saying. a talent of silver. I will run after him. and be clean? So he turned and went away in a rage. his Pirqe. that thou mayest recover him of his leprosy. and be clean? 14Then went he down. but he refused. and laid them upon two of his servants. Go to. and said. xxxvi. to kill and to make alive. Behold. dealing lightly with those that concerned only individuals. 2And the Syrians had gone out by companies. Amos 9: (King James Version) 7: Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me. and strike his hand over the place. the relation of the two productions to each other being that of text and commentary. he took them from their hand. 24And when he came to the tower. and she waited on Naaman's wife. Eliezer (80-118 C.. but he was a leper.). 8And it was so. giving them the habitable earth.. I pray you.E. xxi. and two changes of garments. as the LORD liveth. Now when this letter is come unto thee.E. take two talents. 23And Naaman said. and take somewhat of him. and stand.E. Ze'era (ch. 6And he brought the letter to the king of Israel. and see how he seeketh a quarrel against me. leading to the conclusion that the book originated in a time when Islam was predominant in Asia Minor. Thus and thus said the maid that is of the land of Israel. 2 Kings 5 (King James Version) 1Now Naaman. 4And one went in.) are known only as customs of the Land of Israel. according to the saying of the man of God: and his flesh came again like unto the flesh of a little child. The work is divided into 54 chapters. The work is ascribed to R. which was interrupted by the commentary in the form of the Aggadah. and of Rome (830 C. and told his lord. and went away. take a blessing of thy servant.

wheresoever the priest looketh. and the quick flesh that burneth have a white bright spot. it be in sight lower than the skin. and be clean. after that he hath been seen of the priest for his cleansing. Thy servant went no whither. when the priest seeth it. and it be no lower than the other skin. 12And if a leprosy break out abroad in the skin. behold. and there be in it a yellow thin hair. or a bright spot. somewhat reddish. and pronounce him unclean. 26But if the priest look on it. then the priest shall shut him up seven days: 22And if it spread much abroad in the skin. 7But if the scab spread much abroad in the skin. behold. And he went out from his presence a leper as white as snow. then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is the plague of leprosy. and oxen. 2When a man shall have in the skin of his flesh a rising. but be somewhat dark. and it have turned the hair white. then the priest shall shut him up seven days more: 6And the priest shall look on him again the seventh day: and. there be no white hairs therein. and somewhat reddish. 28And if the bright spot stay in his place. and oliveyards. and the leprosy cover all the skin of him that hath the plague from his head even to his foot. 8And if the priest see that. even in the skin thereof. 18The flesh also. but be somewhat dark. he shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague: it is all turned white: he is clean. and spread not. the priest shall pronounce him clean: it is but a scab: and he shall wash his clothes. the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a plague of leprosy broken out of the boil. and vineyards. behold. and pronounce him to be unclean: for the raw flesh is unclean: it is a leprosy. if the scall spread not. and the scall be not in sight deeper than the . even a leprosy upon the head or beard. behold. 26And he said unto him. 14But when raw flesh appeareth in him. 17And the priest shall see him: and. it is a rising of the burning. behold. and there be quick raw flesh in the rising. white. it be not in sight deeper than the skin. behold. and it be in the skin of his flesh like the plague of leprosy. and maidservants? 27The leprosy therefore of Naaman shall cleave unto thee. 15And the priest shall see the raw flesh. 19And in the place of the boil there be a white rising. if the leprosy have covered all his flesh. behold. if the plague in his sight be at a stay. and spread not in the skin. and be changed unto white. he shall be unclean. was a boil. there be no white hair in the bright spot. Whence comest thou. Went not mine heart with thee. and the plague spread not in the skin. then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a plague. 10And the priest shall see him: and. and the hair thereof be not turned white.25But he went in. or white. behold. and if it be not lower than the skin. he shall come unto the priest. then the priest shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague: he is clean. if the plague be turned into white. 25Then the priest shall look upon it: and. then he shall be brought unto Aaron the priest. and it be in sight deeper than the skin. then he shall be brought unto the priest. and the hair thereof be turned white. and is healed. 23But if the bright spot stay in his place. 20And if. and stood before his master. and menservants. 16Or if the raw flesh turn again. then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a leprosy. if it be in sight deeper than the skin. behold. and the plague in sight be deeper than the skin of his flesh. 13Then the priest shall consider: and. behold. and the priest shall pronounce him clean. it is a plague of leprosy: and the priest shall look on him. 29If a man or woman have a plague upon the head or the beard. the scab spreadeth in the skin. but it be somewhat dark. then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a dry scall. it is a leprosy broken out of the burning: wherefore the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is the plague of leprosy. saying. and there be in it no yellow hair. 4If the bright spot be white in the skin of his flesh. if the plague be somewhat dark. 24Or if there be any flesh. and sheep. it is a burning boil. On differentiating between White people and Lepers. when the man turned again from his chariot to meet thee? Is it a time to receive money. behold. 11It is an old leprosy in the skin of his flesh. then the priest shall shut him up seven days: 27And the priest shall look upon him the seventh day: and if it be spread much abroad in the skin. and the plague spread not in the skin. and to receive garments. and unto thy seed for ever. Gehazi? And he said. 30Then the priest shall see the plague: and. and shall not shut him up: for he is unclean. a scab. And Elisha said unto him. and. 21But if the priest look on it. if the hair in the bright spot be turned white. and. behold. and it be shewed to the priest. Leviticus 13 (King James Version) 1And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron. behold. 9When the plague of leprosy is in a man. and in sight be not deeper than the skin. in which. he shall be seen of the priest again. or unto one of his sons the priests: 3And the priest shall look on the plague in the skin of the flesh: and when the hair in the plague is turned white. in the skin whereof there is a hot burning. then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague seven days: 5And the priest shall look on him the seventh day: and. 31And if the priest look on the plague of the scall. if the rising be white in the skin. and the priest shall pronounce him unclean. or bright spot. and the priest shall pronounce him clean: for it is an inflammation of the burning. and. then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague of the scall seven days: 32And in the seventh day the priest shall look on the plague: and. and that there is no black hair in it.

53And if the priest shall look. or to pronounce it unclean. either in the warp. his clothes shall be rent. or out of the woof: 57And if it appear still in the garment. or of woollen. whether it be bare within or without. 46All the days wherein the plague shall be in him he shall be defiled. or whatsoever thing of skin it be. in woollen or in linen. if the bright spots in the skin of their flesh be darkish white. a white reddish sore. it is a leprosy sprung up in his bald head. or in the woof. 33He shall be shaven. or out of the skin. 43Then the priest shall look upon it: and. 54Then the priest shall command that they wash the thing wherein the plague is. or in any work that is made of skin. he is clean: and the priest shall pronounce him clean. 39Then the priest shall look: and. and shall cry. and the priest shall shut up him that hath the scall seven days more: 34And in the seventh day the priest shall look on the scall: and. or bald forehead. whether warp or woof. or in the woof. behold. and he shall put a covering upon his upper lip. behold. 52He shall therefore burn that garment. and shall be shewed unto the priest: 50And the priest shall look upon the plague. 47The garment also that the plague of leprosy is in. or in his bald forehead. thou shalt burn it in the fire. 56And if the priest look. or woof. or woof. 42And if there be in the bald head. unclean. it is a plague of leprosy. even white bright spots. to pronounce it clean. the plague is a fretting leprosy. Unclean. or in the woof. 35But if the scall spread much in the skin after his cleansing. then it shall be washed the second time. and. or his bald forehead. 44He is a leprous man. behold. as the leprosy appeareth in the skin of the flesh. the priest shall not seek for yellow hair. 49And if the plague be greenish or reddish in the garment. and shall be clean. but the scall shall he not shave. then the priest shall pronounce him clean: and he shall wash his clothes. 59This is the law of the plague of leprosy in a garment of woollen or linen. if the scall be spread in the skin. and shut up it that hath the plague seven days: 51And he shall look on the plague on the seventh day: if the plague be spread in the garment. 37But if the scall be in his sight at a stay. his plague is in his head. if the rising of the sore be white reddish in his bald head. 48Whether it be in the warp. either in the warp. it is a freckled spot that groweth in the skin. wherein the plague is: for it is a fretting leprosy. behold. or any thing of skins. whether in a skin.skin. 40And the man whose hair is fallen off his head. it is unclean. either in the warp. and his head bare. behold. behold.   . or in any thing made of skin. if the plague be departed from them. 38If a man also or a woman have in the skin of their flesh bright spots. or any thing of skin. 45And the leper in whom the plague is. the scall is healed. which thou shalt wash. or a linen garment. he is bald. or out of the warp. 36Then the priest shall look on him: and. then he shall rend it out of the garment. he is forehead bald: yet is he clean. it is fret inward. if the plague have not changed his colour. it is a spreading plague: thou shalt burn that wherein the plague is with fire. and he shall shut it up seven days more: 55And the priest shall look on the plague. he is clean. yet is he clean. behold. nor be in sight deeper than the skin. without the camp shall his habitation be. 41And he that hath his hair fallen off from the part of his head toward his face. or in a skin. or in the woof. or in the skin. it is unclean. of linen. or in any thing of skin. either in the warp. the plague be somewhat dark after the washing of it. or woof. he is unclean. the plague be not spread in the garment. and. it shall be burnt in the fire. if the scall be not spread in the skin. either in the warp. and the plague be not spread. or in any thing of skin. he is unclean: he shall dwell alone. whether it be a woollen garment. 58And the garment. he is unclean: the priest shall pronounce him utterly unclean. either warp. or in any thing of skin. and that there is black hair grown up therein. and be clean. after that it is washed: and.

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