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**2 FUNDAMENTALS OF VIBRATION THEORY
**

In this chapter a summary of fundamental structural dynamics is given in order to name the basic principles and theorems. For further information there is a wide variation of standard textbooks.

**2.1 SYSTEMS WITH A SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM
**

Systems with a single degree of freedom help to illustrate some fundamental relations. It is considered a concentrated mass on a damped spring element. The spring force is supposed as directly related to the spring´s deformation (compression or extension), with the spring factor k, which is the spring´s stiffness. The damping force is supposed as directly related to the velocity, with the damping constant c.

2.1.1 FREE VIBRATION

One speaks of a free vibration if a dynamic system undergoes a transient motion without external excitation. Assuming the relations above described, the movement is described by this differential equation:

& m * && + c * x + k * x = 0 x

where: x: m: c: k: displacement mass damping constant spring stiffness

(2.1)

Figure 2–1: Point mass with damping and spring under dynamic excitation The terms in Eq. (2.1) represent forces standing in equilibrium: m * && inertial force x

& c*x k*x

viscous damping force elastic restoring (spring) force

The external force F(t) in this specific case is zero, the movement initiates with an impact or its deformation. The differential equation can be solved with an exponential type of solution:

-5-

4) m * s2 + c * s + k = 0 The undamped circular Eigenfrequency ω and the damping ratio ξ are introduced: (2.1 Figure 2–4: Damping ratio 0.1: (2.3) (2.5 x(t) / Xb x(t) / Xb 0.5 t -1. 2.5 -0.5 t Figure 2–2: Damping ratio 0 Free oscillation Figure 2–3: Damping ratio 0.5) k m c ξ= 2mω1 ω12 = (2.4 Figure 2–5: Damping ratio 1 critical damping -6- .2 Fundamentals of Vibration Theory x(t ) = U * e s*t & x(t ) = U * s * e s*t &&(t ) = U * s 2 * e s*t & x X and its derivates are substituted in Eq.6) (2.5 0 0 -0.2) (2.5 1.5 -1 -1 -1.8) A damping is called critical when the amplitude decays from the maximum displacement to the rest position without changing the sign without oscillation: 1.5 1 1 0.7) The damping ratio relates the existing damping to the critical damping ccrit = 2 * m * ω1 (2.

X B =1 Eq. 2.17) (2. x(t = 0) = 0 resulting in constants X A = 0.22) (2.18) x(t ) = e −ξ *ω1*t * [X A * sin(ω D * t ) + X B * cos(ω D * t )] 2 2 X 1 = X A + X B = amplitude constant ρ1 = arctan XA = phase angle XB x(t ) = e −ξ *ω1*t * X 1 * sin(ω D * t + ρ1 ) For the initial conditions & x(t = 0) = 1 . the roots are complex: 2 s = −ξ * ω1 ± (ξ * ω1 ) 2 − ω1 = ω1 * (−ξ ± ξ 2 − 1) (2.10) into (2.12) x(t ) = e −ξ *ω1*t * [U A * (cos(ω D * t ) + i * sin(ω D * t ) + U B (cos(ω D * t ) − i * sin(ω D * t ) )] (2.0.9) (2.15) (2.10) s = ω1 * (−ξ ± i 1 − ξ 2 ) When substituting Eq. with ξ<<1 (usually about 0. Thus. the displacement solution follows as: u (t ) = e −ξ *ω1*t * (U A * e i*ωD *t + U B * e −i*ωD *t ) e ± i*ωD *t = cos(ω D * t ) ± i * sin(ω D * t ) so that Eq. (2.14) (2. Assuming damping as proportional to the vibration velocity. (2. when solving Eq.18) reduces to x(t ) = e −ξ *ω1*t * X B * cos(ω D * t ) (2.21) F0 = amplitude of the loading ω 0 = circular frequency of the loading & m * && + c * x + k * x = F0 * sen(ω 0 * t ) x (2.13) UA = XB −i* XA 2 and UB = XB +i* XA 2 (2.20) (2.23) x(t ) = X C * sen(ω 0 * t ) + X D * cos(ω 0 * t ) -7- .19) 2.2).10).5.16) (2.2 FORCED VIBRATION One speaks of a free vibration if a dynamic system undergoes a transient motion without external excitation.2 Fundamentals of Vibration Theory In civil engineering the damping ratios are low. (2.05 .11) (2. the movement is described by this differential equation: & m * && + c * x + k * x = F (t ) x F (t ) = F0 * sen(ω 0 * t ) (2.1.11) can be written as (2.

For example. when modelling a “shear building” with the aim to calculate the horizontal solicitations at columns.28) (2. -8- . this equation is to solve by means of finite element methods. and the differential equation is written in matrix-form: ~ ~ ~ ~ & Μ * && + C * x + K * x = F x where M – mass matrix K – stiffness matrix C – viscous damping matrix x – displacement vector F – forcing function vector (2. Now the mass and stiffness distribution play an important role.29) x(t ) = e −ξ *ω1*t * X 1 * sen(ω D * t + ρ1 ) + X 0 * sen(ω 0 * t + ρ 0 ) 2.2 Fundamentals of Vibration Theory XC = XD = F0 1 − (ω 0 / ω1 ) 2 * k 1 − (ω / ω ) 2 2 + (2 * ξ * ω / ω ) 2 0 1 0 1 [ ] (2.24) F0 2 * ξ * ω 0 / ω1 * k 1 − (ω / ω ) 2 2 + (2 * ξ * ω / ω ) 2 0 1 0 1 [ ] (2.26) x(t ) = X 0 * sen(ω 0 * t + ρ 0 ) 2 2 X0 = XC + X D ρ 0 = arctan XD XC (2.30) In general purpose with distributed masses and stiffnesses. the floors can be simplified as point masses on one column which represents the totality of all columns.2 SYSTEMS WITH MANY DEGREES OF FREEDOM As well as in SDOF systems. Figure 2–6: MDOF system This simplification is invalid in the case of vertical vibration within one floor.25) (2. the MDOF system in civil engineering purposes usually is an abstract model of real systems.27) and (2.

the modal decomposition is used to extract the relevant modes from experimental data. In bolted joints it is similar.7) turns out to EI * w( x = 0)′′ = 0 − 0 + c2 = M ( x = 0) and M ( x = 0) = k * w( x = 0)′ (3. the homogeneous response may be represented as a weighted superposition of the system modes. In linear systems. One is to use the clamping ratio.1) (3.5). a pinned joint with a bolted or welded web acts like a rotationary spring. so c2 = k * w( x = 0)′ -9- (3.7) (3. In steelworks. 2. a clamped link is realised by welding the flanges of an I or wide flange profile.4 CLAMPING RATIO AND SPRINGS Usually.8) (3. This can be avoided by using pre-stressed bolts or screws. (3. many times the detail solution turns out to impede the free rotation in restraints. when designing a link between structural members.1 RELATION BETWEEN CLAMPING RATIO AND SPRINGS Considering a simple Euler-Bernoulli beam under a uniform load q = constant. 2. where the initial conditions affect the strength of excitation of each mode. just a few dynamic modes are needed to describe civil engineering vibration problems. So when designing a pinned joint. the beam equation is (EI * w( x)′′)″ = q( x) with EI = constant and q = constant simplifies to (3.4).2 Fundamentals of Vibration Theory 2. one chooses or a pinned or a clamped link. so that 2 (3. Usually.10) .9). There are two ways to describe static or dynamic systems which have some kind of partial coactions in its restraints. the theoretical and the measured one. This allows to compare two independent results.3 MODAL DECOMPOSITION When to analyze experimental results without a mathematical description.4.3) EI * w( x) IV = q integration yields EI * w( x)′′′ = q * x + c1 = −Q ( x) knowing that Q ( x = 0) = q *l 2 (3.2) (3. For example.6) EI * w( x)′′′ = q * x − q *l 2 integration yields EI * w( x)′′ = 1 q *l q * x2 − * x + c2 = M ( x ) 2 2 at x = 0 . another way to describe the system is to use springs. Additionally there might occur a force-free movement between the assembled parts because of geometrical differences in the wholes. while in a pinned link typically the web of a profile is welded and the flanges are free. gives c1 = − q *l (3.

This would permit the modal calculation of a structure in the structural analysis program SAP2000.20) into (3.8) it is known that c2 = M ( x = 0) (3. a comparison is documented in the following chapter.1 or 10 %.20) it is possible to transform c2 = kql 3 24 EI + 12kl kql 3 24 EI + 12kl (3.26) (3. transforming (3.10 - . can be calculated by pretending clamping ratios.17) 0= ql 3 3ql 3 ql 3 ⎛l⎞ ⎛l⎞ − + c2 * ⎜ ⎟ + c3 (3. so that M ( x = 0) = As the clamping moment is known as M Cl = the clamping ratio can be quantified as RM ql 2 12 M = M Cl ql 2 ql 2 / 10 = 12 120 (3.10) and w( x = 0)′ = when inserting (3.16) As we assume two identical springs at the ends of the beam.20) from c2 = k * w( x = 0)′ (3. and to verify its application in the calculation program SAP2000.22) (3.18) or simplified = +c2 * ⎜ ⎟ + c3 24 48 48 ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ c c3 (3.29) So when pretending a clamping ratio of 0.28) From (3.15) turns out that c4 = 0 (3.23) by using (3.19) (3.27) (3.26) leads to: k = 24 EI * M ql 3 − 12M * l With the goal to compare this theoretical relation.19) follows c3 = ql 3 ⎡ c3 ⎤ ⎛ l ⎞ − k* * ⎜ ⎟ (3.13) EI * w( x) = 1 q *l 1 q * x4 − * x3 + c2 * x 2 + c3 * x + c4 24 12 2 knowing that w( x = 0) = 0 (3.4. M equals to M = with M given.25). the two identical springs at the "pinned" beam ends.13) follows that: c2 = k * 3 EI EI (3. .SPRING RELATION As described before.11) so EI * w( x = 0)′ = c3 integration yields c3 EI (3. 2.14) (3.21) 24 ⎢ EI ⎥ ⎝ 2 ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ kl ⎞ ql 3 ⎛ c3 * ⎜1 + ⎟= ⎝ 2 EI ⎠ 24 c3 = ql 3 * EI 24 EI + 12kl (3.2 NUMERICAL APPROXIMATION TO THE CLAMPING RATIO . the middle point has to be a maximum of deflection: w( x = l / 2)′ = 0 = 1 ⎛ l ⎞ q *l ⎛ l ⎞ ⎛l⎞ q *⎜ ⎟ − * ⎜ ⎟ + c2 * ⎜ ⎟ + c3 6 ⎝2⎠ 4 ⎝2⎠ ⎝2⎠ 3 2 (3.12) or w( x = 0)′ = (3.24) (3.2 Fundamentals of Vibration Theory integration yields EI * w( x)′ = 1 q *l 2 q * x3 − * x + c2 * x + c3 6 4 (3.

61 0.8E-04 3.00 2.0E-10 7.49 31.13 0.63 10.21 3. Subsequently it is calculated the frequency of the first and the second Eigenmode.15 0.00 0.55 0.82 114.353 0.050 0.7E-04 6.08 46.038 0.2E-16 5.0E-10 4.61 15.017 0.054 0.00 119.16 0. a single-span beam with pinned ends was designed.14 9.55 3.10 4.2E-04 5.46 0. from 0 equals to pinned ends until 1 which means full clamping.14 0.000 38.74 62.52 0.clamping ratio Analyzing the results a good accordance is found in terms of deformation and clamping moment: .7E-16 4.81 3.105 0.2E-04 4.0E-04 3.34 9.38 104.94 9.56 9.029 0.65 13.8E-04 5.0E-09 0.067 0.042 0.05 0.14 0.444 3.05 10.89 19.28 26.063 0.017 0.36 0.71 12.10 0.667 6.32 52.28 3.57 83.333 1.60 0.714 4.49 3.004 0.00 3.17 98.5E-04 3.47 0.58 109.95 1.82 2.8E-04 8.0E-10 0 0.24 125. which is calculated both analytically and numerically.7E-04 3.38 0.68 3.4E-16 1.0E+00 8.000 3.60 0.41 104.033 0.92 67.15 0.0 0.000 11.4E-16 2.038 0.079 0.15 0.76 8.033 0.35 3.29 52.0E-10 4.6E-09 1.071 0.7E-04 2.3E-04 3.14 3.11 0.07 8.008 0.20 0.42 0.25 26.45 0.93 2.37 78.021 0. the length is 1.86 14.667 0.029 0.000 ∞ 0 0.000 2.71 62.021 0.16 0.857 1.53 57.9E-04 7.75 0.3E-10 1. and the distributed mass is 1.063 0.2E-10 4.33 10.75 3.15 0.15 0.054 0.13 72.083 130.5E-04 4.16 0.64 0.042 0.4E-16 6.62 109.31 11.58 0.15 0.70 0.025 0.88 41.21 13.80 10.33 78.15 12.008 0.54 83.00 0.0E-10 1.40 0.075 0.2E-04 6.12 46.49 16.46 31.2 Fundamentals of Vibration Theory In order to compare theoretical and numerical Eigen modes.7E-10 2.0E-09 1.91 41.067 0.058 0.07 3.0E-03 1.70 36.636 2.96 93.013 0.28 0.51 0.058 0. The results are as shown: Clamping (ratio of clamping moment) SAP centre deformation [mm] clamping moment analytically clamping moment SAP2000 error in clamping moment centre deformation [mm] Eigenfrecuency ω [Hz] spring rigidity [E*I/L] error deformation 0.30 0.500 0.077 1.050 0.75 Figure 2–7: Table Data relation springs .50 0.046 0.0E+00 8.95 67.87 2.56 17.60 0.40 0. Its rigidity E*I was defined as 1.62 0.90 0.2E-10 5.6E-04 2.14 0.25 0.78 88.000 8.12 0.071 0.013 0.11 - Relation T2/T1 T1 [s] T2 [s] .62 3.7E-10 3.15 0.33 0.20 98.9E-04 1.55 0.1E-04 3.13 0.16 72.9E-04 4. For each step it is calculated the spring rigidity as documented in the prior chapter.54 0.04 2.95 11.16 0.21 125.12 0.88 3.35 0.49 0.03 119.14 0.80 0.50 57.079 0.1E-09 1.67 36.025 0.65 0.083 0.5E-04 2.79 114.2E-03 130.94 3.16 0.31 0.85 0.222 0. The clamping ratio is given in 20 steps of 5 %.99 93.75 88. The constant mass of the beam causes a deformation and a clamping moment.42 3.57 0.075 0.004 0.44 0.333 18.046 0.77 2.

Figure 2–9: Relative error in clamping moment Concerning the clamping moment the error is basically caused by rounding. Whenever the value has less decimals than the maximum of decimals shown.12 - . still showing a good accordance between analytics and numerical approximation. the error turns out zero. . Figure 2–10: Relative error in centre deformation Concerning the centre deformation the error rises with the clamping ratio.2 Fundamentals of Vibration Theory Figure 2–8: Spring rigidity as a function of clamping ratio The relation of clamping ratio and spring rigidity is no-lineal. This is why the first and the last step are not shown in the diagram above. going from a spring rigidity zero until infinite.

structural criteria.5 EIGEN VERSUS RITZ-MODES The structural analysis program used in this thesis is SAP2000 version 10. The Ritz method is a finite-element method to compute Eigenvalues. This program permits the modal analysis using Eigen or Ritz-vectors. A short comparison was done in order to check the liability of this method. one can determine the clamping ratio as a function of the relation between the first two Eigenfrequencies.13 - . going from 4 in the case of pinned ends to 2. psychological criteria and production quality criteria. 2. for higher modes the differences increase notably. the exactness is satisfactory.6 VIBRATION COMFORT Vibrations in civil engineering applications can be classified under three criteria. In very little cases the measurement equipment and the general conditions permit to discover more than the two first modes. For a singlespan beam with known characteristics (mass and rigidity) the frequencies of the system were determined with both methods: Figure 2–12: Comparison Eigen and Ritz-vectors The first 3 modes are determined with great accordance between both methods. 2. .2 Fundamentals of Vibration Theory Figure 2–11: Relation second/first Eigenfrequency over clamping ratio Another conclusion of this parameter study is the relation between the clamping ratio and the relation of the first two Eigenfrequencies. So when analyzing measurement data of a single-span beam. As this thesis refers to analysis and measurements.75 in the case of clamped ends.

see below: Figure 2–13: Response spectrum effects on persons and structures [2] This graph is from Britisch Standard 6472.2 Fundamentals of Vibration Theory 2. In order to establish limits of vibration characteristics. materials.14 - .1 STRUCTURAL CRITERIA Vibration movements can cause structural damage.1 g as maximum acceleration. depending on vibration characteristics.6.. etc. another standard used is german DIN 4150 part 3. Values are established as a function of building use and frequency: Figure 2–14: Velocity values for evaluation of short-term vibrations Figure 2–15: Velocity values for evaluation of long-term vibrations . a simple one is the limit of 0. Other limits have in mind a combination of vibration characteristics. detail solutions.

2 PSYCHOLOGICAL CRITERIA Independently from structural criteria. the effects of vibration are classified on how might interfere in the production process. 2. Perception depends on the position (seated.6. but does not affect another person which is dancing.15 - . . giving maximum accelerations for every step from comfortable until extremely uncomfortable. This strongly depends on the production process itself.2 Fundamentals of Vibration Theory Swiss norm SN 640312 fist categorizes structures and afterwards establishes these limits for each: Figure 2–16: Acceptation criteria [5] 2. In general. all values are to orientate. etc.) and on the activity. human perception of vibration may cause a loss of comfort until physical damages.3 PRODUCTIVITY CRITERIA In the area of industrial or scientific applications. The same vibration may cause a loss of comfort to a person laying in bed.6. by feet. German standard DIN 4150 offers to calculate a value called KB which afterwards can be compared to a table of limit values: Figure 2–17: KB acceptation values [3] International standard ISO 2631-1 offers a simpler solution.

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