September 2011

THE LIBYAN REVOLUTION

Anthony Bell & David Witter

escalation & intervention
PART 2

Photo Credit: March 21, 2011- A French navy AS365 F Dauphin rescue helicopter from French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle (R91) test lands aboard the amphibious command ship USS Mount Whitney (LCC/JCC 20). (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Gary Keen/Released)

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Anthony Bell & David Witter

THE LIBYAN REVOLUTION

escalation & intervention
PART 2

ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Anthony Bell is a research assistant at isW, where he conducts research on political and security dynamics on Libya. He has previously studied the conflicts in Afghanistan and Iraq, and published the ISW report Reversing the Northeastern Insurgency. Anthony holds a bachelor’s degree from the George Washington University in International Affairs with a concentration in Conflict and Security. He graduated magna cum laude and received special honors for his senior thesis on the history of U.s. policy towards afghanistan. He is currently a graduate student in the security studies Program at Georgetown University.

David Witter is a research assistant at isW, where he studies the nato intervention in libya as well as security dynamics in afghanistan. He has previously published the isW report Reversing the Northeastern Insurgency, the backgrounder Uzbek Militancy in Pakistan’s Tribal Region, as well as briefs on the islamic Movement of Uzbekistan and the libyan islamic Fighting Group. Before coming to isW, David worked as a research intern at the Potomac institute for Policy studies and the center for security Policy. He holds a Bachelor’s Degree in Political science from the University of California, Berkeley. In October 2011, he will enter Officer Candidate School to begin a career in the United states army.
AcknOwlEdgEmEnTS

We would like to extend our gratitude to spencer Butts for his indispensable assistance in researching, writing, and editing this paper. Without his help and daily contribution to isW’s libya Project, this paper would not have been possible. Prior to joining isW, Mr. Butts interned at the Peacekeeping and stability operations institute at the army War college. Mr. Butts holds a dual bachelor's degree in Government and History from the college of William and Mary. We are also grateful to Michael Whittaker for his thoughtful comments and support and to Jackie Page for her research contribution. We would also like to thank Maggie rackl for her technical skill with graphics and final design, and Tricia Miller and Marisa Cochrane Sullivan for their guidance in writing and editing this paper.

ABOUT THE InSTITUTE

The Institute for the Study of War (ISW) is a non-partisan, non-profit, public policy research organization. ISW advances an informed understanding of military affairs through reliable research, trusted analysis, and innovative education. We are committed to improving the nation’s ability to execute military operations and respond to emerging threats in order to achieve U.s. strategic objectives.

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ExEcUTIvE SUmmARy ................................................................................. 06 glOSSARy ................................................................................................... 10 I. InTROdUcTIOn ......................................................................................... 13 II. InTERnATIOnAl REAcTIOn TO THE cOnflIcT In lIByA ......................... 13 III. OPERATIOn OdySSEy dAwn .................................................................. 24 Iv. OPERATIOn UnIfIEd PROTEcTOR........................................................... 27 v. cOnclUSIOn ........................................................................................... 30 nOTES .......................................................................................................... 31

mAPS mAP Of lIByA .............................................................................................. 12

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this report is the second installment of a four-part series on the revolution in libya. Part Two: Escalation and Intervention details the international reaction to the war and the process that led to the U.s. and allied military intervention in March 2011. the paper begins with the initial international reaction to the uprising in libya in the early spring of 2011 and the international debate over a no-fly zone. This section documents efforts by the United States and its European allies to garner broader support for intervention in libya, especially from arab states. During this time, France, Great Britain, and the United States led international efforts to intervene in Libya. The third part of the paper explains the efforts to implement a no-fly zone under the U.S.-led Operation Odyssey Dawn in March 2011. This report concludes with a discussion of the NATO-led Operation Unified Protector and emerging tensions amongst NATO allies over the way forward in libya.

THE InTERnATIOnAl cOmmUnITy REAcTS

h the international intervention in libya led by the United states, Britain and France that began on March 19, 2011 dramatically altered the course of the libyan revolution. h anti-regime protests surged across the Middle east and north africa after the revolutions in egypt and tunisia in late January and early February. The astonishing speed at which Libya had descended into conflict was matched only by the speed the United states and its allies became involved in it. h in a matter of four weeks, from February 17 to March 19, the United states and europe reversed a decade of efforts aimed at normalizing political, commercial, and military ties with Libyan leader Colonel Muammar Qaddafi and launched a military campaign against him. h The international community was quick to condemn Qaddafi’s security forces’ use of violence shortly after major demonstrations started on February 17. President Barack obama condemned the violence against the protesters on February 18. British Prime Minister David cameron and French President nicolas sarkozy made similar calls for restraint and immediately suspended their countries’ military exports to libya. h in France, sarkozy appeared eager from the start of the rebellion to demonstrate his foreign policy leadership and he became an early champion of the rebels and of military intervention. h As the fighting escalated, leaders in the United States, Britain, France, and elsewhere began coming under domestic political pressure to cut their ties to Qaddafi and take measures to punish his regime and support the protesters. h Obama took his first concrete action against Qaddafi less than an hour after the last American citizens had safely departed Tripoli on February 25, signing an executive order imposing targeted financial sanctions on Qaddafi and regime figures and freezing certain Libyan funds. Obama also cancelled all military contacts with Libya and ordered U.s. intelligence agencies to shift assets towards the spiraling violence and to begin monitoring loyalist troop and armor movements. h Frequent discussions soon began between Obama, Cameron, Sarkozy, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Italian Prime Minister silvio Berlusconi, and turkish Prime Minister tayyip erdogan in an attempt to coordinate their policies towards libya. h With support from the United states and Germany, Britain and France introduced a resolution in the Un Security Council pushing for multilateral sanctions against Qaddafi. Russia and China signaled they were willing to back limited sanctions against Qaddafi. h the few obstructions led to a rapid and unanimous adoption of resolution 1970 (Unscr 1970) on February 26.

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THE nO-fly zOnE dEBATE

h the debate to take military action against Qaddafi intensified following the passage of Unscr 1970. over the next month, the rebel’s position on the ground deteriorated as Qaddafi launched offensives against the rebels at Zawiyah, Misrata, and cyrenaica (see Part 1 of this series). h Britain and France led the charge for military action against Qaddafi, joined somewhat reluctantly, by the United states. Domestic politics strongly influenced leaders’ willingness or lack of enthusiasm to take action, and political obstacles would later tangle the participation of the United states and several other countries. h a heated debate was emerging within the obama administration over whether to use military force in libya. • Within the administration, the advocates for a strong U.s. response, including the possibility of military force, included clinton, vice President Joseph Biden, Un ambassador susan rice, and samantha Power, Senior Director for Multilateral Affairs and Human Rights on the NSC. the skeptics of using military force included secretary of Defense robert Gates, national security advisor thomas Donilon, and Deputy national security advisor for Homeland security and counterterrorism John Brennan. While advocates in the Obama administration pondered taking action, skeptics, including military officers, defense and intelligence officials, lawmakers, diplomats, and others were skeptical of the effectiveness of a no-fly zone to end the violence, and they cautioned about the hard military realities and level of commitment it would entail.

h the United states and european allies had predicated any military intervention on the basis of having international and regional support. the first sign of regional support came from the Gulf cooperation council (Gcc), a regional alliance made up of the six Gulf monarchies of saudi arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, oman, Qatar, and the United arab emirates. • after a meeting of Gcc ministers in abu Dubai on March 7, leaders of the Gulf states announced their unanimous support for Unscr 1970 and demanded the security council take all necessary measures to protect Libyan civilians, including the creation of a no-fly zone over Libya. The GCC pushed the Arab League to take responsibility for the Arab response to the fighting in Libya and requested an emergency meeting of the body held on March 12. During the meeting, the league expressed its intent to communicate with the national transitional Council and requested that the UN Security Council to impose a no-fly zone over Libya and establish safe havens for civilians. Support for the no-fly zone was hardly unanimous but the strongest support for the measure came from the six members of the Gcc.

• •

h By March 15, the U.s. position on military action in libya remained unsettled, but time was running short to intervene. Loyalist forces were driving the rebels back towards Benghazi, and if Qaddafi reclaimed the city, there would hardly be an opposition for the United states and europe to throw their support behind. • The GCC pushed the Arab League to take responsibility for the Arab response to the fighting in Libya and requested an emergency meeting of the body held on March 12.

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h obama met on March 15 with his senior national security advisors, including Gates, clinton, rice, Donilon, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral Michael Mullen, Deputy National Security Advisor Denis McDonough, and nsc adviser Ben rhodes, to decide the U.s. course of action. • • After deliberating, a consensus emerged that a no-fly zone was insufficient to stop Qaddafi but that political and diplomatic avenues were exhausted. obama instructed rice to pursue a more muscular Un resolution that would authorize “all necessary measures” to protect libyan civilians at the security council, broad diplomatic language that permitted a bombing campaign against Qaddafi’s ground forces in addition to the no-fly zone.

h After extensive diplomatic efforts to avert a Russian veto of the resolution, Russia decided to abstain from the vote along with china. h on March 17, the Un security council voted to authorize resolution 1973 (Unscr 1973). • it granted member states, acting independently or through regional organizations or arrangements, the authority to use “all necessary measures” to protect libyan civilians under threat of attack from libyan military forces. UNSCR 1973 also allowed the imposition of a no-fly zone, a strict arms embargo, freezing of the regime’s assets, and a travel ban on Libyan officials, but it prohibited ground forces from occupying Libyan territory.

h Following the Un resolution, a Paris summit was convened on March 19 to craft the coalition’s political and military agenda. Participants included leaders and senior diplomats from the United states, Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Poland, Belgium, the Netherlands, Greece, Canada, Norway, Qatar, Iraq, Jordan, Morocco, and the United arab emirates, along with representatives from the Un, the european Union, and the arab league. h at the conclusion of the summit, the participants made a joint declaration to enforce Unscr 1973 with all necessary actions, including military force. that day, the United states and its allies launched operation odyssey Dawn.
OPERATIOn OdySSEy dAwn (mARcH 19 TO mARcH 31, 2011)

h the United states began operation odyssey Dawn on March 19 several hours after France opened the campaign with airstrikes against loyalist troops outside of Benghazi. h The opening waves of U.S. attacks were designed to cripple Qaddafi’s air defenses and air force, which would pave the way for manned-flights over Libya to enforce the no-fly zone and strike Qaddafi’s ground forces. h the United states took the lead role in the international coalition. General carter F. Ham, the head of U.s. Africa Command (AFRICOM) led the operation from AFRICOM’s headquarters in Stuttgart, Germany. h After a no-fly zone was established over Cyrenaica and gradually expanded over the rest of the country, U.S. and coalition combat aircraft began conducting airstrikes on loyalist ground forces on the eastern front.

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nATO’S OPERATIOn UnIfIEd PROTEcTOR

h As the fight in Libya continued on the ground and in the air, the administration moved to swiftly transition command to nato in order to minimize the U.s. role and allow Britain and France to take the lead. shortly after the airstrikes commenced, obama, sarkozy, and cameron reached a tentative agreement that nato would take over the operation. h Political obstacles surfaced within nato, as many in the alliance were reluctant to shoulder the mission. While nato members came to an agreement on March 22 that the alliance would take command of the maritime arms embargo, this did not include the no-fly zone mission. On March 23, NATO began Operation Unified Protector with a mandate limited to enforcing an arms embargo on libya. h The holdups in the transition from U.S. to NATO command led to a flurry of negotiations and eventually, the military campaign was placed under nato command. a separate coordinating group was created for the coalition at large to orchestrate their policies towards supporting the rebels and dealing with Qaddafi, which was created as the libyan contact Group on March 29. h Operation Unified Protector began in earnest on March 31 after NATO assumed command of all coalition military actions in libya from the United states, with the transition fully completed by april 4. h The United States, despite withholding its combat aircraft, continued to play a key role in Operation Unified Protector by providing approximately forty aircraft. • U.s. participation was largely limited to a support role, providing electronic warfare, aerial refueling, search and rescue, and other logistical capabilities. U.s. warplanes continued to conduct occasional airstrikes to suppress regime air defenses as part of the no-fly zone, conducting about sixty strikes between april and June.

h While the international intervention in Libya succeeded in preventing the rebels from falling to Qaddafi’s forces in the spring of 2011, it by no means brought about a quick end to the conflict. The conflict continued for months as fighting in Cyrenaica stalemated and the rebel-held enclave of Misrata in western Libya faced a weekslong siege by Qaddafi’s forces. The alliance continued to be plagued by internal divisions that heightened as the conflict dragged on into the late summer and the outcome of the intervention remained uncertain.

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Glossary
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Abdel Fattah Younis: A former member of the Qaddafi regime, Abdel Fattah Younis served as Qaddafi’s interior minister before his defection on February 22, 2011. younis served as the chief rebel military commander until his assassination by an unknown rebel brigade on July 28, 2011. Ajdabiya: the town of ajdabiya is located 95 miles southwest of Benghazi. ajdabiya is a vital crossroads for cyrenaica. Highways extend north to Benghazi, east to the port city of tobruk, and southeast through oil-producing regions to the Kufra oases. ajdabiya was contested by rebels and loyalist fighters in mid-March, until NATO air support allowed rebels to retake the town on March 26, 2011. Benghazi: Benghazi, the largest city in the Cyrenaica region, served as the center of power for the Sanusi Monarch prior to Qaddafi’s 1969 coup. Demonstrations against the Qaddafi regime began in Benghazi on February 15. Security forces began to use lethal force against the protests on February 17, 2011, and rebels successfully seized the city on February 20, 2011. The National Transitional Council officially convened for the first time in Benghazi on March 5, 2011 and the city served as the NTC’s capital throughout the rebellion. Brega: Located 115 miles southwest of Benghazi, the town of Brega contains an oil, natural gas, and petrochemical refinery. Brega is Libya’s fifth largest refinery and provides natural gas to Benghazi and Tripoli. Qaddafi forces retook Brega from rebel fighters on March 15, 2011, and rebel forces were unable to dislodge the loyalist defenders from the town until the loyalists withdrew on august 17, 2011. Cyrenaica: cyrenaica is one of the three distinct regions in libya. comprising the eastern half of the country, cyrenaica and its capital city of Benghazi served as the seat of power for King idris i under the sanusi Monarchy. Due to the historical rivalry with the western region of Tripolitania, Cyrenaica was long a cradle of anti-Qaddafi sentiment and was the first area to rise up against Qaddafi. Fezzan: Fezzan is the southwest region of libya. owing to its remoteness and sparse population, Fezzan has not featured prominently into the rivalry between cyrenaica and tripolitania. its largest city, sabha, serves as the region’s administrative center. Fezzan is dominated by the Maqarha tribe, one of Libya’s largest tribes which staunchly supported Qaddafi. Khamis Qaddafi and the Khamis Brigade: Khamis Qaddafi is one of the younger sons of Muammar Qaddafi and the commander of the elite 32nd Brigade (also known as the Khamis Brigade ). the brigade was the primary paramilitary force deployed against the rebels in western libya. rebels have reported Khamis’s death on several occasions, mostly recently stating he was killed in battle on august 29, 2011. Libyan Islamic Fighting Group (LIFG): the libyan islamic Fighting Group is an extremist islamic terrorist group formed in opposition to Qaddafi’s regime in 1995. The LIFG was violently suppressed by the Qaddafi regime. The U.S. government designated the group as a terrorist organization in 2004 for its links with al-Qaeda. the liFG became defunct by the end of the 1990s, though former liFG fighters declared their support for the National Transitional Council. Abdul Hakim Belhaj, the leader of the Tripoli military council, was the overall commander of the liFG. Mahmood Jibril: Mahmood Jibril served as a senior economic advisor in the Qaddafi regime until his resignation in 2010. Jibril became the chairman of the national transitional council’s executive Board on March 23, 2011 and was appointed the Prime Minister of the ntc. He has been the council’s main envoy to the international community. Misrata: the port city of Misrata is located 125 miles southeast of tripoli along the Mediterranean coast. it is libya’s third-largest city with 200,000 residents. Misrata joined the uprising on February 17, 2011 loyalist forces besieged Misrata from early March to mid-May. the battle was marked by heavy urban combat and thousands of casualties. after the siege was lifted, Misratan rebels began advancing towards tripoli in early august. Muammar Qaddafi: Colonel Muammar Qaddafi seized control of Libya in a military coup on September 1, 1969. Qaddafi crafted the “third Universal theory,” which combined elements of socialism, democracy, pan-arabism, and islam into am ideology outlined in his 1975 Green Book. Qaddafi dispatched paramilitary forces to quell the protests in February 2011; many soldiers and a number of government officials defected soon after, as the conflict escalated. Mustafa Abdul Jalil: Mustafa Abdel Jalil served as Qaddafi’s Minister of Justice from 2007 until his resignation on February 21, 2011. Jalil was a founding member of the national transitional council and was named chairman of the council on February 26, 2011. Known for his reformist efforts while serving in the regime, Jalil secured significant domestic and international support as the leader of the NTC. Mutassim Qaddafi: Mutassim is the fourth son of Muammar Qaddafi and served as his father’s National Security Advisor since 2009. He and his older brother saif al-islam have long been considered the two most likely sons to replace their father, resulting in a heated rivalry between them. During the rebellion, Mutassim reportedly commanded the 9th Brigade, a paramilitary unit from sirte that was heavily engaged against the rebels on the eastern front at Brega.

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Nafusa Mountains: the nafusa Mountains is a highlands area that stretches from the town of Gharyan to the tunisian border. the nafusa Mountains are an intricate patchwork of small arab and Berber tribes. the Berber population has traditionally been at odds with the Qaddafi regime. Many towns in the Nafusa joined the uprising in February and fought off loyalist attacks during the subsequent months. The Nafusa Mountain rebels coordinated an offensive against Tripoli with NATO in August and seized the capital. National Transitional Council (NTC): The National Transitional Council is the official political body that represents the Libyan rebel movement. the ntc was established in Benghazi on February 27, 2011 and the ntc executive Board was created on March 23, 2011. Based out of Benghazi, the ntc began gradually relocating to tripoli after the fall of the capital city. Many of the council’s leaders are former Qaddafi regime officials, Libyan exiles, and eastern Libya politicians. Operation Odyssey Dawn: operation odyssey Dawn was the name of the U.s. military operation conducted in libya from March 19 to March 31, 2011 to enforce UNSCR 1973. It was a joint air and sea operation to enforce a no-fly zone, maritime arms embargo and protect civilians on the ground by bombing regime forces. after March 31, the United states stepped down from its leadership role and contributed military assets to the NATO-led Operation Unified Protector. Operation Unified Protector: Operation Unified Protector is the name of the NATO-led mission to enforce UNSCR 1973 began on March 23, 2011 when the alliance took responsibility for enforcing an arms embargo on libya of the arms embargo. on March 31, 2011, nato took full responsibility for the air campaign over libya. Ras Lanuf: The coastal town or Ras Lanuf is situated 126 miles southeast of Sirte and contains Libya’s largest oil refinery. Rebel forces seized ras lanuf in early March, though a loyalist counterattack drove the rebels from the town on March 11, 2011. Following the rebel assault on Brega, rebel fighters attacked and captured Ras Lanuf on August 23, 2011. Saif al-Islam Qaddafi: The second son of Muammar Qaddafi, Saif al-Islam was the heir apparent to his father. Prior to the rebellion, Saif spearheaded political and economic initiatives and was regarded as a reformer. Throughout the conflict, Saif was the most visible member of the Qaddafi family. While he initially tried to appease protesters with promises of reform, he publicly defended the regime’s brutal crackdown on demonstrators as the conflict escalated. He evaded capture by rebel forces following the fall of Tripoli. Sirte: the city of sirte is located in central libya and straddles the boundary between tripolitania and cyrenaica. sirte is the hometown of Muammar Qaddafi and a stronghold of the Qadadfa tribe. During Qaddafi’s rule, he developed Sirte into a major administrative center and military garrison. The city’s heavily defended garrison has remained loyal to Qaddafi throughout the war. As of September 2011, loyalists troops continued to holdout in sirte. Tripoli: the capital of libya, tripoli is located on the western coastline and is the country’s largest city with 1.8 million residents. Initial protests in the capital were suppressed by mid-March.The seat of power for the Qaddafi regime, NATO aircraft bombed Tripoli more frequently than anywhere else during the war. The Nafusa Mountain rebels began advancing towards Tripoli in early August in coordination with others inside the city. Qaddafi’s compound was captured by the rebels on August 24, 2011, and rebel commanders reported the city was secure on august 28, 2011. Tripolitania: tripolitania is the northwest region of libya. it is the most populated region of libya, with the capital city of tripoli and major cities such as Misrata and Zawiyah. that includes the capital city of tripoli. the region has an historic rivalry with cyrenaica in the east. United Nations Security Council Resolution (UNSCR) 1970: the Un security council passed Unscr 1970 on February 26, 2011. it established an arms embargo, imposed a travel ban on regime officials, and compelled member states to freeze the financial assets of six regime figures and members of the Qaddafi family. It also granted the International Criminal Court jurisdiction over all war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in libya after February 15, 2011. UNSCR 1973: the Un security council authorized Unscr 1973 on March 17, 2011. it granted member states the authority to use “all necessary measures” to protect Libyan civilians threatened by Libyan military forces and enforce a no-fly zone and arms embargo on libya. Zawiyah: The city of Zawiyah is located 30 miles west of Tripoli and contains Libya’s second largest oil refinery. Anti-Qaddafi forces drove loyalist troops from the city on February 20, 2011, though regime forces retook Zawiyah on March 11, 2011. Many of Zawiyah fighters subsequently fled and joined the rebellion in the Nafusa Mountains to the south. The rebels attacked Zawiyah in an offensive coordinated with NATO on August 13, 2011, finally recapturing the city on August 20, 2011 and securing a route to Tripoli. Zintan: located 85 miles southwest of tripoli, the town of Zintan is the largest city in the nafusa Mountains. Zintan joined the uprising in mid-February, and rebel forces repulsed loyalist attacks from February through May. nato airstrikes enabled the Zintan rebels to break through loyalist lines on June 2, and rebel fighters seized numerous towns in the Nafusa Mountains in the following weeks.
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THE LIBYAN REVOLUTION

escalation & intervention
PART 2 By anthony Bell & David Witter

behind the conflict for policymakers contemplating policies regarding Libya’s future. Part One: Roots of Rebellion details Libya’s political history, human terrain, economy, and the Qaddafi regime’s unique political and military structures. It also addresses the early stages of the conflict in February 2011, beginning with the protests in Benghazi that triggered the rebellion, and the formation of the National Transitional Council. The paper also details the spread of unrest to western Libya and the regime’s crackdowns in Tripoli and Zawiyah. Part Two: Escalation and Intervention discusses the international reaction to the war and the process that led to the U.S. and allied military intervention in March. This section explains the U.S.-led Operation Odyssey Dawn and the NATO-led Operation Unified Protector. Part Three: Stalemate and Siege documents the ebb of fighting in eastern Libya, the pinnacle battle of Misrata, and the turmoil within the rebel ranks. This section concludes with the extensive efforts to break the siege of Misrata. Part Four: The Tide Turns documents the fighting in the Nafusa Mountains of western Libya that culminated in the rebel seizure of Tripoli in August. This final installment in the series concludes with discussion of the most pressing issues facing Libya in the aftermath of the regime’s collapse.
I. InTROdUcTIOn II. InTERnATIOnAl REAcTIOn TO THE cOnflIcT In lIByA (fEBRUARy 18 TO mARcH 19)

this four-part series provides a detailed narrative of the war in Libya and seeks to explain the underlying dynamics

this report is the second installment of a four-part series on the revolution in libya. Part two: escalation and intervention details the international reaction to the war and the process that led to the U.s. and allied military intervention in March 2011. the paper begins with the initial international reaction to the uprising in libya in the early spring of 2011 and the debate over a no-fly zone. This section documents efforts by the United states and its european allies to garner broader support for intervention in libya, especially from arab states. During this time, France, Great Britain, and the United States led international efforts to intervene in Libya. The third part of the paper explains the efforts to implement a no-fly zone under the U.S.-led Operation odyssey Dawn in March 2011. this report concludes with a discussion of the NATO-led Operation Unified Protector and emerging tensions amongst nato allies over the way forward in libya.

the international intervention in libya led by the United states, Britain and France that began on March 19, 2011 dramatically altered the course of the libyan revolution. anti-regime protests surged across the Middle east and north africa after the revolutions in egypt and tunisia in late January and early February. the astonishing speed at which Libya had descended into conflict was matched only by the speed the United states and its allies became involved in it. in a matter of four weeks, from February 17 to March 19, the United states and europe reversed a decade of efforts aimed at normalizing political, commercial, and military ties with libyan leader Colonel Muammar Qaddafi and launched a military campaign against him. the response by Western leaders to the libyan uprising was primed, in part, by their previous reactions to the events in egypt and tunisia. Leaders hastily called for Qaddafi to leave power, and politically committed to seeing to his departure, before it was clear whether the rebels would be able to topple him. As it became apparent that Qaddafi would crush the rebellion, Western leaders saw that it was imperative
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tHe liByan revolUtion | Part 2- escalation & intervention | antHony Bell & DaviD Witter | sePteMBer 2011

to intervene to save the opposition and civilians and to cozy relationship with Qaddafi.8 Furthermore, there was a lingering political scandal in the United Kingdom — pursue Qaddafi’s removal by force. and to a lesser degree in the United states — over the The international community was quick to condemn scottish government’s controversial decision in august Qaddafi’s security forces’ use of violence shortly after 2009 to grant a compassionate medical release to abdel protests started. After the first day of major demonstrations Basit al-Megrahi. al-Megrahi was a libyan intelligence on February 17, President Barack obama condemned the agent convicted of carrying out the Pan am Flight 103 violence against the protesters the following day. British bombing over lockerbie, scotland in December 1988 Prime Minister David cameron and French President that killed 270 people, most of them american and nicolas sarkozy made similar calls for restraint and British citizens. Al-Megrahi’s release and subsequent immediately suspended their countries’ military exports hero’s welcome in libya drew intense criticism of the to libya.1 the protests in libya appeared to mirror the labour government from the conservative tories and popular nation-wide demonstrations in egypt, tunisia, the United states. Moreover, the political scandal and elsewhere, and the regime’s use of force was initially had resurfaced just before the uprising in libya after characteristic of the violence in the region. But the fall cameron’s cabinet released a report in early February of Benghazi and most of cyrenaica to the protesters which concluded the labour government had subtly (who had turned into armed rebels) and the subsequent lobbied the scottish government to release al-Megrahi militarization and escalating use of force on both sides, to protect British commercial interests.9 marked the fundamental turning point towards a largescale rebellion. For further information on the initial in France, sarkozy appeared eager from the start of the uprisings as well as background information on libya, rebellion to demonstrate his foreign policy leadership see Part one: roots of rebellion. and he became an early champion of the rebels and of military intervention. sarkozy sought to use libya to early on, the obama administration made private revitalize his weak political standing at home ahead of overtures to Libyan officials, urging them to show the 2012 French elections.10 Before the protests began restraint. British Foreign secretary William Hague made in libya, French politics and the arab spring became a similar appeal to Saif al-Islam, Qaddafi’s second son intertwined. sarkozy and his cabinet came under heavy and heir apparent, shortly before his dramatic speech criticism from opposition parties and the media for defending the regime and denouncing the rebels on mishandling the country’s responses to the revolutions February 20.23 Unlike President Hosni Mubarak in in tunisia and egypt. sarkozy and his government were egypt and President Zine al-abidine Ben ali in tunisia, perceived as being late to denounce the use of violence Qaddafi would not be coaxed into leaving power by the tunisian security forces and then to break ties peacefully. the United states and europe had been able with Ben ali, who France had backed as the strongman to restrain somewhat the egyptian and tunisian rulers in its former colony for over two decades. sarkozy and from deploying their militaries against protesters by his Foreign Minister Michèle alliot-Marie only publicly maneuvering around the leaders and leveraging their came out against Ben Ali until after he had fled the country military-to-military ties, essentially removing pillars on January 14.11 alliot-Marie also came under scrutiny of support from under them and smoothing, if not after it was revealed she had vacationed in tunisia during ensuring, their exits.4 there were no such relationships the anti-regime riots and had close personal ties to the with Qaddafi’s highly loyal paramilitary forces.5 regime.12 adding to the problem, the French government appeared to be complicit in Ben ali’s crackdown after in the United Kingdom, cameron was more hawkish Alliot-Marie offered to help train the Tunisian security in his response as he distanced his government from forces in dealing with the protesters just days before he Qaddafi and condemned the violence.6 in a visit resigned and fled into exile.13 after sarkozy botched his to post-Mubarak egypt on February 21, cameron response to the uprising in tunisia, he was criticized labeled Qaddafi’s actions, “completely appalling and for taking a backseat role during the protests in egypt unacceptable.”7 as the leader of the conservative Party, that saw the downfall of Mubarak. sarkozy likely saw the cameron had been critical of the policies of former uprising in libya, which occurred days after Mubarak’s labour Prime Ministers tony Blair and Gordon Brown fall, as a political opportunity to temper domestic toward libya, as they were perceived as having a fairly critics and be on the forefront of a crisis. sarkozy would
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invariably keep his policies one step or more ahead of the United states and Britain, relentlessly pushing the allies towards intervening against Qaddafi. As the fighting escalated, leaders in the United States, Britain, France, and elsewhere began coming under domestic political pressure to cut their ties to Qaddafi and take measures to punish his regime and support the protesters.14 obama further denounced the regime’s violent actions on February 23 and said his administration was exploring the “full range of options” to respond to the crisis.15 the obama administration came under criticism that its response to the escalating conflict was far too mild, especially compared to the swift condemnations and escalating rhetoric coming from european allies. the White House countered that it was acting appropriately and restraining itself due to concerns that any belligerent actions or statements against Qaddafi could endanger the hundreds of american citizens and diplomats trying to flee Libya. The White House feared that Qaddafi could take americans hostage or otherwise cause harm to them, a threat the administration cited as tying its hands until after the final evacuations of Americans.16 Obama took his first concrete action against Qaddafi less than an hour after the last american citizens had safely departed tripoli on February 25, signing an executive order imposing targeted financial sanctions on Qaddafi and regime figures and freezing certain Libyan funds.17 obama also cancelled all military contacts with libya and ordered U.s. intelligence assets to shift their assets towards the spiraling violence and to begin monitoring loyalist troop and armor movements.18 as obama took his first steps on February 25, he still lagged behind the allies. Sarkozy made the first call for Qaddafi’s departure the same day, declaring, “France’s position is clear, Mr. Qaddafi must go.”19 after sarkozy’s call for regime change, which caught other leaders’ off-guard, frequent discussions began between obama, cameron, sarkozy, German chancellor angela Merkel, italian Prime Minister silvio Berlusconi, and turkish Prime Minister tayyip erdogan to coordinate their policies towards libya.20 the obama administration was willing to break entirely with Qaddafi but was unsure about backing the newly-organized national transitional council (ntc) in Benghazi. on February 26, in a conversation with Merkel, obama remarked, “When a leader’s only means of staying in power is to use mass violence against his own people, he has lost the legitimacy to rule and needs to do what is
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right for his country by leaving now.”21 although obama waited a few more days before making an explicit public call for Qaddafi to leave power, his comments to Merkel were the first indication U.S. policy was shifting from mere condemnation towards the British and French demands for regime change. Obama’s call for Qaddafi to leave power was made under considerable political pressure to do so and before the administration or the allies had decided on any course of action. nevertheless, it committed the administration to seeking Qaddafi’s ouster as the ultimate objective, leading to a widening gap between obama’s early rhetoric and his actions in the months ahead. With support from the United states and Germany, Britain and France introduced a resolution in the Un security council pushing for multilateral sanctions against Qaddafi.22 russia had objected to an early British version that would have authorized states to broadly take “all measures necessary” to enable humanitarian aid deliveries, which russia feared could have provided the basis for a military intervention.23 the security council moved rapidly after russia and china signaled they were willing to back limited sanctions against Qaddafi.24 the few obstructions led to a rapid and unanimous adoption of resolution 1970 (Unscr 1970) on February 26. it: -Granted the international criminal court (icc) jurisdiction over all war crimes and crimes against humanity committed in libya since February 15, 2011; -imposed an arms embargo on libya, preventing member states from providing any sort of weapons or military equipment to Libya, enforced through inspections of inbound vessels and aircraft; -Prohibited member states from allowing the transit of mercenaries to Libya; -imposed a travel ban on seventeen libyan regime officials; -Compelled member states to freeze the financial assets of six regime figures and members of the Qaddafi family, which were to be made available to the people of libya.25 on February 27, a politically vulnerable sarkozy sought to overcome his administration’s tarnished record so
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far in the arab spring and realign his supporters within his party with a major cabinet reshuffle — the second in three months. in a national address, sarkozy declared a “new era” in French foreign policy in response to the arab spring. He said, “this is an historic change. … We must not be afraid of it. We must have one sole aim: to accompany, support and help the people who have chosen freedom.”26 sarkozy brought in new ministers for the foreign affairs, defense, and interior ministries, notably dismissing the controversial foreign minister, alliot-Marie, and replacing her with Defense Minister alain Juppé.27

“Qaddafi has lost the legitimacy to govern and it is time for him to go without further violence or delay.” in discussing the U.s. response, she added, “no option is off the table.”30 there was also growing support for the obama administration to take military action from key members of congress. on March 1, the senate unanimously adopted senate resolution 85, which strongly condemned the violations of human rights in libya and called on Qaddafi to resign in order to permit a peaceful democratic transition. the resolution urged the security council to take further steps to protect civilians from attack, “including the possible imposition of a no-fly zone over libyan territory.”31 senior lawmakers called for obama to take action, including chairman of the senate Foreign relations committee senator John Kerry (D-Massachusetts), senator John Mccain (r-arizona), and senator Joseph lieberman (i-connecticut). Mccain and lieberman had urged obama to impose a no-fly zone as early as February 22.32 representative ileana ros-lehtinen (r-Florida), chairwoman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, and Representative Mike rogers (r-Michigan), chairman of the Permanent select committee on intelligence also supported a nofly zone.33 While the obama administration continued to harden its rhetoric against Qaddafi, it remained cautious and reluctant to publicly call for an intervention, aware that the United states would be expected to carry out and lead any military campaign it supported. in private, however, a heated debate was emerging within the obama administration over whether to use military force in libya.34 Within the administration, the advocates for a strong U.s. response, including the possibility of military force, included clinton, vice President Joseph Biden, Un ambassador susan rice, and samantha Power, senior director on the nsc for multilateral affairs and human rights.35 Most were ardent critics of past American failures to respond adequately to genocide and mass killings in the Balkans, rwanda, and saddamera Iraq.36 the skeptics of using military force included secretary of Defense robert Gates, national security advisor thomas Donilon, and Deputy national security advisor for Homeland security and counterterrorism John Brennan.

The No-Fly Zone Debate and the Allied Military Response
The debate to take military action against Qaddafi intensified following the passage of UNSCR 1970 on February 26. over the next month, the rebel’s position on the ground deteriorated as Qaddafi launched offensives against the rebels at Zawiyah, Misrata, and cyrenaica (see Part 1 of this series). Britain and France led the charge for military action against Qaddafi, joined somewhat reluctantly, by the United states. Domestic politics strongly influenced leaders’ willingness or lack of enthusiasm to take action, and political obstacles would later tangle the participation of the United states and several other countries. While military action was far from inevitable, early into the uprising the United states and its allies began planning and putting the means to intervene in place by moving naval and air assets into the region. still, the United states, Britain, and France were hesitant to undertake a military campaign against Qaddafi without the express support and participation of arab states, authorization from the security council, and under the umbrella of NATO, requiring a broad diplomatic effort in a short period of time.

As the United States severed its relations with Qaddafi’s regime, it began to cautiously develop its ties to the rebels and consider military options. In the first few days after the rebellion began, obama asked chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Admiral Michael Mullen to draw up detailed military options on libya.28 on February 28, secretary of state Hillary rodham clinton revealed that the United states had already established contacts with the rebel leadership in cyrenaica.29 clinton, in Geneva for consultations on libya with european and Russian officials, gave a speech to the UN Human Rights While advocates in the obama administration pondered Council in which she became the first U.S. official to taking action, there was a deep reluctance from senior unequivocally call for Qaddafi to leave. Clinton said, military and intelligence officials to support a military
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supporters noted that the libyan air force was rather small and stood no match against Western warplanes and that the country’s air defenses were neither intricate nor insurmountable.43 yet these arguments snowballed and began to imply that a no-fly zone would be an easy The Libyan air force’s effectiveness and impact on operation and would not require preemptive airstrikes the conflict was debatable, as they against libyan air defenses and seemed only to be striking static rebel air assets, or that the mere threat targets and causing few casualties. of allied aircraft above would As fighting between Qaddafi deter Qaddafi’s pilots from flying. Press accounts of the airstrikes relied heavily on unconfirmed eyewitness other military options included and the rebels continued statements and may have created establishing a humanitarian into March, the pressure on a false impression that libyan corridor in egypt and tunisia warplanes were strafing large crowds Western leaders to intervene for refugees, jamming Qaddafi’s of protesters and causing mass military communications, bombing intensified. civilian casualties. Yet, Qaddafi’s runways to prevent the libyan air warplanes were largely bombing force from flying, and instituting a arms depots in order to deny the no-drive zone to separate Qaddafi rebels weaponry. as early as March 1, a senior obama forces from rebel-held areas, which would essentially administration official said that other than arms depots, partition the country.44 While a number of military they had not seen indications that the libyan air force options were debated, each with various gradations in was bombing people.37 also that day, Gates and Mullen the use of force, in reality none of them would have stated they had had no confirmation that Libyan aircraft been effective in stopping Qaddafi’s ground forces from had fired on civilians.38 on March 8, U.s. ambassador crushing the rebellion and killing civilians.45 to NATO Ivo Daalder supported the view that a no-fly zone would be ineffective. Daalder pointed out, “No-fly As fighting between Qaddafi and the rebels continued zones are more effective against fighters, but they really into March, the pressure on Western leaders to have a limited effect against…helicopters or the kind of intervene intensified. Britain and France were reluctant ground operation that we’ve seen…Which is why a no-fly to act militarily without the United states and its vast zone, even if it were to be established, isn’t really going capabilities, but as time passed, both signaled they were to impact what is happening.” 39 Daalder indicated that willing to consider taking action with or without the the number of libyan air sorties had been decreasing support of the United states.46 neither the americans nor and concluded: “…the overall air activity has not been the europeans wanted to appear to be taking unilateral military action against libya. obama, cameron, and the deciding factor in the ongoing unrest.”40 sarkozy made clear that any military action had to be Other U.S. officials were reluctant to back a no-fly zone contingent on authorization from the security council. because of the lack of comprehensive intelligence about yet this course of action seemed unlikely in early March
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operation in libya in light of the burden of the military commitments in Afghanistan and Iraq. There was a growing disconnect from advocates that included senior administration officials, lawmakers, diplomats, and others who pushed for the no-fly zone as a relatively easy and straightforward humanitarian operation to protect civilians. Military officers, defense and intelligence officials, lawmakers, diplomats, and others were skeptical of the effectiveness of a no-fly zone to end the violence, and they cautioned about the hard military realities and level of commitment it would entail. they saw little strategic rationale for committing the U.s. military to a mission where there were no vital national security interests at stake, blurred political and military objectives, a limited use of force through airpower, no clear timeframe or endgame, and uncertain support from the american public.

the situation on the ground. Brennan worried that there was little understanding of the background and disposition of the rebels. Brennan also expressed concern that some elements could have ties to al-Qaeda affiliates or that Qaddafi would attempt to retaliate against the United states with terrorist attacks, as he had done in the past.41 General raymond odierno, commander of Joint Forces command, said that the U.s. military could impose a no-fly zone in a matter of days but cautioned, “I think Libya is going to be a long-term effort. People might think it’s going to end tomorrow, but i think this is going to go on for a very long time.”42

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as it would require the explicit approval of Russia and Brussels on February 25 to discuss the situation in libya. china, members of the security council with veto power Following a proposal from spain, the alliance agreed to that typically oppose interference in the domestic affairs deploy aWacs (airborne Warning and control system) of other countries and are wary of U.s. and european surveillance aircraft and naval assets off the Libyan coast military campaigns. russia and china had already to monitor the situation. on March 7, nato boosted uncharacteristically backed Unscr 1970, taken as the its AWACS flights from ten to twenty-four hours a day to furthest measure either was willing to support. help the alliance plan for an intervention.54 these assets deployed as part of nato’s operation active endeavor, in Britain, cameron began to favor intervention far which conducts counterterrorism and maritime security earlier than the obama administration, informing operation in the Mediterranean.55 the House of commons on February 28 “we do not in any way rule out the use of military assets. We must not the United states and its allies began planning and tolerate this regime using military force against its own moving forces into the region relatively soon after the people.” 47 cameron instructed the Ministry of Defense uprising, at first to assist in evacuations of civilians but to work with British allies on plans for a no-fly zone.48 soon to build up capability in the area in case leaders cameron and Hague came under increased scrutiny in decided on a course of military action. Days after the rebellion began, obama ordered early March following British special Mullen to draw up detailed military operations forces’ botched attempt options on libya.56 on February to make contact with the rebel In Britain, Cameron began leadership in Benghazi. on March 27, officials from the White House, to favor intervention far 3, a six-man special air service Pentagon, and state Department (sas) team along with two diplomats deliberated with european and earlier than the Obama were dropped by helicopter on the NATO officials to discuss imposing administration, informing outskirts of Benghazi and attempted a no-fly zone over Libya. U.S. the House of Commons on to make contact with rebel leaders. warships started moving through Rebel fighters, skeptical of the February 28 “we do not in any the suez canal towards the libyan group’s identity and intentions, coast, including the Uss Barry, way rule out the use of military a guided-missile destroyer, and arrested the team and detained them at a military base.49 two days later, amphibious assets. We must not tolerate the Kearsarge the Kearsargeready Group (arG). arG Hague secured the soldiers’ release this regime using military force is comprised of the Uss Kearsarge, an from rebel military chief General amphibious assault ship, and the Fatah younis and they withdrew to against its own people.” 47 50 Uss Ponce, an amphibious transport Malta. The incident quickly became dock ship.57 the 26th Marine public and embarrassed the British government, which attributed the expeditionary Group (MeU) was rebel actions to a misunderstanding. nevertheless, the embarked with the Kearsarge ARG alongside a squadron incident added to criticism from the labour Party and of AV-8B Harriers; however, the 1,400 Marines typically the liberal Democrats that cameron and Hague were stationed with the Kearsarge arG had been deployed mishandling the situation in libya.51 to afghanistan. this prompted the Pentagon to rush 400 Marines from 1st Battalion, 2nd Marines aboard to as the merits and scale of an intervention were debated, allow for the possibility of a military or humanitarian allied naval and air forces began building up in southern operation.58 the enterprise carrier strike Group, europe and the Mediterranean in preparation for composed of the aircraft carrier Uss Enterprise, along possible military action in late February.52 U.s. and with two guided-missile destroyers and a guided-missile European officials proposed early on that NATO should cruiser, was diverted to the red sea from the Gulf of aden be the umbrella for any military operation undertaken. but was seemingly not ordered into the Mediterranean the alliance needed the approval of all of its members in because it was busy supporting U.S. operations in Iraq order to oversee the operation, but such a consensus was and afghanistan.59 the United Kingdom had warplanes contingent on several factors, including a mandate from based in Malta ready to fly on short notice, while a the Un.53 nato ministers held an emergency meeting in British destroyer and frigate, which had assisted in the
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evacuation of British national, remained in place off the libyan coast.60 France dispatched the helicopter carrier Mistral and the escort frigate Georges-Leygues to the libyan coast.61 on February 26, italy suspended its 2008 friendship treaty with libya, which contained a nonaggression clause that would have prevented italy from using direct or indirect military force against libya or allowing allies to use italian territory, including major U.s. and nato airbases.62 internal divisions between obama administration officials appeared to be widening over a possible intervention, as the administration struggled to present a coherent public position while it privately determined its course of action.63 Some officials stepped up rhetoric against Qaddafi and pushed towards the no-fly zone, while others publicly warned against it. on March 3, President Obama made his first public call for Qaddafi to leave power, explicitly stating, “the violence must stop. Muammar Qaddafi has lost legitimacy to lead and he must leave.”64 He indicated that he had given the U.s. military the “full capacity to act, potentially rapidly” if the situation worsened and that he was considering a range of options.65 obama remained cautious, insisting that the United states was, “slowly tightening the noose” around Qaddafi’s regime with sanctions, while it was in the national interest to see Qaddafi leave power.66 as the debate in Washington intensified, Gates became the most visible skeptic of military action within the obama administration.67 He cautioned against undertaking a military campaign in another Muslim country and warned it would draw resources from efforts in Afghanistan.68 on March 2, the day before obama’s public statement, Gates expressed his frustration in testimony to congress over the “loose talk” regarding military options in libya.69 Gates bluntly refuted the notion that a no-fly zone would be an innocuous operation. He explained that establishing a no-fly zone would require a significant attack on libyan air defenses and capabilities to ensure the safety of patrolling warplanes and that any such operation would require a large number of aircraft.70 Mullen expressed similar views on the complexity and utility of a no-fly zone.71 General James Mattis, commander of U.s. central command (centcoM), later supported this view and argued that a no-fly zone would be militarily challenging. He echoed Gates’ frustration with advocates, telling lawmakers that, “so no illusions here. it would be a military operation. it wouldn’t simply be telling people not to fly airplanes.”72
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While the United states cautiously debated and monitored the situation in libya, Britain, and France were pushing ahead with intervention. British and French officials, frustrated by the U.S. reluctance, quietly suggested they might take action with or without the United states and nato. Britain and France prepared draft language for a no-fly zone resolution in the Security Council. On March 10, sarkozy met with rebel leaders Mahmood Jibril and ali al issawi in Paris, and afterwards announced that France was extending diplomatic recognition to the ntc.73 France, again outpacing the United states and Britain, became the first country to recognize the rebels as libya’s legitimate government.74 sarkozy also threatened Qaddafi with airstrikes, including bombing his Bab alaziziya compound in tripoli and major airbases in sirte and sabha.75 at an emergency eU summit on March 11, sarkozy announced that France and Britain were ready to strike Qaddafi if they received the support of the UN, the arab league, and the ntc.76 the British and French efforts, however, faced strong skepticism from Germany and italy over any collective action through nato or eU.77 the eU summit wrapped up with a declaration that Qaddafi no longer had legitimacy and must leave power, but leaders reached no agreement on military action.78 Director of national intelligence James clapper made revealing but controversial remarks in his testimony to the senate armed services committee on March 10 that again called into question the effectiveness of a no-fly zone alone. clapper predicted that absent an outside intervention, Qaddafi would be able to leverage his superior military forces against the rebels in the long term and eventually prevail.79 clapper also dispelled rumors that Qaddafi was ready to abdicate, stating, “We believe that Qaddafi is in this for the long haul. I don’t think he has any intention—despite some of the press speculation to the contrary—of leaving. From all the evidence we have … he appears to be hunkering down for the duration.” clapper also highlighted the relative insignificance of the Libyan air force, characterizing them as “akin to the gang that can’t shoot straight, since they’re doing this [bombing] visually, and have not caused very many casualties, although some physical damage.”80 aside from bombing arms depots, the regime on occasions used airstrikes on rebel checkpoints on the coastal highway—which would quickly rout the untrained rebels, whether the bombs were accurate or not. Qaddafi appeared to be turning the rebels back in cyrenaica using only airstrikes and perhaps artillery, but
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this was because his ground forces barely had to engage. rebel lines would break after making initial contact or, when rebels did stand and fight, they often lost or barely held. although Defense intelligence agency Director lieutenant General ronald Burgess immediately supported Clapper’s candid views that Qaddafi would prevail, it was nevertheless a controversial assessment.81 Unsettled that the administration may have resigned itself to an inevitable Qaddafi victory, several senators called for clapper’s resignation. But the obama administration distanced itself from the assessment provided by its senior intelligence chief. Donilon quickly rebutted clapper’s analysis, suggesting it was a “a static and one-dimensional assessment” that had not taken into account the pressure the United states and international community were putting on Qaddafi through economic sanctions, travel bans, and asset freezes.82

Due to the intense focus on imposing a no-fly zone, many advocates and on March 12, the twenty-two member The GCC pushed the analysts ignored the fact that Qaddafi arab league held an emergency was bringing all of his military summit in cairo to discuss the region’s Arab League to take strength to bear against the rebels. violence responsibility for the Arab response to the expressedin libya. The debate about the no-fly zone the arab league its intent and whether to intervene did not response to the fighting in to communicate with the national address the enormous advantages Transitional Council and requested Libya and requested an the regime’s ground forces enjoyed that the Un security council to emergency meeting of the impose a no-fly zone over Libya and against the disorganized and poorly armed rebels. Policymakers on both establish safe havens for civilians.86 body.85 sides of the debate failed to take into yet the arab league’s support for the account Qaddafi’s qualitative military Libyan no-fly zone was hardly a sign advantages over the rebels, and this would render a no- of cohesive arab support. the arab league’s decision, fly zone irrelevant.83 made behind closed doors, appears to have been far from unanimous. the strongest support for the measure came Arab Buy-In from the six members of the GCC, who had requested the emergency session to push for the no-fly zone. Lebanon, as the situation in libya deteriorated and pressure grew Jordan and Morocco likely joined them.87 syria, algeria, on regional players to become involved, libya became sudan and Mauritania reportedly opposed the decision entangled in the politics of the turmoil affecting the (libya could not oppose because it had been suspended arab world. the United states and european allies, still from the body on February 22).88 several key arab states, debating their options on libya, had predicated any such as Iraq and post-revolutionary Egypt and Tunisia, military intervention on the basis of having international appeared uncomfortable with openly backing another and regional support. The first sign of regional support Western military intervention in the Middle east and came from the Gulf cooperation council (Gcc), a remained silent throughout the debate. regional alliance made up of the six Gulf monarchies of saudi arabia, Bahrain, Kuwait, oman, Qatar, and the it seems ironic that the support of military action to United arab emirates. protect civilians and back a quasi-democratic movement against Qaddafi was conditioned on the support of his after a meeting of Gcc ministers in abu Dubai on March authoritarian neighbors. the Gcc’s strong support 7, leaders of the Gulf states announced their unanimous for the United states and its allies to intervene in libya
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support for Unscr 1970 and demanded the security council take all necessary measures to protect libyan civilians, including the creation of a no-fly zone over libya.84 saudi arabia and its Gulf allies were troubled by the escalating protests in Bahrain, where shia protesters threatened to bring down the saudi-backed sunni monarch. Furthermore, the fall of arab leaders in egypt and tunisia and the speed with which the United states and europe removed their support from long-standing allies in egypt and tunisia unnerved arab leaders. the GCC’s support for the Libyan no-fly zone, however, created little political traction with the United states and europe without an endorsement from the larger arab league and without some symbolic arab military participation. the Gcc pushed the arab league to take responsibility for the Arab response to the fighting in Libya and requested an emergency meeting of the body.85

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was likely because saudi arabia and its Gulf allies was a favor to the West by providing their intervention with Arab legitimacy, and to deflect attention away from the impending crackdown on protesters in Bahrain. on March 14, two days after the Gcc spearheaded the Arab League’s endorsement of the Libyan no-fly zone, more than 1,200 saudi and 800 emirate troops entered Bahrain to assist Bahraini security forces in crushing weeks-long demonstrations against the monarchy.89 eventually, security forces from all six of the Gcc states participated in subduing the protests in Bahrain in some way, including Qatar and the Uae which nearly simultaneously was being courted to participate by U.s. and European officials to partake in operations in Libya to protect protesters. Although U.S. and European officials placed a strong emphasis on garnering international support for military action, they largely ignored the staunch opposition from the African Union (seen in some quarters as proQaddafi). Instead, the Arab League’s endorsement was heralded as a sign of regional support. the Western allies praised the arab league’s move as a sign of arab willingness to participate in military action. clinton called the arab league’s endorsement “an extraordinary statement of leadership and real conviction.” Further, clinton indicated that arab support was pivotal and “opened up some doors that were closed.”90

The Final Push for Intervention
France spearheaded an effort to obtain an agreement from the Group of eight (G-8) for military action on libya, becoming more insistent that the United states and other european countries take a position. clinton was in Paris for the talks, gathering diplomatic support for a possible intervention, but the White House had yet to make a firm decision. On March 14, Clinton was in Paris for the G-8 talks on libya clinton met with ntc representative Jibril, and he pressed clinton for a nofly zone and weapons.91 clinton met with counterparts and leaders from France, Britain, russia, canada, Germany, italy, and Japan, as well as with Uae Foreign Minister abdullah Bin Zayed al-nahyan.92 although she criticized the Uae’s decision to send troops into Bahrain, she pressed the Gulf monarchy to contribute military forces to the possible intervention in libya. Clinton received confirmation from Qatar and the Uae that they would send aircraft to libya, securing the symbolic arab military participation the administration sought.93
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By March 15, the U.s. position on military action in libya remained unsettled, but time was running short to intervene. loyalist forces were driving the rebels back towards Benghazi, and if Qaddafi reclaimed the city, there would hardly be an opposition for the United states and europe to throw their support behind.94 lebanon, Britain and France pushed a resolution at the Un security council calling for the imposition of a no-fly zone over Libya that was tailored to the limited intervention outwardly favored by the United states. the situation on the ground and the impending Un resolution vote set a deadline for the U.s. decision on taking action in libya.95 in just over a week, the administration had met most of its criteria to take part in the mission, including the participation of major european allies, public support from the arab league, military buy-in from several arab states. Diplomatic groundwork with russia was also underway to ensure the mission had the backing of the security council. obama met on March 15 with his senior national security advisors, including Gates, clinton, Mullen, rice, Donilon, Deputy national security advisor Denis McDonough, and nsc adviser Ben rhodes, to decide the U.s. course of action.96 obama was briefed that Qaddafi’s forces would likely retake Ajdabiya within the next day and then launch an assault on the rebel capital of Benghazi. Qaddafi had threatened to retaliate against the city, and there were palpable fears that the loyalists would massacre rebels and civilians. obama’s military and intelligence advisors informed him that a no-fly zone would not be effective, as Qaddafi was beating the rebels back with his infantry, tanks, and artillery. the uprising was collapsing under the weight of Qaddafi’s onslaught; merely grounding the Libyan air force and destroying its air defenses would not stop the loyalist troops advancing towards Benghazi. a mission limited to a no-fly zone would leave allied warplanes circling helplessly over Qaddafi’s forces as they crushed the rebellion. the political cost of not intervening, which had become quite high domestically and internationally, would dwarf the cost of committing to an intervention and having it subsequently fail as Qaddafi swept the rebels aside. obama ordered his advisors to draw up more robust military options. obama, Gates, and Mullen broke up the session for a previously scheduled meeting and dinner with the Joint Chiefs of Staff and the Combatant commanders, where obama solicited their input on the potential military challenges in libya.97 During the
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break, Donilon and McDonough quickly drew up three (or have been publicly acknowledged as of september possible courses of action in Libya. The first option 2011).102 was for the United states to undertake a combination of military efforts, including airstrikes against Libyan Before the presidential finding, small groups of CIA ground forces, in addition to imposing a no-fly zone personnel were already on the ground liaising with and providing humanitarian aid. the second option rebel leaders and gathering intelligence, but the finding called for just a no-fly zone and humanitarian aid, and allowed an expansion of their activities.103 the British the third limited U.s. involvement to humanitarian also deployed dozens of Mi6 operatives to coordinate aid.98 rice also prepared a broader security council with the rebel leadership. they also took an additional resolution that would authorize a bombing campaign step of deploying sas and special Boat service (sBs) against Qaddafi’s ground forces, in addition to the no- teams on the ground to prepare for airstrikes by getting fly zone. Obama reconvened the meeting in the Situation intelligence on locations such as airfields, anti-air room around 9:00 p.m. and Donilon presented the defenses, and communications facilities.104 French three options he and McDonough had drawn up. after special operations forces may have also deployed to deliberating, a consensus emerged that a no-fly zone eastern libya around this time to assist in coordinating was insufficient to stop Qaddafi but that political and the air campaign with the rebels.105 diplomatic avenues were exhausted.99 obama instructed rice to pursue the more muscular resolution that would By March 17, loyalists had taken ajdabiya and were advancing northeast towards authorize “all necessary measures” Benghazi, but they were meeting to protect libyan civilians at the a stubborn resistance from rebels security council, broad diplomatic along the way.106 With the rebel capital language that permitted a bombing With the rebel capital threatened by Qaddafi’s forces, the campaign against Qaddafi’s ground threatened by Qaddafi’s forces, United states and its allies pressed forces in addition to the no-fly hard for council to zone.100 obama then ordered the United States and its allies pass the the security russia and resolution. Mullen to have the Pentagon finalize pressed hard for the Security china, however, were opposed to a “concept of operation Plan” for the threat an allied military campaign in libya Council to pass the resolution. intervention in libya and barring a 101 of a veto loomed. even by the next day. veto, it was unclear whether the United states, Britain, and France interestingly, the previous month’s had the nine votes needed to pass debate had largely been over whether to impose a no-fly zone over Libya or undertake other the resolution on the fifteen-member Security Council. limited military actions. U.S. and allied officials had not clinton conferred with russian Foreign Minister sergey openly discussed the possibility of a bombing campaign lavrov on the russia’s position. russia had previously against Qaddafi’s ground forces prior to Obama’s announced its opposition to an intervention in libya, decision on March 15. nevertheless, the political but pressure from the obama administration, it’s “reset” pressure to intervene and the impetus to prevent relationship with the Kremlin, and political differences Qaddafi from crushing the rebellion and remaining in between President Dmitry Medvedev and Prime Minister power had caught up with the military reality that for any vladimir Putin led to an agreement that the russians intervention to be successful it required a greater use of would abstain on the security council vote.107 Without a russian veto, the chinese also fell in line and also agreed force. to abstain.108 Meanwhile, obama and rice successfully on March 16, Mullen hand-delivered the Pentagon’s courted the support of non-permanent members military options for libya to Donilon at the White south africa, nigeria (both considered sympathetic to House. During this timeframe, obama signed a secret Qaddafi), Bosnia, and Portugal for the vote.109 presidential finding authorizing the CIA to provide arms and other support to the rebels, a legal step towards on March 17 the security council voted to authorize opening an arms pipeline and other means of support to resolution 1973 (Unscr 1973). it granted member the rebels. no weapons, however, were sent to the rebels states, acting independently or through regional
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organizations or arrangements, the authority to use “all necessary measures” to protect libyan civilians under threat of attack from libyan military forces.110 Unscr 1973 also allowed the imposition of a no-fly zone, a strict arms embargo—including the prevention of armed mercenaries from entering the country—enforced by inspections of vessels and flights bound for Libya, the freezing of the regime’s assets, and a travel ban on libyan officials. The resolution expressly prohibited any foreign ground forces from occupying libyan territory.111 While no security council member opposed the resolution, the vote was not unanimous. ten members voted in favor, one more than required, but five members abstained. three permanent members—the United states, Britain, and France—voted for the resolution, as did Bosnia, colombia, Gabon, lebanon, nigeria, Portugal, and south africa.112 Permanent members russia and china, along with Brazil, india and Germany, subtly expressed their opposition to the resolution in the form of abstention. in a surprising move Germany opposed the mission, likely because of Merkel’s hesitation to commit to a potentially risky operation just a few days before important state elections in Germany.113 on March 17, with Unscr 1973 in hand, obama gave the final authorization for airstrikes against Libya during a meeting of the national security council at the White House.114 nato had been tapped to head the operation from the start of military planning, but an agreement among all twenty-eight members of the alliance had not yet been struck. Key members such as Germany and turkey were reluctant to be drawn into the conflict through the alliance. This left the United states the reluctant leader of the operation with a coalition of european and arab allies. obama sought to limit U.s. involvement to a matter of “days, not weeks” and was adamant that no U.s. ground troops would be deployed to libya, limiting the ground footprint to cia operatives.115 The mission was to be quickly handed off to the coalition, with Britain and France taking the lead, once an agreement was forged to act under nato.116 the following day, obama privately met with congressional leaders, including senate Majority leader Harry reid (D-nevada), senate Minority leader Mitch Mcconnell (r-tennessee), House speaker John Boehner (r-ohio), and House Minority leader nancy Pelosi (D-california), to confer with them on his course of action in libya.117 shortly afterward, obama delivered public remarks in which he demanded Qaddafi abide by Unscr 1973 and halt his troops’ advance towards
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Benghazi and pull back from ajdabiya, Misrata, and Zawiyah.118 Obama explicitly warned Qaddafi that the terms were unconditional and if he failed to comply with Unscr 1973, “the resolution will be enforced through military action.”119 shortly afterward, the United states, Britain, France, and several arab states jointly delivered the same ultimatum to Qaddafi: immediately cease fire, withdraw from contested cities, and stop attacking civilians or face military action.120 libyan Foreign Minister Moussa Koussa announced government forces would cease fire, giving the allies a moment of pause that perhaps the ultimatums had worked. The ceasefire, however, proved to be a ruse to buy time for the regime’s offensives. Loyalist forces continued headlong up the coastal highway towards Benghazi, while the regime made a significant attack into the besieged city of Misrata. Qaddafi likely estimated he had time before the allies were prepared to attack, and had a narrow window in which his forces could crush the rebellion and render an intervention pointless.121 on March 19, as loyalist forces reached the outskirts of Benghazi, France hastily convened a meeting in Paris to arrange coalition policies in libya. as diplomats assembled in Paris, allied warplanes from the United states, Britain, France, and other countries assembled on airbases across europe, and were poised to strike libya that night.122 the Paris summit was convened to craft the coalition’s political and military agenda. Participants included leaders and senior diplomats from the United states, Britain, France, Germany, spain, italy, Poland, Belgium, the netherlands, Greece, Canada, Norway, Qatar, Iraq, Jordan, Morocco, and the United arab emirates, along with representatives from the Un, the european Union, and the arab league.123 During the Paris summit, French warplanes surprised attendees by commencing combat operations over libya early with airstrikes against the loyalist forces outside of Benghazi.124 at the conclusion of the summit, the participants made a joint declaration to enforce Unscr 1973 with all necessary actions, including military force.125 With most coalition military forces in place, the political and military backing of several arab states, and authorization from the security council, the United states and its allies launched operation odyssey Dawn on March 19.

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III. OPERATIOn OdySSEy dAwn (mARcH 19 TO mARcH 31, 2011)

communications systems to further disrupt the regime’s defenses.132

Unified Protector.
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the United states took the lead role in the international coalition. General carter F. Ham, the head of U.s. africa command (aFricoM) led ooD from AFRICOM’s headquarters in Stuttgart, Germany.133 Ham had only taken command of the theater barely two weeks earlier, and OOD was the first major military operation conducted by AFRICOM, the newest Unified combatant command established in october 2008. admiral samuel J. locklear iii served as Joint tactical commander for ooD. He performed a dual role as commander of U.s. naval Forces europe and africa and the nato commander of allied Joint Force command, naples, serving from the command ship Uss Mount Whitney in the Mediterranean.134 U.s. air operations were overseen by Major General Margaret Woodward, commander of the 17th air Force and U.s. air Forces africa, who served as Joint Force air component commander at ramstein air Force Base in Germany.135 Due to the hasty nature of the intervention, there was no integrated coalition command structure, so partners each coordinated their actions separately with the United states under Joint task Force odyssey Dawn. Liaison officers from participating countries abroad the the United states began operation odyssey Dawn Uss Mount Whitney and at AFRICOM headquarters and (ooD)* on March 19 several hours after the French the joint air command center in Germany were pivotal strikes outside of Benghazi.129 the opening waves of U.s. to coordinating coalition actions.136 attacks were designed to cripple Qaddafi’s air defenses and air force, which would pave the way for manned- the opening salvo of U.s. and British cruise missile flights over Libya to enforce the no-fly zone and strike strikes on March 19 was followed that night by a wave Qaddafi’s ground forces. On the evening of March of strikes from U.s. bomber aircraft. three B-2 spirit 19, U.s. and British warships and submarines in the stealth bombers flying from Whiteman Air Force Base Mediterranean launched approximately one hundred in Missouri dropped dozens of precision-guided and twenty tomahawk cruise missiles against more munitions on Ghardabiya air Base south of sirte.137 the than twenty integrated air defense system targets.130 B-2s targeted several dozen hardened aircraft shelters the missiles struck anti-aircraft systems, surface-to-air that likely housed su-22s and MiG-23/27s, some of the missiles, early warning radar sites, and communications libyan air force’s best aircraft, striking 45 targets with facilities located in Qaddafi-controlled areas.131 U.s. 2000-pound JDaMs.138 the raid on Ghardabiya was aircraft began electronic attacks on libya’s military augmented by several Tomahawk cruise missiles fired from U.S. ships offshore that also hit aircraft shelters.139 * Before all allied operations were absorbed under nato’s after the successful B-2 raid, two B-1B bombers Operation Unified Protector on March 31, 2011, allied forces flying from Ellsworth Air Force Base in South Dakota conducted military action under different names. The U.S. military conducted two large bombing runs against Qaddafi’s operation was operation odyssey Dawn, the French participation military infrastructure, including air defenses, combat was under opération Harmattan, the British participation was aircraft, command and control centers, vehicle storages, under operation ellaMy, and the canadian participation and ammunition depots.140 in the three bombing runs, was under operation Mobile. For simplicity, the authors refer the B-2s and B-1Bs hit approximately 150 key military to operation odyssey Dawn for all allied military action before targets.141 locklear outlined the basic campaign plan,
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early in the morning on March 19, loyalist troops that had been advancing up the coastal highway towards the rebel capital of Benghazi began to reach the city’s outskirts. Coalition military operations against the Qaddafi regime were set to commence later that evening following the conclusion of the Paris summit, where leaders and top officials had convened to lay out their political and military objectives in libya after Unscr 1973 passed just two days before. With Benghazi threatened, sarkozy preemptively ordered French warplanes into libyan airspace above Benghazi to protect the city from the loyalist offensive in the middle of the summit. Twenty French aircraft, including eight rafales and four Mirage 2000s fighters, began enforcing a no-fly zone over Benghazi.126 after attaining air superiority over Benghazi, the French warplanes conducted airstrikes against the advancing column of loyalist tanks, infantry and artillery, which were exposed along the coastal highway.127 the French strikes, seemingly poorly coordinated with the United states and other countries, drew criticism that sarkozy had again preempted the allies for the political prize of visibly leading the intervention.128

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explaining, “We started out with a large missile campaign crewmembers in two Mv-22B ospreys supported by and then we went to the no-fly zone. As coalition forces two cH-53e super stallion helicopters. While the pilot flowed in, we initially established … a smaller no-fly awaited rescue, an unidentified ground force began zone, primarily centered over Benghazi, because that approaching his position, which the Harriers hit with was our center of focus from the beginning. now that two 500-pound bombs shortly before an osprey landed we have been able to shape the battlespace more, that and retrieved him. Rebel fighters recovered the weapons no-fly zone has expanded … and as the capability of the officer, who was promptly returned with the assistance coalition grows, it will be able to provide more support, of CIA officers on the ground.148 the rescue operation more missions … towards ground forces.”142 the sorties stirred controversy after media reports that the bombs from heavy bombers ended shortly thereafter. Most had actually wounded several curious libyan civilians or of Libya’s air defenses and air forces were effectively rebels. destroyed; clearing the airspace for low-flying tactical combat aircraft to operate more safely. Moreover, the the initial stages of the coalition’s intervention were large number of tanker aircraft needed to support the successful, but it caught publics in the United states intercontinental bombing missions placed a considerable and europe somewhat by surprise. in the United states, strain on the operation’s logistics, foreshadowing a there was a generally skeptical and negative reaction from major hurdle nato would face in sustaining the congress and the public that the nation was suddenly air campaign.143 U.s. warships continued to launch engaged in a third war overseas. obama defended U.s. involvement in libya. He ordered cruise missiles intermittently at U.s. warplanes over libya to avert air defenses, but the preliminary a humanitarian catastrophe and military objectives were largely Political obstacles surfaced prevent a “blood bath” at Benghazi, accomplished, and the focus shifted not to undertake regime change, he within NATO. There was towards striking Qaddafi’s ground the United forces.144 serious debate among NATO said. He insisted that limited and states involvement was members as to whether the that it would not be drawn into a With the no-fly zone established war in libya.149 As the fight in over cyrenaica and gradually alliance should take command wider continued on the ground and expanded over the rest of the libya of the operation at all. country, U.s. and coalition combat in the air, the administration moved aircraft began conducting airstrikes to swiftly transition command to on loyalist ground forces on the nato in order to minimize the U.s. eastern front. in the early morning role and allow Britain and France to hours of March 20, fifteen AV-8B Harriers, F-15Es and take the lead. shortly after the airstrikes commenced, F-16cJs, joined by British tornado Gr4s and French obama, sarkozy and cameron had reached a tentative rafales, resumed strikes against the loyalist forces along agreement that nato would take over the operation.150 the coastal highway south of Benghazi.145 the airstrikes Obama and administration officials stated the U.S. inflicted heavy damage, demolishing approximately combat role would last a matter of “days, not weeks” as it fourteen tanks, twenty armored personnel carriers, two handed off the operation to NATO.151 multiple rocket launchers, and dozens of pickup trucks However, political obstacles surfaced within nato. and technicals.146 there was serious debate among nato members as on the night of March 21, the coalition experienced its to whether the alliance should take command of the first aircraft loss after a U.S. F-15E Strike Eagle flying operation at all. all twenty-eight members of nato had from aviano air Base in italy malfunctioned and crashed to approve of the alliance assuming command of ooD, twenty-five miles southwest of Benghazi.147 the pilot but many in the alliance were reluctant to shoulder the and weapons officer safely ejected but landed apart from mission. Further, the negotiations on the transfer of each other in rebel-held territory. two av-8B Harriers command and the actual transfer itself were complicated and an F-16 were overhead to provide protection for by the fact the international intervention under U.s. the pilot while Marines from the 26th MeU aboard the command had three different components: the maritime Kearsarge arG were dispatched to rescue the downed arms embargo, the no-fly zone, and the airstrike
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With command transferred to nato, the United states began to withdraw its air assets from the campaign and minimize its involvement. amid the growing domestic criticism of U.s. involvement in libya, obama delivered a national address to explain the intervention in libya on March 28. He argued that intervening was necessary to avoid a massacre at Benghazi and that the mission was in america’s interests. He said the military role would be limited to protecting civilians, not imposing regime change.163 Gates and Mullen, testifying in front of the turkey’s opposition to the intervention and its hesitation House armed services committee on March 31, echoed to break relations with Qaddafi posed one of the largest obama’s position and indicated that U.s. forces would roadblocks. sarkozy had excluded turkey from the Paris draw down its role while still providing the allies the summit due to its reluctance to support military action, unique capabilities that others lacked. Gates outlined despite the inclusion of Germany and other countries the future U.s. role and objectives in libya: that expressed reluctance to intervene. turkey and France Going forward, the U.s. military will have been at odds on their foreign policies, as sarkozy provide the capabilities that others has been among the most vocal opponents of turkey’s cannot provide, either in kind or in accession to the european Union. egemen Bagis, the scale, such as electronic warfare, aerial Turkish Minister for European Union Affairs and head refueling, lift, search and rescue, negotiator for turkey’s accession, publicly accused and intelligence, surveillance, and sarkozy of exploiting the libya crisis to gain a political reconnaissance support. accordingly, advantage ahead of France’s presidential election in 158 we will, in coming days, significantly 2012. Despite mixed public opinion in turkey over the ramp down our commitment of other operation, on March 24 erdogan secured parliamentary military capabilities and resources. the approval for turkey’s participation in the arms embargo 159 nato-led mission, like its predecessor, and the no-fly zone. after much wrangling in Brussels,
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campaign against libyan ground forces. nato members came to an agreement on March 22 that the alliance would take command of the fairly innocuous maritime arms embargo. on March 23, nato’s operation Unified Protector (OUP) began with a mandate limited to enforcing an arms embargo on libya.152 While the transition to NATO began smoothly, the significantly more controversial no-fly zone and the aerial bombing campaign remained under U.s. command. Germany, which opposed the intervention and had abstained at the security council on Unscr 1973, initially objected to the takeover and even withdrew four of its ships in the Mediterranean from nato command.153 France was reluctant to have a complete nato takeover of the operation but sought political leadership of the mission, a demand that drew objections from countries that sought full nato command.154 Britain and italy pressed hard for a nato takeover, and the italians threatened to review the use of their airbases for the operation if the alliance did not take command.155 France argued the hand-off would alienate the Arab participants, Qatar and the Uae, who were hesitant to operate under the nato banner against another Muslim nation.156 the holdups in the transition from U.s. to nato command led to a flurry of negotiations between Obama, Sarkozy, cameron, erdogan, and Qatar emir Hamad bin Khalifa al-thani. eventually, the military campaign was placed under nato command, while a separate coordinating group was created for the coalition at large to orchestrate their policies towards supporting the rebels and dealing with Qaddafi, which was created as the Libyan Contact Group on March 29.157

turkey reversed its position and backed the nato handoff, in addition to contributing Turkish ships and aircraft to the no-fly zone and arms embargo.160 on March 24, nato agreed to take command of the no-fly zone from the United States. However, there was still no consensus on whether the alliance would also take command of the air campaign against loyalist ground forces. Under intense pressure from the obama administration, the United states, Britain, France and turkey agreed that all of the coalition operations would be placed under nato command but called for an end to the airstrikes against loyalist ground forces if nato were to command of the operation.161 once turkey was on board, Germany agreed to approve the mission but not participate (along with almost half the alliance). With the objections of France and the arab participants met half-way, the final agreement was struck on March 28 to incorporate the airstrikes under nato command. on March 31, nato announced it had assumed sole responsibility for air operations over libya, including the airstrikes, under the auspices of oUP.162

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is a limited one. it will maintain pressure on Qaddafi’s remaining forces to prevent attacks on civilians, enforce the no-fly zone and arms embargo, and provide humanitarian relief. there will be no american boots on the ground in libya. Deposing the Qaddafi regime, as welcome as that eventuality would be, is not part of the military mission.164 the U.s. role was limited to electronic warfare, aerial refueling, logistical support, search and rescue, and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (isr). U.s. combat aircraft, including ac-130s and a-10s, were placed on standby at airbases in italy in case nato commanders requested them, with an expectation that they not be.165 as operational command shifted from the coalition to NATO, loyalist forces conducted a counteroffensive against rebel forces on the eastern front. Fewer airstrikes were conducted as nato took command, which was attributed to confusion during the changeover, poor weather over libya, and a change in the loyalists’ tactics to make them appear more like civilians and rebels. U.s. combat aircraft were scheduled to halt airstrike missions over libya on april 3. However, the United States agreed to a request from NATO commander canadian lt. General charles Bouchard for a fortyeight-hour extension of american airstrikes.166 U.s. warplanes officially ended their combat role in Libya on the evening of April 4. One of the final U.S. attacks came fifteen minutes before the deadline with Harriers striking loyalist targets south of Misrata.167 the United states provided the majority of the military assets, firepower, logistical support, and command and control in the initial phase of the coalition intervention from March 19 to March 31. in two weeks, U.s. aircraft had flown 1,206 (63 percent) of the 1,990 of the total coalition sorties over libya and conducted 463 (49 percent) of the 952 total coalition strike sorties. additionally, the United states launched 221 tomahawk cruise missiles at libyan targets, while the United Kingdom fired seven.168 at the height of ooD, approximately 150 to 175 U.s. aircraft and twelve naval vessels offshore had been involved in some capacity, representing slightly more than half the approximately 350 total coalition aircraft and twenty naval vessels involved.169
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From a military standpoint, given the limited mandate and short planning timeframe, the U.s. and allied militaries conducted the operation outstandingly. Qaddafi’s forces were prevented from assaulting Benghazi, protecting the rebel capital from falling. Britain, France and the other nato nations taking the lead did not possess the capabilities to conduct the campaign in the same manner. the role of the U.s. military was clearly indispensable and remained so even as nato took over.

Iv. OPERATIOn UnIfIEd PROTEcTOR (mARcH 31, 2011 TO SEPTEmBER 2011)

Operation Unified Protector began in earnest on March 31 after nato assumed command of coalition military actions in libya from the United states, with the transition fully completed by april 4.170 the mere fact that the campaign in libya began as a U.s.-led operation rather than under nato command was a sign of the obstacles ahead for the alliance. nato faced the difficult task of resolving the contradiction between the far-reaching political objectives to remove Qaddafi that the United states, Britain, France, and others had committed themselves to, and the limited military mandate and forces the alliance brought to bear on the ground. above all, the United states and its european allies were unprepared politically and militarily for the conflict to stretch on as long as it did. some nato members’ limited participation in actual operations undercut the strong emphasis placed on multilateralism. The efforts to attain the Security council resolution authorizing an intervention, secure arab military participation, and act under the nato umbrella did not produce broad international participation in the operation. only fourteen of nato’s twenty-eight members contributed forces to Unified Protector: Belgium, Britain, Bulgaria, Canada, Denmark, France, Greece, italy, the netherlands, norway, romania, spain, turkey, and the United states. a mere four non-nato members joined the operation: sweden, Jordan, Qatar, and the United arab emirates. the absence of Germany, the reluctance of turkey, and the lack of participation from half of nato – including most of the newest members from eastern europe – were conspicuous. For Germany, taking action in Libya was likely a question of domestic politics, as Merkel was hesitant to commit German forces
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to a potentially divisive operation ahead of important regional elections in late March, and she simply had no incentive to join afterward.171 For other members, it was a matter of not having the air and naval capabilities necessary to participate. the mission also exacerbated structural problems confronting european militaries stretched thin by deployments to the nato-led mission in afghanistan (where all twenty-eight members have forces) and shrinking defense budgets. although most european militaries are customarily underfunded and only five members meet NATO’s agreed-upon two percent of GDP spending on defense, recent austerity measures sapped their capabilities even further in recent years.

and rescue, and other logistical capabilities. although U.s. warplanes had been withdrawn from participation in the bombing campaign, they continued to conduct occasional airstrikes to suppress regime air defenses as part of the no-fly zone, conducting about sixty strikes between april and June.173 U.s. aircraft provided nearly 70 percent of the alliance’s intelligence capabilities and most of its aerial refueling assets.174 according to a White House report from June 2011, “if the United states military were to cease its participation in the nato operation, it would seriously degrade the coalition’s ability to execute and sustain its operation … which in turn would likely lead to the withdrawal of other nato and coalition nation participation in the operation.”175

there was also a lack of political will to get involved in the U.s. logistical support was especially valuable in providing conflict. At the outset the stakes in Libya appeared low. refueling capabilities. nato faced the logistical no vital national security interests challenge of basing strike aircraft on were on the line, and the mission was bases in southern europe without relatively straightforward. only a enough tanker aircraft to maintain The inability of NATO to handful of warships and aircraft were the desired operational tempo. the needed to enforce the arms embargo United states, which had already conduct a prolonged aerial and the no-fly zone, after the Libyan contributed the most tankers to bombing campaign absent air force and air defenses were largely the operation, helped solve this destroyed during odyssey Dawn. U.S. combat assets was best problem by dispatching additional the bombing campaign, however, demonstrated when European tanker aircraft. theofUnited states required a considerably larger deployed a total twenty-five commitment of assets, including tanker aircraft to Unified Protector, strike aircraft ran short of attack aircraft; intelligence, far more than any other member of bombs with which to strike surveillance, and reconnaissance the alliance. France deployed three Qaddafi’s forces. (ISR) aircraft and equipment; and tankers, while Britain, canada, support and logistical capabilities italy, and spain each provided that only the United states possessed two, and turkey contributed one. in full. Many countries were unable or reluctant to take sweden, not a member of nato but participating in on the controversial portion of the mission, and even the operation, deployed one.176 the United states withdrew its combat aircraft from the bombing campaign in early april. Britain and France However, the drawdown of U.s. combat aircraft in pressed the United states to recommit its combat aircraft. libya left the alliance with considerable gaps in its the obama administration, seeking to limit the scope of capabilities that would continuously challenge the U.S. involvement, refused French requests to rejoin the nato mission. Without U.s. warplanes, the alliance’s bombing campaign. U.S. officials argued that Libya was ability to continue the bombing campaign at the pace set a “european problem” because of libya’s history with during odyssey Dawn appeared to be hampered for the and proximity to europe and because Britain and France first several days of Unified Protector. U.S. targeting specialists had to be rushed to the nato air operations had pushed hardest for the intervention.172 center in italy.177 Forty U.s. aircraft, including prized the United states, despite withholding its combat ground attack aircraft like the a-10 thunderbolt and aircraft, continued to play a key role in Operation Unified ac-130 gunship, were placed on reserve in case nato Protector by providing approximately forty aircraft. commanders requested them. No other ally had similar U.s. participation was largely limited to a support role, ground attack capabilities, but “official” requests were providing electronic warfare, aerial refueling, search not forthcoming.
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tHe liByan revolUtion | Part 2- escalation & intervention | antHony Bell & DaviD Witter | sePteMBer 2011

the inability of nato to conduct a prolonged aerial bombing campaign absent U.s. combat assets was best demonstrated when european strike aircraft ran short of bombs with which to strike Qaddafi’s forces. News reports emerged in mid-april that the smaller european allies were running short of precision bombs and that the current operational tempo could not be sustained.178 in early June, U.s. Defense secretary robert Gates, criticized the fact that many allies were beginning to run short of munitions.”179 it is likely that the shortage of these weapons contributed to the French and British governments’ decision to deploy attack helicopters to libya in May. these aircraft carry different weapons than the ones in short supply on NATO warplanes and may have been deployed to fill in for the jet-based attacks limited by the dwindling number of air-to-ground missiles. on May 23, the French newspaper Le Figaro reported that attack helicopters would soon be deployed to libya. later that day, French Defense Minister Longuet confirmed the report and announced Britain would also send helicopters. British military officials claimed no such decision had been made; Longuet’s public announcement apparently came before the move was approved at the UK’s ministerial level. British officials eventually decided in favor of the helicopter deployment and lieutenant General charles Bouchard announced the following day that the helicopters would be under nato command.180 sixteen attack helicopters were deployed to libya, a total of four British helicopters and twelve French helicopters.181 the British helicopters were U.s.-made apaches, based out of Wattisham and part of the army air corps.182 these helicopters were conducting exercises in the Mediterranean sea aboard the HMs Ocean before they were diverted to libya. the French helicopters, consisting of both the older Gazelle and more modern tigre, were aboard the amphibious assault vessel the BcP Tonnerre. the helicopters were initially deployed to Brega on June 4 and in the area around Misrata on June 9 with the stated objective of striking the regime’s ground forces and other targets that are difficult for high-flying jets to identify and engage accurately.183 the stated rationale for the helicopters’ introduction was to strike loyalist ground forces that NATO jets had trouble engaging; the jets flew too high and fast to positively identify more hidden targets and risked killing civilians when targeting regime forces that were increasingly positioned in or around population centers.184 Helicopters fly close to
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the ground and carry weapons with smaller payloads, effectively compensating for the problems facing the jets. there were other examples of apparent escalations where NATO aircraft struggled to affect change on the ground while not overtly deepening their involvement. in late april, nato announced it was intensifying its airstrikes and aggressively targeting the regime’s command and control capability.185 Subsequent strikes against Tripoli, particularly Qaddafi’s Bab al-Aziziya compound, led to criticisms that nato was overstepping its mandate and attempting to assassinate Qaddafi. On April 30, an airstrike on a residence in tripoli reportedly killed saif al-Arab Qaddafi, Qaddafi’s youngest son, and three of the leader’s grandchildren. the libyan government claimed that Qaddafi and his wife were also in the residence at the time of the airstrike, but they escaped unharmed. NATO neither confirmed nor denied Saif al-Arab’s death. the alliance suggested the compound had been under surveillance for several days after it intercepted high-level signals communications that indicated it was a command and control site, but it did not know whether Qaddafi or his family were inside. Between March 31 and august 11, nato struck approximately 384 targets in tripoli, far more than anywhere else in the country, despite the fact that there was no active fighting and no immediate threat to civilians in the capital.186 The intensified airstrikes were just one of several modest escalatory measures nato participants undertook. in mid-april, Britain, France, and italy deployed a handful of military advisers to assist the rebels in organizing their forces. the United states followed that escalation by dispatching two armed Predator drones to libya on april 22, supplementing the already considerable level of U.s. logistical and intelligence air support that underpinned the nato operation. the Predators were initially sent to Misrata to improve targeting while limiting civilian casualties; the drones could hover above the battlefield for hours at a time and would be able to better identify where regime forces and civilians were positioned. several days after the Predators’ introduction, italy announced it would lift its caveat barring its warplanes from conducting airstrikes following intense pressure from France and the United states.187 While these steps were largely taken to smooth political tensions within the alliance and were less indicative of a significant military escalation, they generated fears of “mission creep” among allies who were growing wary of making further commitments in libya.
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though domestic and international political considerations limited the extent of support that nato participants could provide to the rebels, one non-nato member of the coalition took it upon itself to support the opposition in much bolder ways. the small state of Qatar provided overt political, economic, and military assistance to the ntc through the nato mission, as well as more clandestine efforts to strengthen the opposition movement. the small oil-producing state was the first Arab state and second country overall (after France) to officially recognize the NTC, awarding diplomatic recognition on March 28.188 Qatar was also an active participant within the libya contact Group and at the forefront of its creation along with France in late March. Qatar hosted the first meeting of the group in Doha and made the single largest monetary pledge to the NTC, offering $400 to $500 million that the rebels could spend as needed.189 the rationale behind Qatar’s consistent support was partly its close security ties with the United states and France – both nations had been the driving force behind the intervention, albeit at different points. Qatar signed a defense cooperation agreement with France in 1994, and its military is equipped in large part by the French.190 the relationship between Qatar and United states is also built upon bilateral security ties dating back to a similar defense agreement signed in 1992.191 the arab nation hosts several U.s. military facilities, including CENTCOM’s Forward Headquarters and a key airbase used to support U.S. military operations in Iraq and afghanistan.19

in the libyan economy were underwritten by the central government, which in turn received its money from oil production. In addition to being cut off from the regime’s largesse, the rebels were unable to financially sustain themselves as the fighting brought oil production to a halt.196 Qatar even made efforts to alleviate the fuel shortages throughout the east efforts, shipping gasoline, diesel, and propane to Benghazi to supply the rebels.197 Qatari military assistance to the opposition came in the form of official participation in the initial Americanled intervention and the subsequent NATO mission, in addition to more clandestine support. six Qatari Mirage fighter jets (a large portion of the country’s small operational air force) were deployed to participate in the no-fly zone as part of Operation Unified Protector in late March.198
v. cOnclUSIOn

While the international intervention in libya succeeded in preventing the rebels from falling to Qaddafi’s forces in the spring of 2011, it by no means brought about a quick end to the conflict. The conflict continued for months as fighting in Cyrenaica stalemated and the rebel-held enclave of Misrata in western libya faced a weeks-long siege by Qaddafi’s forces. NATO played a pivotal role in preventing Misrata’s fall to the regime as well as strengthening the rebels’ hold over eastern libya. yet, the alliance continued to be plagued by internal divisions that heightened as the conflict dragged on into the late summer and the outcome of the intervention Qatar’s financial support was critical to the rebels. remained uncertain. in early april, the ntc and the state-owned Qatar international Petroleum Marketing company agreed This series continues with Part Three: Stalemate and Siege, which details the latter would ship and market one million barrels of the ebb of fighting in eastern Libya, the extensive efforts to break the siege oil on the opposition’s behalf.193 the oil deal, valued during the pinnacle battle of Misrata. around $100 million dollars, provided key funding to the opposition movement at a point when the international coalition supporting the intervention had not yet formalized mechanisms to provide financial support to the rebels.194 There have been reports throughout the conflict that the ntc struggled to pay government and military salaries and cover the costs of the conflict, and in turn pressed the international coalition for money and access to Qaddafi’s frozen financial assets.195 the economic crisis was not surprising; an overwhelming percentage of jobs
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notes
The United States did not have any military sales to Libya. “Kadhafi Loyalists Threaten to Snuff Out Protests,” Agence France Presse, February 18, 2011. 2 Henry chu, “Britain, italy criticized for libya business deals,” The Los Angeles Times, February 22, 2011. 3 Mary Beth sheridan and scott Wilson, “administration lacks leverage it Has elsewhere in region,” Washington Post, February 22, 2011. 4 Julian e. Barnes, “Military ties are Key,” Wall Street Journal, February 7, 2011. “the ties that bind,” The Economist, February 24, 2011. David e. sanger, “obama Presses egypt’s Military on Democracy,” The New York Times, February 11, 2011. scott shane and David D. Kirkpatrick, “Military caught between Mubarak and Protesters,” The New York Times, February 10, 2011. elisabeth Bumiller, “egypt stability Hinges on a Divided Military,” The New York Times, February 5, 2011. elisabeth Bumiller, “Pentagon Places its Bet on a General in egypt,” The New York Times, March 10, 2011. 5 Mary Beth sheridan and scott Wilson, “administration lacks leverage it Has elsewhere in region,” Washington Post, February 22, 2011. 6 “obama and cameron mull libya measures,” agence France Presse, February 24, 2011. 7 Henry chu, “Britain, italy condemned for libya ties,” The Los Angeles Times, February 21, 2011. 8 Blair had traveled to Libya to meet with Qaddafi in March 2004, in what became known as “the deal in the desert.” Just months before, in December 2003, Qaddafi had agreed to disband his WMD programs and admit responsibility for the lockerbie Bombing, and to participate in the War on terror following a diplomatic opening by United states that ended its sanctions regime. Blair’s trip solidified Qaddafi’s reconciliation with the West, and Blair left libya with billions of dollars in oil and other contracts for British firms. 9 “Policy was therefore progressively developed that HMG should do all it could, whilst respecting devolved competences, to facilitate an appeal by the libyans to the scottish Government for Mr Megrahi’s transfer under the Pta or release on compassionate grounds as the best outcome for managing the risks faced by the UK.” Pg 15. sir Gus o’Donnell, cabinet secretary’s review of Papers relating to the Release of Abdel Baset Al-Megrahi. Cabinet Office Report, February 7, 2011. available at: http://www.cabinetoffice.gov.uk/ sites/default/files/resources/20110207-megrahi-review-report.pdf see also: “U.s. senate, Justice Undone: the release of the lockerbie Bomber,” By senator robert Menendez, senator Frank r. lautenberg, senator charles schumer, and senator Kirsten e. Gillibrand, December 2010. “the Darkest Deal,” The Economist, February 10, 2011. simon Hoggart, “Gus o’Donnell pleases all parties on lockerbie bomber,” The Guardian, February 8, 2011. 10 John vinocur, “libyan War not a sure thing to save sarkozy,” The New York Times, april 11, 2011. steven erlanger, “sarkozy Puts France at Vanguard of West’s War Effort,” The New York Times, March 20, 2011.
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Mark landler, “in libya, an odd-couple alliance,” The New York Times, april 9, 2011. 11 steven erlanger, “sarkozy says He ‘Underestimated’ crisis in excolony, tunisia,” The New York Times, January 24, 2011. 12 Jamey Keaten, “sarkozy shakes up French cabinet to boost ratings,” the associated Press, February 27, 2011. steven erlanger, “French Foreign Minister Urged to resign,” The New York Times, February 3, 2011. 13 “sarkozy says France ‘underestimated’ tunisian anger,” BBc news, January 24, 2011. scott sayare, “France: Diplomats take sarkozy to task,” The New York Times, February 22, 2011. Angelique Chrisafis, “sarkozy admits France made mistakes over tunisia,” The Guardian, January 24, 2011. 14 Henry chu, “Britain, italy criticized for libya business deals,” The Los Angeles Times, February 22, 2011. 15 “President obama speaks on the turmoil in libya: “this violence Must stop”,” the White House Blog, February 23, 2011. 16 Helene cooper and Mark landler, “U.s. announces sanctions in Bid to Deter libya,” The New York Times, February 26, 2011. 17 Blanchard, christopher M. Libya: Unrest and U.S. Policy (rl33142, March 29, 2011), congressional research service, 7. “letter from the President Regarding Libya Sanctions,” Office of the Press secretary, February 25, 2011. Helene cooper and Mark landler, “Following U.s. sanctions, U.n. security council to Meet on libya,” The New York Times, February 27, 2011. 18 Karen Deyoung and colum lynch, “obama ratchets Up the Pressure on Gaddafi,” The Washington Post, February 26, 2011. 19 Alaa Shahine, Zainab Fattah and Benjamin Harvey, “Gaddafi rallies supporters in libya as sarkozy calls for ouster,” Washington Post, February 25, 2011. 20 suzan Fraser, “turkey’s PM speaks out,” associated Press, February 26, 2011. alaa shahine, Zainab Fattah and Benjamin Harvey, “Gaddafi rallies supporters in Libya as Sarkozy calls for ouster,” Washington Post, February 25, 2011. 21 Alaa Shahine, Zainab Fattah and Benjamin Harvey, “Gaddafi rallies supporters in libya as sarkozy calls for ouster,” Washington Post, February 25, 2011. 22 Helene cooper and Mark landler, “U.s. announces sanctions in Bid to Deter libya,” The New York Times, February 26, 2011. 23 Colum Lynch, “U.N. votes to impose sanction on Gaddafi,” Washington Post, February 26, 2011. 24 Jay Solomon and Charles Levinson, “West to Isolate Gadhafi as Bloodshed spreads,” Wall Street Journal, February 26, 2011. “Un to meet on further options against libya,” associated Press, February 24, 2011. colum lynch, “U.n. votes to impose sanction on Gaddafi,” Washington Post, February 26, 2011. 25 in swift, Decisive action, security council imposes tough Measures on libyan regime, adopting resolution 1970 in Wake of crackdown on Protesters,” security council 6491st Meeting, February 26, 2011.
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Paul taylor, “special report: the West’s unwanted war in libya,” reuters, april 1, 2011. 27 Peggy Hollinger, “sarkozy asks Juppé to salvage foreign policy,” Financial times, February 28, 2011. 28 according to the Wall Street Journal account, “a few days after the violence spiked on Feb 17, Mr. obama had asked adm. Mike Mullen, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to craft military options for libya. the president sought detailed pros and cons for each option, including cost estimates.” adam entous, Jay solomon, and alistair MacDonald, “europe Pressure, arab support Helped turn U.s.,” Wall Street Journal, March 19, 2011. additionally, an unnamed Pentagon official said in a Washington Post story on March 1, 2011 that military planning for some scenarios has begun “last week,” supporting this timeframe. Karen Deyoung and Joby Warrick, “U.s., allies step Up Pressure on libya,” Washington Post, March 1, 2011. 29 Joby Warrick, “Clinton Preps to Put More Pressure on Gaddafi,” The Washington Post, February 28, 2011. 30 “remarks at the Human rights council,” U.s. Department of state, February 28, 2011. 31 senator resolution 85 was sponsored by senator Bob Menendez (D-new Jersey), senator Mark Kirk (r-illinois), senator Frank lautenberg (D-new Jersey), senator Dick Durbin (D-illinois), senator Kirsten Gillibrand (D-new york), senator Bernie sanders (i-vermont), senator sheldon Whitehouse (D-rhode island), senator chuck schumer (D-new york), senator Bob casey (D-Pennsylvania), senator ron Wyden (D-oregon) and senator Ben cardin (D-Maryland). For full text see: http://thomas.loc. gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c112:S.RES.85. Blanchard, christopher M. Libya: Unrest and U.S. Policy (rl33142, March 29, 2011), congressional research service, 12. 32 “statement by senators Mccain and lieberman condemning the violence in libya,” U.s. senator John Mccain, February 22, 2011. ross colvin and arshad Mohammed, “obama under pressure to intervene in libya,” reuters, February 22, 2011. 33 Paul richter, “lawmakers Push no-Fly Zone as obama Hesitates,” The Los Angeles Times, March 4, 2011. 34 scott Wilson, “threat to americans Guided restrained libya response,” Washington Post, February 27, 2011. 35 sheryl Gay stolberg, “still crusading, but now on the inside” The New York Times, March 29, 2011. Helene cooper and steven lee Myers, “obama takes Hard line With libya after shift by clinton,” The New York Times, March 18, 2011. 36 Helene cooper and steven lee Myers, “obama takes Hard line With libya after shift by clinton,” The New York Times, March 18, 2011. 37 Karen Deyoung and Joby Warrick, “U.s., allies step Up Pressure on libya,” Washington Post, March 1, 2011. 38 “DOD News Briefing with Secretary Gates and Adm. Mullen from the Pentagon,” U.s. Department of Defense, March 1, 2011. 39 Paul richter, “U.s. not sold on no-Fly Zone,” Los Angeles Times, March 8, 2011.
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David Jackson, “NATO envoy: No fly-zone won’t help much in libya,” USA Today, March 8, 2011. 41 Helene cooper and steven lee Myers, “obama takes Hard line With libya after shift by clinton” The New York Times, March 18, 2011. Eric Schmitt, “American Official Warns That Qaddafi May lash out With new terrorist attacks,” The New York Times, March 18, 2011. 42 Scott Malone, “Libya no-fly zone would take only days-US general,” reuters, March 10, 2011. 43 this particular view was given by senator John Kerry. see leila Fadel and Steve Hendrix, “More Airstrikes In Eastern Libya; Gaddafi To Face International Probe,” Washington Post, March 3, 2011. 44 John M. Broder, “U.s. and allies consider libya no-Fly Zone,” The New York Times, February 28, 2011. 45 thom skanker, “U.s. Weighs options, By air and sea,” The New York Times, March 7, 2011. Joby Warrick and scott Wilson, “Hill Urges stronger U.s. response,” Washington Post, March 7, 2011. 46 adam entous, Jay solomon, and alistair MacDonald, “europe Pressure, arab support Helped turn U.s.,” Wall Street Journal, March 19, 2011. 47 Prime Minister David cameron, “Prime Minister’s statement on libya,” number 10, February 28, 2011. 48 Howard LaFranchi, “US says Qaddafi must go, as action against Libya quickens,” The Christian Science Monitor, February 28, 2011. Bradley Klapper and Matthew lee, “clinton: Us sending aid teams to libya’s borders,” associated Press, February 28, 2011. 49 David stringer, “UK: Misunderstanding stymied sas mission to libya,” associated Press, March 7, 2011. 50 ariel Zirulnick, “Britain’s sas in libya: What happened there?” Christian Science Monitor, March 7, 2011. 51 sarah lyall, “london Gives explanation of Botched libyan venture,” The New York Times, March 8, 2011. 52 Bradley Klapper and Matthew lee, “clinton: Us sending aid teams to libya’s borders,” associated Press, February 28, 2011. 53 nathania Zevi and stacy Meichtry, “italy suspends ‘Friendship’ treaty With libya,” Wall Street Journal, February 26, 2011. 54 Matthew Lee, “NATO boosts Libya surveillance flights to 24/7,” associated Press, March 7, 2011. 55 slobodan lekic “nato to ponder sending ships, aircraft near libya,” associated Press, February 25, 2011. see “operation active endeavor,” north atlantic treaty organization, February 22, 2011. crs libya Unrest and Us Policy 20. Blanchard, christopher M. Libya: Unrest and U.S. Policy (rl33142, March 29, 2011), congressional research service, 20. 56 according to the Wall Street Journal account, “a few days after the violence spiked on Feb 17, Mr. obama had asked adm. Mike Mullen, the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to craft military options for libya. the president sought detailed pros and cons for each option, including cost estimates.” adam entous, Jay solomon, and alistair MacDonald, “europe Pressure, arab support Helped turn
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U.s.,” Wall Street Journal, March 19, 2011. additionally, an unnamed Pentagon official said in a Washington Post story on March 1, 2011 that military planning for some scenarios has begun “last week,” supporting this timeframe. Karen Deyoung and Joby Warrick, “U.s., allies step Up Pressure on libya,” Washington Post, March 1, 2011. 57 Mark landler and thom shanker, “Warships Move in as U.s. Readies a Range of Options for Qaddafi’s Ouster,” The New York Times, Date. the Kearsarge and the Ponce were part of the Kearsarge amphibious ready Group that also included the Uss Carter Hall, which did not join the group from the 5th Fleet aor until late april 2011. Kristin l. Grover, “Uss carter Hall arrives in 6th Fleet area of responsibility,” Kearsage amphibious ready Group Public Affairs. “USA: Kearsage, Bataan ARG Complete Turnover,” naval today, april 29, 2011. 58 “DOD News Briefing with Secretary Gates and Adm. Mullen from the Pentagon,” U.s. Department of Defense, March 1, 2011. 59 “Uss enterprise carrier strike Group arrives in norfolk,” naval today, July 18, 2011. yochi J. Dreazen, “U.s. orders Warships to Mediterranean,” National Journal, March 1, 2011. 60 Karen Deyoung and Joby Warrick, “U.s., europe tighten noose around libya’s government,” Washington Post, March 1, 2011. thom shanker, “U.s. Weighs options, by air and sea,” The New York Times, March 7, 2011. 61 “French navy sending Helicopter carrier to libya,” agence France Presse, March 2, 2011. 62 John M. Broder “U.s. and allies consider libya no-Fly Zone,” The New York Times, February 28, 2011. “nato: no intent to intervene in libya but making plans,” agence France Presse, March 3, 2011. nathania Zevi and stacy Meichtry, “italy suspends ‘Friendship’ treaty With libya,” Wall Street Journal, February 26, 2011. 63 Brad Knickerbocker, “Pressure Mounts For no-Fly Zone in libya,” The Christian Science Monitor, March 6, 2011. Joseph Berger, “U.s. senators call for no-Flight Zone over libya,” The New York Times, March 7, 2011. 64 “President obama Holds a news conference with Mexican President Felipe calderon,” Political transcript Wire, March 3, 2011 65 Karen Deyoung, “obama open to Military role in libya if crisis Worsens,” Washington Post, March 4, 2011. “remarks by President obama and President calderón of Mexico at Joint Press Conference,” Office of the Press Secretary, March 3, 2011. 66 scott Wilson and edward cody, “obama joins e.U.in cautious support for libyan rebels,” Washington Post, March 12, 2011. 67 thom shanker, “Gates ratchets Up His campaign of candor,” The New York Times, March 5, 2011. 68 Karen Deyoung and craig Whitlock, “U.s. Defense leaders Warn of risks in enforcing no-Fly Zone,” Washington Post, March 2, 2011. 69 David e. sanger and thom shanker, “Gates Warns of the risks of imposing a no-Flight Zone over libya,” The New York Times, March 3, 2011.
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Leila Fadel and Steve Hendrix, “More Airstrikes In Eastern Libya; Gaddafi To Face International Probe,” Washington Post, March 3, 2011. Bradley Klapper, “Gates: Air cover over Libya would require attack,” associated Press, March 2, 2011. 71 “DOD News Briefing with Secretary Gates and Adm. Mullen from the Pentagon,” U.s. Department of Defense, March 1, 2011. 72 “Hearing to receive testimony on U.s. special operations command and U.s. central command in review of the Defense Authorization Request for Fiscal Year 2012 and the Future Years Defense Program,” U.s. senate committee on armed services, March 1, 2011. Karen Deyoung, “obama open to Military role in libya if crisis Worsens,” Washington Post, March 4, 2011. 73 “sarkozy threatens libya air strikes: source,” agence France Presse, March 10, 2011. 74 “libya: France recognizes rebels as government,” BBc news, March 10, 2011. “sarkozy threatens libya air strikes: source,” agence France Presse, March 10, 2011. 75 “sarkozy threatens libya air strikes: source,” agence France Presse, March 10, 2011. 76 “France, Britain seek targeted strikes in libya if needed,” agence France Presse, March 11, 2011. 77 Patrick Goodenough, “United nations, nato Divided over libya ‘no-Fly Zone’ Proposal,” cBs news, March 10, 2011. 78 scott Wilson and edward cody, “obama joins e.U.in cautious support for libyan rebels,” Washington Post, March 12, 2011. 79 Ian Saleh, “James R. Clapper says Gaddafi likely to win as France recognizes libyan opposition,” Washington Post, March 10, 2011. 80 Director of national intelligence James r. clapper, Jr. “Hearing to receive testimony on the current and Future Worldwide threats to the national security of the United states,” testimony, March 10, 2011, before the U.s. senate committee on armed services. available at:http://armed-services.senate.gov/transcripts/2011/03%20 March/11-11%20-%203-10-11.pdf 81 Director of national intelligence James r. clapper, Jr. “Hearing to receive testimony on the current and Future Worldwide threats to the national security of the United states,” testimony, March 10, 2011, before the U.s. senate committee on armed services. available at:http://armed-services.senate.gov/transcripts/2011/03%20 March/11-11%20-%203-10-11.pdf 82 Greg Miller, “Intelligence director’s testimony about Gaddafi causes controversy,” Washington Post, March 11, 2011. Ken Dilanian and Peter Nicholas, “U.S. officials are at odds over Libya outcome,” The Los Angeles Times, March 20, 2011. 83 Mullen testimony 10 - 1 84 Wissan Keyrouz, “Gulf states back Libya no-fly zone,” Agence France Press, March 7, 2011. 85 “the arab league holds a meeting to discuss libya,” ecPulse, March 8, 2011. 86 ethan Bronner and David e. sanger, “arab league endorses noFlight Zone over libya,” The New York Times, March 12, 2011.
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lebanon was a key supporter of Unscr 1973 in the security council, while Jordan and Morocco have been supportive of nato involvement and sent humanitarian aid to the ntc. Further, Kuwait thanked Morocco for its support of the ntc. 88 libya was suspended from the arab league on February 22, 2011. a libyan delegation did attempt to attend the arab league meeting on March 12 but was denied. according to the congressional research service, algeria informed crs that it did not oppose the arab league’s decision contrary to press accounts, and may have been an abstention. Blanchard, christopher M. Libya: Unrest and U.S. Policy (rl33142, March 29, 2011), congressional research service, 14. 89 ethan Bronner and Michael slackman, “saudi troops enter Bahrain to Help Put Down Unrest,” The New York Times, March 14, 2011. ethan Bronner and Michael slackman, “saudis, Fearful of iran, send troops to Bahrain to Quell Protests,” The New York Times, March 15, 2011. Helene cooper and Mark landler, “interests of saudi arabia and iran collide, With the U.s. in the Middle,” The New York Times, March 17, 2011. David e. sanger and eric schmitt, “U.s.-saudi tensions intensify With Mideast turmoil,” The New York Times, March 14, 2011. Michael slackman, “the Proxy Battle in Bahrain,” The New York Times, March 19, 2011. 90 “sectary clinton: interview with Wyatt andrews of cBs,” released by the U.s. Department of state, state news service, March 16, 2011. 91 John irish and tim Hepher, “France fails to get G8 accord on Libya no-fly zone,” Reuters, March 15, 2011. 92 “G8 Paris gathering to tackle libya: diplomats,” agence France Presse, March 11, 2011. 93 nicole Gaouette and Julianna Goldman, “international support Precedes obama’s shift on attacking libya,” Bloomberg, March 21, 2011. Helene cooper and steven lee Myers, “obama takes Hard line With libya after shift by clinton,” The New York Times, March 18, 2011. Elise Labott, “Clinton, Rice joined to get buy-in for no-fly zone,” cnn, March 19, 2011. 94 Yaroslav Trofimov, Joe Lauria, and Jay Solomon, “Gadhafi Closes in, as allies Huddle,” Wall Street Journal, March 15, 2011. 95 steven erlanger, “G-8 Ministers Fail to agree on libya no-Flight Zone,” The New York Times, March 16, 2011. 96 nicole Gaouette and Julianna Goldman, “international support Precedes obama’s shift on attacking libya,” Bloomberg, March 21, 2011. clinton and rice participated by video-phone, clinton was in Paris and rice was in new york. Helene cooper and steven lee Myers, “obama takes hard line With libya after shift by clinton,” The New York Times, March 18, 2011. 97 Ryan Lizza, “The Conquentialist: How the Arab Spring remade obama’s foreign policy,” The New Yorker, May 2, 2011. White House schedule, March 15, 2011. 98 nicole Gaouette and Julianna Goldman, “international support Precedes obama’s shift on attacking libya,” Bloomberg, March 21, 2011.
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Marc ambinder, “obama’s First new War,” The National Journal, March 19, 2011. 100 Ryan Lizza, “The Conquentialist: How the Arab Spring remade obama’s foreign policy,” The New Yorker, May 2, 2011. 101 Marc ambinder, “obama’s First new War,” The National Journal, March 19, 2011. 102 A March 30, 2011 Reuters report cites U.S. officials familiar with the finding indicating that it was signed within the last two or three weeks, establishing it was probably signed sometime shortly before military operations began on March 19, 2011. Mark Hosenball, “exclusive: obama authorizes secret help for libya rebels,” reuters, March 30, 2011. 103 Mark Hosenball, “U.s. agents were in libya before secret obama order,” reuters, March 31, 2011. Mark Mazzetti and eric schmitt, “c.i.a. agents in libya aid airstrikes and Meet rebels,” The New York Times, March 30, 2011. Karen Deyoung, Greg Miller and tara Bahrampour, “cia operatives in libya to gather intelligence on rebel fighters,” Washington Post, March 30, 2011. 104 “War Planes from the West Take on Gadhafi,” Spiegel Online international, March 19, 2011. Mark Mazzetti and eric schmitt, “c.i.a. agents in libya aid airstrikes and Meet rebels,” The New York Times, March 30, 2011. 105 Chris Stephen, “Libya conflict: British and French soldiers help rebels prepare sirte attack,” The Guardian, august 25, 2011. “French special Forces carry out strike in libya – paper,” ria novosti, april 7, 2011. 106 “Rebels deny Gaddafi troops on Benghazi outskirts,” Reuters, March 17, 2011. 107 Ryan Lizza, “The Conquentialist: How the Arab Spring remade obama’s foreign policy,” The New Yorker, May 2, 2011. Gregory l. White, “Medvedev, Putin clash over libya,” Wall Street Journal, March 22, 2011. Clifford J. Levy and Thom Shanker, “In Rare Split, Two Leaders in Russia Differ on Libya,” The New York Times, March 21, 2011. 108 Ryan Lizza, “The Conquentialist: How the Arab Spring remade obama’s foreign policy,” The New Yorker, May 2, 2011. 109 Helene cooper and steven lee Myers, “obama takes hard line With libya after shift by clinton,” The New York Times, March 18, 2011. 110 “security council approves ‘no-Fly Zone’ over libya, authorizing ‘all necessary Measures’ to Protect civilians, By vote of 10 in Favor with 5 abstentions,” security council 6498th Meeting, March 17, 2011. 111 “security council approves ‘no-Fly Zone’ over libya, authorizing ‘all necessary Measures’ to Protect civilians, By vote of 10 in Favor with 5 abstentions,” security council 6498th Meeting, March 17, 2011. 112 Dan Bilefsky and Mark landler, “as U.n. Backs Military action in libya, U.s. role is Unclear,” The New York Times, March 17, 2011. 113 Judy Dempsey, “regional election Gives Merkel’s Party some Hope,” The New York Times, March 20, 2011. Judy Dempsey, “libya
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and Japan crises Undermine Merkel’s credibility,” The New York Times, March 25, 2011. Gerrit Wiesmann, “Merkel narrowly passes state poll test,” Financial Times, March 20, 2011. “libya crisis leaves Berlin isolated,” Der Spiegel, March 28, 2011. 114 Dan Bilefsky and Mark landler, “as U.n. Backs Military action in libya, U.s. role is Unclear,” The New York Times, March 17, 2011. 115 Helene cooper and steven lee Myers, “obama takes hard line With libya after shift by clinton,” The New York Times, March 18, 2011. 116 Jamey Keaten, “World leaders launch military action in libya,” associated Press, March 19, 2011. 117 Felicia sonmez, “obama consults with congressional leaders on libya,” Washington Post, March 18, 2011. 118 Remarks by the President on the Situation in Libya,” Office of the Press secretary, March 18, 2011. 119 elisabeth Bumiller and David D. Kirkpatrick, “obama threatens Military Action Against Qaddafi,” The New York Times, March 19, 2011. 120 angela charlton, “World intervenes in libya, with unusual speed,” associated Press, March 20, 2011. 121 Hadeel Al-Shalchi and Ryan Lucas, “Libya cease-fire aims to outflank no-fly zone,” Associated Press, March 19, 2011. 122 steven erlanger, “France and Britain lead Military Push on libya,” The New York Times, March 19, 2011. 123 important to note that the african Union, which has been seen as pro-Qaddafi, was not invited to the Summit. Iraq’s participation is unclear, Iraqi Foreign Minister Hoshyar Zebari was apparently there in his capacity as current arab league head. “start of Paris summit on libya action,” agence France Presse, March 19, 2011. “statements from Paris summit on libya,” reuters, March 19, 2011. 124 French operation name is “operation Harmattan” 125 “Paris summit for the support to the libyan People: Communiqué,” March 19, 2011. Available at: http://www.elysee. fr/president/root/bank_objects/11-03-1-Paris_summit_for_the_ support_to_the_libyan_people.pdf 126 “libye: point de situation opération Harmattan n1,” Ministère de la Défense et des anciens combattants, March 25, 2011. “opération Harmattan, le nom de code militaire pour la libye,” Marianne 2, March 19, 2011. “libya: point de situation opération Harmattan n2,” Ministère de la Défense et des anciens combattants, March 25, 2011. 127 the French warplanes were support by an e-3F aWacs and six c-135 tankers. 128 David D. Kirkpatrick, steven erlanger, and elisabeth Bumiller, “Allies Open Air Assault on Qaddafi’s Forces in Libya,” The New York Times, March 19, 2011. 129 “DOD News Briefing with Vice Adm. Gortney from the Pentagon on libya operation odyssey Dawn,” U.s. Department of Defense, March 19, 2011. 130 these warships were the Uss Barry and the Uss Stout, and three
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nuclear attack submarines, the Uss Florida, the Uss Scranton, and the Uss Providence, along with the British submarine the HMs Triumph. see: “overview of 1st Day of U.s. operations to enforce Un resolution 1973 over libya,” U.s. aFricoM, March 20, 2011. 131 “DOD News Briefing with Vice Adm. Gortney from the Pentagon on libya operation odyssey Dawn,” U.s. Department of Defense, March 19, 2011. 132 claire taylor, House of commons, report on Military operations in libya, 5. available at: http://www.parliament.uk/briefingpapers/sn05909 133 General carter Ham, “statement: aFricoM commander on commencement of Military strikes in libya,” U.s. aFricoM, March 19, 2011. 134 eric schmitt, “U.s. africa command seen taking Key role,” The New York Times, March 21, 2011. christopher M. Blanchard, “libya: Unrest and U.s. Policy,” congressional research service, april 25, 2011. 135 Peter s. Green, “Woodward First Woman to command U.s. air attack in libya ‘no-Fly Mission,” Bloomberg, March 29, 2011. “U.s. air Force aircraft strike libya,” U.s. air Force, March 20, 2011. 136 Ham teleconference March 21, 2011 137 United States Department of Defense, Briefing Slides for operation odyssey Dawn, March 20, 2011. available at: http:// www.defense.gov/news/DJs_Presser.pdf 138 John a. tirpak, “Bombers over libya,” Airforce-Magazine, July 2011. angus Batey, “B-2s, libya, and the economics of Deterrence,” available at: http://www.angusbatey.com/index. html?id=645&category=blog 139 “With libyan air Defense neutralized, coalition air Forces target libyan Ground Forces,” DefenseUpdate, March 22, 2011. 140 the two B-1Bs were from the 28th Bomb Wing from ellsworth AFB, S.D., their strikes mark the first time B-1B’s have conducted a strike mission flying from the continental United States. 141 John a. tirpak, “Bombers over libya,” Airforce-Magazine, July 2011. 142 “DOD Briefing with Admiral Locklear,” March 22, 2011. 143 according to Major Jason smith, crisis planner for the 608th air and Space Operations Center, “…three B-2s required four aerial refuelings each. the number of refueling aircraft ‘depends on whether they used Kc-135rs or Kc-10s, so it’s in the neighborhood of 15 to 20 tankers’ needed for the B-2 mission.” see: John a. tirpak, “Bombers over libya,” Airforce-Magazine, July 2011. 144 “DOD News Briefing with Rear Adm. Hueber via Telephone from Uss Mount Whitney,” U.s. Department of Defense, March 23, 2011. 145 the attacks were supported by a U.s. ea-18G Growler, which had been re-tasked from duties over Iraq, provided electronic warfare support. Jim Garamone, “roughead: ships Were ready for odyssey Dawn,” U.s. africa command, March 24, 2011. “DoD News Briefing with Vice Adm. Gortney from the Pentagon on
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libya operation odyssey Dawn,” U.s. Department of Defense, March 20, 2011. captain richard K. Ulsh, “26th MeU planes strike libya,” March 20, 2011. Missy ryan and David alexander, “Factbox: Western military assault on Libya’s Gaddafi,” Reuters, March 21, 2011. 146 Mohammed Abbas, “Remains of Gaddafi’s force smolders near Benghazi.” reuters, March 20, 2011. 147 “DOD News Briefing with Rear Adm. Hueber via Telephone from Uss Mount Whitney,” U.s. Department of Defense, March 23, 2011. 148 Adam Goldman, “Sources: CIA officers aided in pilot rescue,” the associated Press, March 30, 2011. anna Mulrine, “How an Mv-22 osprey rescued a downed Us pilot in libya,” The Christian Science Monitor, March 22, 2011. 149 David G. savage, “obama says libya mission averted ‘blood bath’,” The Los Angeles Times, March 26, 2011. 150 William Branigin, scott Wilson, and tara Bahrampour, “nato moves toward command of Libya operations; French jets hit plane, air base,” Washington Post, March 24, 2011. 151 Helene cooper and steven lee Myers, “obama takes Hard line With libya after shift by clinton,” The New York Times, March 18, 2011. Josh Gerstein, “Barack obama: We know what we’re doing,” Politico, March 21, 2011. 152 “news conference on nato-led operations in support of the United nation security resolution (Unscr) 1970 and 1973,” nato, March 26, 2011. 153 elisabeth Bumiller and David D. Kirkpatrick, “allies Pressure Qaddafi Forces Around Rebel Cities,” The New York Times, March 23, 2011. 154 Don Melvin, “Divisions strain nato push for libyan airstrikes,” associated Press, March 21, 2011. 155 steven erlanger, “confusion over Who leads libya strikes, and for How long,” The New York Times, March 22, 2011. 156 sam Dagher, stephen Fidler, and nathan Hodge, “allies target Gadhafi’s Ground Forces,” Wall Street Journal, March 24, 2011. “nato allies eye compromise on libya command,” agence France Presse, March 23, 2011. 157 scott Wilson and Karen Deyoung, “coalition nears agreement on transition for operations in libya,” Washington Post, March 23, 2011. 158 nick Hopkins, nicholas Watt, and ian traynor, “Discord at the heart of Nato over who commands no-fly campaign in Libya: UK reluctant to take on leading role with France: Us determined to end its control of air campaign,” The Guardian, March 23, 2011. 159 steven erlanger, “confusion over Who leads libya strikes, and for How long,” The New York Times, March 22, 2011. 160 suzan Fraser, “nato to command libya operation,” associated Press, March 24, 2011. 161 Paul richter, David s. cloud, and lisa Mascaro, “nato to take over enforcing of Libyan no-fly zone,” The Los Angeles Times, March 25, 2011. 162 Jim Garamone, “nato assumes command of libya operations,”
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american Forces Press service, March 31, 2011. 163 scott Wilson, “obama: U.s. had responsibility to act in libya,” Washington Post, March 28, 2011. “remarks by the President in Address to the Nation on Libya,” Office of the Press Secretary, March 28, 2011. 164 “Hearing to receive testimony on operation odyssey Dawn and the situation in libya,” U.s. senate committee on armed services, March 31, 2011. available at: http://armed-services.senate.gov/ transcripts/2011/03%20March/11-21%20-%203-31-11.pdf 165 David s. cloud, “Pentagon to withdraw ground-attack aircraft, leaving allies to handle bulk of libya sorties,” The Los Angeles Times, april 1, 2011. 166 richard lardner, “U.s. extends libya airstrike role by 48 hours,” associated Press, april 3, 2011. 167 ned Parker and Borzou Daragahi, “rebel leader in libya demands more of nato,” The Los Angeles Times, april 5, 2011. 168 “U.s. tomahawk strikes in libya to end,” cBs news, april 2, 2011. 169 John vandiver, “How limited is the U.s. mission in libya?” Free Republic, July 1, 2011. DOD Briefing with Vice Admiral Gortney, March 24, 2011. 170 Joseph e. Macmanus and elizabeth l. King, “United states activities in libya,” June 15, 2011, 11. available at: http://www. nytimes.com/interactive/2011/06/16/us/politics/20110616_ PoWers_Doc.html 171 steven erlanger and Judy Dempsey, “Germany steps away From european Unity,” The New York Times, March 23, 2011. 172 steven lee Myers and eric schmitt, “Pace of attacks in libya Conflict Is Dividing NATO,” The New York Times, april 12, 2011. 173 charlie savage and thom shanker, “scores of U.s. strikes in Libya Followed Handoff to NATO,” The New York Times, June 20, 2011. 174 Joseph e. Macmanus and elizabeth l. King, “United states activities in libya,” June 15, 2011, 10. available at: http://www. nytimes.com/interactive/2011/06/16/us/politics/20110616_ PoWers_Doc.html 175 Joseph e. Macmanus and elizabeth l. King, “United states activities in libya,” June 15, 2011, 13. available at: http://www. nytimes.com/interactive/2011/06/16/us/politics/20110616_ PoWers_Doc.html 176 laurent thomet, “nato’s airborne fuel stations keep libya air raids rolling,” agence France Presse, July 12, 2011. 177 “transcript of Defense secretary Gates’s speech on nato’s Future.” Wall Street Journal, June 10, 2011. 178 “France Using ‘training Bombs’ in libya: Military.” agence France Presse, April 28, 2011. Deyoung, Karen and Greg Jaffe. “nato runs short on some munitions in libya.” The Washington Post, april 15, 2011. 179 “transcript of Defense secretary Gates’s speech on nato’s Future.” Wall Street Journal, June 10, 2011.
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Operation Unified Protector Press Briefing by LT GEN Charles Bouchard. May 27, 2011. “Helicopters to fly in Libya as soon as ready: nato.” reuters, May 27, 2011. “libya apache deployment approved by David cameron.” BBc news, May 27, 2011. 181 Le Figaro initially reported that there were 12 helicopters deployed to libya on the Tonnerre, a number reportedly confirmed by French Foreign Minister Alaine Juppe in a BBC article. However, a question to lt Gen Bourchard in during a nato press conference asked about the “four” French helicopters being deployed. Bouchard did not confirm this number. Additionally, French Defense Minister Longuet indicated that the older Gazelle’s would fly the majority of missions in libya. lasserre, isabelle. “la France engage des hélicoptères en libye.” le Figaro, May 23, 2011. Operation Unified Protector Press Briefing by lt Gen charles Bouchard. May 27, 2011. “libya apache deployment approved by David cameron.” BBc news, May 27, 2011. 182 “libya apache deployment approved by David cameron.” BBc news, May 27, 2011. 183 On June 4, British Apaches fired hellfire missiles at a communications facility and military checkpoints near Brega, destroying both. on June 9, apaches hit two checkpoints, a communications installation, and multiple rocket launchers in Misrata. it is unclear whether the helicopters hit the vehicles that were also destroyed in those locations on the respective days. “NATO attack helicopters increase pressure on Qadhafi regime.” NATO Unified Protector, June 4, 2011. Daunting task for NATO in libya as strikes intensify.” The New York Times, May 24, 2011. Operation Unified Protector Press Briefing by LT GEN Charles Bouchard. May 27, 2011. operational Media Update for 04 June. Operation Unified Protector, NATO. June 5, 2011. Operational Media Update for 09 June. Operation Unified Protector, NATO. June 10, 2011. 184 Operation Unified Protector Press Briefing by LT GEN Charles Bouchard. May 27, 2011. Daunting task for nato in libya as strikes intensify.” The New York Times, May 24, 2011. 185 Kareem Fahi and Mark Mazzerri, “allies Defending actions in libya after airstrike,” The New York Times, May 1, 2011. 186 simon rogers, “nato operations in libya: data journalism breaks down which country does what,” The Guardian, May 22, 2011. 187 “Libya accuses NATO of trying to assassinate Gaddafi in Tripoli strike,” Washington Post, april 25, 2011. 188 “Libya: Air strikes hit Gaddafi’s hometown of Sirte.” BBC News, 28 March 2011. cooker, Margaret. “Qatar recognizes libyan rebel council.” Wall Street Journal, March 28, 2011. 189 Mackenzie, James and Lin Noueihed. “Anti-Gaddafi allies offer rebels cash lifeline.” reuters, May 5, 2011. 190 Dazi-Héni, Fatiha. “the strengthening of France defense policy in the Persian Gulf: What strategic impacts?” capmena, March 2010. 191 Blanchard, christopher. “Qatar: Background and U.s. relations.” congressional research service, May 16, 2011.
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Blanchard, christopher. “Qatar: Background and U.s. relations.” congressional research service, May 16, 2011. 193 “Qatar confirms helping Libyan rebels sell oil.” Associated Press, april 12, 2011. “libyan rebels promise oil exports, but Western traders still leery of lining up.” Washington Post, March 28, 2011. 194 “libya rebel oil cargo china bound: sources.” reuters, april 7, 2011. “Qatar confirms helping Libyan rebels sell oil.” Associated Press, April 12, 2011. “Libya’s rebel government asks for $3 billion in international loans.” Washington Post, May 3, 2011. 195 “Clinton says ‘Gaddafi’s days are numbered.’” Al Jazeera, June 9, 2011. 196 this is likely to refer in large part to ongoing combat at Brega, home to the second largest oil and natural gas refinery in Libya . “Qaddafi writes to Obama, urging end to airstrikes.” The New York Times, april 6, 2011. 197 “Qatar confirms helping Libyan rebels sell oil.” Associated Press, april 12, 2011. 198 “Qatar fighter jet flies mission over Libya, first Arab nation to join no-fly zone against Khadafy.” New York Daily News, March 25, 2011.
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