Draft Report - Revised

BANGALORE MAHANAGARA PALIKE
A Case Study on Pro-poor Service Delivery Initiatives
(Regional Conference on Pro-poor Service Delivery by Local Governments 9-13, February, 2004, Manila, Philippines) OVERVIEW AND PROFILE OF BANGALORE 1.1 An Overview Bangalore city, founded in 1537 AD, celebrates its 466 th anniversary this year and is the fifth largest Urban Agglomeration in India. Also Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BMP) is the fourth largest Municipal Corporation, next to Mumbai, Kolkata and New Delhi covering an area of about 226 sq. KM with 4.3 million population. 1.2 Poverty Profile There are an estimated 2,53,600 urban poor households within the BMP area. About one-third of the slum inhabitants live below the poverty line, i.e. on a monthly household income of less than Rs. 2,500 ($ 55). Further, the literacy rate among the urban poor is below the overall rate at city level and the female literacy rate is lower than that of the male. Besides the basic services, the urban poor are also to be provided with income-generation opportunities. It has been seen from a survey done by STEM, that nearly one million urban poor i.e. twenty per cent of the total population live in slums under deplorable service conditions (see Annexure 1 for details). Bangalore has always been the regional hub of industry, R&D and higher education. It is now known as India’s “Knowledge Centre” with a very high concentration of Indian and global software development companies and IT-enabled enterprises. It is predicted that Bangalore would be one of the ten global hot spots in the 21 st century when the technology-driven New Economy will usher in an era of long-term growth across regional and national boundaries. The local self-government institutions in BUA comprise BMP, seven City Municipal Councils (CMCs) and one Town Municipal Council (TMC). The council of BMP consists of 100 elected members (called Councilors) from the Wards. Both the Mayor and Deputy Mayor are elected from among the Councilors. only one year. There are eight Standing Committees consisting of seven Councilors each. The term in office of the Mayor, Deputy Mayor and Standing Committees is

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Draft Report - Revised 1.3 Development Challenges and Issues of Concern

The provision of infrastructure as well as the management of service delivery systems has not matched with the growth and development of the city. The urban poor, in particular, are in a disadvantaged position when it comes to availing and accessing the infrastructure, which is under great strain. Consequently, the issues concerned with pro-poor service delivery have become more complex. The challenge to BMP in this decade, thus, will be the administering of urban infrastructure and pro-poor service delivery. innovative, participatory and people-centric approach. The process obviously calls for an

“The poor serves and services the City but in turn they are serviced with poor basic infrastructure and amenities”, says an Urban Expert. The Commissioner BMP intervenes and says “Our efforts are yet to match and reach the needy, but this decade is dedicated to the pro-poor delivery system”. The Mayor too feels that “There are lots to be done to improve the infrastructure, especially for the needy urban poor. Let us review our past experiences and plan the future right now. The assessment and impact studies carried out on the urban poor in the past decade identify five main challenges for the local self-government institutions. These are: (a) Income generation activities through imparting skills and training, (b) Efficient pro-poor service delivery by improving availability and accessibility, (c) Environmental quality improvement programmes especially in slums, (d) Empowerment of women to make them partners in progress, and (e) Adopting a participatory approach in decision-making by public and resident groups. The accessibility and availability of the services to the urban poor and disadvantaged segments of the population is one of the most pressing problems faced by elected Councilors and Executives of BMP. In this context the following issues are identified for the urban poverty alleviation: (a) Provision of hygienic living conditions: Especially to the urban poor living in slums, (b) Capability Building among the Urban Poor for Earning Better Income, (c) Improvement in the Service Delivery Conditions on priority basis, and (d) Faculty or Skill Development among adolescent girls and women belonging to urban poor household. Further, the local self-governments of BUA is confronted by three important management issues: (a) the co-ordination of the activities of the various local self-governments responsible for the governance of the agglomeration; (b) the Mayor/Chairman elected on a short-term

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having to evolve long-term policies for the urban poor and (c) ensuring the continuous improvement of services with people’s participation. PART I: SERVICE DELIVERY STRATEGIES AND INITIATIVES “The Poor give so much more than we give them. We have so much to learn from them” - Mother Teresa 2.1 Development Strategies for the Urban Poor Community involvement, participation and pro-poor budgets and projects are of a recent origin and have gained their importance in the last 5 years. Prior to that they were a part of a larger project benefiting poor either directly or indirectly. In the past one decade, the BMP has been investing, on an average, US$ 4.4 million (Rs. 200 million) per annum on various projects and programmes. The following are the major projects / programmes that have been implemented specifically for the development of urban poor in the past one-decade: (a) Urban basic services for the poor, (b) Family Welfare Projects for Urban Slums, (c) Habitat Project for Urban Slums, (d) Eighteen per cent of the total annual budget of BMP is allocated to the disadvantaged and underprivileged segments of population, and (e) NIRANTARA Programme (local name for Benchmarking and Continuous Improvement, RETA 5764 and 5959) It must be admitted that the BMP neither have a long-term strategy nor a separate budget for development of urban poor primarily due to the short tenure of Mayor, Deputy Mayor and Chairmen of Standing committees. Nevertheless, it is continuously attempting to serve the urban poor and prepare the schemes and projects under the annual plans and budgets most of which are short-term programmes. This short-term approach has been undergoing a change after adopting the NIRANTARA programme. 2.2 NIRANTARA – Inception and Progress The BMP has named the Benchmarking and Continuous Improvement as ‘NIRANTARA’ which in the local language means “Continuous Improvement”. It is mainly intended to systematise and institutionalise aspects of service delivery improvement through community involvement and customer feedback. The BMP officials were trained by ACIG Consultants under ADB sponsorship. The trained officials have formed into project committees and they co-ordinated the service enhancement projects within BMP. They have become self reliant and gained confidence in understanding such assignments. Two committees were set up under this

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programme, namely the NIRANTARA Working Committee (NWC) and the NIRANTARA Steering Committee (NSC). The members of these two Committees are given in Annexure 2. The NIRANTARA Programme was taken up in two phases. During Phase I (RETA 5764) of this Programme, the following areas were taken up for improving service delivery: a) Solid Waste Management - education and enforcement, b) Customer complaints system, c) Property tax assessment and collection, d) Parking regulation, e) Street vendors (hawkers) – licensing, allocating space – regulation, and f) Computerisation of services The second phase (RETA 5959) of Enhancing Municipal Service Delivery Capability was started in August 2001 with a training workshop conducted by M/s. ACIG for the benefit of coordinators of BMP and neighboring cities. Bangalore City was designated as one of the core cities to extend Technical Assistance to its neighboring cities, apart from building the capacity of BMP itself with a view to driving and implementing change. During the workshop a survey was conducted among the Senior Managers and NGOs for identifying the service priorities. The survey identified 32 services that could be improved by BMP. Thereafter, based on the criteria laid down by the NWC, a meeting was held on September 06, 2001 to analyze and rank the services in order of priority. A further discussion and review by the NWC prioritized ten services. The trained BMP co-ordinators at the workshop took up a detailed project study of five of these services on a priority basis and came up with the project reports on: (a) Footpaths, (b) Community Toilets, (c) Solid Waste Management and Education, (d) Property tax assessment and collection, and (e) Food Safety The details of the services selected under the Project and its overall influence on BMP are given in Annexure 3. These three reports have not only awakened the top level decision makers and elected members at BMP to the immediate needs of the poor and common man, but have also attracted the interest and contribution of corporate bodies who have come forward to participate actively in these programmes. “NIRANTARA is a new experience. It changed our outlook on beneficiary participation and opened our path on project identification, prioritization and formulation” - A member of NWC

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2.3 Economic Empowerment Programmes for adolescent girls and women Keeping in view the phenomenal increase in the number of slums and urban poor, the BMP, in consultation with the State and Central Governments, interested senior citizens and NGOs, periodically addressed the issue of effective upliftment of the urban poor. It initiated a number of programs for the benefit of urban poor and economically weaker sections living in Bangalore. These include primary health, education, basic civic amenities like water, sanitation, roads and drainage, electricity to individual houses in slum areas, and creating employment opportunities to improve economic conditions by imparting vocational training for adolescent girls and women. For details refer Annexure 4. It is also observed that the BMP “Out of Rs. 10.2 billion annual budget, Rs. 6 billion is earmarked for the developmental works and maintenance works. million are exclusively allocated only for upliftment of urban poor”.
PART II:

Further Rs. 200 to 250

SELECTIVE PRO-PEOPLE AND PRO-POOR INITIATIVES

3.1 Rationale for Selection of Service Initiatives The NWC and NSC have played a vital role in bringing change in the outlook of the officials and bridging the gap between the beneficiaries and decision-making authorities. The change in the mindset of the BMP officials is clear from their current approach on the preparation of project reports. They want now to assess needs of target beneficiary and also consult them while planning their activities since the beneficiary’s satisfaction is important for success and sustainability of the Project. The following three services have been finally chosen by NWC considering their impact on public life in general and of the urban poor in particular: Beneficiary Target Groups Service Initiatives selected Urban Poor √ √ √ General Population √ Commuters √ √ -

a. Footpaths b. Community Toilets c. Vocational Training for adolescent girls and women Sewing

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3.2 Footpaths Enabling Policy Measures: The condition of footpaths was deplorable, attracting the wrath of the citizens as well as the politicians. Besides, they also posed safety hazards to citizens due to obstructions like debris, hawkers, telephone and electricity poles, lose stones, etc. According to a survey conducted by the school children, 32 impediments for use of footpaths have been identified. Due to this condition, pedestrians rarely used the footpaths, walked on the roads, and made themselves vulnerable to road accidents. Bangalore City has a road network of 4000 KM and 56 per cent of the roads have footpaths. A team formed by NWC conducted a survey, with a view to have the public participation in the developmental activities. The suggestions from public also include various categories, width, depth and height of the footpaths. After analyzing the existing service level and the suggestions made by the public, the team recommended different kinds of footpaths for different areas. These are based on the usage and location like residential, recreational and commercial with different depths based on the availability of space but uniform height. Institutional and Technical Changes: BMP has included this work in the budget 2003 - 2004 with a provision of Rs. 227 Million. As a pilot project the work of improving footpaths with interlocking tiles for an extent of 90 km was taken up in certain major and arterial roads, during the current year. Fifty per cent of the footpaths have been constructed by the end of September 2003 and the 90 per cent of pedestrians are now using these. The service delivery process drawn, based on the recommendations of NWC is: (a) Review policies for footpath encroachments, hawkers and debris on footpaths, (b) Create awareness on footpath usage, (c) Remove encroachments and unauthorized obstacles and penalize them, (d) Provide dustbins, facilities for the handicapped, (e) Customize sign boards, (f) Regular maintenance and beautification of footpaths Policy Changes: This improvement of footpaths in various places of the city, has created an awareness in the minds of general public and a large number of requests/complaints are being received by BMP to take up the improvement works in all the areas. BMP has now committed itself to improving footpaths all over the city in a phased manner. People of Bangalore have started using the footpaths wherever they have been improved and it shows the change in their behaviour, as could be seen from the photographs.

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User Feedback: The level of satisfaction on the developed footpaths has increased to 63 per cent from the earlier satisfaction level of 9 per cent. Similarly, the usage of footpaths has increased to 93 per cent and the improved footpaths have weaned people away from their old habit of walking on the roads. The survey indicates the women are more safety conscious and use footpaths. 3.3 Community Toilets Enabling Policy Measures: People have also been complaining about the open defecation and the resultant cause of nuisance and health hazard especially by slum population and commuters. Though some toilets were constructed in the slum areas, due to lack of awareness on use of public toilets and lack of basic facilities like continuous water supply, power and regular cleaning, people were not using those toilets. The elected representatives as well as the public have been demanding the improvement of the service of community toilets. The BMP entrusted the work of studying, analyzing and suggesting improvements of the community toilets to the NIRANTARA team with a view to eliciting public participation in developmental activities. The team conducted a survey with the help of NGOs which revealed that 8 out of 10 people are in favor of “Pay and Use” toilets and recommended that these toilets should be managed by CBOs / NGOs or private organizations. They also visited various types of existing toilets managed by different organizations for the purpose of comparison and selection of best practices prevailing among the communities. Technical and Institutional Changes: The existing toilets can be broadly classified into two types: a) “Pay and Use toilets” – maintained by resident groups / CBOs / NGOs and constructed by Corporate bodies / voluntary institutions / BMP / other public agencies, b) “Free Use Toilets” – maintained by Government / NGOs and constructed by BMP / Slum Board / voluntary institutions. The team, also worked out various designs and estimates for construction of community toilets in different locations based on the local requirements, without compromising the quality, aesthetics and facilities. BMP has included this work in the budget for 2003-04 with a provision of Rs 80 million for construction of 100 toilets. Policy Changes: The team examined all those aspects in terms of cost effectiveness and customer satisfaction, and finally the following recommendations were made: (a) Construction of “ Pay and Use” toilets are preferred and to be encouraged, (b) Voluntary organizations, CBOs, NGOs, Resident groups should be encouraged to maintain these toilets, (c) Uninterrupted water supply should be ensured for each toilet either through a borewell or

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public water supply system, (d) In slums - the payment should be subsidized and identification cards should be issued to the families, (e) A campaign to be undertaken to increase public awareness on usage and maintenance of toilets, (f) Range officers of BMP should be made responsible for monitoring the maintenance of toilets, and (g) Strict enforcement of toilet usage and penalty to be levied for open defecation practices. It is heartening to note that large corporate bodies have come forward to construct and finance 100 toilets in the City in collaboration with BMP. Requests are pouring into BMP for construction of “Pay and Use” toilets from the busy commercial areas and low-income residential areas. BMP has committed itself to provide toilets in most of the public areas like parks and play fields, bus stops/terminals etc and achieve high standards of public hygiene and sanitation. BMP has also constructed the “Pay and Use” toilets in a few slums. Slum dwellers have been given identity cards by BMP for their use at nominal rates. This has changed the behavior and habit of the slum residents and stopped the open defecation practices around slums. With this success the BMP has a plan to provide toilets in all the slum areas, utilizing the 18% budget provision. Refer Photo 1 of photos.doc
Community Toilets under NIRANTARA programme – planned with continuous water supply and electricity for commuters. This has been successful in weaning away the public from open defecation practices.

Beneficiary Feedback: The impact of the newly constructed toilets has been favorably voiced through citizen/user survey conducted recently. Above 90 per cent of residents in the vicinity were found to be using these toilets. 3.4 Empowerment of Women and Adolescent Girls through Vocational Training: Tailoring, Embroidery and Knitting Enabling Policy Measures: BMP has made provision for two tailoring centers in each ward in the city. Thus there are 200 tailoring centers, 50 embroidery and 50 knitting centers. Every year 4000 adolescent girls and women are trained in tailoring. Each trainee is paid a monthly stipend of Rs. 100 (US $ 2.5), which they utilize to buy materials for training – cloth or woolen and for personal transport. At the end of the training an examination is conducted by an external agency (JC Polytechnic – a Government of Karnataka educational institute in vocational training) and certificates are issued to the successful candidates.

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Every successful trainee in tailoring is supplied with a sewing machine to enable her to start working at home and earn for the family. Each machine costs about Rs. 3500 (US $ 75). It has been found that almost all the persons who have completed the training have taken to tailoring. After the completion of the training 75 per cent of the women secure placement in the private sector export oriented garment factories in Bangalore getting a monthly wage ranging from Rs. 3000 to Rs. 5000 (US $ 60 to 110) most of the women are engaged in tailoring work at their own homes whenever they find free time and earn more. “Sir, the persons who have completed their training under us are earning more than what we are paid by the BMP as salary!” - Instructors & other staff of training Institutes Some among such women have replaced the machines supplied by the BMP with bigger and better machines so that they can do more work. They earn on an average of Rs.100 per day. Technical and Institutional Changes: More importantly, several of the training centers were started by the BMP Councilors themselves in many wards in response to the demands of the urban poor from those wards and later were regularized by the BMP. At one point of time the BMP had to put restriction on the Councilors not to continue to open new centers without the official resolution and also to restrict the number of centers in each ward. The number of centers now have grown from a single center to almost 300 – by any standards a milestone achievement in socio-economic empowerment of women and urban poor The vocational training that is provided through these centers was designed taking into account three important factors: (a) the low level of literacy and skills among the women of the urban poor and their need to augment the family income, (b) lack of or inadequate services like tailoring in the surrounding areas inhabited by the urban poor, (c) the need for augmenting the family income by the women and adolescent girls among the urban poor through one or the other independent occupation/vocation which they can purse from their homes during their free time. The training centers are now housed in the BMP owned buildings though some of them are small in size. More importantly, the institutional change has been from collaboration to complete ownership and management Refer Photo 2 of photos.doc
Creating art on cloth and a living for family by womenfolk

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Policy Changes: When the vocational course became popular among the urban poor the BMP responded to the peoples desires and interests by making available the required resources out of its special budget of 18% every year to meet all the expenses of the vocational training for the women and adolescent girls. BMP has made an annual budgetary provision of Rs. 20 million. Refer Photo 3 of photos.doc
A Training Centre managed by the BMP

Now the BMP has been seriously considering the issue of replacing manual tailoring machines with power driven sewing machines to cater the needs of at least the handicapped persons seeking admission to the course. The behavioral change one may witness among the beneficiaries of the vocational training has been that they consider themselves as contributing members of the family. The trainees have developed lot of confidence in their capabilities and faculties. The regular income they bring to the family through their employment or work has improved their social status in the family; many take part in decision-making within the family and some are the heads of the families. Even the unmarried daughters earning through tailoring either at home or by working in a garment factory, are consulted by the head of the family. Ms. Smita, a trainee in tailoring emphatically said that her father and brothers in all decisions consulted her. Beneficiaries Feedback: The survey conducted by STEM to know the opinions and attitudes of the beneficiaries’ reveals that the persons who have received the training in different vocations belong to the productive age group of 16 to 45. After having gone through the training (a) 60 per cent are fully engaged in the jobs, (b) 32 per cent are partially engaged, and (c) only 8 per cent are not engaged in the vocation. At least 3 per cent of the beneficiaries are able to provide better schooling for their children, 6 per cent are in a position to have better clothing for the family members and another 11 per cent have better facilities at home subsequent to their starting to earn. To state it briefly, the training has been serving its purpose.

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SUCCESS ACHIEVED 4.1 BMP and NIRANTARA The aim of NIRANTARA program to improve co-ordination between the various local selfgovernment agencies in BUA has become a reality in the current year (2003 - 04). NIRANTARA has always taken up the long neglected issues never thought of in a regular planning process. Similarly the report card developed by PAC on BMP has its influence in bringing transparency and change in the approach to annual planning and budgeting. The three service initiatives described in the case study, shows the acceptance of community consultation and involvement through NGOs / CBOs by BMP. The success that has been achieved can be summed up under the following four heads: (a) Analytical & Need Based Approach, (b) People - centric Governance, (c) Influence on Urban Poor, and (d) Institutionalisation of Initiatives Analytical and Need based approach: After the training under NIRANTARA and other programmes, the officials of BMP have identified the problem areas and diagnosed the needs of the urban poor in a systematic manner. They are now habituated to conducting surveys, consulting the targeted beneficiaries and requisitioning the expert’s opinions to assess the needs of the beneficiaries and the likely options to meet the needs. programmes undertaken. They also have a feedback system in place to incorporate the views and perceptions of the users on the The project reports prepared under NIRANTARA by the BMP The officials themselves with the help of NGOs followed a similar systematic approach. needs of the communities. People-centric Governance: The changes that have been brought in service delivery system and more especially in the preparation of annual budgets with open discussions are a few instances of the shift from the traditional bureaucratic practices to people-centric approaches. The reports prepared under NIRANTARA are examples for the same. The programmes initiated by NIRANTARA have now grown in stature to include the entire City also attracting the participation of the Corporate world and the involvement of the public. Influence on Urban Poor: The initiatives of the BMP have had quite an influence on the quality of life of the urban poor especially due to the construction of footpaths, community

approach of the officials today is to look for an analytical solution as well as prioritise the

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toilets and vocational training programmes. Now people of the city as well as the commuters to and from Bangalore have been using the facilities wherever they exist. People today are ready to pay a fee for using the community toilets. This is a positive change in the behavior of the people and also indicative of the impact the facilities have created on the lives of the people of Bangalore. Similarly the demand for admissions to the vocational training courses by the women have increased almost two-fold. The achievement for these women is not only in terms of augmenting their income but also in increasing their status in the family and the neighbourhood. Institutionalization of the Initiatives: The participatory and analytical approaches adopted by BMP officials have given them a feeling of achievement besides boosting their confidence levels. BMP officials have prepared the reports under NIRANTARA themselves with the assistance of NGOs and CBOs. After seeing the reports the Commissioner of BMP himself said, “ we need many more of such quality reports to tackle the challenging issues of the City today” 4.2 Voice and Views of NGO / CBO: Vinay Baindur of CIVIC and Nagaraj of AVAS The last few years have seen a slow beginning by the officials and elected councilors of the BMP to seek feedback and generate responsiveness in administration and there is a directional change towards people friendly governance. A few illustration of citizens friendly measures by BMP are: (a) Feedback from beneficiaries and their involvement through NIRANTARA, (b)The process for preparation and finalisation of the Local Municipal budget now incorporates citizens inputs , (c) Shortlisting the services for improvement under NIRANTARA such as a Customer Complaint System was an excellent measure which gave an impetus to the entire BMP machinery in the BMP to increase responsiveness and decrease contact-based grievance redressal, (d) Similarly prioritizing Solid Waste Management and Property Tax Assessment as important services to be improved methodically, in a citizen friendly approach, created better services, and (e) Appreciation and adoption of three services – Footpaths, Public Toilets and Vocational Training by one and all. Some Major Drawbacks - General: (a) Eliciting feedback from citizens and continuously informing them about the project was not systematic and no periodic newsletter / pamphlets / handouts were prepared and distributed, (b) Officials have been hesitant to break the protocol which gives political representatives the right to address the media about the programmes, (c).Consulting and informing the citizens should have been a policy, (d) Describing the nature

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and standard of services through an information brochure would have been very beneficial to bring about a change of image vis a vis the citizens. Project Specific: (a) In preparing footpaths project considerable emphasis was laid on four different varieties of footpaths depending on usage. This was not followed in the implementation phase since only interlocking cement-concrete tiles footpaths were finally commissioned, (b) Access of disabled to footpath services must also be stressed as in others, which is not truly incorporated, (c) Funding the setting up of NIRANTARA secretariat, and (e) An Action plan for upliftment of urban poor and role of NGOs and CBOs is yet to be seen from BMP 4.3 Citizen Report Card on Bangalore The perceptions of citizens on governance and public service delivery systems by the Government agencies such as BMP, BDA, BWSSB, etc., are being studied by an NGO Public Affairs Centre (PAC). Citizen report cards on Bangalore have been produced by PAC for the years 1994, 1999 and 2003. These cards show that transparency, accountability and accessibility of information by public has considerably improved from the first card to the third card. However the issues such as corruption, openness among the official documents etc is yet to improve among the governing institutions and officers. Public awareness on many issues and their rights has shown considerable improvement. The overall public satisfaction on BMP is stated below. % of Households Satisfied 1994 1999 2003 65 62 5 41 69

Slum Households Non Slum Households LESSONS DRAWN

“The general impression that ordinary citizens have about BMP is that the civic agency is inaccessible. There are allegations that officials are not available for explanation on various matters. We want to put an end to all such complaints. Our goal is to make sure that citizens get every bit of information that they seek from us”. -Mr. Srihari, Addl Commissioner, BMP - Deccan Herald
1.

Lack of Continuity in the Office of the Mayor and Commissioner : The tenure of Mayor and Standing Committees is only one year. Even the Commissioners, who are Chief

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Executives of BMP, are also transferred frequently. Commissioners have been changed. 1998. institutionalisation.
2.

Over the past five years four

The present Commissioner is fifth person since

Lack of continuity in the office suffers continuation of programmes and

Priority is Always for the Day to Day Work : In any municipal organisation, it is the adhoc works that take maximum time rather than planned programmes. The trained coordinators and senior managers are not explicitly judged in terms of service performance. Service delivery performance standard is yet to be fixed in most of the services.

3.

Need for NIRANTARA on Permanent Footing : NIRANTARA experiment induced a change in the planning process and mindset of personnel. Moreover, it brought NGOs closer to the BMP. It needs a permanent secretariat as envisaged earlier by ACIG. Hence may ADB partner with BMP on this issue.

4.

Footpaths: With the increasing vehicular traffic in the city, the need for safe walking footpaths has also increased. People, especially women are more safety conscious on roads and they use footpaths. Hence, the BMP has to strive to provide for better footpaths on all roads, BMP has provided a sum of Rs.227 million only during the current year’s budget for improvement of footpath of about 90 km. Actually the total length of footpath is about 2000 km. This demands more amount of allocation for improvement of footpaths in the coming years.

5.

Toilets: Public and community toilets are in much demand among the citizens of Bangalore as well as the commuting public. But the existing number of toilets with required services and facilities are totally inadequate. People even agitate for better toilets. Hence, the BMP has to step up its efforts to increase the number of toilets, Similarly, there are about 650 old toilets, which are not in usable condition. It is proposed to upgrade all the old toilets with modern facilities to convert them to “Pay and Use” toilets.

6.

Economic Empowerment of Women: The demand for vocational training has been increasing since the employment opportunities in the city for women trained in tailoring are on the increase. The women who have been earning feel economically empowered and enjoy better status in the family and the neighborhood. Hence, BMP needs to increase their effort on training the needy. The stipend paid to the women trainees is not adequate. Hence, it needs to be increased so as to attract more women to undergo training, and the existing facilities in the training centers also need to be upgraded and multiplied.

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7.

Analytical Methods for solving the problems and bringing more professionalism (ADB RETA through ACIG and STEM professionals) is seen as an asset in the decision making process.

PART III:

FUTURE DIRECTIONS:

“When citizens don’t share responsibilities there is not much that a government can do to improve the quality of life. We must make Bangalore a beautiful City and replicate it in Mysore, Mangalore, Dharwad, Belgaum, etc. But first, the initiative must start from Citizens”. Chief minister, SM Krishna – Deccan Herald Contact and consultation with community will be the focus area for BMP as an exogenous input for their decision making process. Pro-poor service delivery and infrastructure development is likely to be the indigenous thrust areas of BMP keeping these two factors – external inputs and internal thrust areas, the BMP may go for multi faceted approach by initiating the following five actions: (a) Community consultation, involvement and beneficiary feedback systems, (b) A platform for meeting of interdepartmental personnel of BMP along with NGO and professionals for selecting, prioritizing and analysing projects for enhancing the municipal service delivery system, (c) Attempt to have “An Urban Poor Action Plan and Budget” as a separate entity under its annual planning and budget programmes, (d) A five year Capital Investment and Infrastructure Plan with special emphasis on urban poverty eradication policy and urban poor development, and (e) Establishing information kiosks “The iron curtains of BMP may no longer be there. Any information about the status of development works and projects, financial statements and other details, which were earlier classified as confidential, will now be made available through information kiosks. Through this initiative, the BMP wants to shed its bureaucratic image and bring in transparency and accountability in its administration” - By Aravind Gowda, DH News Service Besides the approach mentioned above the BMP may enhance the following services to cover especially the urban poor: (a) Provision of Community toilets in low income residential and commuter intensive areas, (b) Conversion of old toilets and urinals to “Pay and Use” scheme by corporate sector, voluntary organisations and individual philanthropists, (c) Footpath – Survey to be organised by respective wards and budgetary provisions to be provided, (d) Need Assessment Survey Beneficiary or users survey has to be conducted once in a year if not once in every six months, so that the views of the public, particularly the

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suggestions for improvements can be incorporated in the future plan, (e) NIRANTARA Secretariat A small permanent NIRANTARA secretariat may be created in BMP, so that more number of officials can be trained and more number of services can be taken up for analysis and for setting service delivery standards, with a view to realising maximum customer satisfaction Knowledge Management: All projects provide an opportunity to apply new approaches and learn from the implementation experiences. . A momentum has been built up in BMP with the help of ADB under RETA 5764 and 5959, for the improvement of service delivery. It has been proved that the management techniques of benchmarking and continuous improvement has lead to service improvements only in a few services of BMP. If more number of persons are trained in management techniques, they will not only be able to improve the service delivery within BMP but also extend their expertise to neighbouring municipalities. PART IV: REPLICABILITY OF BMP’s INITIATIVES

The three BMP programmes discussed in the earlier sections, namely, improvement of footpaths, building of community toilets and empowerment of women & adolescent girls through vocational training, address the critical issues of urban poverty and have been successful. They set a few good examples for any ULB in developing countries. The experiences gained and lessons learnt by BMP through implementing NIRANTARA and other urban poor programmes with peoples’ participation can be of paramount importance for other ULBs, either to replicate or modify and adopt these programmes. It is more so, as the thrust is laid on enhancing the public services through Benchmarking and Continuous Improvement. Further, these are planned and implemented with due concern on feedback from the beneficiaries. The urban poverty alleviation initiatives taken by BMP have a two-fold approach: (a) increasing the availability and accessibility of services to urban poor and (b) imparting vocational training to improve skills of the urban poor especially women and adolescent girls. There is a scope for replicating some of the approaches evolved under the BMP’s poverty alleviation initiatives. These includes: (a) Adoption of NIRANTARA management model involving NWC & NSC, (b) Enhancement of services through analytical methods and beneficiary feedback, (c) Joint efforts by ULB, corporate bodies, voluntary institutions, etc., for planning and implementation of public services and amenities, (d) Provision of separate

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budget and funding for urban poverty alleviation programmes, (e) Preparation of annual report cards on services and (f) Empowerment of women and adolescent girls.
a. Adoption of NIRANTARA Management Model Involving NWC & NSC: The two

NIRANTARA management committees viz. NWC & NSC, comprise the Chief Executive & senior BMP department officials, the Mayor & chairmen of standing committees of the elected representatives, NGOs, voluntary organisations, professionals and experts. Thus, they cut across the different cross sections of the stakeholders. Their purpose is to identify and prioritise the services needed by the people. Any ULB can easily constitute such committees and follow the management model for enhancing the services at a marginal cost. For better results, the committees need a small separate secretariat with two or three persons to co-ordinate and provide administrative support.
b. Enhancement of Services Through Analytical Methods and Beneficiary Feedback:

The NIRANTARA - type committees, that could be adopted by ULBs elsewhere, should be compact. They could adopt the following methods for taking decisions: (a) obtain background information of the existing service level through citizen survey, (b) process mapping, (c) service definition, (d) findings of the study, (e) selection of best practices available, (f) recommendations for implementation, and (g) periodic review of implementation process through user survey. Often personnel in ULBs do not have

required aptitudes and skills either to elicit the customer’s satisfaction on service performance or to systematise / institutionalise the aspects of service delivery through community involvement and customer feedback. This calls for training of ULB staff by an outside agency, capable of providing technical assistance for benchmarking and continuous improvement.
c. Joint and Participatory Efforts by ULB, Corporate Bodies, NGOs, Voluntary

Institutions, etc.: The success of urban poverty alleviation programmes wholly depends upon the joint efforts of the sponsors and beneficiaries. Continuous consultation and interaction between them would ensure a sustainable planning and implementation programme for making public services and amenities available to the urban poor. This would require a change from the ULBs’ traditional planning to a process involving the corporate bodies, NGOs, voluntary institutions, resident associations, etc. ULBs elsewhere could draw upon the efforts of BMP in this direction. Similar attempts could be made by them based on the local situations.

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Draft Report - Revised d. Provision

of Separate Budget and Funding for Urban Poverty Alleviation

Programmes: The BMP is planning to include a separate section on urban poor in their annual budgets besides preparing an urban poverty action programme. This will bring about a radical transformation in the process of preparation of budget and provision of funds to the programmes. An attempt should be made by other ULBs to replicate the same. The local corporate bodies and philanthropic institutions, more often, come forward to fund good projects, which will improve the quality of life of the urban poor. Further, the beneficiaries themselves may willingly contribute towards the cost of the services. The possibility involving external agencies should be explored to raise additional funds for these programmes.
e. Preparation of Annual Report Cards on Services: To help the decision-makers in ULB in

programme planning and mid-course corrections, it is necessary to commission an independent survey of citizens’ satisfaction levels vis-à-vis the services offered. This will be a feedback system involving the beneficiaries and NGOs. Attempts could be made at least every year to elicit such feedback from citizens through report cards as is being done in Bangalore.
f.

Empowerment of Women and Adolescent Girls: Following a market demand survey, the BMP has chosen a programme aiming at the empowerment of women & adolescent girls through vocational training on items such as tailoring, embroidery, etc. With a view to augmenting the income among the families of urban poor, the candidates for vocational training are selected from the people living in economically poor residential areas. ULBs elsewhere can adopt this model to raise the social status and economic levels of their urban poor.

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Draft Report - Revised
Disclaimer: The views expressed in this Toolkit are the views of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) or Asian Development Bank Institute (ADBI), or their Board of Directors, or the governments they represent. ADB and ADBI do not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this CD-ROM and accepts no responsibility for any consequences of their use. Terminology used may not necessarily be consistent with ADB official terms.

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