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Copyright © 2007 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data: Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. p. cm. ISBN: 978-1-57685-632-1 1. Test of English as a Foreign Language—Study guides. 2. English language— Examinations—Study guides. 3. Vocabulary—Examinations—Study guides. 4. English language—Ability testing. I. LearningExpress (Organization) PE1128.V63 2007 428.0076—dc22 2007026015 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN: 978-1-57685-632-1 For information on LearningExpress, other LearningExpress products, or bulk sales, please write to us at: LearningExpress 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at: www.learnatest.com
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About TOEFL iBT Vocabulary in Context Using Preﬁxes and Sufﬁxes Word Roots Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms Idioms and Vocabulary Variations Practice Test 1 Practice Test 2 Appendix A: Word List Appendix B: Preﬁxes, Sufﬁxes, and Word Roots
Is it describing something? Then it’s an adjective or adverb. Start small. and then you will understand the dynamics of the whole sentence. you will eventually see how they ﬁt together.Introduction E veryone has three vocabularies in every language he or she speaks: a reading vocabulary. look at the words around it. it can ease your anxiety to substitute words or sounds of your choosing in place of the unknown words. Is it the subject—the person. If the vocabulary in a sentence is a problem. You can also use trial and error to ﬁnd islands of meaning in a sentence. 2. Ask yourself if it’s an action word. With practice. place or thing performing the action in the sentence? It’s a noun or pronoun. it’s a verb. Use the surrounding context to help you guess the meaning or at least the part of speech of an unfamiliar word. Discovering words you don’t know may send your anxiety level soaring. and heard words you’ve never read. Your speaking vocabulary may ignore many words you have either read or heard but do not use. As you discover several such islands and gradually enlarge each one. There are several techniques for breaking sentences into smaller units. Don’t tackle the whole sentence at once. Here’s how to start. think about bringing these three large sets of words together into a rich and useful database that will serve you well. 1. Find a word or a phrase you understand and start adding a word or two on either side. and a speaking vocabulary. and nobody does their best work when they’re anxious. The words something and whatever work well v . You’ve read words you have never heard. As you are reading a sentence with blanks or with words you don’t know. you can learn to take unknown words in stride. The verb provides an anchor for the meaning because it tells you what is being done. 3. One way you can do this is to ﬁnd a verb (an action word that tells you what’s happening) and gradually incorporate the words around it into an increasingly longer phrase as you decipher its meaning. If so. Usually you can ﬁgure out what function a word is serving in the sentence. though. a listening vocabulary. As you explore the vocabulary in this book.
just make sure you do it regularly—at least five days a week for a month. As the meaning of the sentence gradually becomes clear. or before you go to bed at night. thesaurus. you should stick as closely as you can to your plan. this test will also be used to evaluate you by many government. and spelling. Whenever the time is right. Obtaining a better vocabulary doesn’t have to be hard work. friends. write. and then decide how much time you can devote to studying each week. Take them apart. For the TOEFL iBT. you will have to pass the TOEFL iBT (Test of English as a Foreign Language Internet-based test). Determine how much time you have until the test day. It mostly takes curiosity. Share them with your coworkers. You may ﬁnd you prefer nonsense words instead. or family. Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT will help nonnative speakers build or renew vital vocabulary skills. Remember those unfamiliar words you encounter in conversations or while reading.vi VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT in many situations. Vocabulary is a broad topic. If you study hard the first time. you can start substituting words that might work in the sentence. Think about when would be the best time for you. we suggest that you choose a time each day to improve your vocabulary. chances are you will not have to take this exam again—ever! . Once you establish a study plan for yourself. during your commute to work. licensing. Whether your exam is months away or coming up in a few weeks. Always keep your end goal in mind. the better your basic vocabulary skills are. and certiﬁcation agencies. You’ll be greatly rewarded for your efforts— because long after you have ﬁnished this book and taken the TOEFL iBT. With Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT. you will not be allowed to use a dictionary. grammar. Sometimes. It may be first thing in the morning. this book will help you prepare. the better you will do on the entire TOEFL iBT. In general. and comprehend spoken English so that you can succeed in the college classroom. you’ll still possess a wealthy vocabulary of English words! HOW TO USE THIS BOOK If you are trying to gain admission into universities where instruction is in English and this is not your native language. and it forms the foundation for reading comprehension. or other reference tool to help you with unfamiliar words. Begin getting ready for the TOEFL iBT by creating a study plan for yourself. The reason for this is simple: Academic institutions want to be sure that you can read. Welcome them to your world. or exchange and scholarship programs.
I NTR O D U CTI O N
Now, once you have set a study plan for yourself, look at the table of contents to see the types of vocabulary topics covered in this book. You may want to tackle the chapters in sequence, or you may decide to study the sections that give you the most difﬁculty early on in your test preparation. Each chapter is ﬁlled with practice questions to test the new skill you just read about. As you work through the practice questions, you may want to have a dictionary or thesaurus handy. This can help expand your bank of vocabulary words. After you answer the practice questions, you will undoubtedly want to check your answers against the answer explanation section at the end of each chapter. Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT contains two practice tests at the end of the book. These tests will give you the chance to measure what you have learned and review any problem areas that you ﬁnd. If after answering all the questions you feel like you need more practice, reread the questions and try responding one more time. Repetition is often the key to success and studies show that most repetitive tasks become part of a person’s inventory of skills over time. The book ﬁnishes with a helpful word list of more than 650 commonly tested vocabulary words (Appendix A). It will be very beneﬁcial for you to add these words to your current vocabulary. We advise tackling the words on the list as you move through Vocabulary for TOEFL iBT, not waiting until the end of the book. Another helpful list—entitled Preﬁxes, Sufﬁxes, and Word Roots—is included in Appendix B. Understanding the parts that make up a word can give you a clue about a word’s deﬁnition, and this can help you make educated guesses when taking the TOEFL iBT.
About TOEFL iBT
he Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) is used to measure your ability to use English in an academic setting. The TOEFL is designed to indicate your ability to communicate by measuring the impact of reading, listening, speaking, and writing on effective communication. Strong ability in each of these four areas will be necessary as you continue learning in English.
WHO SHOULD TAKE THE TEST
Proﬁciency in English is essential if you are to follow class discussions and complete the reading and writing assignments in most college classes. In many courses, you may also be required to deliver oral presentations. And if you are applying to a graduate program, you may be given a position as a teaching assistant, which means you will be expected to help undergraduate students with their schoolwork, instruct them, and grade their assignments. In order to ensure that you can succeed even though you are not studying in your native language, and that you will be a competent teaching assistant if you are applying to graduate school, colleges and other institutions may require you to take the TOEFL. To determine if you need to take the TOEFL, you should contact each institution to which you are applying for admission.
Speaking. In other words. followed by Listening. READING SECTION (approximately 60–100 minutes) 30 total points This section contains 3–5 reading passages. Language Skills Used Reading Source for Response Reading passage Question Types Factual information • 3–6 per set • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Negative factual information • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Inference • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Rhetorical purpose • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Vocabulary • 3–5 per set • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Topics Identify information from text Reading Identify information in the text that is not true Reading passage Reading Identify information that is strongly suggested but not stated Reading passage Reading Identify why author makes a statement Reading passage Reading Identify the meaning of a word in the text Reading passage . you will not be able to return to that section to ﬁnish or change your answers. each test taker receives the same range of questions. The test is worth a total of 120 points. The test is not computer-adaptive. each followed by 12–14 questions.2 OVERVIEW OF THE TEST VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The entire TOEFL iBT will take approximately four hours to complete and all test sections will be completed in one day. There will be a ten-minute break after the Listening section. After completing a section of the test. and Writing. The ﬁrst test section is Reading.
You can adjust the volume by clicking the Volume button. The Review button will allow you to review the questions that you have answered and make changes. The center of the toolbar will state the question you are working on as well as the number of questions in the section. . Clicking on the View Text button will let you view the entire passage when answering questions. At the top of the computer screen is a navigational toolbar. On the right will be a clock.) The heading on the left of the toolbar will state the section of the test on which you are working: Reading. indicating your remaining time. A scrollbar on the right side of the screen will allow you to move to the end of a passage. Above the clock function are six navigation buttons.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 3 Language Skills Used Reading Source for Response Reading passage Question Types Reference • 2 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Sentence simpliﬁcation • 1 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Insert text • 1 per set at most • 4 answer choices each • worth 1 point each Prose summary • 1 per set at most • 6 answer choices each • worth 2 points each Fill in a table • 1 per set at most • multiple answer choices • worth 3–4 points each Topics Identify the grammatical relationship between two words in the text Reading Identify the choice that restates the sentence indicated Reading passage Reading Insert a sentence in the most appropriate place in a passage Reading passage Reading Choose the three most important ideas in the passage Reading passage Reading Complete a table organizing the main ideas Reading passage As you begin the Reading section of the TOEFL iBT. You may choose to hide the clock by clicking the Hide Time button located next to the clock. (You should note that your time does not stop when you are using the toolbar feature. A Help button will provide some additional assistance for you. a passage will appear on the computer screen.
you may not go back and review questions.4 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Finally. This picture is designed to help you imagine the situation. the Listening section toolbar will state which question you are working on. Difﬁcult words or phrases in the passage may be deﬁned for you. Like the toolbar for the Reading section. You may choose to use the Hide Time button located to the left of the clock. you are asked to click the OK button to conﬁrm that you want to move to the next question. and social science 2–3 conversations. which allow you to move back and forth between questions. Above the clock are four navigation buttons. a question will appear on the screen. An image depicting the lecture or conversation will appear on the screen. life sciences. LISTENING SECTION (approximately 60–90 minutes) 30 total points Stimulus 4–6 lectures. each followed by 5 questions Listening Nonacademic situation on campus Details from conversation Source for Response Details from lecture For the Listening section of the TOEFL iBT. A toolbar will appear at the top of the screen. there are Back and Next buttons. and a Next button that allows you to move to the next question. SPEAKING SECTION (approximately 20 minutes) 30 total points Tasks Task 1 (independent) Task 2 (independent) Speaking Language Skills Used Speaking Topics Familiar things Choose a side Opinion 15 seconds 45 seconds Source for Response Opinion Preparation Time 15 seconds Response Time 45 seconds . The heading on the left of the toolbar will state the section of the test on which you are working: Listening. There is a Volume button that allows you to adjust the volume. When the listening passage is complete. physical sciences. each followed by 6 questions Language Skills Used Listening Topics Arts. and your remaining time. a Help button that will provide some additional assistance. you will listen to the lectures and conversations through a headset. In the Listening section. After selecting Next. the number of questions in the section.
which will be digitally recorded and sent to the ETS Online Scoring Network. Listening. Listening. For the integrated writing task. you will listen to the spoken materials through a headset. and Writing Writing Choose a side Topics Academic topic Source for Response Details from materials given Opinion 30 minutes Response Time 20 minutes For the Writing section of the TOEFL iBT. you will type your response to two tasks. WRITING SECTION (approximately 50 minutes) 30 total points Tasks Task 1 (integrated) Task 2 (independent) Language Skills Used Reading. you will speak into the microphone to record your responses. and Speaking Topics Nonacademic situation on campus Academic topic Task 4 (integrated) Reading. and Speaking Task 5 (integrated) Listening and Speaking Task 6 (integrated) Listening and Speaking Academic topic Details from materials given 20 seconds 60 seconds To take the Speaking section of the TOEFL iBT. Human raters rate writing responses through the ETS Online Scoring Network. Listening.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 5 Source for Response Details from materials given Details from materials given School-related problem with two possible solutions Opinion about materials given 20 seconds 60 seconds 30 seconds 60 seconds Preparation Time 30 seconds Response Time 60 seconds Tasks Task 3 (integrated) Language Skills Used Reading. For all of the speaking tasks. you will be required to wear a headset with a microphone. . you will listen to the spoken materials through a headset. For four of the speaking tasks. An image depicting the lecture or conversation will appear on the screen.
www. such as sample questions. call 1-443-751-4862. J HERE’S A HINT THE INFORMATION AND REGISTRATION BULLETIN Before you register for the TOEFL.S. It includes a list of test sites in all countries.toeﬂ. The ETS created this document to provide you with all the important information you will need to know before you take the TOEFL iBT.org • by calling the ETS at 1-609-771-7100 You can register online at the TOEFL website. test center address. which you must bring to the test center on test day. 24 hours a day. Canada. To register by phone. You can pick up or request a bulletin: • from admissions or international student ofﬁces at most colleges and universities • from ETS representative ofﬁces • from the TOEFL website. To schedule a test date in the United States. territories. or U. You will be given a test date. and a registration number. To schedule a test date elsewhere. reporting time. Request a bulletin as soon as possible if you have not already done so. you must call the location where you mailed your registration at least three full business days before the registration deadline for your earliest test choice. To schedule a test date in the United States. ﬁll out the registration form in the Information and Registration Bulletin. which you will need to report your scores to the colleges and universities you would like to attend. or U. you will receive an instant e-mail conﬁrmation. test instructions. If you live outside the United States and want to test in the United States. call 1-800-GO-TOEFL (1-800-468-6335). you should obtain the Information and Registration Bulletin. You should receive a registration conﬁrmation. Payment methods include a valid credit card or an electronic check (if you have a bank account in the United States or its territories).6 REGISTRATION VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Because test centers ﬁll up quickly.S. A list of RRCs is printed in the Information and Registration Bulletin. To register by mail. After completing the registration form. territories. mail your completed registration form and payment to the ETS at the following address: . and a list of writing topics. If you do not. you should begin the TOEFL registration process right away. you must call at least seven days before the test date and pay using a valid credit card. and other information you will ﬁnd useful. seven days a week. call the Regional Registration Center (RRC) for your area or country. Canada. institution codes.
by mail. You can have ofﬁcial score reports sent to institutions other than those you indicate when you register.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 7 ETS-TOEFL iBT Registration Ofﬁce P. TOEFL test scores are kept on ﬁle for two years after the test date. Online and phone registrations must be completed one week before the test. The cost is $17 for each report ordered. Fifteen days after you take the test. you can get one examinee score report and up to four ofﬁcial score reports sent to the institutions of your choice. NJ 08541–6152.M. CANCELING OR RESCHEDULING YOUR EXAM If your schedule changes and you can’t make it to the test you have registered for. Box 6152 Princeton. or by fax. you may view your scores online. HOW MUCH DOES THE TOEFL IBT COST? The fee for the TOEFL iBT is $140. call the RRC for your area or country. while mailed registrations must be received at least four weeks before the test. you will be . Fifteen business days after completing your TOEFL iBT. This includes an examinee score report and four score reports sent to institutions that you designate when you register for the test. USA To schedule a test date elsewhere. If you reschedule.O. Reports requested online are mailed about four working days after your request. (local test center time) on the day prior to your test date. Requests must be made online. you can either reschedule or cancel your test date. Although the ETS makes it possible to register by mail. You may choose those institutions up until 10 P. OFFICIAL SCORE REPORTS At no cost. Reports requested by mail or fax are mailed about two weeks after receipt of your request. Scores more than two years old can’t be reported. the examinee score report will be sent to you and ofﬁcial score reports will be sent to your selected institutions. online and phone registrations are quicker processes. The printed score report that is mailed to you will contain all of the ﬁnal section scores as well as your total score.
Each of the six speaking tasks is awarded between 0 and 4 points based on a rubric. you will be able to reinstate them provided that your request is received within ten days of your test date. The Speaking and Writing sections are subjective. you may be able to register for ESOL classes your ﬁrst semester and continue on to other classes when you successfully complete the ESOL course. If you score below what is required by the institution of your choice. you will receive a refund of $65. The institutions to which you are applying determine the minimum acceptable score. territories. call 1-800-468-6335 to cancel or reschedule. you can take the TOEFL iBT again. The Reading and Listening sections of the test consist of objective test items. If you call to cancel at least three business days before your appointment. meaning each question has a correct answer(s). you can cancel your score at the test center. you feel that you didn’t perform to the best of your ability and that your score is not high enough to get you into the program of your choice. All tasks are graded by trained human raters. After canceling your scores.8 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT charged a $40 rescheduling fee. For each test section.to 30-point scale. Your total score is calculated by adding the four skill area scores together. So. they will not be reported to you or any institutions. This means that there is not one correct answer to these questions. However. the points are converted to a 0. If you do cancel your scores. after taking the exam. the total score will range from 0 to 120.S. PASSING THE TOEFL There is no single passing score on the TOEFL iBT. For testing elsewhere. contact your RRC. some colleges provide ESOL (English as a Second or Other Language) classes. Canada. CANCELING AND REINSTATING YOUR SCORES If. In the United States. or U. . and you will not receive a refund. Each of the two writing tasks is awarded between 0 and 5 points based on a rubric. Alternatively. HOW THE TOEFL IBT IS SCORED You will earn between 0 and 30 points for each of the four test areas. But one of the goals of this book is to prepare you to do your best and succeed the ﬁrst time around.
daytime phone number. and the score report will be mailed shortly thereafter. you can request that your answers be rescored up to three months after your test date.S. Complete the TOEFL iBT Rescoring Request Form. If the rescoring conﬁrms your original score. and payment of the $20 reinstatement fee. These revised scores will become your ofﬁcial scores. and U. registration number. you will be notiﬁed via mail. you will receive a revised examinee score report. You will be charged $60 for a Writing or a Speaking section rescore by scoring specialists. Canada. date of birth. The reinstatement will take approximately two weeks to be reported online. . which is found on the TOEFL website. NJ 08541-6151 USA Your request should include your name. Territories) 1-609-771-7100 (all other locations) Fax 1-609-771-7500 Mail TOEFL Services Educational Testing Service P. WRITING AND SPEAKING RESCORING If you disagree with your score on the Writing and Speaking sections. If there is a change in your score. Rescoring results will be available about three weeks after the receipt of your rescoring request. The institutions that you selected as score recipients will receive new ofﬁcial score reports.O. Box 6151 Princeton.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 9 You may reinstate your scores by: Phone 1-877-863-3546 (United States.
or chew gum. TOEFL TEST CENTER PROCEDURES AND REGULATIONS On the day of your exam. you believe you have a problem with your computer or need the administrator for any reason. at any time during the test. you have to leave your seat at any time other than the break. raise your hand. or electronic or photographic devices of any kind to the test session. Read the identiﬁcation requirements in the Information and Registration Bulletin. To make sure your hard work and studying don’t go to waste because you forgot a piece of paper. Your picture will be taken and reproduced on your score report and the computer monitor you are using. Your identiﬁcation will be checked before you are admitted. arrive at the test center at least 30 minutes early to allow time for registration and identiﬁcation. If. beepers. smoke. AGAINST THE RULES Here is a list of things you are not allowed to do during the exam or exam breaks. drink. you will be required to write your signature and sign a conﬁdentiality statement. collect all the items you are taking to the test in advance and put them in a safe place.10 ON TEST DAY VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The ETS is very strict about identiﬁcation for TOEFL test takers. You will also need your registration number. pagers. for some reason. Timing of the section will not stop during an unscheduled break. If. To receive an ofﬁcial score report. watch alarms. DON’T: • bring cellular phones. Failure to comply with these rules may result in your dismissal from the test center and canceling of your scores without a refund. you must answer at least one question in each section. raise your hand. All testing sessions are subject to videotaping. you will most likely not be admitted to the test center. except as permitted in designated areas of the testing center during breaks. In most cases. If you fail to provide proper registration and identiﬁcation documents on the day of the test. . a passport that has your photograph and signature will do. • eat. Before the test session.
The following are considered testing aids: pencils or pens. • exceed the time permitted for the break. • attempt to tamper with the computer. . watch calculators. • give or receive unauthorized help. rulers. calculators. • attempt to take the test for someone else or fail to provide acceptable identiﬁcation. or any other electronic or photographic devices or keyboards.AB O UT TO E F L iBT 11 • refer to or use any testing materials or aids at any time during the testing session or break. and be sure to comply with the test administrator’s directions at all times. Follow these guidelines. pamphlets. • attempt to remove test questions (in any format) from the testing room. • create a disturbance or behave inappropriately. highlighter pens. • leave the test center during the test session and break. translators. notes. dictionaries. books.
Once in a while. of course. the best way to deﬁne a word. . this means that you can look for clues in and around the vocabulary word. or details that lead you to identify the vocabulary word in question. you’ll find a group of words set off by commas (called an appositive). you must rely on the context clues in the sentence. Simply put. Context refers to the words and sentences that surround a particular word and help convey its meaning. which gives you a very clear definition of the word. For example. But if you’re in a testing situation and you are not allowed to use one. sometimes you’ll find synonyms (words that mean the same thing) or antonyms (words that mean the opposite). O DEFINITION context: the words and sentences that surround a word or phrase and help convey its meaning 12 Ever since you learned your ﬁrst English words.2 Vocabulary in Context O ne of the most fundamental vocabulary skills is how to use context to determine meaning. Using a dictionary is. You can use the context of a sentence—or context clues—to help you detect the meaning of a word. you have been determining meaning from context. The term context clues means that other words in the sentence “give away” or “give clues” to the definition.
Candor means a. readiness to judge or criticize others. Restatement Positive/Negative Contrast Speciﬁc Detail This sentence uses two types of context clues: restatement and positive/negative. because the speaker admires Arun’s candor. In this case. you will soon forget what it means. The ﬁrst part of the sentence tells you that candor is a good thing (positive/negative). When you are learning a new word. Use the words you learn in your everyday communications as much as possible so they become a permanent part of your vocabulary. Introduce them to members of your family. sincere speech—Arun tells people exactly what he thinks. b. Based on the context of the sentence. 2. you can tell from the context whether it is something positive or negative. d. comfort with speaking in front of people. sincere speech. only b can be the correct answer. notice how the context of the sentence below helps give the word candor its meaning: ➥ I admire Arun’s candor. There a four types of context clues that can help you: 1. frank. 3. and this can help you narrow down your answer choices on an exam. Now. if you don’t use it. c. You can therefore eliminate choices a and c. irritability. Even if you can’t ﬁgure out exactly what candor means. 4. he can be a bit too honest. Write new words down on a vocabulary list. Use them in e-mails or letters to friends. . thus signifying that candor means frank. you can assume that candor is a positive thing. The speaker tells you that Arun is sometimes too honest.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 13 J HERE’S A HINT USE IT OR LOSE IT There’s really only one rule for building your vocabulary: Use it or lose it. but sometimes.
There are two other types of context clues to watch for. The speciﬁc details tell you that Sarah did her best to laze around the house all day.14 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT while the second part essentially restates the meaning of the word. done her grocery shopping. you know the other answers are incorrect because Sarah didn’t do anything luxurious (choice a) and she didn’t do any work or chores (choice b). How do you know what indolence means? From two more types of context clues: contrast and speciﬁc detail. and left the dishes in the sink. Read the following paragraph as an example (but don’t look up the italicized words!): Sarah had worked so hard for the past few weeks that she decided she owed herself a day of complete indolence. and by noon. hard labor c. Thus you can determine what indolence means. ordered take-out so she wouldn’t have to cook. essentially deﬁning the word within the sentence. But on Sunday. she slept until noon. deep sleep d. Here’s another example of a sentence that uses these two types of context clues: ➥ Hani suddenly found himself destitute. You know that the assiduous Sarah of . laziness. Again. Besides. She left her chores for another day and spent the afternoon lying on the couch. laziness The correct answer is d. so that you can tell exactly what destitute means—extremely poor. she was back to her old assiduous self. Now let’s look at the context in which assiduous is used. reading and watching television. while the second and third sentences conﬁrm this with speciﬁc details. she had already cleaned her whole apartment. Saturday. The context also restates the meaning of destitute. and paid her bills. The ﬁrst sentence suggests that indolence is in contrast to working hard. it is not a good thing to be so poor one can barely afford to eat. so choice c is also incorrect. The context clearly reveals that destitute is not a positive word. so poor that he could barely afford to eat. you have two kinds of context clues: contrast and speciﬁc detail. There’s no mention of sleep in the paragraph. luxurious b. Let’s say you were given the choices below: a.
however. hardworking. while playful is neutral in tone. or persevering. O DEFINITIONS denotation: a word’s exact meaning or dictionary deﬁnition connotation: a word’s implied meaning or emotional impact When you come across an unfamiliar word. Sometimes. the connotation can be favorable or positive.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 15 Sunday was very different from the indolent Sarah of Saturday (contrast). A quack. For instance. . you might get a deﬁnition similar to that of two of its synonyms. look at the dictionary deﬁnitions of the following words. not functioning or operating Some English words. slow moving or sluggish inactive: not active or not tending to be active. Assiduous means diligent. spirited and mischievous. very busy on Sunday. for example. when you are looking for context clues. Words also have another meaning beyond their denotation. unremitting. Therefore. Other times the connotation can be unfavorable or negative. ➥ ➥ ➥ procrastination: to postpone or delay needlessly lazy: to be resistant to work or exertion. Each word also has a connotation—an implied meaning or emotional impact. the connotations of the surrounding words will usually tell you whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. have more than one meaning. some words do not arouse any emotion at all and have a neutral connotation. cleaning and working around the house (speciﬁc detail). At a minimum. but a quack is also an untrained or unqualiﬁed person who pretends to be a doctor. For example. the context will often reveal a great deal about the connotation of that word. make sure you look at the surrounding words carefully and consider their denotations and connotations. DENOTATION AND CONNOTATION The denotation of a word is simply its dictionary deﬁnition. You also know what the assiduous Sarah does: She is very. even if it does not provide enough information for you to determine its denotation. Spirited has a positive connotation and mischievous a negative connotation. is the sound a duck makes. Then again. But all three of these words have different connotations and bring to mind different feelings. if you were to look up the word playful in the dictionary.
conveys the same basic idea but with the suggestion of brusqueness or abruptness. though. However. While some synonyms can be similar. or plentiful supply of food on the table for a dinner party. It is important to choose your words carefully and to be as clear as possible when choosing synonyms. a glut of food is an excessive amount of food that suggests there will be waste involved. Is Sabina a graceful dancer? An awkward dancer? Or an accomplished dancer? You simply cannot tell from the context. on the other hand. ample. they are rarely identical. each word carries its own speciﬁc connotation and leaves a slightly different impression. you would still be able to understand the main idea of the passage even if you did not know—or could not ﬁgure out—the meanings of indolence and assiduous. because the sentence provides almost no context at all: ➥ Sabina is an utterly inept dancer. So while test questions will often ask you to identify synonyms such as laconic. suggesting brevity with a sense of polish or elegance. plentiful. HOW MUCH CONTEXT DO YOU NEED? In the passage about Sarah. For example. It is important to know that there are often many synonyms for one word. one of these words suggests an overabundance. and glut suggest abundance. But you could ﬁgure out what inept means by . has the most positive connotation of these three words. for example.16 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT J HERE’S A HINT ALL SYNONYMS ARE NOT CREATED EQUAL Synonyms are words that share the same meaning or nearly the same meaning as other words. Although some synonyms are interchangeable. Laconic. conveying a sense of compactness or tightness in how an idea has been expressed. In some cases. you can’t even ﬁgure out if it is something positive or negative. when it comes to your own communications. Thus. terse. and succinct. you can’t understand what inept means from the following example sentence—it simply does not provide sufﬁcient context. While you can have a bountiful. most words have their own unique connotation. In fact. you should choose your words carefully. Terse. Succinct is more neutral. although these words are effectively synonymous. your understanding of a sentence or paragraph depends on your understanding of a particular word or phrase. For instance. the words bountiful. ample.
◗ Sentence Structure The single most important key to the meaning of a sentence is its structure. The basic strategy is to separate the sentence into units divided by punctuation. it’s hard at ﬁrst and gets easier as you practice. The best and easiest way to determine sentence structure is to look at its punctuation. here’s a sentence that does give you the context you need to determine the meaning of the word: ➥ Despite years of lessons. though. The unit that expresses a complete thought will . including the many complex sentences you will encounter in your college reading. Being able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words from their context is an essential vocabulary skill. Once you have the key to the code. The great thing is that these are master keys that can unlock any and all sentences. Even if you have no idea what a word means. you can still tell something about the word by how it is used—by examining the words and ideas surrounding it. a careful look at the context will give you enough clues to interpret the deﬁnition. Now we can tell through context that inept means awkward or clumsy. though. Sentence completion questions always have one or more commas or semicolons. That’s the subject of Chapters 2 and 3. By looking for the way the words are used in the paragraph. you must look at the passage for clues that will uncover the deﬁnition of the word. you can ﬁgure out what these words mean. More often than not. Meanwhile. There are some basic skills you need to acquire. Think of yourself as a detective trying to decode a secret message. Like detectives looking for clues at a crime scene. SENTENCE DETECTIVE Deciphering some sentences can seem like an impossible mission. Sometimes you will ﬁnd unfamiliar words whose meanings are indecipherable without a dictionary. it’s easy to decipher the message. but like everything else worth doing. The following sections will give you the keys you need to unlock the meanings of even the most complex sentences. Sabina remains an utterly inept dancer who simply stumbles across the dance ﬂoor. however. Often. one of the units will express a complete thought.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 17 breaking down the word into its preﬁx (in-) and word root (ept). then at least one unit will have one or two blanks.
If scientists used to think one thing until they found sacred objects. archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion that the Maya used the caves solely for ________ functions. Now you’re ready to use the ﬁrst unit to illuminate the second. This question has a blank in each of its two units. is the best answer choice. The first unit. The second unit. tells you that the second unit has something to do with what happened 1) after finding sacred objects and 2) in Mayan caves. secular When you divide this sentence into punctuation-deﬁned units. tells you that 1) archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion and 2) their opinion (before being revised) was that Mayan caves were used only (solely) for some kind of function. you have: After ﬁnding sacred objects inside numerous Mayan caves. Your ﬁnal step is to look at the answer choices to ﬁnd the one that matches the idea you have formed about what needs to be in the blank(s). a. Choice d. . Your mission is to figure out what goes in the blank. Now you know you need to ﬁll in the blank with a word that means “not sacred. consider this sample question: Select the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. ➥ After ﬁnding sacred objects inside numerous Mayan caves. Here’s an example of a sample question that doesn’t divide neatly into a complete unit and an incomplete unit.” a word such as civic. or secular. namely what kind of function archaeologists used to think the caves were exclusively used for. theological c.18 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT tell you what the unit(s) with blank(s) need to say. the unit without the blank. reverent b. it means they used to think the caves were not used for sacred purposes. religious d. secular. and archaeologists have begun to revise their opinion that the Maya used the caves solely for ________ functions. For example. the one with the blank.
sometimes you have to complete one portion of a two-blank sentence before you can work on the logical relationship of another unit. There are three types of logical relationships commonly expressed in sentence completion questions: contrast. . The famous daredevil actually had an unexpected kind of temperament. and cause and effect. Think of them as clues to a mystery. or move about on one’s own. daring. as illustrated by the fact that he did not _______ until he was two years old. there’d be no way you could know what kind of words go in the blanks. Mastering these three relationships will help you succeed on sentence completion questions. as illustrated by the fact that he did not _______ until he was two years old. What kind of temperament would you expect a famous daredevil to have? Adventurous. . one that points you toward the meaning of the sentence. perambulate c. if not done before age two. The second unit of the sentence. reckless . careful . Even if you didn’t know that to perambulate is to walk. uses a phrase of comparison. . ◗ A Clue for You The second important skill you must master for sentence completion questions is the ability to identify key words and phrases. If actually were to be removed from the sentence. Think of a synonym for “not bold. . careful . . Among the most useful of these are the words that enable you to identify the logical relationship between the complete unit(s) of the sentence and the incomplete unit(s). Actually is a clue word.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 19 Select the words that best ﬁll in the blanks: ➥ The famous daredevil was actually quite _______ by temperament. The next thing you do is look at the answer choices for words that are similar to the ones you chose. daring . These are the words that most help you decode the sentence. scuttle The ﬁrst unit is The famous daredevil was actually quite _______ by temperament. adventurous . . . amble b. as illustrated by. right? So the word that goes in the ﬁrst blank will be one that has a contrasting relationship to that expected temperament. to let us know that the word that goes in the blank should complete the idea of the daredevil’s having a temperament that is not bold. perambulate. Think of something that.” Put it in the ﬁrst blank. As in the preceding example. a. . you could be fairly conﬁdent that you had the right answer because careful is such a good choice. bold. The best answer to this question is choice b. comparison. rest d. The word actually tells us that there is something unexpected going on. . Now read the sentence using your word in the ﬁrst blank. . would indicate that kind of temperament.
Now you have as the ﬁrst unit. despite. or sociable are other options. despite. its cousin the lion is a ________ animal. The idea expressed in the complete unit of the sentence is similar to or the same as . you will know you’re looking at a sentence that expresses one thought in its complete unit and a contrasting thought in the incomplete unit. COMPARISON There are two kinds of comparison relationships: comparison by similarity and comparison by restatement. all meaning “not solitary. Therefore the word that will contrast with the idea in the ﬁrst unit is in opposition to solitary. in other words. and. as the second unit. then ﬁll in the blank in the incomplete unit with a word that expresses a contrasting thought. Relationships of logical comparison are straightforward. The ﬁrst unit tells you by the use of the word although that the second unit will express a relationship of opposition or contrast. Words that signal comparison include likewise. or opposition. First divide the sentence into two units.” Then you look for the word in the answer choices that is a synonym of the word you chose.20 CONTRAST VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Some words that logically signal a relationship of contrast are: though. its cousin the lion is a ________ animal. in fact. You can see that tigers and lions are being contrasted. and as illustrated by. such as on the other hand. No matter how complex a sentence completion question seems at ﬁrst glance. Phrases that introduce comparisons are just as. as well as. when you see one of these words or phrases. for example. however. as shown. This is the logical relationship of contrast. Although the tiger is primarily a solitary beast. What is an antonym of solitary? Solitary means alone. but. For example: ➥ Although the tiger is primarily a solitary beast. but. First you decipher the thought in the complete unit. Words and phrases that precede restatement are namely. although. and that is. See how the two parts of your sentence oppose each other. or on the contrary. however. and and. Try making a sentence using these words and phrases. gregarious. Can you think of others? There are also phrases that signal a contrast between the units of the sentence. You might choose the word social. Friendly. similarly. The word that goes in the blank has to be an adjective that describes animal in the way that solitary describes beast. using the punctuation to guide you. and yet.
Here’s an example of a cause and effect sample question. as illustrated by his ________ in this photograph. needs to be ﬁlled by a word that will illustrate his slouching. Foster slouched. as a result. Vocabulary CDs and tapes are available in libraries and bookstores. Foster never stood up straight. illogical c. ➥ Scientiﬁc knowledge is usually _______. Try making some cause and effect sentences to see how they work. often resulting from years of hard work by numerous investigators. Here’s an example of a comparison sentence: ➥ Until he went to military school. or its synonym. you can rely on key words to point you in the right direction. irrelevant . Select the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. the sentence states that one thing is a result of something else. When you know what the complete unit says. The blank in the third unit. Again. This will help you match the word to its written form. therefore. therefore. This sentence has three units. English is a difﬁcult language because it is so visually confusing. The correct answer will be posture. Words such as thus. decreasing d. One of the ways you most often encounter vocabulary is by listening. U ON YOUR OWN PRACTICE REALLY LISTENING Some of the best resources for nonnative English speakers trying to increase their vocabularies are CDs or audiotapes. consequently. In other words. a. CAUSE AND EFFECT A third kind of logical relationship often expressed in sentence completion questions is the cause and effect relationship. you know what the incomplete unit needs to say—the same thing. Play the audio version of the book as you read along in the book. and because.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 21 the idea that needs to be expressed in the incomplete unit. and leads to signal a cause and effect relationship. and phrases such as due to. You may also ﬁnd it helpful to use a nonﬁction or ﬁction book and the same book in audio form (CD or audiotape). cumulative b. two complete and one incomplete. The ﬁrst two units tell you that before military school. or very nearly so.
using key words and phrases. even if there’s some vocabulary you don’t understand. of course. tells you that the other unit results from numerous investigators working hard for years. often resulting from years of hard work by numerous investigators. because years of hard work by numerous investigators would produce a lot of something.22 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT The complete unit of the sentence. tells you that you are looking for a word to describe scientiﬁc knowledge as a result of those years of hard work. vocabulary in context questions ask you to determine the meanings of particular words. you’ve made a good start. • You might disdain something that is banal. To prepare for these types of questions on the . Here are several examples: • You abhor what is odious. have nearly the same meaning. match verbs and adjectives together in pairs that will help you recall their meaning. while disdain and revere are opposites. • You might tout something about which you are fervent. You can also mix and match words to create synonym and antonym pairs. Abate and ebb. you will be daunted if you are timid. it must have something to do with lots of stuff. • You won’t be daunted if you are intrepid. • You might grovel if you are servile. Next you determine the logical relationship of the units. Once you learn how to identify the complete and incomplete units of a sentence using punctuation to guide you. and then you understand what the sentence is saying. which. The best answer choice for this question is choice a. ACTIVE READING As you might expect. cumulative. J HERE’S A HINT MIX AND MATCH SENTENCES To help you remember some important verbs and adjectives. • You might vacillate if you are timid or difﬁdent. You know that whatever word the test makers are looking for. applies to lots of stuff. But if you keep working on building your vocabulary. chances are you will understand the crucial words. for example. the one with the blank. The incomplete unit.
To help you eliminate answers. Remember that you have a very powerful tool on a multiple-choice exam: the process of elimination. surprisingly. you will actually spend less time learning the meaning of new vocabulary words. you will often be able to determine meaning from context. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Vocabulary-in-context questions are common on standardized tests. These words often tell you whether the word is positive or negative and/or set up contrast clues. By reading actively. however. like the TOEFL iBT. Consider the tone and connotation of the other words in the sentence. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to use while preparing for and taking the exam: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● On any vocabulary-in-context question on an exam. This may sound like a contradiction. the more you will comprehend. As you read an English-language newspaper or magazine. and the less time you will spend looking up words. have a dictionary handy. Remember the four types: restatement. you can eliminate negative choices if the context suggests the word is positive. For example. If you have heard the vocabulary word before but aren’t sure what it means. try to remember the context in which you heard it used before.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 23 TOEFL iBT. This may help you better use the context as it is presented on the exam. contrast. it is a good idea to become an active reader. From the start. Look for introductory words and phrases such as unfortunately. read the sentence with each answer choice substituted for the vocabulary word. positive/negative. This is a skill you can practice every day. you can usually eliminate one or two answers that you know are incorrect. Look up as many unfamiliar words as you can so that your bank of vocabulary words becomes as large as possible. At a minimum. By reading carefully. Read carefully. this can often help you determine whether the vocabulary word is positive or negative. . Look for speciﬁc details that provide clues to meaning. but if you make a habit of taking the time to read carefully and actively. and speciﬁc detail. Often. you will continually expand your bank of vocabulary words—and the bigger your word base. there will be some kind of context clue to help you determine meaning. putting the word in the context of the sentence can help you determine whether an answer is right or wrong.
1. nocturnal 3. talkative b. The _____________ data supports the belief that there has been an increase in population in the county. remainder c. assessment 4. practical d. a.24 PRACTICE QUESTIONS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Choose the best vocabulary word to ﬁll the blank. a. a. but secretly she was very excited. demographic c. accomplished c. blasé . Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. artiﬁcial d. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. a. revenue d. incumbent 2. receptive c. candid d. The _____________ collected from real estate taxes helped to balance the town budget. domain b. dedicated b. The _____________ president differs from the past president on healthcare reform issues. She pretended to be _____________ about the new job opportunity. nominal b.
The teacher put the crayons on the bottom shelf to make them _____________ to the young children. nadir 6. decrepit 7. irrelevancy 8. My computer was state-of-the-art when I bought it three years ago. musty d. summit c. loneliness d. The suit had a(n) _____________ odor. as if it had been stored in a trunk for a long time. aged b. circumference b. dedicated c. but now it is _____________.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 25 5. We were tired when we reached the _____________. scented c. eloquent d. but the spectacular view of the valley below was worth the hike. he longed most of all for _____________. accessible b. receptive c. unnecessary d. ambiguous 9. a. fulcrum d. solitude b. a. Because his workplace was so busy and noisy. a. current b. association c. outmoded . a. a.
c. Jensen applied for the job anyway because it was his dream position. complex. Benign means a. c. of local origin. Visiting all the tea shops in the city. a. b. 14. c. to be under close scrutiny. cadence 11.26 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 10. discovery d. b. harmless. quest c. surge b. . b. clearly and fully stated. insane. Although it was futile because he didn’t meet half of the requirements. d. Teem means a. 12. nearly overﬂowing. to close down temporarily. 13. intricate. d. Futile means a. radical. d. d. to lose business due to circumstances beyond one’s control. natural. c. chronologically ordered. useless. ambiguous or implied. Karen was relieved to learn that the chemicals in her well water were all benign. fruitful. Explicit means a. b. they were on a _____________ to ﬁnd the perfect cup of tea. dangerous. Make sure the directions are very explicit so that no one makes a mistake. to be full of. The hotel is teeming with security personnel because the leaders of several countries are here for a summit meeting.
Evade means a. 18. 16. to deviate. b. c. c. elegant. I completely lost track of Tula’s point because she kept digressing to unrelated topics. d. difﬁcult to forget. who was always one step of his creator. to refuse to answer directly. Digress means a. . b. d. b. to change the tone. Terse means a. to answer indirectly. to express concisely. and the rest of the meeting was highly productive. to escape or elude. The senator evaded the question by changing the subject and accusing his opponent of misconduct. to deceive. to soften. Victor Frankenstein spent the last years of his life chasing his elusive monster. stray. b. cut 500 words from the 2. d.000-word article.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 27 15. concise. 19. c. descriptive. preferring a more terse writing style. to regress. difﬁcult to compare. d. difﬁcult to capture. to refuse. to create. to intensify. Xiu’s timely joke served to diffuse the tension in the room. b. Diffuse means a. revert. c. The editor. difﬁcult to avoid. factual. d. c. 17. Elusive means a.
banter c. Samantha hasn’t said why she’s been so withdrawn lately. sustain b. Incumbent means holding any post or position. Their conversation was considered playful _______ between two old friends. 2. nourish ANSWERS How did you do on identifying context clues? Check your answers here. d. a. c. b. 6. d. a. to guess. 3. c. a. to conﬁrm. activities 22. can be a desirable thing. 7. unlike loneliness. Accessible means capable of being reached or being within easy reach. He tried to ______________ the sinking morale of his friend in the hospital. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. a. Blasé means bored or unimpressed by things after having seen or experienced them too often. Demographic data is the branch of research that deals with human populations. bolster d.28 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 20. 5. . Revenue is the income of a government. d. 1. where the hikers would have a good view. antics b. 8. foster c. b. Solitude. 4. A musty odor is one that is stale or moldy. b. Surmise means a. and it would be something a person who works in a busy ofﬁce would crave. to surprise. c. to believe. but I would surmise that it is because she is still upset about not being able to go to camp. behavior d. 21. The summit means the highest point.
Karen would logically be worried about chemicals in her water and relieved if she learned those chemicals were harmless. b. to be present in large numbers. Outmoded means no longer in style or no longer usable. eluding the grasp. mild. To teem means to be full of. vain. a. disperse. Choice a is incorrect because antics are unpredictable behavior or actions. The speaker loses track of the point because Tula keeps shifting from the main topic to unrelated subjects. exact. 16. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking. 15. d. 11. Futile means useless. Jensen’s application is useless because he does not meet the minimum requirements for the job. Numerous security personnel typically surround the leader of a country. 13. 21. If there is a meeting of several foreign leaders. A quest is a search or pursuit of something. Choices c and d are incorrect because their deﬁnitions are too broad and do not focus on conversation. answering. 18. 12. difﬁcult to capture. 19. to avoid fulﬁlling. using no unnecessary words. who constantly escaped his grasp. c. b. The sentence tells you that Dr.VO CAB U LARY I N C O NTE XT 29 9. To digress means to turn aside. producing no result. Terse means concise. a. b. d. To evade means to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. Elusive means evasive. Banter is deﬁned as remarks or talk that is playful and teasing. in this case for the perfect cup of tea. 14. hopeless. Frankenstein was never able to catch the creature. 20. having a beneﬁcial effect. If the directions are clearly and fully stated. Xiu’s joke softened the tension so that the meeting could be more productive. d. The senator avoids answering the question by changing the subject. Choice d is the only answer that makes sense in the context of the sentence. The context tells you that the directions need to be clear to prevent an error. there is likely to be a great number of security ofﬁcers in the hotel. 17. to soften or make less brilliant. d. . straightforward. 10. gentle. To surmise means to form a notion from scanty evidence. b. a. dramatically reducing its wordiness. The narrator is guessing that Samantha has been withdrawn because she is upset about not being able to go to camp. The main clue is that the editor cut the article by 25%. Explicit means clearly and fully stated. deviate. or doing. it will help ensure that no one makes a mistake. d. Benign means not harmful or malignant. To diffuse means to spread throughout.
and d are all incorrect. . b. If the friend has a “sinking morale. The speaker would not want his friend’s morale to continue to sink. Choice a. The speaker would.30 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 22.” this means that the friend’s feelings or attitude are overwhelmed or defeated. c. want to raise or bolster this morale. thus.
breaking those words into their parts can help you determine their meaning. There are dozens of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes in the English language. Learning preﬁxes and sufﬁxes in another language may seem like a daunting task. ﬁx. but the job may be easier than you think. This chapter reviews preﬁxes and sufﬁxes and how you can use them to add new words to your vocabulary—and better understand words you already know. For example. changes: 31 . you are already using the same preﬁxes and sufﬁxes with simple words that you already know well. The more familiar you are with these fundamental word parts. A good knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes is essential to building an effective vocabulary. PREFIXES Preﬁxes are syllables attached to the beginning of words to change or add to the meaning of the root word in some way. meaning before.3 Using Preﬁxes and Sufﬁxes W hen you come across unfamiliar words without context. the easier it will be to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. Though preﬁxes and sufﬁxes often appear in books like this with sophisticated vocabulary words. the word preﬁx itself uses the preﬁx pre-. Thus the meaning of the root word.
to eliminate incorrect answers. b. knowing that the . For example. c. but even eliminating two or three will be a great help. Don’t know how to spell a word you hear? It doesn’t matter—write it down just as it sounds to you and look it up later.32 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ﬁx: to place securely or ﬁrmly preﬁx: something placed at the beginning of a word Several of the vocabulary words you studied in Chapter 2 used preﬁxes. the base upon which preﬁxes and sufﬁxes are added preﬁx: syllable(s) attached to the beginning of a word to change or add to its meaning sufﬁx: syllable(s) attached to the end of a word to change or add to its meaning You will not always be so lucky as to eliminate all of the incorrect answers. take the word polyglot.means many. is an expert in global issues. Carry a small notebook with you and write down interesting words as you encounter them in your daily life. For example. O DEFINITIONS root: the main part of a word. administers lie detector tests. Thus. d. Knowledge of preﬁxes can help you in many ways as you build your vocabulary and as you prepare for the TOEFL iBT. and to provide partial context for the meaning of the word. it is the only possible correct answer. Although you can’t determine meaning based on a preﬁx alone—you also need to know the root of the word—you can often use a preﬁx to determine whether a word is positive or negative. which uses the preﬁx in-. If you know that the preﬁx poly. Choice d is the only answer that includes the idea of many or multiple. meaning not—not suitable or competent. you can eliminate all but the correct answer in the following question: ➥ A polyglot is someone who a. U ON YOUR OWN IMMERSE YOURSELF IN WORDS Get in the habit of noticing words all the time. including inept. is easily frightened. speaks many languages.
traditionally in three orders of priority). and trilogy (a series of three plays). we have provided two examples of words that use that preﬁx. c. trident. bicycle) tri-: three (trivial. monotonous. you can eliminate choices a and c. With a few exceptions.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 33 preﬁx mal. millennium. monopoly) bi-: two (bigamy. quar-: four (quadrant. to speak badly about.means bad. unity. . With your knowledge of preﬁxes. millimeter) Following is a list of the preﬁxes. to cast an evil spell. triage (responding to the needs in order of priority. centipede. and often untrue things about someone. To malign is to say evil. triple) quad-. quarter. decibel) cent-: hundred (century. For each preﬁx. to charm. If you recall any context in which you have heard the word malign before. trinity. to arrange. bilateral. b. enchant. leaving you with a 50–50 chance of choosing the correct answer. or wrong can help you signiﬁcantly narrow down your choices in the following question: ➥ To malign means a. harmful. these examples are not test-prep words. decathlon. bicameral. quart. those that can tell something about the number represented by the word. you may be able to choose the correct answer. decimal. mono-: one (unique. J HERE’S A HINT NUMERICAL PREFIXES Probably among the most easily recognized of the preﬁxes are the numerical preﬁxes. quartet) deci-: ten (decade. Take a look at some words that contain numerical preﬁxes: bipartisan (two parties). This will help you remember the meaning of each preﬁx—and show you just how well you already know them. d. rather. b. that is. to speak ill of. they are basic words that are probably already a part of your vocabulary. centennial) mil-: thousand (millipede. Among the most common number related preﬁxes are: un-. evil.
expel (to drive out or away) in-: not inaccurate (not accurate). eject). about. reversal. among. com-. disobedient (not obedient) ex-: out. ant-: opposite. a particular incident. comply). intervene (to come. in front of. informal (not formal) inter-: between. off abduct (to take by force). antedate (to proceed in time. come before) anti-. not dismiss (to send away from. atypical (not typical) ab-. or lie between two points of time or things) . circumstance (the conditions or state of affairs surrounding or affecting an event. within intercept (to stop someone or something between its starting point and destination). without amoral (not moral). appear. abs-: from. away. antidote (remedy for counteracting the effects of a poison) circ-. abnormal (away from or apart from the standard) ante-: prior to. out of. circum-: around. jointly cooperate (to work together. together. occur. or an occurrence) co-.34 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ◗ Common Prefixes a-. connect (to bind or fasten together) dis-: away from. opposing. away from exit (go out). before anterior (placed before). an-: not. against antibiotic (substance that kills microorganisms). apart. con-: with. on all sides circumference (the outer boundary of a circle).
evil. below subdue (to overcome. of unusually high quality. much polygamy (the system of having more than one wife at a time). make known in advance) re-: back. misspell (to spell incorrectly) multi-: many. recent. nonsmoker (someone who does not smoke) poly-: many. submarine (a ship that can operate under water) super-: above. multiple (having several or many parts or elements) neo-: new. over. magniﬁcent. malpractice (wrongdoing. especially improper or negligent treatment of a patient by a physician) mis-: bad. again rebuild (to build again after destruction). replace (to put back in its former position. polysyllabic (having three or more syllables) pre-: before precaution (something done in advance to avoid risk). bring under control). abnormal. ill. to take the place of) sub-: under. excellent). superman (a man with powers exceeding ordinary human capacity) . predict (to forecast.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 35 mal-: bad. neologism (a new word or phrase) non-: not nonﬁction (the genre of literature that includes all types of books other than ﬁction). wrong. multiple multimedia (the combined use of several media). a new form of neonatal (of or relating to a newborn child). wrong malfunction (to fail to function properly). exceeding superb (grand. opposite or lack of misbehave (to behave badly). beneath.
After you have completed this chapter. you may realize that agrarian sounds like it shares a root word with agriculture—and it does. there is only a distant hint of the preﬁx deci-. as in unhappy. Some preﬁxes immediately change the entire meaning of a word. or rent a ﬁlm in your native language and watch it with English subtitles. the word decimate meant to destroy a tenth of someone’s property. The point of learning about preﬁxes is to be able to notice how they can change word meanings in recognizable ways. you are not looking to memorize a long list of disconnected word parts. Listening well will improve your English vocabulary. and illegible. but to recognize familiar examples that you can apply to new words when you encounter them. see if you can recall hearing or using any words with similar roots or sounds. Try watching the evening news. Visit a local park or museum where you will hear English around you. dis-. which means “to completely destroy. you might know that it has something to do with land and its cultivation.” in the word decimate. .” Historically. . displeasing. inconsiderate. Go to the movie theater to see a ﬁlm in English. For example. make sure you review the list carefully and study any preﬁxes that are unfamiliar to you. the more you will understand. You may also realize that the sufﬁx -ian calls for an adjective. Now we hardly recognize that meaning in the present deﬁnition. not a verb. The important point to remember is that in learning preﬁxes. Even if you don’t know exactly what agriculture means. J HERE’S A HINT SOUNDS LIKE .36 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT A more comprehensive list of the most common English preﬁxes is located in Appendix B. U ON YOUR OWN GO TO PLACES WHERE ENGLISH IS SPOKEN The more you listen to English being spoken.immediately signal that the word is the opposite of its root. For example. in-. and il. . As you use your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to determine meaning. the preﬁxes un-. For example. Other preﬁxes only remotely affect word meaning. which means “ten.
tells what kind. look how the sufﬁxes in the following table change the word antagonist from a noun to an adjective to a verb (and don’t forget to notice the preﬁx. thing. place. how many. how much adverb describes verbs. can also identify or quantify. exhilarating that (e. an adversary. or state of being adjective describes nouns and pronouns. Elm Court. imagine. interrupt For example. adjectives. to provoke the hostility of . or concept verb shows an action. oblong. opponent opposing. which one. They often change a word’s part of speech. occurrence. combating.. thereby also changing how the word functions in a sentence. jump.g. valor go. Helen. that dog) several (e. which is a word that describes (an adjective or adverb). Part of Word antagonist antagonistic antagonize Speech noun adjective verb Deﬁnition one who opposes or contends with another. brush. Sufﬁxes tell you whether a word is a person. ancient. never. car. Part of Speech noun Function names a person. an action or state of being (a verb). feel. tells where.. very. other adverbs. ant-). adversarial to oppose actively. when.g.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 37 SUFFIXES Sufﬁxes are syllables added to the end of words to change or add to their meaning. or entire clauses. or thing (a noun). here. or a modiﬁer. how and to what extent white. several dogs) slowly. contend. place. clumsily. soon Examples cloud. J HERE’S A HINT PARTS OF SPEECH The following table offers a quick reference guide for the main parts of speech.
but they are both verbs. depending upon its sufﬁx. just knowing sufﬁxes won’t enable you to determine the full meaning of an unfamiliar word. b. However. d. BUT NOT ALWAYS While preﬁxes and sufﬁxes are fundamental components of your vocabulary. nauseated. most words that end in -ish are adjectives describing a characteristic. one who shows deep respect or reverence Again. recurring illness. and only choice d is correct. c. but it can help you determine the function of the word. not adjectives. but look for other clues to meaning as well. easily disgusted. Select the best answer to the question. For example. extremely shy. you can eliminate answer choices that do not match that part of speech. revere worthy of deep respect or reverence. Similarly. disgusted. to honor with a sense of awe. Thus. deserving of honor and respect. and eliminate incorrect answers on an exam. For example. or shocked. use your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes.38 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Likewise. vanquish and varnish both end in -ish. it’s important to remember that they are tools to use in conjunction with other vocabulary skills. the word venerate changes from a verb to an adjective to a noun. if you know that -ish is a common sufﬁx for adjectives. you know that a word with this ending is probably a noun describing a state of being. . including context (see Chapter 2) and word roots (see Chapter 4 and Appendix B) to be sure you are on the right track. as you come across vocabulary words with common preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. Choices a and b are deﬁnitions for other parts of speech—a verb and a noun. zero in on its meaning. Squeamish means easily sickened. respectively. ➥ Squeamish means a. Only choices c and d deﬁne adjectives. such as equality (state of being equal). Part of Word venerate venerable venerator Speech verb adjective noun Deﬁnition to regard with deep respect or reverence. J HERE’S A HINT MOST OF THE TIME. to scream or squeal. if you know that the sufﬁx -ity means state of being.
politician (one who seeks or holds a political ofﬁce) -ion: act or process. pianist (one who plays the piano) -ity: quality. dependence (the state of being dependent) -ian: one who is or does comedian (one who creates comedy). materialism (the belief that the acquisition of material possessions is the highest good) -ist: one who performs. process. produces. or state of adolescence (the state of growing up from childhood to adulthood.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 39 The following is a list of the sufﬁxes you need to know for the practice questions at the end of the chapter. state or doctrine of feminism (belief in the social. makes. and again. or degree equality (the state or quality of being equal). and economic equality of the sexes). dentist (one who is trained and licensed to practice dentistry). etc. or process. function enclosure (an area or thing that is enclosed). the transitional period between youth and maturity). . practice. election (the act or power of electing) -ism: act. political. we have again provided two examples of words that use that sufﬁx. these examples are basic words that are part of your everyday vocabulary. ﬁdelity (the quality of being faithful) -sis: process or action diagnosis (the process of identifying the nature or cause of a disease or injury). ◗ Noun Suffixes -ance. process. believes. For each sufﬁx. failure (something that has failed to perform as expected or requested). state. -ence: action. state or condition detection (the act of detecting). paralysis (loss of sensation or ability to move or function) -ure: act.
40 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT J HERE’S A HINT MEMORIZING PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES You may try to save time by memorizing a difﬁcult vocabulary word for each preﬁx or sufﬁx. incredible (not credible. -ian: related to. such as cooperate and dismiss. you can quickly and accurately learn the most common preﬁxes and sufﬁxes by remembering examples of words you already know. trustworthy). ethical (of or relating to ethics or morals) -an. in the manner of a fool) . unable to be believed. exhibiting folly. tending or liable to dependable (worthy of being depended on. relating to. Because the words are already so familiar to you. or characteristic of a humanitarian). -ical: having the quality of. improbable) -al. useful). pertaining to. realistic (of or relating to the representation of things as they really are) -ile: having the qualities of fragile (easily broken. slavish) -ish: having the character of childish (characteristic of. you don’t have to worry about forgetting their meaning and you will be able to recall them easily even while under the pressure of an exam. or resembling a child). vegetarian (relating to vegetarianism) -ic: pertaining or relating to. -ible: capable or worthy of. abjectly submissive. frail). servile (pertaining to or beﬁtting a slave. or characterized by practical (of or relating to practice or action. ◗ Adjective Suffixes -able. theatrical). characteristic of humanitarian (relating to. having the quality of dramatic (of or relating to drama. or destroyed. However. -ial. damaged. foolish (devoid of good sense or judgment.
famous). rather. cooperate). ● ● ● ● Take the time to memorize the most common preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. democratize (to make or become democratic) TIPS AND STRATEGIES A good knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes is an invaluable asset when you are building your vocabulary and studying for the TOEFL iBT. The more familiar the word is to you (e. Use as many . having the nature of cooperative (marked by a willingness to cooperate. specify (to state explicitly or in detail) -ize: to cause to be or become.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 41 -ive: performing or tending towards (an action). all the time. irritate (to cause annoyance or disturbance in. they change or add to the meaning of the root word. the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the preﬁx or sufﬁx. form into beautify (to make beautiful). to make inferior in quality or character). -ose: full of.. relating to glorious (having or deserving glory. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. Remember that you use preﬁxes and sufﬁxes every day. You already know much of this material. sickening) ◗ Verb Suffixes -ate: to make. Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. nauseous (causing nausea. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to use as you develop this skill and prepare for your test. Remember that preﬁxes and sufﬁxes alone do not create meaning. having the quality of. impair. annoyed) -ify. done with or working with others for a common purpose). defensive (serving to defend or protect) -ous. to bring about colonize (to establish a colony). By memorizing these essential word parts. cause to be or become deteriorate (to make worse. -fy: to make. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix B.g. to make impatient. angry.
many sided. b. The more you narrow down your choices. c. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer. determine the part of speech of each remaining choice. Plug in that meaning with the preﬁx or sufﬁx and see if it makes sense. and context if possible to conﬁrm meaning. word roots (covered in the next chapter). uniform. Use your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to eliminate incorrect answers. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. Circumspect means a. Antecedent means a. try to recall another word with a similar root. 2.42 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● ● ● ● vocabulary skills as you can to determine meaning. relating to the circus. two-faced. . b. Check preﬁxes. word roots. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. d. including preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. b. looking around carefully. ﬁghting against. Does it match the part of speech of the deﬁnition according to the sufﬁx? If you know the preﬁx or sufﬁx but still aren’t sure of a word’s meaning. PRACTICE QUESTIONS Directions: Choose the best answer to each question using your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. d. and context. c. 1. Multifaceted means a. Allow for exceptions. Once you have narrowed down your answer choices. Although most words ending in -ist are nouns deﬁning a kind of person (one who does). under the authority of. c. d. cut into parts. put forth in writing. not every -ist word is only a noun. looking after. to examine thoroughly. Elitist is an example of an adjective with this ending. coming before. 3.
amount. 7. or degree. to make equal in status. exactly as expected. to cultivate. exact tone. b. to pressure. 9. . c. Consensus means a. b. to be out of date. an individual opinion. or degree. speaking in a measured. 5. d. c. 8. the act of making someone or something equal in status. amount.U S I N G P R E F I X E S AN D S U F F I X E S 43 4. with an air of superiority. Dubious means a. incapable of making a decision. to send a message. c. d. b. one who doubts. to be uncertain. one who is equal in status. b. to issue a warning. c. general agreement by a group. or degree. a counting of individuals. d. Agrarian means a. Parity means a. b. doubtful. amount. a nonbeliever. the state of being equal in status. haughty. 6. questionable. to warn in advance. amount. d. c. Supercilious means a. disappointing. c. to age gracefully. relating to land or land ownership. or degree. d. To presage means a. d. to doubt or question. less than the norm. b.
a. 8. challenging. fraught with uncertainty. Supercilious means with an air of superiority (as if one is above or better than another). Circumspect means cautious.means before. To presage means to indicate or warn of in advance. 11. The verb sufﬁx -ize means to cause. Antecedent means that which precedes.means not. watchful. To galvanize means to stimulate or rouse into awareness or action. The preﬁx con. Nonchalant means a. not showing anxiety or excitement. The noun sufﬁx -ity means state of being. questionable. 7. b. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of.44 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 10. to predict. indifferent. ANSWERS How did you do on remembering preﬁxes and sufﬁxes? Check your answers here. Parity means having equality in status. The preﬁx multi. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering these topics. 4. on all sides.means around. d. d. 2. to cause to become active or aware. the state of becoming active or aware. d. 5. d. a. together. foretell. b.means above. scornful. c. Galvanize means a. or event that came before. over. c. not showing anxiety or excitement. complex. reversing a previous opinion or decision. Consensus means general agreement or accord. wary. Agrarian means relating to or concerning land and its ownership or cultivation.means before. 11. equivalence. The preﬁx pre. d. The preﬁx super. value or degree. 3. c. Dubious means doubtful. 6. an opinion or position reached by a group. circumstance. b. wavering. Nonchalant means indifferent or cool. to be active or aware. or exceeding. d. 1. to bring about. The adjective sufﬁx -ian means related to.means many. 9. 10. b. The preﬁx ante. disdainful. c. relating to. The preﬁx non. . The preﬁx circum. the thing. done with the intent of harming another. amount.means with. c. Multifaceted means having many facets or aspects. one who becomes active or aware. haughty.
Just as you can better understand a person by learning about that person’s past. most English words have been borrowed from other languages throughout the centuries. As you break down unfamiliar words into their parts. Needless to say. anonymous and synonym share the Greek root nom/nym. You will also have a better understanding of the words you already know. The more word roots you know. manual and manufacture share the Latin root man. too.Word Roots 4 P reﬁxes and sufﬁxes attach to word roots—the base parts of words that typically convey the bulk of their meaning. The study of word origins and development 45 . and English is composed largely of words built upon root words from other cultures. you can also better understand words and more effectively build your vocabulary by learning about the history of words. meaning name. Just as many Americans have their roots in other countries. This chapter examines some common Latin and Greek word roots. so. meaning hand. The two most important categories of roots to learn are Latin and Greek roots because so many English words are built upon Latin and Greek word bases. the stronger your vocabulary will be. do many of the words in the English language. the more roots you know. you will be more likely to recognize the roots and therefore more accurately determine meaning. For example. In fact. the more you will be able to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words and the better you will understand words you already know.
Use mnemonic devices to remember the meaning of word roots. yellow. the focus of this chapter remains on learning some of the most common roots so that you can better determine meaning and succeed on the TOEFL iBT. you are tracing the etymology or history of that word. J HERE’S A HINT MNEMONICS Don’t let the spelling of this word scare you! Mnemonics is a simple concept. Meaning “memory aid. My mother plants herbs in her garden.46 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT is called etymology. Simple mnemonics can be created from rhymes. The idea behind mnemonics is that people remember best when more than one function of the brain is used to process information. Here’s a trick to remember the difference between hetero (different) and homo (same): homo has the same number of letters as same. meaning. Biv is a mnemonic used when learning the colors of the spectrum (red. orange. however. you can use the following sentences to remember these roots: Root nomen herb graph pan phil Meaning name plants write all love Sentence My name is Nom. Phil loves to help others. For now. the study of its origin and development Many words have a rich history. and a detailed etymological study will show you not only where a word comes from but also how its meaning has changed over time. For example. tunes. or spelling. Mental pictures and stories are also useful mnemonics. indigo. or acronyms (words that are made up of the ﬁrst letters of a group of words or phrases. the acronym Roy G. For example. . He will write the information on a graph. All the eggs are in the pan. green. blue.” mnemonics can be handy for helping you remember a word’s root word. violet). When you break down a word and identify a root word from another language. O DEFINITION etymology: the history of a word.
advance procedure: the act or manner of proceeding. • Exaggerate features or images to make them vivid. Notice how many different words can be created by adding different preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to this root and how the different preﬁxes and sufﬁxes change meaning. therefore. homogeneous (also spelled homogenous) means of the same or similar nature or kind. kind ous: sufﬁx meaning having the quality of. a course of action or conduct. yield. (often with reluctance). But most of the time. or tunes. The Latin roots err and pug. meaning to go. On occasion.WO R D R O OTS 47 Here are some tips on creating mnemonics that will be easy to remember and. having a uniform structure or composition throughout. process . useful: • Use rhymes. an acknowledgement or admission exceed: to extend beyond or outside of. or importance predecessor: one who precedes or comes before another in time (as in holding an ofﬁce or position) proceed: to go forward or onward. move on. proper. take the Latin root ced/ceed/cess. roots are the base to which preﬁxes and sufﬁxes (and sometimes other roots) are attached to create a rich variety of meaning. rank. surpass precede: to come or go before in time. respectively. especially after an interruption. Look at the etymology of the word homogeneous: homo: Greek root meaning same gen: Latin root meaning birth. mean to make a mistake and a boxer. • Try humorous or odd sayings that will stick in your mind. Latin and Greek roots are themselves words. to yield. related to Thus. rhythmic patterns. Now. stop. a bringing to an end concede: to acknowledge or admit as true. place. for example. etc. antecedent: that which precedes or comes before cessation: a stopping. a thing yielded. surrender concession: the act of conceding or yielding. • Make your mnemonics personally meaningful.
The preﬁx in. cess means to go. try determining what the word recede means: a. continuing without interruption. or among. or yield. Now add the noun sufﬁx -sion. yield. ced means to go. to go forward blindly b. especially by making concessions implacable: incapable of being placated or appeased. again. b. through.means not. performing or causing an action. to move back. Here are several words formed from another Latin root. harmless substance of no medicinal value given to patients to reassure them or to members of a control group in experiments testing the efﬁcacy of a drug . meaning the act or state of. not direct. to stop or abandon before completion c. plac. pacify. to move or go below the surface. ➥ Incessant means a.means back. stop. to move or go back. Recede means c. Thus. d. withdraw. self-satisﬁed. Re. not stopping. inexorable placid: calm and peaceful. subliminal. notice the rich variety of meaning created by adding different preﬁxes and sufﬁxes to the root word. continuous. ceaseless. going between. yielding readily under pressure. stop. The correct answer is b.48 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Now. and you get: ➥ recession: the act of withdrawing or going back With your knowledge of preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. to allay the anger of. c. retreat d. Again. you can also answer the following question. and the sufﬁx -ant means being in a state or condition of. incessant means continuing without interruption. meaning to please. to go together with others Remember your preﬁxes from Chapter 3. unconcerned placebo: an inactive. retreat. placate: to appease. free from disturbance or tumult complacent: contented to a fault.
meaning time. Many different words can be built from a single root. meaning love: I am love. or a yield sign with cess instead of yield. arranged in order of time of occurrence chronometer: an exceptionally accurate clock. habitual. you can picture the letters EU on a well. because the colors of the trafﬁc light correspond with the three meanings of this root: go. For example. again. If you are a visual learner. make a historical record chronological: relating to chronology. be simultaneous By changing the sufﬁx of synchronize. a precise instrument for measuring time synchronize: to cause to occur at the same time or agree in time. we can turn it into the noun synchronicity. you might picture a stop sign with the root ced written on it instead of stop. especially visual learners. long-lasting or recurrent chronology: the arrangement of events in time. you can come up with rhymes or short sentences to help you remember root meanings. an adjective that means occurring or existing at the same time. I love ham. You could also picture a trafﬁc light for the root ced/ceed/cess. which is the state or fact of being synchronous. Similarly. I love Amy. or a boxer with a pug nose. For example.WO R D R O OTS 49 J HERE’S A HINT MAKE THE MOST OF YOUR LEARNING STYLE For many people. to record in chronological order. For example. chronic: continuing for a long time. on-going. yield. If you are an auditory learner. you could try one of these sentences for the root am. we can create even more words. look at the number of words and the rich variety of meaning that comes from the Greek root chron. . to remember the root pug. stop. you might picture a pug dog in a boxing ring. use pictures to help you remember words. the sequence in which events occurred chronicle: a detailed record or narrative description of past events. To remember that eu means good or well. to occur at the same time. the best way to memorize words is to create a picture in the mind associated with that word. For example.
even equate (to make or consider two things as equal). mea culpa (Latin. dit: to say. use words dictate (to say or read aloud. acute (extremely sharp or severe. After you have completed this lesson. A more comprehensive list of the most common Latin and Greek word roots is located in Appendix B. exceed (to extend beyond or outside of. Review the list carefully.50 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT What follows is a list of some of the most common Latin and Greek word roots. tell. ceed. dict. acr: sharp. COMMON LATIN WORD ROOTS ac. sour. affectionate). stop antecedent (that which precedes). chastise (to punish severely. profession. taking note of the examples.). make sure you review the list carefully and study any roots that are unfamiliar to you. which once again are mostly everyday words. captivated) bel: war antebellum (before the war. enamored (inﬂamed or inspired by love. “my fault”) dic. predict (to foretell. bitter acid (something that is sharp. surpass) culp: blame culprit (person accused or guilty of a crime). etc. keenly perceptive) am: love amorous (inclined to love. yield. as with a beating. cess: to go. equidistant (equally distant) . romantic. make known in advance) equ: equal. rebel (to resist or defy authority) cast. or ill natured). to issue orders or commands). chast: cut caste (a social class separated from others by hereditary rank. to rebuke) ced. especially the American Civil War).
to amplify). as a carbonated liquid. eminent (towering above or more prominent that others. nic. noc. projecting or jutting beyond the line or surface). allowing light to pass through diffusely) lug. burn fervid (very hot. lus: light illuminate (to brighten with light. effervescent (bubbling up. lut. inborn. burning. maximum (the greatest possible quantity or degree) man: hand manual (operated by hand). free from guilt. hateful) . log. lum. error (a mistake. nat. enlighten). to make unﬁt or harmful to living things) mag. speech dialogue (a conversation between two or more people). an incorrect or wrong action) ferv: to boil. maj. luv: to wash dilute (to make thinner or weaker by adding a liquid such as water. obnoxious (offensive. animated) loc. loqu: word. conspicuous. nox: harm. distinguished) nas. ardent. not dangerous or harmful). to lessen the force or purity of).WO R D R O OTS 51 err: to wander err (to make a mistake). manufacture (to make by hand or machinery) min: to project. neologism (a new word or phrase) luc. death innocent (uncorrupted by evil. hang over prominent (standing out. bubble. volume or signiﬁcance. max: big magnify (to increase in size. translucent (almost transparent. innate (possessed at birth. vehement). lofty. inherent) nec. nai: to be born native (a person born in a particular country). high spirited. pollute (to make impure or unclean.
tic: to be silent tacit (not spoken. revoke (to cancel. calm. hostile. true to life. outspoken). pound: to put. aware).52 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT omni: all omnipresent (everywhere at once). science (knowledge. place). decision or judgment). or tension) rog: to ask interrogate (to examine by asking a series of questions). taciturn (habitually untalkative. especially that gained through systematic study) tac. transpose (to reverse or transfer the order or place of. forceful. brilliant. omnipotent (all powerful) plac: to please placid (calm and peaceful). active. verify (to conﬁrm the truth of) vi: life vivid (evoking lifelike images in the mind. placate (to appease or pacify) pon. anxiety. disposed to ﬁght) qui: quiet quiet (making little or no noise. vigorous (energetic. pos. call back. repugnant (highly offensive or distasteful. distinct). still). tending to express oneself often and freely. tranquil (free from disturbance. reserved) ver: truth verdict (the ﬁndings of a jury in a trial. prerogative (an exclusive privilege or right belonging to a person or group) sci: to know conscious (knowing and perceiving. interchange) pug: to ﬁght pug (a boxer). bright. reverse. place deposit (to put or set down. vok: to call vocal (of or pertaining to the voice. implied). strong) voc. withdraw) .
Let what you know about those words help you ﬁnd the meaning of words that are less familiar. too. In this case. the preﬁx can change the meaning of a root word to its opposite: necessary. but you may be faced with four choices that are unfamiliar to you. sufﬁx. If you are lucky. The secret is to keep your mind on the fact that you are looking for the opposite of the word given in the question. Preﬁxes come before the word root.WO R D R O OTS 53 J HERE’S A HINT SYNONYMS AND ANTONYMS Some TOEFL test questions ask you to ﬁnd the synonym or antonym of a word. unnecessary. Antonym questions can be problematic because you can easily forget that you are looking for opposites and mistakenly choose the synonym. circle the word antonym or opposite in the directions to help you remember. you will be able to understand the meaning of incredible. For instance. and sufﬁxes are found at the end of a word. Looking for related words that have the same root as the word in question can help you choose the correct answer—even if it is by process of elimination. To identify most word parts—word root. which means to trust or believe. you have to ﬁgure out what the word means without any help from context clues. and credit. Usually the best strategy is to look at the structure of the word. Another way to dissect meaning is to look for preﬁxes and sufﬁxes. or try to remember a context where you have seen the word before. Otherwise. the same tactics that work for synonym questions work for antonyms as well. or sufﬁx—the best strategy is to think of words you already know that carry the same root. A sufﬁx like -less can change the meaning of a noun: pain to painless. or preﬁx. For instance. See if a part of the word—the root—looks familiar. Not only do you need to know the word in question. preﬁx. Either of these elements can carry meaning or change the use of a word in a sentence. If you are completing practice exercises like those in this book. Knowing this. the word will be surrounded by a sentence that helps you guess what the word means (this is vocabulary in context). the root of credible is cred. synonyms will be included as answer choices for antonym questions. Often you will be able to determine the meaning of a word within the root. Very often. Questions that ask for synonyms and antonyms can be difﬁcult because they require you to have a relatively large vocabulary. but the test question could list just a synonym or antonym and four answer choices. . sacred. Try to determine the meaning of part of the word.
chronology (the arrangement of events in time. ongoing. monarchy (a state ruled by a monarch—a sole and absolute ruler. epidemic (a widespread outbreak of a disease affecting many people at the same time) . bend incline (to lean. encourage (to inspire with hope. slant. or conﬁdence. or cause to do so. recline (to lie back or down) cryp: hidden crypt (an underground vault or chamber. the sequence in which events occurred) cli. cryptography (secret writing. the process or skill of communicating in or deciphering coded messages) dem: people democracy (government by the people through elected representatives). human android (a very humanlike machine or robot. archi. principal. habitual. especially one used as a burial place). hearten) chron: time chronic (continuing for a long time. clin: to lean toward. courage. seeing with one’s own eyes) card.54 COMMON GREEK WORD ROOTS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT anthro. especially one made of biological materials). andro: man. anthropology (the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings) arch. having inherent power of action or motion). to give support. slope. cord. cour: heart cardiac (of or relating to the heart). to have a tendency or disposition toward something). archy: chief. one who creates plans for buildings). ruler architect (one who plans or devises. long-lasting or recurrent). such as a king) auto: self automatic (operating without external inﬂuence or control. autopsy (examination of a dead body to determine cause of death.
excessive hyperactive (highly or excessively active). a marked change of form. especially one praising someone who has died). having a uniform structure or composition throughout). homophone (a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning) hyper: over. thickness. abnormal dysfunctional (impaired or abnormal in function). polymorphous (having or assuming a variety of forms) nom.WO R D R O OTS 55 di. dyslexia (an impaired ability to read) eu: good. obstinate). width). digress (to turn aside. or function). dox: opinion dogged (stubbornly unyielding. character. dogma (a system of principles or beliefs. or swerve. hyperventilate (to breathe excessively and abnormally fast) morph: shape metamorphosis (a transformation. synonym (a word having the same or nearly the same meaning as another) . dia: apart. other heterosexual (a person sexually attracted to members of the opposite sex). nym: name nominate (to name as a candidate). through diameter (a straight line passing through the center of a circle. deviate. well eulogy (a verbal or written tribute. euthanasia (the act of painlessly ending the life of someone suffering from a terminal illness) (h)etero: different. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking) dog. a prescribed doctrine) dys: faulty. heterodox (disagreeing with or departing from accepted beliefs) (h)omo: same homogeneous (of the same or similar nature or kind.
symphony (a long and complex sonata for an orchestra. all the gods of a people or region) pas. periscope (an optical instrument that provides a view of an otherwise obstructed ﬁeld) phil: love bibliophile (a lover of books). theology (the study of god(s) and religion) When working on your vocabulary. pediatrician (a physician specializing in the care of infants and children) peri: around perimeter (the outer limits or boundary of an area). suffering. a systematic investigation of questions about knowledge. agreement between two people) ped: education. disease compassion (deep awareness of and sympathy for another’s suffering). everyone panorama (a complete view in every direction). preﬁxes. child encyclopedia (a comprehensive reference work on a wide range of subjects). religion atheist (one who denies the existence of a god or supreme being). existence. You will be surprised to see how quickly learning these will increase the size of your vocabulary. or you might instead hear a familiar sound in that word. Another person reading that same word might recognize a structural clue in the . respond to a visual clue in a word. and sufﬁxes. pantheon (a temple dedicated to all the gods. sympathy (sharing another person’s feelings. for example. You might. J HERE’S A HINT TRY DIFFERENT APPROACHES Not everyone “sees” words in the same way. remember to focus ﬁrst on roots. path: feeling. feeling pity or tenderness toward another’s pain or suffering. and ethics) phone: sound phonics (a method of teaching reading by training beginners to associate letters with their sound values). harmony.56 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT pan: all. pat. a large orchestra) theo: god. philosophy (love and pursuit of wisdom.
for example. as you are learning roots and trying to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. the meaning of the root bel is war. if you don’t know the meaning of amiable but you do know what enamored means. When you are faced with an unfamiliar word in your reading or on an exam. sufﬁxes. . the root ac means sharp. and word roots. burn. bitter. The prefix im. The acute pain you felt in your ankle when you sprained it was very sharp. you can at least determine that amiable is probably a positive thing and that it probably has something to do with love or friendship. For example.WO R D R O OTS 57 word. which means to boil. she might grasp its meaning by associating the word’s preﬁx with that same preﬁx on another word she knows. for instance. Similarly. and this will both dramatically expand your vocabulary and signiﬁcantly improve your score on the TOEFL iBT. ﬁghts in a war.in impervious means not. J HERE’S A HINT USE WORD PARTS Remember to use word parts to help you determine and remember meaning. bubble. For example. Here are some speciﬁc strategies for sharpening this skill and using it in a test situation. think of other words that sound like they might share a root word. try them all! THE POWER OF ASSOCIATION Need more help memorizing word roots? Use the power of association. By memorizing common preﬁxes. TIPS AND STRATEGIES Many words in the English language come from Latin or Greek word roots. and this tells you that impervious means not pervious. fervent has the root ferv. you will be able to accurately guess the meaning of many unfamiliar words. Now you have the tools to really break down words and work out their meanings. your best strategy is to break it down into its parts and look for a familiar word root. Here again are some speciﬁc strategies for using your knowledge of word roots to build your vocabulary and improve your vocabulary skills. The bottom line is that because you can’t be sure which strategy will work for you or when. especially on an exam like the TOEFL iBT. A rebel.
You already know much of this material. predict. highly educated. to determine meaning. friendly.. d. honest. Remember the power of elimination on an exam.58 ● VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● ● ● ● ● Take the time to memorize as many Latin and Greek roots as you can. use the word root to determine the meaning of the italicized word.g. Or use words that create a vivid picture in your imagination. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end or the chapter. Use words that you are very familiar with as examples when you study word roots. Remember that word roots work with preﬁxes and sufﬁxes—and sometimes other root words—to create meaning. the easier it will be for you to remember the meaning of the root word. The more you narrow down your choices. the better your chances of choosing the correct answer. PRACTICE QUESTIONS For each question. is loosely held together. you will be able to learn new words more quickly and better determine the meaning of unfamiliar words. 1. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. equate). Use the power of association. By memorizing these word bases. truthful. Use your knowledge of word roots to eliminate incorrect answers. errs repeatedly in its logic. d. If you don’t know or can’t remember the root word. is very clear and intelligible. c. good natured. loud. often without realizing it. b. The more familiar the word is to you (e. An amiable person is a. Look at all parts of the word and the context. Do not feel intimidated by the long lists in this chapter or in Appendix B. if possible. 2. A lucid argument a. . tenuous. Remember that you use common word roots every day. frequently digresses. c. talkative. try to recall the meaning of another word with a similar root. b.
circumference. inedible. is known to tell lies. 7. very isolated. at rest. dull. but does not accept responsibility. antiquated. A quiescent place is a. stop or block that person from doing something. likes to pick ﬁghts. b. c. to lessen it. self-satisﬁed. not ﬁt for consumption. d. pick a ﬁght with that person. To exacerbate a problem means a. Something that is eloquent is a. chaotic. hackneyed. harmful. very old. b. c. still. is contented to a fault. d. c. b. dangerous. To indict someone is to a. value or worth. c. b. harm that person. expressed in a powerful and effective manner. trite. d. to solve it. frequently makes mistakes. 4. A complacent person a. c. b. truthfulness.WO R D R O OTS 59 3. . b. c. d. 8. to worsen it. 6. tumultuous. weight. embellish the truth. 5. d. to analyze it. charge that person with a crime. To measure the veracity of something is to measure its a. d.
The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. especially under stress. is very stubborn. 10. bitter. b. and persuasive manner. patience and composure. A person with equanimity a. or bitterness of. The root am means love. unscented. c. b. The root loc/log/loqu means word. self-satisﬁed (pleased with oneself). The root luc/lum/lus means light. intelligible. tantalizing. refreshing. quiet. A noxious odor is a. The root ac means sharp. truthfulness. To indict means to formally accuse of or charge with a crime. a. good natured.60 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 9. Quiescent means inactive. to increase the severity. Equanimity means calmness of temperament. d. 10. d. a. 1. The root plac means to please. b. d. d. violence. The root qui means quiet. d. c. 7. c. is even-tempered and composed. unwholesome. Veracity means truth. speech. Complacent means contented to a fault. Noxious means unpleasant and harmful. Amiable means friendly and agreeable. The root ver means truth. 3. 8. 2. To exacerbate means to make worse. use words. Eloquent means expressed in a powerful. even. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. 5. The root dic/dict/dit means to say. d. likeable. death. ﬂuent. d. tell. Lucid means very clear. harmful. enjoys the company of others. 4. . even-temperedness. pleasing. has a violent temper. The root equ means equal. easy to understand. 9. ANSWERS How did you do on identifying word roots? Check your answers here. b. at rest. 6.
For example. or winter to ﬂavor food (v): I will season the sauce with some curry. he will learn something new about his craft. fall. summer. The term homonym comes from Greek roots meaning: homo (same) nym (name) 61 . One thing to watch for are words that sound the same and may look alike but mean different things.5 Commonly Confused Words—Homonyms D ➥ ➥ ➥ o you know when nail means something used with a hammer and when it means a part of your ﬁnger? When to use ensure instead of assure? Incredulous instead of incredible? Using the right word can make the difference between confusion and clarity—and have a huge impact on your TOEFL iBT score. This chapter reviews commonly confused words that you might encounter on your TOEFL iBT. the word season has several meanings: a part of the year (n): spring. to make experienced (v): Several months touring with a jazz band will season a young trumpet player because every night. They are called homonyms.
It is very important to know your homonyms and use them correctly. is exactly what its two Greek roots suggest: homo (same) phone (sound) It is a word that sounds the same as another but has a different meaning. homophone. are homophones. will often test you on the correct homonym for a given context—whether you should use whether or weather in a sentence. and bear and bare. His conduct in school was terrible. as are slay and sleigh. for example. or piece or peace. If so. great and grate. For example. you may confuse your readers with sentences that are at best incorrect and at worst unintelligible. So take some time to review the following list of frequently confused words carefully. for example.62 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT A speciﬁc type of homonyms are called homographs—words that look alike but that sound different and mean different things. many of which you may already know. this chapter will help you get them straight. There are dozens of homophones. Notice that the different sound in these words can come from the accent. while others that you may still ﬁnd confusing. O DEFINITION homonyms: a group of words that share the same spelling or pronunciation (or both) but have different meanings Standardized tests. conduct has two distinct meanings and pronunciations: ➥ ➥ kun-DUKT (v) means to lead or direct. Another type of homonyms are pronounced the same way. . The term for these words. or stress. Night and knight. like TOEFL iBT. Otherwise. I will conduct the orchestra for the last song. KON-dukt (n) means behavior. on one part of the word. but have different spellings and meanings.
C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 63 FREQUENTLY CONFUSED WORDS The following table lists some of the most frequently confused word pairs along with a brief deﬁnition of each word. CONFUSING WORDS QUICK DEFINITION accept except access (verb) access (noun) excess adapt adopt affect effect (noun) effect (verb) all ready already all ways always among between assure ensure insure beside besides bibliography biography to recognize excluding to gain entry to means of approaching extra to adjust to take as one’s own to inﬂuence result to bring about totally prepared by this time every method forever in the middle of several in an interval separating (two) to make certain (assure someone) to make certain (to check for yourself) to make certain (ﬁnancial value) next to in addition to list of writings a life story .
verb) disinterested uninterested envelop envelope farther further immigrate emigrate imply infer its it’s loose lose may be maybe overdo overdue respiration to inhale and exhale width money most important government building match praise no strong opinion either way unengaged. suggest to assume. verb) compliment (noun.64 CONFUSING WORDS VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT QUICK DEFINITION breath (noun) breathe (verb) breadth capital (noun) capital (adjective) capitol complement (noun. having no interest in to surround paper wrapping for a letter beyond additional to enter a new country to leave a country to hint. deduce belonging to it it is not tight unable to ﬁnd something may possibly be perhaps to do too much late .
not moving writing material in contrast to next in time belonging to them in a place they are climate if substitute for he. sum of interest-earning money standard still. or they substitute for him. she.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 65 CONFUSING WORDS QUICK DEFINITION personal personnel precede proceed proceeds principal (adjective) principal (noun) principle stationary stationery than then their there they’re weather whether who whom whose who’s your you’re individual employees to go before to continue proﬁts main person in charge. her. or them belonging to whom who is belonging to you you are .
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
Another important reason to review homonyms like team/teem and waive/wave is to avoid a “trap” sometimes set by the test developers. That is, you might encounter questions that use the deﬁnition of a familiar homonym as a distracter. Here’s an example: To waive means a. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement. b. to return to the original starting point. c. to relinquish a right or claim. d. to swell up or rise to the surface. The correct answer is c. Waive means to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily, relinquish; to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule, penalty, standard procedure, etc.). If you don’t know the meaning of waive, however, you might be tempted to choose a, which is the deﬁnition of its homophone wave, or d, which is related to the deﬁnition of a wave. These answer choices are tempting because they sound familiar. You need to be able to recognize the familiar homophone and recall its deﬁnition. Not all commonly confused words are homonyms. Take disinterested and uninterested as an example. They don’t sound the same because they have very distinct preﬁxes. But the preﬁxes are attached to the same root, and the preﬁxes seem to have essentially the same meaning: dis- means away from, apart, reversal, not; unmeans not, against. Thus many people assume that both words mean the same thing: not interested. However, only uninterested has this meaning. Disinterested means impartial or unbiased, free of selﬁsh motives or interests—a different word entirely. Some commonly confused words are particularly puzzling because the words not only sound similar, but they also have similar meanings. Take the homophones cue and queue, for example. Both mean a line of waiting people or vehicles, although queue is used far more often than cue for this meaning. However, cue also means a signal, such as a word or action, given to prompt or remind someone of something—and this is its most common usage. And queue can also mean an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing on a computer.
C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S
HERE’S A HINT TRICKY VERBS
These verbs confuse even native speakers of English. To keep them straight, think about which verb in a pair needs an object (a noun or pronoun that’s acted on by a verb). Practice using these verbs in context and you will become more comfortable with them. Lie Lie means to rest, to recline. (subject) past tense: lay, had lain Don’t just lie there, do something! Sit Sit means to rest. (subject) She always sits in the third row. Rise Rise means to go up. (subject) After it is ﬁlled with helium, the balloon rises. Set Set means to put or place. (needs an object) He set the newspaper on the desk. Raise Raise means to move something up. (needs an object) The state is raising taxes this year. Lay Lay means to place, to set down. (needs an object) I always lay my purse on the table.
You already know many homophones and commonly confused words inside and out. The ones you don’t know, you simply need to memorize. The question is, how do you remember these differences in meaning, especially when the words seem so much alike? The key is to capitalize on the differences in the words. And when it comes to frequently confused words, mnemonic devices come in especially handy. Take the commonly confused pair ingenious and ingenuous, for example:
ingenious: marked by inventive skill or creativity; showing inventiveness and skill, remarkably clever ingenuous: 1. not cunning or deceitful, unable to mask feelings; artless, frank, sincere. 2. lacking sophistication or worldliness
The only difference in the spelling of these words is the i/u. You can use this difference to remember key words in the deﬁnition of each word.
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
ingenious: inventive ingenuous: unable to mask feelings
Similarly, the difference between disinterested and uninterested is the preﬁx. Use this to help you remember the meaning: a disinterested person is distanced from the situation and is therefore impartial. Here is a list of more commonly confused word sets that include important vocabulary words for your TOEFL iBT test preparation.
a allude (˘·'lood) v. to make an indirect reference to elude (i·'lood) v. 1. to escape from or evade, especially by cleverness, daring, or skill. 2. to be incomprehensible to, escape the understanding of a appraise (˘·'prayz) v. 1. to evaluate. 2. to establish value or estimate the worth of ˘ apprise (a·'pr¯z) v. to give notice or information to; to make aware of, inform
ascent (a·'sent) n. 1. an upward slope. 2. a movement upward, advancement ˘ ˘ assent (a·'sent) n. agreement; concurrence; consent censor ('sen·sor) v. to forbid the publication, distribution, or other public dis˘ semination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. n. an ofﬁcial who reviews books, ﬁlms, etc. to remove what is considered morally, politically, or otherwise objectionable ˘ censure ('sen·shur) n. expression of strong criticism or disapproval; a rebuke or condemnation. v. to criticize strongly, rebuke, condemn ˘ sensor ('sen·sor) n. a device that receives and responds to a stimulus such as light, smoke, etc. cue (kyoo) n. 1. a signal, such as a word or action, given to prompt or remind someone of something; a hint or suggestion. 2. a line of waiting people or vehicles; a queue queue (kyoo) n. 1. a line of waiting people or vehicles. 2. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing
to come or issue forth. adequate descent (di·'sent) n. a downward slope or movement. 1. or degree to which something reaches or extends. etc. destroyed or lost ˘ extent (ik·'stent) n. gladly feign (fayn) v. not extinct. to think or speak of as being of little worth. illegal. about to occur. 2. character. disseminate elicit (i·'lis·it) v. 1. sufﬁcient. to diminish in price or value. 1. not genuine or real foe (foh) n. 2. to separate and scatter in different directions. artiﬁcial. to collect and lay up. 2. to distribute widely. 1. cache. fake. a difference of opinion. to cause to do so. 2. to express disapproval of. lofty. to pretend. an enemy. still in existence. with joy. as from a source extant ('ek·stant) adj. or opponent hoard (hohrd) n. 2.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 69 decent ('dee·sent) adj. a wide and open space or area fain (fayn) adv. lineage dissent (di·'sent) v. impending ˘ emanate ('em·a·nayt) v. a hidden store or stock. to differ in opinion. 2. nonconformity ˘ deprecate ('dep·re·kayt) v. depreciate depreciate (di·'pree·shi·ayt) v.. 2. 1. to belittle. to lessen the worth of. a large group or crowd. standing above others in quality. meeting acceptable standards. the range. to give the false appearance of faux (foh) adj. to amass and store in secret horde (hohrd) n. disagree. towering above or more prominent than others. reputation. to call forth or draw out. conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or ˘ correct. a vast multitude . distinguished ˘ imminent ('im·˘·nent) adj. to pay out disperse (dis·'spurs) v. 2. distance. to withhold approval or assent. n. v. the act of descending or moving downward. to provoke. contrary to accepted morality or convention e eminent ('em·˘·n˘nt) adj. 1. 1. to belittle disburse (dis·'burs) v. hereditary derivation. forbidden by law. to deduce or derive by reasoning illicit (i·'lis·it) adj. adversary.
1. to level to the ground. fortitude. 1. sincere. forbid by law raise (rayz) v. pique (peek) v. or mistreat. demolish completely. to intrude in other people’s affairs. remarkably clever ˘ ingenuous (in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. to be full of. 1. frank. n. degree. not cunning or deceitful. to carry on. the pointed top of a mountain. courage. 2. to be present in large numbers . to issue commands. activity. the highest possible point of development. put in an upright position 2. a group organized to work together. n. or strength. unwilling to believe ingenious (in·'jeen·yus) adj. n. implausible. 2. 2. 1. 1. 2. 2. a brief or furtive look. quantity. or intensity.70 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT incredible (in·'kred·˘·bel) adj. artless. astonishing ˘ ˘ ˘ incredulous (in·'krej·u·lus) adj. to order a medicine or other treatment proscribe (proh·'skr¯b) v. dictate. a cooperative unit teem (teem) v. the act of raising or increasing. intensity. to erase. religious or political beliefs. order something to be done. or intensity peek (peek) v. to join together so as to form a team. interfere ˘ mettle ('met·el) n. 1. to increase in size. to glance quickly or peer at furtively. lacking sophistication or worldliness ˘ meddle ('med·el) v. to reach its highest point or maximum development. to prohibit. 3. make higher. or sexual orientation ˘ prosecute ('pros·e·kyoot) v. continue. spirit peak (peek) v. practice prescribe (pri·'skr¯b) v. activity. an increase in salary raze (rayz) v. to lift. marked by inventive skill or creativity. obliterate team (teem) v. 1. harass. n. to bring a criminal action against. the sharp end of something tapering to a point. 1. summit. especially because of race. 2. 2. to cause annoyance or irritation. to oppress. 2. beyond belief. unable to mask feelings. 1. skeptical. to vex or create resentment. to provoke or arouse ˘ persecute ('pur·se·kyoot) v. showing ˘ inventiveness and skill.
a surge. Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to help you make the most of your study time. The more carefully you read each deﬁnition and the closer you look at the spelling of each word. you might remember that meddle with a d is something you don’t want to do unless you want to annoy others. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. For example. a back-and-forth or upand-down movement. Use ﬂash cards or other study strategies to review these commonly confused words until you have them memorized. to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. 2. relinquish. Use these words. .C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 71 waive (wayv) v. appraise has the word praise in it.). For example. create pictures that will help you remember word meanings. to signal with an up and down or back and forth movement of the hand. rhymes will be more effective. 1. undulate. dispense with wave (wayv) v. rush. 1. Teaching something to another person is one of the most effective ways to master that material. Remember to make the most of your learning style. and use them to help you remember the words and their meanings. Pay attention to details. You can associate praise with a good evaluation. For example. Review. standard procedure. review. If you are an auditory learner. And then review them again. the more likely you are to ﬁnd a “key” for you to remember the differences between them. if you are a visual learner. review. differs from mettle only because it contains the letter d instead of t. you will remember which word has which meaning. 1. for example. n. 2. 2. a ridge or swell on the surface of a body of water. penalty. Meddle. to move up and down or back and forth. and appraise means to evaluate. 3. Use whatever study or memorization techniques work best for you. Or teach them to someone else. especially of the hand. or sudden great rise TIPS AND STRATEGIES Homonyms and other frequently confused words can be particularly challenging. ● ● ● ● ● Spelling is often the key to distinguishing between commonly confused words. If you use these words in your everyday writing and conversations. etc. especially when you have a limited amount of time to prepare for an exam. Use this key difference to help you remember the difference in meaning as well.
Don’t forget to use word parts to remember meaning.72 ● VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ● Use your ears for the commonly confused words that aren’t homophones. . Both prescribe and proscribe. Xiu is coming this afternoon to determine the (extant/extent) of the problem. 9. meaning to write. 4. 7. 2. but she didn’t say anything directly. have the root scrib/script. The checks were (disbursed/dispersed) this morning. PRACTICE QUESTIONS Choose the correct word in the parenthesis to complete each sentence. Reina is in (eminent/imminent/emanate) danger and needs our help right away. 3. 1. 8. Circle your choices or write your answers on a separate piece of paper. for example. 5. and use the difference in pronunciation to help you further differentiate between the words. Please (precede/proceed) with caution through the construction zone. Here is a list of the books the school librarian would like to (censor/censure/sensor) because she feels they are inappropriate for children. Jillian met with a lawyer to see if her landlord could be (persecuted/prosecuted) for his negligence of her building. Then compare your selections to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. Lilin (alluded/eluded) to problems with her boss. It was a grueling six-hour (ascent/assent) from our camp to the top of the mountain. 10. Luna has come up with an (ingenious/ingenuous) solution to the problem. We will (waive/wave) the late fee because of your extenuating circumstances. Once again. 6. Then you can remember that proscribe is a (written) law that prohibits something.
alluded. ingenious.C O M M O N LY C O N F U S E D WO R D S—H O M O NYM S 73 ANSWERS How did you do on identifying the correct word? Check your answers here. prosecuted. . penalty. disbursed. relinquish. proceed. Imminent means about to occur. To prosecute is to bring a criminal action against someone. An ascent is an upward slope. To censor is to forbid the publication. or degree to which something reaches or extends. distance. 4. imminent. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. etc. censor. move on. extent. showing inventiveness and skill. 9. standard procedure. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. 7. advancement. 1. Ingenious means marked by inventive skill or creativity. To waive is to give up (a right or claim) voluntarily. 2. To disburse means to pay out. To proceed means to go forward or onward. To allude means to make an indirect reference to. 3. 10. waive. distribution. impending. Extent means the range. remarkably clever. advance. 8.). ascent. 6. to refrain from enforcing or insisting upon (a rule. especially after an interruption. a movement upward. 5.
6 Idioms and Vocabulary Variations S ➥ ➥ ➥ ometimes you will hear English expressions that sound familiar but are hard to deﬁne outside of the context in which they are used. . the second. or whirling through hospitals! When you look at them in context. They’re called idioms. perched on top of telephones. He was on the phone when I got to his house. All of these expressions are idioms. Although they don’t always follow the general rules of word usage. An idiom can sometimes mean one of a number of things. that a man was talking on the phone. these sentences bring to mind peculiar pictures of people roped to their ofﬁce chairs. an idiom is an everyday term or expression whose meaning evolved over time as it was used in conversation and informal writing. however. you know that the ﬁrst means that someone was delayed at work. You will get a better idea of what idioms are by looking at these examples: I was tied up at the ofﬁce until late last night. and the third. they are an integral part of any language and are important for you to know. The candidate’s spin doctors were on hand to offer comment on the campaign. 74 Taken literally. that there were people able to interpret a political ofﬁce seeker’s actions in a favorable light. In its simplest form. depending on how it’s used within a sentence.
which are frequently heard around campus. • Clichés are overused phrases that have remained in the language for a long time. referring to the self. and slang. In college. which means that the position carries with it the possibility of tenure. Here are some things to keep in mind about idioms: ➥ Idioms can be confused with clichés. for example. their impact is lessened. “Pretty as a picture. or the world of education. might also appear on the TOEFL iBT. the word (sometimes shortened to prereq) refers to the course or courses that you must take in order to qualify for an advanced course. or even ask a university representative. . is a habit or custom peculiar to one’s self. These include: • tenure: protected employment for professors who have reached a certain level of rank or experience. The word idiom is from the Latin word idio. An idiosyncrasy. An idiom is peculiar not to an individual person but to an individual culture’s use of language. An idiom is seen as any kind of language use that has gained wide usage in that particular language. syllabus practicum alumni registrar transcript core curriculum liberal arts elective master’s degree credit sabbatical dormitory You might want to use the Internet to locate these deﬁnitions. Some of the words you’ll ﬁnd in the world of academia. A related term is tenure track. They are too well known to English speakers.” and “selling like hotcakes” are examples of clichés. • prerequisite: requirements needed before a promotion or the granting of a job.” “right as rain.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 75 U ON YOUR OWN CAMPUS-SPEAK You are likely to encounter certain words on a college campus or in any post-highschool program. • semester: one of two terms in an academic year • bursar: the ﬁnancial ofﬁcer of a college • tuition: the cost of attending courses On your own. try and locate the deﬁnitions of the following words. colloquialisms. Through overuse.
Examples of slang are “tellin’ it like it is” or “What’s up?” Idiomatic phrases in English include hundreds of verbs paired with smaller words (prepositions) that change the meaning of the verb. You could see that laughing off something would have to do with not taking it very seriously. it makes sense that cool heels would refer to excessive waiting because. You might get up early one morning so you can get away on a vacation to France.” and spit simply meant “exact likeness. it is a French word used in English Some idioms are derived from images rooted in experience.” O DEFINITION cliché: an overused word or phrase that has lost its impact in the language. All languages have their own idioms. It’s a corruption of “spit and image. presumably. The use of “should of” for “should have” and “plan on going” instead of “planning to go” are examples of colloquialisms. Then there are idioms that have evolved over a long period of time and have no particular logic or origin: for example. Somewhere in between are idioms whose meanings made sense once upon a time but are now lost. Watching out for (being alert to) something is different than watching over (attending to) something. Even different cultures that speak the same language can have trouble understanding each other’s idioms. What people in the United States call an “apartment building. • Slang is informal language that is often peculiar to a particular age or occupational group.” Here are some idioms with their deﬁnitions. which can make translation from one language to another a bit difﬁcult. Spitting image has nothing to do with saliva. people in the United Kingdom use idioms that are different from those used in the United States. up to the job. For instance.76 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ➥ ➥ • Colloquialisms are expressions that may be appropriate in informal speech but are incorrect in formal writing. hot heels result from running hard.” the British call a “block of ﬂats. give it a shot: try for the ﬁrst time watch out: be careful take a stab at: attempt laugh off: ignore with good humor . where you hope to get by with your high school French so you can get along with the locals.
learn have on: wear keep + -ing verb: continue without interruption jump in: begin or enter eagerly make up your mind: settle. amount catch up: to complete something belatedly drop off: deposit or deliver ﬁnd out: discover. which means “an error” and derives from the phrase “situation normal. all fouled up. from Reagan and economics. decide put off: to hold back to a later time show up: arrive.” • blending two words together—as in camcorder from camera and recorder • adapting people’s names to ideas that are associated with them—for example. Words that gain sudden popularity in the language often do so because they’ve grown out of a common new experience or observation. Some of the ways new words are made include: • shortening longer words—for example. appear sleep on it: delay making a decision until the next day take place: happen. from gymnasium to gym • making up acronyms—such as snafu. . but not in the present J HERE’S A HINT NEW AND EMERGING VOCABULARY All words have some point of origin.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 77 hold off: delay burnout: a point of physical or emotional exhaustion ﬂy off the handle: to get angry life of the party: a person who makes things enjoyable for a group of people cool his heels: wait a long time be a wash: even out spitting image: exact likeness up to the job: capable of doing the work by and large: as a general rule give the slip to: escape once in a blue moon: very seldom keep your ears open: to stay attuned all of a sudden: suddenly boil down: summarize. occur used to + verb: something accomplished in the past. Reaganomics.
Here are some speciﬁc tips and strategies to use as you add these words to your vocabulary and prepare for your exam. 2. The more you hear how they sound. Answer yes or no to the following sentences. Solidify these words and phrases in your memory by teaching them to someone else. 3. on the basis of your knowledge of the idioms. Once again. Hang a right at the next corner” is an example of __________. and the easier it will be to remember them. it happens rarely. use the power of mnemonic devices and associations to help you remember meaning. Then compare your selection to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. it means that you need the services of an electrician. Pronounce these words each time you go over their meaning. textbooks. “The car battery was dead as a doornail” is an example of __________. and other dayto-day communications. _____ . If it happens once in a blue moon. the more familiar they will feel to you. If you burn out at something. 1. ● ● ● ● Use the context of the sentences provided with the deﬁnitions to help you understand these words and memorize their meanings. a colloquialism. indicate whether each of the following expressions represents slang. PRACTICE QUESTIONS On the lines provided or on a separate piece of paper. or a cliché. 4. “She may of gone to the movies” is an example of __________. Then compare your selection to the correct answers at the end of the chapter. _____ 5.78 TIPS AND STRATEGIES VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT Idioms and vocabulary variations are likely to appear on standardized tests like TOEFL iBT and occur regularly in newspaper articles.
_____ 7. 5.I D I O M S AN D VO CAB U LARY VAR IATI O N S 79 6. If you give the slip to someone. 6. You have to stand near a window if you are going to watch out for something. 3. _____ 8. 7. 4. colloquialism cliché slang no yes no no yes . you hand over your undergarment. 2. If you give something a shot. 1. 8. and then analyze the results to ﬁgure out your plan of attack for mastering this topic. you are willing to try. _____ ANSWERS How did you do on identifying idioms and word variations? Check your answers here.
ingenious 2. irrational c. candidly d.Practice Test 1 T he 80 questions in this practice test will help you assess your vocabulary skills and the topics reviewed throughout this book. expressive b. 1. aloof d. however. adversely b. a.) Attempt to answer the questions without using a reference tool like a dictionary. We knew everything about the newest member of our group. favorably 81 . reserved d. elitist b. Directions: For questions 1 through 20. choose the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. (We suggest not timing yourself. she was very _____________. After you complete the test. artistic 3. Then. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. a. secretive c. look up the deﬁnitions for the words on your list. if you come across words that you are unsure of. It might be a good idea to write down the deﬁnition beside the word. shamelessly c. make a list of these words. When you are ﬁnished. you can determine how much time you need to spend to increase your vocabulary power. a. Take your time when answering each question. it has _____________ affected our working relationship. I have always liked your positive attitude. George developed an _____________ plan to earn the extra money he needed to start his own business.
condoned . explicit d. conformed b. it could cause serious health problems. valid b.82 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 4. priceless b. meddlesome d. released c. a. encompassed b. decreased d. he is a _____________ and obedient pet. embodied 6. The new board member said she would vote in favor of the proposed city ordinance because it _____________ many of the points discussed earlier this year. docile 5. potable 7. delectable b. reminisced d. If your drinking water is not _____________. and I had no trouble ﬁnding it in time for work. dispersed 8. The directions to the new ofﬁce were _____________. impure d. Dog-sitting for Buddy is easy to do. Rachel _____________ a plan to become a millionaire by age 30. commonplace c. a. arduous c. a. a. quenchable c. a. devised c.
P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 83 9. he made studying a _____________ over watching his favorite television show. conspicuously d. quandary d. surmised c. a. redundancy c. monotonous b. prestige b. virtuously c. obscurely 12. torrid c. a. priority b. she _____________ that it was best to go back to school to get her master’s degree as soon as she could. perplexity d. Hoping to win a prize for the best costume. Wanting to make a good impression. a. deﬁcit 10. a. Muhammad fell asleep during the movie because it had a very _____________ plot. Because Mark needed to pass the exam. a. ample d. eminently b. resolved . presumed d. To get the promotion she wanted. supposed b. he found himself in a _____________ about the right tie to wear to the business meeting. Tim dressed _____________ with bright red suspenders and a purple tie. conformity c. concept 11. vital 13.
a. a. After running an early 5K race. generously d. The narrator’s description was an accurate _____________ of a true southern family. council c. the car _____________ down the steep mountainous road. Simone _____________ devoured a hearty breakfast. reﬂex d. ventilated c. careened d. a. signiﬁcantly c. reunion 15. approvingly b. dissented b. duplicate . a. audibly 17. winding highway. Due to slippery road conditions and the slope of the narrow. attraction c.84 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 14. agitated 16. The car rental company considered the scratches on the driver’s door to be caused by a minor _____________. mishap b. a. The ﬁre alarm _____________ beckoned the volunteer ﬁreﬁghters of the small community to come to action. symbolically d. disguise d. portrayal b. dynamically b. voraciously c. beneﬁcially 18.
Aswad has such a caustic sense of humor that most people ﬁnd his jokes upsetting rather than humorous. bitingly sarcastic. d. cutting edge.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 85 19. original. c. The participants in the road rally agreed to _____________ near the village commons at 5:00. refreshingly honest. c. ﬁlibuster d. scatter c. relentlessly funny. . no one seems to know anything about who she is or where she came from. choose the best deﬁnition for the word in italics. measurably d. Caustic means a. narrowly Directions: For questions 21 through 45. disperse 20. d. newcomer. Sandra is truly an enigma. b. the recent graduates spoke _____________ about job prospects for the future. luxuriously c. Understanding the world economic conditions. a. mystery. Exorbitant means a. c. to orbit. 23. 22. Enigma means a. belonging to a group. rendezvous b. enemy. stranger. in a new location. b. warily b. a. b. far beyond what is normal or reasonable. very high. 21. although she’s lived here for years and everyone knows her. d.
Unilateral means a. c. d. b. one who denounces or openly condemns another. to preach. Metamorphosis means a. 26. 29. critical. d. tending to change frequently. hierarchical. to transform. b. intended to instruct. c. outdo. b. d. 28. to multiply.86 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 24. a teacher or instructor. to reestablish a close relationship between. to move away from. c. b. Denunciation means a. repeated frequently to aid memorization. under someone else’s authority or control. Subordinate means a. without distinction. 25. Didactic means a. to surpass. b. organized according to rank. of or like a condemnation. a transformation. To reconcile means a. moralizing. c. literal. one who has changed. moralize. understated. c. one-sided. c. b. . d. 27. d. something ordinary or average. d. to undermine. to denounce or openly condemn. the process of instructing. the act of denouncing or openly condemning.
the process of encoding a message. 33. c. biting in nature. b. a very naïve person. lasting a very long time. to act forcefully. 31. insight. Imperialism means a. to establish contact. relating to the acquisition of territories.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 87 30. b. someone who lacks creativity. someone who is unconventional. d. rest quietly. an evil person. To abrogate is to a. d. one who acquires items from other empires. d. abolish. Intermittent means a. 34. constant. quarrel. d. greatly varied. a number between one and ten. Miscreant means a. d. one who plants a garden. c. c. c. c. occurring at intervals between two times or points. villain. badly handled. 32. c. b. 35. Perennial means a. revoke. d. b. an empire built by acquiring other territories. know intimately. the policy of extending an empire by acquiring other territories. b. . b. ﬁght. worthy of consideration. penetrating. Incisive means a.
b. If there is amity between two nations. An edict is a. b. surrenders the rights of others. equality. b. give in to. b. given to wordy. is bitter or resentful. c. A magnanimous person is a. c. b. has a pleasing and lasting effect on others. hobo. A vicarious action is one that a. war. peace. c. 38. highly noble. enables a guilty person to be set free. exists only in the imagination. d. the act of seeing or shining. c. rambling speech. d. a place to rest. . a formal proclamation or command. a place to stop. 39. An acrimonious relationship is one that a. has existed for a long time. bitterness. is extremely friendly. b. is experienced through the life or action of another. there is a. 40. speak in a whisper. extremely talkative. d. generous. c. d. 41. call attention to. d. d. c. 37. a wanderer. To acquiesce is to a. mask the truth.88 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 36. comply with another’s wishes.
45. ﬁery emotion. seems to be harmless but is actually very dangerous. ruthless. in its proper place. 44. c. talented. he is very anxious to learn more about you. appropriate. steady pace. c. light-hearted. is unpredictable. meandering. c. has good intentions. A loquacious person a. b. 43. To feel fervor is to feel a. tends to talk a great deal. carefree. is properly ordered. b. Jackson may act as if he is totally (disinterested/uninterested) in you. choose the correct word in the parentheses to complete the sentence. d. peace. intense. d. but believe me. . Directions: For questions 46 through 59. b. combative. is not discerning. as with guilt. Something that is erratic a. tends to like everyone. d. but often ends up doing things that end up hurting others. The pond was (teaming/teeming) with tadpoles after the frog eggs hatched. b. Anita’s (faux/foe) mink coat looked so real that a group of teenagers accused her of cruelty to animals. burdened.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 89 42. often has difﬁculty ﬁnding things. 47. 48. straying from the norm. 49. A pugnacious person is best described as a. 46. c. d. I am having the jewelry I inherited from my grandmother (appraised/apprised) to ﬁnd out how much it is worth. calmness. nosy. moves at a constant.
I have always admired Don’s (meddle/mettle). 60. identiﬁable b. 53. 58. Directions: In questions 60 through 63. 51. or sufﬁxes. identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. 56. 55. Helen entered the room right on (cue/queue). The documentary really (peaked/peeked/piqued) my interest in the Civil War. I think he’s telling the truth. let’s eat here. Jing-Mae gave her (ascent/assent) to the proposal. 57. he seems to be afraid of no one and nothing. 59. Huang decided to (raise/raze) the stakes by increasing the reward. Adele rushed around (prescribing/proscribing) orders left and right. preﬁxes. A (hoard/horde) of angry parents attended the school board meeting and demanded that the superintendent step down. enhanced . even though she did not entirely agree with the plan. Although Oscar’s story sounds (incredible/incredulous). You are sure to be (censored/censured/sensored) if you make such wild accusations about your colleagues. incomplete c. a partial report a. This looks like a (decent/descent/dissent) restaurant. With just a few hours to go before the big ceremony. 52. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. 54.90 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 50. visible d.
challenge 63. regressed d. prompt payment a. moderate work ﬂow a. inconclusive b.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 91 61. conﬁrm b. deny d. ﬁnal d. excessive . choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word. a substantial report a. punctual b. slow b. corroborate the statement a. transgressed c. hasten c. 64. desist 66. slack c. rain delay a. negate c. proven d. regular 65. pause d. original b. reverted b. processed Directions: In questions 64 through 67. manufactured goods a. tardy d. alleged 62. average c. weighty c.
” “sleep like a baby.” and other such overused sayings a. bourgeois c. milieu c. avant-garde d. oeuvre 70. 68. apropos b. “work like a dog. rendezvous c. right Directions: For questions 68 through 72. aﬁcionado . cliché b. a meeting at 7:00 at La Grange restaurant a. mélange d.92 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. ﬁnal d. the complete works of Shakespeare a. mélange c. zeitgeist d. crisis c. savoir faire d. initial impression a. an avid sports fan a. insouciant d. par excellence b. an innovative play that uses an experimental style a. façade 71. gestalt b. blasé b. hiatus c. imbroglio 69. gauche 72. ﬁrst b. choose the word whose deﬁnition best matches the description.
. inscribe a. 77. 76. b. average. choose the word that best describes the section of the word in bold type.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 93 Directions: For questions 73 and 74. b. obey. slight. A synonym for enthusiastic is a. d. b. entertain. mediocre. immense. 73. after b. ﬂatter. proﬁcient. A synonym for vast is a. attentive. write 75. c. A synonym for adequate is a. forward c. sufﬁcient. eager. see c. available. subdue. perform d. adamant. c. steady. d. proactive a. c. toward d. b. d. c. d. behind 74. cheerful. A synonym for comply is a. conﬁne b. 78.
11. b. Audibly means heard or the manner of being heard. Docile means easily led or managed. c. Quandary means a state of perplexity or doubt. 15. 2. bizarre. a. 5. ravenously. a. c. attracting attention. diverse. A mishap is an unfortunate accident. a. d. to lurch or swerve while in motion. b. positive. 8. 9. c. b. Portrayal means a representation or portrait. a. 16. Resolved means having reached a ﬁrm decision about something. d. resourcefulness. A rendezvous is a meeting or assembly that is by appointment or arrangement. ANSWERS 1. 7. 12. inconsistent. d. d. a. Encompassed in this context means included. An expressive person would be one who is open or emphatic when revealing opinions or feelings. 80. Priority means the right to receive attention before others. 13. dissembling. Favorably means gracious. c. 10. 14. 18. Monotonous means having a tedious sameness. a. 4. . 17. thrilled. d. to plan to obtain or bring about. Conspicuously means obvious to the eye or mind. 3. c. Ingenious means marked by originality. slovenly.94 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 79. An antonym for uniform is a. Devised means to form—in the mind—new combinations or applications of ideas or principles. 6. Careen means to rush headlong or carelessly. d. d. d. or obliging. Voraciously means having a huge appetite. wild. b. c. kindly. and cleverness in conception. A synonym for ecstatic is a. 19. Potable means ﬁt for drinking. a. Explicit means clearly deﬁned.
beneath. d. The adjective sufﬁx -ial means having the quality of. The adjective subordinate means (1) of a lower or inferior class or rank. sharp. Didactic means intended to instruct. a. or function. The context tells you that people know who Sandra is. to bring back to harmony. 22. (2) subject to the authority or control of another. The preﬁx ex. not continuous. The preﬁx uni. below. periodic.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 95 20. having the quality of. The preﬁx inter. Denunciation means the act of denouncing. Only choice b deﬁnes a quality. a. happening again and again or year after year. wrong. meaning action or process. The adjective sufﬁx -ic means pertaining or relating to. 23. Unilateral means one-sided. 30. thus choice a is the only option that makes sense.means between or among. b. secondary.means bad. Intermittent means occurring at intervals.means one. d. Caustic means bitingly sarcastic. Notice also the adjective sufﬁx -al. The preﬁx sub. a. (2) to make subservient. As a noun it means one that is subordinate to another. an evil person. but no one knows anything about her. d. forever. Miscreant means a villain. cutting. character. 26. Perennial means lasting an indeﬁnitely long time. especially in public. a. related to. she remains a mystery. to openly condemn or accuse of evil. The adjective sufﬁx -ive means having the nature of. constantly recurring. Choices b and c are both nouns. The noun sufﬁx -tion means the act or state of. biting. . b. Warily is a manner marked by keen caution. and as a verb (notice the -ate sufﬁx) it means (1) to put in a lower or inferior rank or class. again. criminal. The noun sufﬁx -sis means the process of. acute.means under. d. but for choice b to be correct. tending to be excessively instructive or moralizing. suitable for. a marked change of form. Enigma means something that is puzzling or difﬁcult to understand. and watchful prudence. away from. The preﬁx re. Incisive means penetrating and clear. 33. evil. subdue. 31. 24. 28. 25. a bafﬂing problem or riddle. The preﬁx mis. a. To reconcile means to reestablish a close relationship between. Metamorphosis means a transformation.means out. d. able to burn or dissolve by chemical action. The main context clue is that people ﬁnd Aswad’s jokes upsetting rather than humorous. 27. c. it would require the sufﬁx -ist. thus. 32.means back. c. 29. out of. 21. cunning. Exorbitant means greatly exceeding (far away from) the bounds of what is normal or reasonable. Choice a is the only adjective deﬁnition. alternate.
To appraise means to evaluate. to be present in large numbers. 44. The root err means to wander. bubble. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. burn. The noun sufﬁx -ism means state or doctrine of. The root vi means life. a. Magnanimous means very noble and generous. appraised. 40. To teem means to be full of. d. The sufﬁx -or means a condition or activity. The root mag/maj/max means big. 49. 43. 35. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. etc. away from. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. tell. Fervor means zeal. The noun sufﬁx -ity means state of being. to establish value or estimate the worth of. b. The root pug means to ﬁght. 42. the sufﬁx -ate means to make. The root ferv means to boil. c. The root qui means quiet. intense emotion. The preﬁx ab. away. d. 37. faux. formally revoke. inclined to ﬁght. Pugnacious means quarrelsome. 41. b. fake. Amity means friendship. having the quality of. To abrogate means to abolish. give in. d. deviating (wandering) from the normal or typical course of action. 38. bitter. having no care or interest in knowing. The root am means love. The root ac/acr means sharp. Imperialism means the policy of extending rule of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories. The root rog means to ask. The adjective sufﬁx -ic means pertaining or relating to. 45. garrulous.96 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 34. speech. 47. cause to be. uneven.means off. a formal proclamation or command issued by someone in authority. consent without protest—thereby “quieting” the other to whom one gives in. 36. d. understanding and forgiving of others. not genuine or real. down. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. uninterested. 46. opinion. The root loc/log/loqu means word. d. An edict is an ofﬁcial order or decree. teeming. acting or suffering for another. d. or inconsistent manner. Loquacious means very talkative. a. To acquiesce means to comply. ardor. a. The adjective sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. Acrimonious means bitter and sharp in language or tone. a state of friendly or peaceful relations. Uninterested means not interested. Faux means artiﬁcial. do away with. 39. . combative. use words. Erratic means moving or behaving in an irregular. The root dic/dict/dit means to say. 48. Vicarious means felt through imaging what another has experienced.
given to prompt or remind someone of something. b. A partial report is only part of the whole. sufﬁcient. Facer—the word root—means to make or do. 57. condemn. 64. mettle. or strength. 69. such as a word or action. Initial means ﬁrst. 61. d. a vast multitude. to hasten is to hurry. A delay is a postponement in time. This sentence uses the second meaning. a hint or suggestion. consent. Some related words are cooperate. . rebuke. A horde is a large group or crowd.P R ACTI C E T E ST 1 97 50. b. ﬁnal means last. order something to be done. 62. cue. spirit. 53. assent. Partial means incomplete. 63. c. 68. censured. A cue is a signal. tardy means late. which means with or together. The key part of the word substantial is substance. degree. (2) meeting acceptable standards. Mettle means courage. concurrence. to increase in size. piqued. and collide. astonishing. incredible. b. especially in the arts or literature. etc. Manufactured goods are those that are made or processed from raw material into a ﬁnished product. To prescribe is to issue commands. 55. artist. A substantial report is extensive. 54. make higher. excessive means extreme. fortitude. 56. composer. Context clues are important as well. Prompt means punctual. a. Incredible means implausible. 66. Moderate means average. d. c. d. To censure is to criticize strongly. To corroborate is conﬁrm. raise. It also means to order a medicine or other treatment. (2) the total lifework of a writer. beyond belief. 60. 51. Decent means (1) conforming to what is socially or morally suitable or correct. innovative. 65. This sentence uses the second meaning. The root of the word here is part. Notice the preﬁx co-. The key here is to remember not to choose the synonym. you may be reminded of a rain delay at a sporting event. Corroboration means that one statement ﬁts with another. c. 58. To delay is to slow. to vex. 59. Oeuvre means (1) a work of art. Something that is moderate is not subject to extremes. intensity. You may have seen this sentence on one of your bills: Prompt payment is appreciated. quantity. 52. adequate. coworker. horde. prescribing. An initial impression is one that comes ﬁrst. (2) to provoke or arouse. Assent means agreement. Substance means something that has signiﬁcance. If you rely on context clues to help you answer this question. To pique is (1) to cause annoyance or irritation. decent. Avant-garde means using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. To raise is to lift. 67. cutting-edge. dictate.
72. An aﬁcionado is a fan or devotee. Comply is synonymous with obey. b. to engrave on a surface. The verb rendezvous means to bring or come together at a certain place. The word root scribe means to write. especially a popular gathering place. b. to meet at a rendezvous. especially of a sport or pastime. . 74. To be uniform is be consistent or the same as others. 71. (2) a place where people meet. to be diverse is to have variety. The preﬁx pro means for. 76. 80. d. If someone is proactive. 73. immense. b. a. A person who is ecstatic is thrilled. If something is adequate. 78. Enthusiastic means eager. A cliché is a trite or overused expression or idea. Vast means very great in size. it is sufﬁcient. b. 75. d. they are forward thinking and take action or initiative to make things happen. a.98 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 70. The noun rendezvous means (1) a prearranged meeting at a certain time and place. d. d. 77. d. 79.
pacify c. confound b.) Attempt to answer the questions without using a reference tool like a dictionary. Directions: For questions 1 through 18. The Earth Day committee leader placed large garbage bins in the park to _____________ Saturday’s cleanup. a. integrate d. The hail _____________ the cornﬁeld until the entire crop was lost. legitimate 2. look up the deﬁnitions for the words on your list. After you complete the test. a. It might be a good idea to write down the deﬁnition beside the word. choose the word that best ﬁlls in the blank. belittled b. Then. optional b. check the answer key carefully to assess your results. make a list of these words. rebuked d. vicious c. you can determine how much time you need to spend to increase your vocabulary power. When you are ﬁnished. Being a direct relative of the deceased. commended 3. (We suggest not timing yourself.Practice Test 2 T he 80 questions in this practice test will help you assess your vocabulary skills and the topics reviewed throughout this book. her claim to the estate was _____________. 1. pummeled c. if you come across words that you are unsure of. Take your time when answering each question. a. however. facilitate 99 . prominent d.
prohibit 8. a. be sure to give a _____________ description of the new ofﬁce procedures. determined c. restorative d. relinquish d. conﬂuence c.100 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 4. a. varied 5. massive . a. punitive b. seclusion d. The _____________ of the two rivers provided the perfect place to build a new state park. Her rapport with everyone in the ofﬁce _____________ the kind of interpersonal skills that all of the employees appreciated. requisite 7. Do not _____________ yourself. you must pass the last exam of the semester to graduate. prevailed b. delude b. comprehensive d. diverged c. a. assumption b. Do you have the _____________ paperwork you need to register for the class? a. When you address the members of the committee. grandiose c. depreciate c. principled b. exempliﬁed d. treatise 6.
perpetually d. Florin became a _____________ veterinarian who could treat and operate on many different kinds of animals. superﬁcial c. ample . animated d. consummate d. tedium b. the thunderstorm _____________. a. reputedly c. After an hour of heavy rain. abated b.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 101 9. a. Martin Kemp _____________ told the press that he had accepted the nomination as board chairperson. precursor c. a. reticent c. a. voluntary 10. The darkening skies in the west were a _____________ to the dangerous thunderstorm that summer afternoon. he soon began to talk more than anyone. preference d. evoked 13. momentum 11. acute b. germinated c. and we were able to continue our golf game. repulsively b. After years of experience. a. constricted d. The news was no longer secret. principally 12. Although Hunter was _____________ about revealing information to us when we ﬁrst met him. customary b.
evidently she was right because she always seemed to know what would happen in the future. criminal d. they were exactly alike. Anthony. _____________ elephants from the wild not only endangers the species but upsets the balance of nature. I was afraid we would _____________ and have an accident. haphazardly 15. a. operate b. Smuggling 16. submerge d. a. Irritating b. otherwise. a. separated b. Provoking d. The two cats could be _____________ only by the number of rings on their tails. _____________ watered his neighbors’ plants once a week while they were on vacation. perpendicularly c. Poaching c. a. a. disconnected d. My cousin claimed to be _____________. On each slick curve in the road. a meticulous young man. terminally b. dreamlike b. differentiated 17. diligently d. hydroplane c. clairvoyant . divided c. comical c.102 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 14. reconnoiter 18.
exciting. 23. to be excessively competitive. . 19. to strive to equal. 20. the characters are so endearing that the movie is highly entertaining despite the old storyline. 22. c. to injure seriously. to create. d. to conquer. c. c. To thwart means a. to be the subject of a sentence or conversation. original. or outdo. To garner means a. to regard as inferior. b. Although the plot of the ﬁlm is admittedly trite. overused. Trite means a. c. to propose. b. 21. to support actively. to be wrongly or unevenly distributed. To emulate means a. d. complex. Ilka has always emulated her older brother. To subjugate means a. to be more successful than. imitate. so it is no surprise that she is also pursuing a career as a neuroscientist. to prevent from accomplishing. to be surrounded on all sides. to support wholeheartedly. d. d. to demonstrate. b.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 103 Directions: For questions 19 through 45. choose the best deﬁnition for the word in italics. d. Cy’s attempt to ﬁnally complete the marathon was thwarted when he twisted his ankle in the 23rd mile. b. bring under control. Everyone loved Ilona’s idea. b. to withhold. c. and she quickly garnered enough support for her proposal to present it to the committee.
c. 28. something that is irregular. giving charitably. kind. easily managed or taught. to do something regrettable. d. a surprising collaboration. Docile means a. willing to obey. d. to carry out an ill-conceived or poorly planned course of action. 27. to do something ahead of deadline. b. To coalesce means a. To abscond means a. especially in shame. to regret. c. d. to do something without telling anyone. to withdraw silently. kindness. or deviates from the usual form.104 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 24. discontent among a speciﬁc group within a larger population. to go away secretly and hide. c. b. Anomaly means a. to create a secret hiding place. c. consistency. obedience. unfortunate. regrettable. generous ruler. b. d. to dig up. an unfortunate occurrence. c. a kind. Lamentable means a. 29. b. to combine and form a whole. d. generosity. one who domesticates animals. mine. to be generous with one’s time or money. . b. regularity. c. the cooperation of unlikely individuals. d. b. 26. Benevolence means a. abnormal. join together. 25. the management of domestic affairs.
devoted. someone who lives with another. something that comes from multiple sources. having little or no impact. incapable of being understood. c. c. a roommate. original. exceeding expectations. d. b. a beginner or novice. Inscrutable means a. a strong aversion or dislike. d. the act of separating from the source. b. A belligerent person is a. b. Rectify means a. c. Disparate means a. 31. eager to help. kept between or within members of a family. an examination of all aspects of an issue. an editor. loving. 34. b. chosen from within. hostile.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 105 30. b. d. distinct. Neophyte means a. Antipathy means a. that which occurred previously. to correct. from another country. c. c. d. 33. foreign. from the same origin. not fathomable. a surprising error. d. c. or apart from others. a correction. kind. unique. teaching a lesson. 32. 35. d. . fundamentally different. eager to ﬁght. b.
A person who is culpable is a. 37. d. d. b. b. deadly. b. calm or quiet. 41. To equivocate is to a. full of knowledge. even. a mistake. guilty. Something that is manifest is a. blames others for his or her own faults. a lie. d. d. b. a rebirth. 39. A renaissance is a. newborn. b. receives the maximum beneﬁt. 40. bright. c. c. shining. 38. full of life. c. speak in a way that conceals the truth. capable. c. often speaks without thinking. energetic. vocal. c. a punishment. obvious. excessive. burn or sting. Something that is luminous is a. b. put something in its proper place. equal. d. d. everywhere. Someone who is omniscient a. c. . is eager to please.106 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 36.
Directions: For questions 46 through 59. place side by side. inoffensive. b. I tried everything. 50. c. be born again. The Euro has (deprecated/depreciated). 48. A veritable autograph is a. Someone who is reticent is a. an autograph by a famous person. dangerous or deadly. b. thoroughly washed. As soon as I get off the phone. but the dollar is up. 43. judging equally. 44. d. ﬂood. harmless. b. c. overwhelm. clean. 45. speak in a round-about manner. choose the correct word in the parentheses to complete the sentence. d. very valuable. Something that is innocuous is a. bubbling over with enthusiasm. I will (appraise/apprise) you of the situation. d. 47. . c. deeply in love. b. d. To juxtapose is to a. fair. reserved. but nothing would (elicit/illicit) a response from the child. genuine. 49. Stop (persecuting/prosecuting) me just because I often disagree with you. Tomorrow the city is going to (raise/raze) the building that I grew up in. silent. 46. c. irrelevant. a forgery or fake. wandering from the main path or point.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 107 42.
Although you all seem to agree. and soon it was no longer even noticeable. A strange odor is (eminenting/imminenting/emanating) from Professor Van Buren’s laboratory. The odor quickly (disbursed/dispersed) through the room. 53. Georgio had to (fain/feign) excitement when he opened his presents so his parents wouldn’t know he’d already searched their room to ﬁnd out what he was getting. not likely c. 56. 52. 54. Choose the word that means the same or about the same as the italicized word. The thief managed to (allude/elude) the police for several days. I don’t like Igor because he is constantly (meddling/mettling) in things that are none of his business. preﬁxes. I must (decent/descent/dissent). Directions: In questions 60 through 63. or sufﬁxes. 55. undeniable d. 59. an incoherent answer a. 58. challenging . but they ﬁnally caught up with him in Reno. identify the correct synonym by looking for word roots. 60.108 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 51. I’m just going to (peak/peek/pique) in the baby’s room to make sure she’s okay. not understandable b. I think this is a bad decision. Dixie is so (ingenious/ingenuous) I don’t think she could lie if her life depended on it. 57. The (cue/queue) for the movies was all the way to the end of the block and around the corner.
envious b. 64. expensive b. gifted b. purposely c. choose the word that means the opposite of the italicized word. covered with debris a. zealous pursuit a. unexpected c. good excuses b. scattered rubble d. carefully 63.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 109 61. harmonious d. unskilled b. mistakenly b. experienced Directions: In questions 64 through 67. capable employee a. exorbitant prices a. transparent material c. competitive c. apt d. compatible workers a. eager c. outrageous . able 65. comical 66. inadvertently left a. idle d. protective material 62. cautiously d. reasonable d. absurd c.
façade 72. an artist’s ﬁrst gallery showing a. incognito b. debut 69. pretending not to be hurt by an insulting remark a. oeuvre 71. aﬁcionado b. malaise 70. imbroglio c. appeasing c.110 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. belligerent attitude a. liaison c. parvenu d. choose the word whose deﬁnition best matches the description. ad hoc b. imbroglio c. a temporary separation in a relationship a. hostile b. cliché d. parvenu d. hiatus d. quid pro quo c. vis-à-vis . ennui b. milieu d. someone who reports students’ questions and concerns to the dean a. wearing a disguise a. blasé b. 68. instinctive d. gauche c. ungracious Directions: For questions 68 through 72.
d. inﬂuence. choose the word or phrase that best describes the section of the word in bold type. with b. An antonym for wary is a. c. d. wisdom a. a state of being b. unsettled. . b. b. over c. dangerous. sicken. b. suitable d. An antonym for novel is a.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 111 Directions: For questions 73 and 74. a relationship c. 73. A synonym for affect is a. contiguous. an action 75. leery. A synonym for continuous is a. c. old. cause. accomplish. apart d. time 74. a property d. c. intermittent. uninterrupted. congregation a. b. d. 77. c. adjacent. alert. careless. 76. 78. worried.
Conﬂuence means a coming or ﬂowing together. Precursor means something that comes before. it is called hydroplaning. civility. 18. b. 14. 17. d. congruity. or a gathering at one point. Legitimate means in a manner conforming to recognized principles or accepted rules or standards. 2. fable. Delude means to mislead the mind. c. d. b. to deceive. b. c. d. Diligently means to do something with careful attention and great effort. Reputedly means according to general belief.112 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 79. reserved. A synonym for courtesy is a. c. ANSWERS 1. Facilitate means to make easier or help bring about. blessing. truth. 13. . Comprehensive means covering completely or broadly. 16. 7. b. Pummeled means to pound or beat. b. 4. 11. c. rudeness. Reticent means inclined to be silent or uncommunicative. c. 8. 12. a. To poach is to trespass on another’s property in order to steal ﬁsh or game. 6. b. 15. a. Exemplify means to be an instance of or serve as an example. d. c. d. 3. weakness. When a car goes out of control and skims along the surface of a wet road. b. d. 80. Consummate means extremely skilled and experienced. 9. b. Abated means to decrease in force or intensity. Requisite means essential or necessary. d. a meeting. An antonym for fallacy is a. A clairvoyant is someone who can perceive matters beyond the range of ordinary perception. 5. d. To differentiate between two things is to establish the distinction between them. 10. conviviality.
b. opposed to. apart.means against. also because the sentence states that people loved Ilona’s idea. it is logical to conclude that she would gather their support. inspiring grief or mourning. overly familiar through overuse. 25. especially after wrongdoing. a new form of. recent. The sentence tells you that Ilka is pursuing the same career as her brother. bring under control. 26. unfathomable. ready and willing to be taught. Lamentable means regrettable.” which indicates that the plot of the movie is overused. 27. The preﬁx co. To subjugate means to conquer. a. b. Notice also the adjective sufﬁx -able. Inscrutable means bafﬂing. The preﬁx dis. down.means under or below. varied. fuse.means away from. The preﬁx in. Trite means repeated too often. 29. To abscond means to go away secretly and hide oneself. subdue.means new. b. being in a speciﬁed state or condition. Cy’s twisted ankle kept him from realizing his attempt to complete the marathon. promotes. The preﬁx sub. b. one that is irregular or abnormal.mean not. Disparate means fundamentally different or distinct. incapable of being understood. especially by imitation.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 113 19. To rectify means to make right. d. The adjective sufﬁx -able means capable or worthy of. amass.means off. The preﬁx neo. 33. To thwart means to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something. Notice also the verb sufﬁx -ate. 24. or causes an action. Docile means willing to obey. . a. 32. 20. or easily managed. meaning one that performs. The key context clue is the phrase “the old storyline. a. without.means with. c. d.means not. Neophyte means a beginner or novice. Coalesce means to combine and form a whole. To garner means to gather. 28. Antipathy means a strong aversion or dislike. away from. which indicates that she is trying to equal or outdo him through imitation. unfortunate. 34. Anomaly means something that deviates from the general rule or usual form. The preﬁx anti. together. d. The sentence tells you that Ilona quickly found the support she needed to present her idea to the committee. 22. not. The preﬁx ab. d. apart. The noun sufﬁx -ence means state of. or acquire. to join together. correct. To emulate means to try to equal or excel. d. 31. The verb sufﬁx -ify means to make. b. dissimilar. c. The adjective sufﬁx -ile means having the qualities of. 21. 30. d. 23. The preﬁx a. reversal. a disposition to act charitably. Benevolence means the inclination to be kind and generous.
the sufﬁx -ance means state of. at hand. performing or causing a speciﬁed action. To depreciate means to diminish in price or value. The preﬁx re. cause to be. untalkative. Veritable means real. brilliant. 44. 42. c. a. The sufﬁx -able means capable or worthy of. depreciated. To persecute is to oppress. blameworthy. full of light. Luminous means shining. not quite doing either). the root sci means to know. b. 48. The adjective sufﬁx -able means capable or worthy of. The root pon/pos/pound means to put. harass. b. emitting light. 46. 43. (2) to deduce or derive by reasoning. true. It also means to think or speak of as being of little worth. 40. To elicit means (1) to call forth or draw out. religious or political beliefs. elicit. to belittle. Manifest means clear and unmistakable. the sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. . 39. the sufﬁx -ous means having the quality of or relating to. Culpable means deserving blame or censure for doing something wrong or harmful. The preﬁx in. The root equ means equal. 41. obvious. d. To juxtapose means to place side by side. Reticent means tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. a. a. innocuous means harmless. reserved. Thus. death. The root omni means all. genuine. Renaissance means a rebirth or revival. The root nas/nat/nai means to be born. the sufﬁx -ate means to make. The root ver means truth.means back or again. The correct answer can be achieved here through the process of elimination. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. having no adverse or ill effects. 37. The root luc/lum/lus means light.114 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 35. the root voc/vok means to call. The root nec/nic/noc/nox means harm. d. To equivocate means to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to mislead or conceal the truth. 36. Omniscient means having inﬁnite knowledge. or mistreat. someone who equivocates is “equally” lying and telling the truth (or rather. c. especially because of race. place. to provoke. The root bel means war. The root tac/tic means to be silent. 47. 45. silent. especially to compare or contrast. guilty. knowing all things. 38. or sexual orientation. The root man means hand. The root culp means blame. as the other answers correspond with different roots. a. c. The ending -ent is an adjective sufﬁx meaning in a state or condition.means not. persecuting. to lessen the worth of. Belligerent means hostile and aggressive. showing an eagerness to ﬁght. thus. Thus.
unable to mask feelings. a. especially by cleverness. To feign is to pretend. To dissent is (1) to differ in opinion. Debris is scattered fragments or trash. Exorbitant literally means exceeding the bounds of what is fair or normal. Ingenuous means (1) not cunning or deceitful. To elude is (1) to escape from or evade. 64. which means not. To raze is (1) to level to the ground. (2) to withhold approval or assent. 51. inform. artless.means not. very high. demolish completely. The other trick is not to choose the synonym. (2) to erase. disagree. 63. 53. The preﬁx in. (2) to distribute widely. c. (2) to be incomprehensible to. emanating. (2) lacking sophistication or worldliness. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. meddling. which might give you a clue about the meaning of the word. eager. or cause to do so. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. 56.P R ACTI C E T E ST 2 115 49. 58. queue. or skill. The opposite of an exorbitant or outrageous price would be a reasonable one. One other precaution is to be careful and not be misled by the similar sounds of zealous and jealous. frank sincere. Inadvertently means by mistake. . c. c. which means out of or away from. 52. disseminate. elude. 66. dissent. 61. To apprise means to give notice or information to. so idle is most nearly the opposite. choice b. escape the understanding of. apprise. Capable means able. ingenuous. to give the false appearance of. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. Zealous means eager. interfere. A queue is (1) a line of waiting people or vehicles. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. Incoherent means not understandable. To peek is to glance quickly or peer at furtively. c. an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing. peek. 65. This sentence uses the ﬁrst meaning. unskilled means unable. To emanate is to come or issue forth. 60. 50. To meddle is to intrude in other people’s affairs. Compatible means capable of existing or performing in harmony. as from a source. The sufﬁx -able tells you that a capable employee is one who has ability. 62. to make aware of. 59. a. You may have heard the word zeal before. raze. a. A coherent answer connects or makes sense. The best clue in this word is the preﬁx ex-. obliterate. 57. dispersed. feign. 54. 55. To cohere means to connect. (2) in information processing. To disperse is (1) to separate and scatter in different directions. daring. The key element in this word is the preﬁx in-.
trickery. Liaison means (1) a channel or means of connection or communication between two groups. 78. 68. careless is the opposite of watchful. a truth is something that conforms to the facts. b. A debut is a ﬁrst appearance in or presentation to the public. (2) an artiﬁcial or deceptive front. The antonym would be appeasing. 75. a. true. . A congregation would gather together with each other in a house of worship. a. d. 74. Someone who has wisdom is someone who is wise enough to discern or judge what is right. The synonym choices—hostile and ungracious—would be incorrect. To affect means to inﬂuence. The preﬁx con. A courtesy is a courteous or mannerly act. 76. it is characterized by civility. Hiatus means a gap or opening. 69. b. 77. (2) a close relationship or link. one who maintains such communication. a. The sufﬁx -dom is a state of being. The key element in this word is the root belli. c. or lasting. a. especially one intended to hide something unpleasant.116 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT 67. 79. Incognito means with one’s identity concealed. d. To be wary is to be on guard or watchful. A façade is (1) the face or front of a building. 71. Continuous means marked by uninterrupted extension in space and time. 73. c. which means warlike. 70. 72. To be novel is to be new. d.means to be together with. A fallacy is a false or mistaken idea. d. an interruption or break. especially one that is secretive or adulterous. 80. d. a. in disguise or under an assumed character or identity. the opposite is old.
Or. Repetition is key—use a word three times. Flash cards are easy to handle. You should also try and write sentences using the new words. you will ﬁnd the word’s pronunciation. Remember that the best way to learn vocabulary is also the easiest: make long lists of words you don’t know and then break them down into short lists. Flash cards are pieces of paper or index cards that are used as a learning aid. deﬁnition. review the word list.) If the word list looks intimidating. 2. (Note: Some words have different meanings depending on how they are being used. part of speech.APPENDIX A Word List B y now you’ve seen that a good working vocabulary is a very important asset when taking the TOEFL iBT. Learn a short list every day. When you learn a new word. 117 . Write the vocabulary word on one side and the deﬁnition on the other. and they’re friend-friendly. Figure out how many days there are until you take the TOEFL iBT. After each vocabulary word. You and your friends can drill each other. Multiply that number by 10. try writing a sentence that uses the word on one side of the ﬂash card and the deﬁnition of the word on the other. and it’s yours! Another alternative is to work with ﬂash cards. If you can make games out of learning vocabulary. they’re portable. so you can study with a buddy. studying will be more fun and you will learn more as well! Now. and a sentence using the word. use it in conversation as soon as possible. try the following strategy. 1.
sky jug. you can learn 300 new words. live. remember. cure. turn. father. house. crib church. marry. tree ear. nowhere it. dependable. clear. trolley. yarn. walk. draw stage. dinner. day bat. toll more. rabbit. by studying only ten new words each day! And. unhappy whether. fog heed. hazy. tire. some of these words may already be familiar to you. come. advisor oak. hedge kitten. how pan. heaven. summon. carry. strengthen. put. rice share. blame. pedal palm. boat. mutter. treasure . breathe cup. sure for. aware. dear sun. fox. yesterday zebra. sliver. shut delicious. please division. noodle. quaint you. puddle. measure her. relief go. live want. ﬁnger. middle stencil. a a ˘ ah ahr air aw ay b ch d e e ˘ ee eer f h hw i ˘ ¯ j k l m n hat. chart. farm bare. fair ball. bed egg. You may want to photocopy the next few pages so that you will be able to refer to this list easily. here a list of the pronunciation symbols used in the deﬁnitions.118 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT If you have only 30 days until the test day. super pour. treat. head. cash tip. horse out. sew aboard. scare. coin. paper. scorn. listen. track lost. stuffy. cheer fan. edible icy. cherry shaken. coarse oil. shaken. trickle eat. pull vail. tragic. breath this. father car. worry cook. coy ooze. PRONUNCIATION KEY Before you review the word list. frank odd. preacher day. regular. slim no. ﬁshing. pop rain. trot salmon. pot three. fact ago. man n o o ˘ oh ohr oi oo oor or ow p r s sh t th th u u ˘ ur uu v w y z zh sing. score. Next to each pronunciation symbol are words chosen to illustrate how the symbols are said aloud.
we began to survey the damage it caused. distortion. 1. the reviews were abysmal. intensity. Albert Einstein’s abstruse calculations can be understood by only a few people. used with ˘ temperance or moderation. redemption. to give up or reject.WO R D LI ST 119 WORD LIST A abate (a·'bayt) v. a ceremonious tap on the shoulder with a sword to mark the conferring of knighthood. abrogate ('ab·ro· ayt) v. I know Carlos abhors politics. extremely bad. When Joseph became a citizen. renounce under oath. using or consuming sparingly. 1. he had to abjure his allegiance to his country of origin. He threw down his gun and absconded from the scene of the crime. His new ˘ ˘ ˘ scientiﬁc theory was deemed an aberration by his very conservative colleagues. 2. to lessen in strength. 1. absolution (ab·so·'loo·shon) n. to choose to refrain from an action or practice. deviation from what is normal. The jury granted Alan the absolution he deserved. abjure (ab·'joor) v. abhor (ab·'hohr) v. abstruse (ab·'stroos) adj. formally revoke. abstemious (ab·'stee·mee·us) adj. especially after wrongdoing to avoid prosecution. 2. 1. 1. 3. I have decided to abstain on this issue. eating and drinking in moderation. do away with. he decided he needed a more abstemious diet. After Vadeem gained 30 pounds. abeyance (a·'bay·ans) n. suspension. subside. ˘ ˘ Construction of the highway is in abeyance until we get agency approval. a formal declaration of forgiveness. aberration (ab·e·'ray·shon) n. sparing in the indulgence of appetites or passions. detest. As the violent ˘ storm abated. obscure. accolade ('ak·o·layd) n. abscond (ab·'skond) v. to go away secretly and hide oneself. ˘ ˘ 2. to repudiate. limitless. He received accolades from his superiors for ﬁnding ways to cut costs and increase productivity. praise or approval. to regard with horror or repugnance. 2. but he should still get out and vote. to refrain from voting. 2. abysmal (a·'biz·mal) adj. an absolving or clearing from blame or guilt. 1. being temporarily suspended or set aside. extreme. or degree. a ceremonial embrace in greet˘ ing. difﬁcult to comprehend. It ˘ ˘ was not surprising that the movie was a ﬂop. . 2. to abolish. abstain (ab·'stayn) v. profound. The dictator ˘ abrogated agreements that no longer suited his purposes.
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
accretion (a·'kree·shon) n. 1. growth or increase by gradual, successive addition; ˘ ˘
building up. 2. (in biology) the growing together of parts that are normally separate. The accretion of sediment in the harbor channel caused boats to run aground.
acquiesce (ak·wee·'es) v. to comply, give in, consent without protest. After the
police ofﬁcer explained why the street was closed to pedestrian trafﬁc, I acquiesced and walked to the next street.
acrid ('ak·rid) adj. 1. having an unpleasantly bitter, sharp taste or smell. 2. bitter
or caustic in language or manner. The burning tires in the junkyard gave off an acrid odor.
acrimonious (ak·r˘·'moh·nee·us) adj. bitter and sharp in language or tone. Jasleen ˘
did not like her new neighbors; it was obvious in the acrimonious way she spoke to them.
acumen (a·'kyoo·men) n. quickness, keenness, and accuracy of perception, judg˘ ˘
ment, or insight. With Jonelle’s acumen, she would make an excellent trial lawyer.
ad hoc (ad 'hok) adj. for a speciﬁc, often temporary, purpose; for this case only.
An ad hoc committee will be formed to investigate Stella’s allegations.
adamant ('ad·a·mant) adj. 1. unyielding to requests, appeals, or reason. 2. ﬁrm, ˘ ˘
inﬂexible. The senator was adamant that no changes would be made to the defense budget.
addle ('ad·el) v. 1. to muddle or confuse. 2. to become rotten, as in an egg. The ˘
prosecuting attorney’s questions addled the defendant.
ado (a·'doo) n. fuss, trouble, bother. Without much ado, she completed her book ˘
adroit (a·'droit) adj. skillful, clever, or adept in action or in thought; dexterous, ˘
deft. Priya is a very adroit seamstress; she should have your trousers ﬁxed in no time.
agrarian (a·' rair·ee·an) adj. relating to or concerning land and its ownership or ˘ ˘
cultivation. Although his family tried to convince him to move to a big city, Greg preferred his agrarian life as a farmer.
aﬁcionado (a·fish·yo·'nah·doh) n. a fan or devotee, especially of a sport or pas˘
time. Sal is such an Rolling Stones aﬁcionado that he bought tickets to all ten Giants Stadium concerts.
alacrity (a·'lak·ri·tee) n. a cheerful willingness; being happily ready and eager. ˘
The alacrity she brought to her job helped her move up the corporate ladder quickly.
WO R D LI ST
allay (a·'lay) v. 1. to reduce the intensity of, alleviate. 2. to calm, put to rest. The ˘
remarks by the CEO did not allay the concerns of the employees.
allude (a·'lood) v. to make an indirect reference to. The presidential candidate ˘
alluded to the recent unemployment problem by saying, “We’ve all made sacriﬁces.”
altercation (awl·ter·'kay·shon) n. a heated dispute or quarrel. To prevent an alter˘ ˘
cation at social functions, one should avoid discussing politics and religion.
amiable ('ay·mee·a·bel) adj. friendly and agreeable; good natured, likable, pleas˘ ˘
ing. Miguel was usually the ﬁrst person invited to a party; his amiable personality drew people to him.
amity ('am·˘·tee) n. friendship; a state of friendly or peaceful relations. Amity had
existed between Denise and Suzanne since they decided not to ﬁght about money anymore.
ambivalent (am·'biv·a·lent) adj. having mixed or conﬂicting feelings about a ˘ ˘
person, thing, or situation; uncertain. She was ambivalent about the proposal for the shopping center because she understood both the arguments for and against its construction.
ameliorate (a·'meel·yo·rayt) v. to make or become better, to improve. The diplo˘ ˘
mat was able to ameliorate the tense situation between the two nations.
amorphous (a·'mor·fus) adj. 1. having no deﬁnite form or distinct shape; shape˘ ˘
less. 2. of no particular kind or character, anomalous. Andrea looked up at the sky, looking at the amorphous clouds.
amulet ('am·yu·lit) n. something worn around the neck as a charm against evil. ˘
The princess wore an amulet after being cursed by a wizard.
anachronism (a·'nak·ro·niz·em) n. 1. something that is placed into an incorrect ˘ ˘ ˘
historical period. 2. a person, custom, or idea that is out of date. With the rise in popularity of cell phones, pagers seem like an anachronism.
anarchy ('an·ar·kee) n. 1. the complete absence of government or control result˘
ing in lawlessness. 2. political disorder and confusion. After the king’s assassination, the country fell into a state of anarchy.
anomaly (a·'nom·a·lee) n. something that deviates from the general rule or usual ˘ ˘
form; one that is irregular, peculiar, or abnormal. Everyone in my family enjoys seafood, so my uncle’s distaste for the salmon dish was an anomaly.
antagonist (an·'ta ·o·nist) n. one who opposes or contends with another; an ˘
adversary, opponent. Hillary was Mike’s antagonist as they both competed for the lead role in the play.
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT
antecedent (an·ti·'see·dent) n. that which precedes; the thing, circumstance, ˘
event that came before. The police are trying to determine the antecedent of the deadly car crash.
anthropomorphic (an·thro·po·'mor·fik) adj. attributing human characteristics, ˘ ˘
motivations, or behavior to animals or inanimate objects. Many mythologies are about anthropomorphic deities, who express human characteristics such as love, envy, and sadness.
antipathy (an·'tip·a·thee) n. 1. a strong aversion or dislike. 2. an object of aver˘
sion. After Inti stole Peter’s wallet, Peter had antipathy for his classmate.
antithesis (an·'tith·e·sis) n. the direct or exact opposite, opposition or contrast. ˘
Martin’s parenting style is the antithesis of mine; he is strict, I am not.
apathetic (ap·a·'thet·ik) adj. feeling or showing a lack of interest, concern, or ˘
emotion; indifferent, unresponsive. Many students were apathetic when the principal resigned after thirty years working at the school.
aperture ('ap·er·chur) n. an opening or gap, especially one that lets in light. The ˘ ˘
aperture setting on a camera has to be set perfectly to ensure that pictures will have enough light.
apex ('ay·peks) n. 1. the highest point. 2. tip, pointed end. Upon reaching the apex
of the mountain, the climbers placed their ﬂag in the snow.
apocalypse (a·'pok·a·lips) n. a cataclysmic event bringing about total devastation ˘ ˘
or the end of the world. Many people feared an apocalypse would immediately follow the development of nuclear weapons.
apostate (a·'pos·tayt) n. one who abandons long-held religious or political con˘
victions. Disillusioned with religious life, Reverend Gift lost his faith and left the ministry, not caring if he’d be seen as an apostate by colleagues who chose to remain.
apotheosis (a·poth·ee·'oh·sis) n. deiﬁcation, an exalted or gloriﬁed ideal. Hanson ˘
was so in love with Marge; in his daydreams, she was an apotheosis.
appease (a·'peez) v. to make calm or quiet, soothe; to still or pacify. The only way ˘
to appease Lawrence is to concede that he is right.
appraise (a·'prayz) v. 1. to evaluate. 2. to establish value or estimate the worth ˘
of. The art dealer appraised the value of the painting.
apprise (a·'pr¯z) v. to give notice or information to; to make aware of, inform. ˘
The teacher apprised the class about when the midterm and ﬁnal exams would occur.
The archaic language of Chaucer’s tales makes them difﬁcult for many students to understand. an upward slope. condition. beyond comprehension. mysterious. ﬁtting. roughness of manner. practicing self-denial. appropriate to the situation. a movement upward. 1. by the way. to take for one’s own use. 1. not straight or level. suitable for a particular person. apropos (ap·ro·'poh) adj. belonging to former or ancient times. A number of college students in the 1980s became involved in the arcane game known as “Dungeons and Dragons. austere. 1. approval. occasion. suitable to what is being ˘ said or done. advancement. (˘·'proh·pree·ayt) v. archetype ('ahr·ki·t¯p) n. The state legislature will appropriate two million dollars from the annual budget to build a new bridge on the interstate highway. difﬁcult to traverse or surmount. ardor ('ahr·dor) n. Commander Shackleton’s arduous journey through the Arctic has become the subject of many books and movies. severity. ill temper. an original model from which others are copied. Some religions require their leaders to lead an ascetic lifestyle as an example to their followers. The local authorities issued an approba˘ ˘ tion to close the street for a festival on St. requiring great effort. ascent (a·'sent) n. original pattern or prototype. ˘ 2. laborious. not allowing oneself pleasures or ˘ luxuries. the grumpy accountant. 2. to set aside for a special purpose. often without permission. & adv. arcane (ahr·'kayn) adj. to one side. secret. brought to the meetings usually resulted in an early adjournment.” archaic (ahr·'kay·ik) adj. ˘ irritability. adv. arduous ('ahr·joo·us) adj. The ˘ ardor Larry brought to the campaign made him a natural spokesperson. Patrick’s Day. passionate enthusiasm. askew (a·'skyoo) adj. very difﬁcult. a ¯ ¯ a or place. zeal. incidentally. The ˘ rock climbers made the ascent up the side of the mountain. Chancey’s comments may have been disturbing. 2. ﬁery intensity of feeling.WO R D LI ST 123 approbation (ap·ro·'bay·shon) n. The asperity that Marvin. Even the ˘ pictures on the wall stood askew after my ﬁve-year-old son’s birthday party. crooked. characteristic of the past. Elvis Presley served as the archetype for rock and roll performers in the 1950s. ascetic (a·'set·ik) adj. at an appropriate or opportune time. asperity (a·'sper·i·tee) n. but they were deﬁnitely apropos. harshness. . appropriate (˘·'pro·pre·˘t) adj.
Jackie Kennedy’s august dignity in the days following her husband’s assassination set a tone for the rest of the nation as it mourned. to satisfy (as ˘ hunger or thirst). augment (aw ·'ment) v. austere (aw·'steer) adj. auspice ('aw·spis) n. but they often achieved results. diligent. assiduous (a·'sij·oo·us) adj. 2. or intensity. to agree to something ˘ especially after thoughtful consideration. hardworking. reduce in ˘ force. fearlessly or recklessly daring or bold. to weaken. to make thin or slender. to judge critically. unadorned. The chief engineer wanted a laboratory to assay the steel before using it in the construction project. but his interference only augmented the problem. 2. value. strength. 2. to try. to make something less severe. 1. 2. or degree. evalu˘ ate after an analysis. ˘ ˘ Omar’s teachers applaud his assiduous study habits. a forecast or omen. The children’s art museum was able to continue operating through the auspices of an anonymous wealthy benefactor. The small cups of water offered to the marathon runners helped to assuage their thirst. unremitting. majestic. put to a test. authoritarian (a·thor·i·'tair·i·an) adj. inspiring admiration or reverence. agreement. but he’s really just a great big teddy bear. audacious (aw·'day·sh us) adj. assuage (a·'swayj) v. a robot. Arty tried to help Ann and Stan settle their differences. to examine. persevering. unre˘ strained by convention or propriety. I know my dad seems austere. venerable. protection or support. attenuate (a·'ten·yoo·ayt) v. the committee must reach an assent. assent (a·'sent) n. to soothe. august (aw·' ust) adj. someone who acts or responds in a mechanical or ˘ ˘ robotic way. Detective Malloy’s methods were considered bold and audacious by his superiors. consent. very plain. v. 2. 3. enlarge. automaton (aw·'tom·a·ton) n. to increase in size. 1. unquestioning obedi˘ ˘ ence to authority as opposed to individual freedom. severe or stern in attitude or appearance.124 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT assay (a·'say) v. In order to pass the new law. The Russian army was able to attenuate the strength and number of the German forces by leading them inland during winter. 1. patronage. favoring complete. simple. concurrence. a self-operating or automatic machine. 1. The military maintains an authoritarian environment for its ofﬁcers and enlisted men alike. Because she fol- .
By wearing an expensive suit and watch. 2. cooked breakfast. causing him to miss his secret meeting. 1. 2. 2. Yvette prefers the avant-garde style of writers like Donald Barthelme to the traditional narrative technique. intense dislike. The teenager desired fewer rules from her parents and a sense of autonomy. Natasha made coffee. eager to make war.WO R D LI ST 125 lowed the same routine every morning. beguile (bi·' ¯l) v. autonomy (aw·'ton·o·mee) n. you can be certain to ﬁnd at least one baleful character in a Stephen King horror novel. harmful. to obstinately refuse or oppose. especially in the arts or literature. Old man Jones was ﬁnally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company. menacing. poison. divert. The bane of the oak tree is the Asian beetle. a strong. repugnance. 1. Todd has an aversion to arugula and picks it out of his salads. 1. sinister. misrepresent. . or animal. to distract the attention of. innovative. to contradict. B baleful ('bayl·ful) adj. the object of ˘ ˘ this feeling. Violet was able to beguile the spy. trite. using or favoring an ultramodern or experimental style. self-determination. to amuse or charm. bane (bayn) n. to stop abruptly and refuse to go on. destructive. 1. There was little hope for peace following the election of a candidate known for his bellicose nature. commonplace. car. misery. personal or political independence. belie (bi·'l¯) v. to deceive or cheat through cunning. to pass time in a pleasant manner. self˘ government. aversion (a·'vur·zhon) n. Alan hoped to belie his lack of success to everyone at the reunion. belligerent. distress. avant-garde (a·vahnt·' ahrd) adj. 2. to give a false impression. cutting-edge. or harm. but he balked when he saw that he would be compensated for only half of the value of his property. Whether it’s a ˘ man. and made her children’s lunch like an automaton. woman. banal (ba·'nal) adj. I was expecting ˘ something original and exciting. cause of trouble. balk (bawk) v. bellicose ('bel·˘·kohs) adj. to show to be false. obvious and uninteresting. quarrelsome. but the ﬁlm turned out to have a banal storyline and mediocre acting.
to swindle. unconcerned. Quincy has traveled so much that he speaks of exotic places such as Borneo in a totally blasé manner. a ﬂock of animals or birds.126 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT belligerent (bi·'lij·er·ent) adj. loud. atti˘ tudes or writings against God or other things considered sacred. to deceive or defraud. accused of trying to bilk senior citizens out of their investment dollars. a large group or assemblage. cheat. casual. If you committed blasphemy during the Inquisition. ˘ ˘ 2. uninterested because of frequent exposure or indulgence. boisterous ('boi·ste·rus) adj. not attempting to conceal in any way. blasé (blah·'zay) adj. 2. bilk (bilk) v. noisy. There was a bevy of eager bingo fans waiting outside the hall for the game to begin. a dis˘ ˘ ˘ position to act charitably. something that causes this condition. They still do not know what caused the blight that destroyed half of the trees in the orchard. blithe (bl¯th) adj. 3. blasphemy ('blas·fe·mee) n. 4. light-hearted. 2. 2. mild. to buoy or hearten. having a beneﬁcial or favorable nature or inﬂuence. stormy and rough. The boisterous crowd began throwing cups onto the ﬁeld during the football game. contemptuous or irreverent acts. 1. bevy ('bev·ee) n. 1. Coach ˘ Edmond’s speech bolstered the team’s conﬁdence. kind. benign (bi·'n¯n) adj. completely obvious. not harmful or malignant. an unsightly object or area. 1. 1. blatant ('blay·tant) adj. 1. something that impairs or destroys. and lacking restraint or discipline. . a plant disease that causes the affected parts to wilt and die. Regina showed benevolence when she volunteered to help raise money for the local soup kitchen. The stockbroker was led away in handcuffs. Samuel’s blatant disregard of the rules earned him a two-week suspension. bolster ('bohl·ster) v. gentle. the inclination to be kind and generous. to support or prop up. 2. you would be tortured and killed. hostile and aggressive. such as air pollution. and carefree. 1. benevolence (be·'nev·o·lens) n. Simo’s actions toward his competitors was never mean-spirited. blight (bl¯t) n. 2. he always acted in a benign manner. very sophisticated. disrespect of something sacrosanct. 3. Rachel’s blithe attitude toward spending money left her broke and in debt. utterances. showing an eagerness to ˘ ˘ ﬁght. especially to evade paying one’s debts. nonchalant. Because Omar had a reputation for being belligerent. many people refused to associate with him because they feared confrontation.
a small group joined in a secret ˘ plot. to begin to grow and ﬂourish. In science class. hence also. blossom. to bring up. rub to a shine. din. ˘ the children tried to identify which objects on the table would be buoyant. Seeing Chuck wipe his mouth with his sleeve. or materialistic. to polish. introduce. for many of the original tales included graphic language.WO R D LI ST 127 bombastic (bom·'bas·tik) adj. C cabal (ka·'bal) n. to edit by omitting or modifying parts that may be ˘ considered offensive. bourgeois (boor·'zhwah) adj. a scheme or conspiracy. in order to begin a discussion of. To make their collection of fairy tales suitable for children. conceited. commonplace. The tulip bulbs beneath the soil would burgeon in early spring providing there was no late frost. conforming to the standards and conventions of the middle class. boor (boor) n. as in to draw off liquid. she realized that it was. cheerful. Although she won millions in the lottery. Ahmed was shocked that a renowned and admired humanitarian could give such a bombastic keynote address. bumptious ('bump·shus) adj. bowdlerize ('bohd·le·r¯z) v. conservative. in fact. light-hearted. with inﬂated selfimportance. 2. Kyle’s ˘ bravado often got him in trouble with other kids in the neighborhood. a show of pretended bravery. speaking pompously. 1. 1. the Brothers Grimm had to bowdlerize the folk tales they had collected. grow ˘ new buds. to begin to sprout. With Antonio as their leader. The bumptious man couldn’t stop ˘ talking about himself or looking in the mirror. offensive. 2. . When Kathryn began to burnish the old metal tea pot. cacophony (ka·'kof·o·nee) n. broach (brohch) v. burnish ('bur·nish) v. able to ﬂoat. I ˘ ˘ heard a cacophony coming from the garage where the band was practicing. to tap or pierce. It was hard for Sarah to broach the subject of her mother’s weight gain. false courage. buoyant ('boi·ant) adj. burgeon ('bur·jon) v. a crude. discordant sound. clamor. 2. ill-mannered person. arrogant. typical of the middle class. Maribel realized she was attending her senior prom with a classic boor. censor. loud. Ada still maintains her bourgeois lifestyle. bravado (bra·'vah·doh) n. jarring. 1. the members of the unit readied themselves to begin the cabal. solid silver.
hoping I would throw him some table scraps. the act of ridding or cleansing. distribution.128 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT cadge (kaj) v. catharsis (ka·'thahr·sis) n. corrode. 2. to surrender under speciﬁc terms or agreed upon ˘ ˘ conditions. to urge with gentle and repeated appeals or ﬂattery. whimsical and unpredictable. cajole (ka·'johl) v. ﬁlms. censor ('sen·sor) n. careen (ka·'reen) v. frank. While visiting India. to inﬂict a severe punishment on. candor ('kan·dor) n. sincere speech. to give in. v. they castigated him. even if it’s something she hasn’t earned. but he balked when he saw that he would be compensated for only half of the value of his property. castigate ('kas·t˘· ayt) v. bitingly sarcastic. the comedian. able to burn. to forbid the publication. impulsive. Old man Jones was ﬁnally ready to capitulate and sell his land to the timber company. to rush care˘ lessly or headlong. caustic ('kaws·tik) adj. cutting. to beg. Survivors of war often experience a catharsis when viewing Picasso’s painting Guernica. 1. openness. or other public dissemination of something because it is considered obscene or otherwise politically or morally unacceptable. politically. Watching the car in front of us careen down the road was very frightening. to chastise severely. or dissolve by chemical action. Valerie is quite adept at cajoling others to get what she wants. especially through art. Robin ˘ ˘ Williams. an ofﬁcial who reviews books. . Michael was fascinated to learn the particulars of each caste and the way they related to each other. to remove what is ˘ considered morally. he welcomed my candor. to obtain by begging. which depicts the bombing of a town during the Spanish civil war. demonstrates a capricious nature even when he is not performing. capitulate (ka·'pich·u·layt) v. 2. to lurch from side to side while in motion. capricious (ka·'prish·us) adj. or otherwise objectionable. The librarian served as a censor. 1. deciding what books were appropriate for the young readers. to whee˘ dle. caste (kast) n. When his parents caught Bryan stealing money from his classmates. The mechanic was very careful when working with the caustic ﬂuid around the car because it could damage the car’s paint. relieving emotions via ˘ the experiences of others. When I told my boss about my ˘ performance concerns. etc. Their dog Cleo would cadge at my feet. a distinct social class or system. acquiesce.
The private investigator followed Raul to a clandestine rendezvous with a woman in sunglasses and a trench coat. 2. to punish severely. Victor Frankenstein created a monster that ended up destroying him and everyone he loved. her mother censured her behavior. Angelo’s churlish remarks made everyone at the table uncomfortable and ill at ease. rude. chimera (ki·'meer·a) n. to criticize strongly. a goat’s body. rebuke. Though common in the early days of the women’s movement. v. v. a (monstrous) product of the imagination. 1. churlish ('chur·l˘sh) adj. Charles knew that his wife would chastise him after he inadvertently told the room full of guests that she had just had a face lift. a rebuke or ˘ condemnation. After Tyra was found cheating on the exam. cliché (klee·'shay) n. conducted in secrecy. The ﬁreﬁghter determined the chronology of incidents that contributed to the ﬁre. a person who believes in the superiority of his or her own kind. but he uses too many clichés. male chauvinists are pretty rare today. circumspect ('sur·kum·spekt) adj. (in Greek mythology) a ﬁre-breathing she-monster ˘ with a lion’s head. The track coach used a chronometer to determine the runner’s time for the marathon. Historians have made a chronicle of the war’s events. 2. a vain or incongruous fancy. cautious. Seduced by the chimera of immortality. condemn. to record in chronological order. 1. expression of strong criticism or disapproval. often in order to conceal an illicit or improper purpose. on-going. boorish. to criticize harshly. as with a beating. kept or done in private.WO R D LI ST 129 censure ('sen·shur) n. a trite or overused expression or idea. watchful. wary. the sequence ˘ ˘ in which events occur. an exceptionally accurate clock. a detailed record or narrative description of past ˘ events. illusion. chronology (kro·'nol·o·jee) n. chastise ('chas·t¯z) v. long-lasting or recurrent. and a serpent’s tail. rebuke. an extreme nationalist. ill-mannered. . Tito has an engaging writing style. chronicle ('kron·i·kel) n. habitual. chronic ('kron·ik) adj. clandestine (klan·'des·tin) adj. continuing for a long time. The prison guard was ˘ circumspect when he learned that some of the prisoners were planning an escape. the arrangement of events in time. a precise ˘ ˘ instrument for measuring time. Seamus has had a chronic cough for the past six months. chronometer (kro·'nom·i·ter) n. make a historical record. chauvinist ('shoh·v˘n·ist) n.
competitive. persuasive. 1. conciliatory (kon·'sil·ee·a·tohr·ee) adj. 1. abundant. enigma. self-satisﬁed. a secret agreement between two or more people for a ˘ ˘ deceitful or fraudulent purpose. Jay ˘ and Jael coalesced their money to create one savings account. a puzzling question or ˘ ˘ problem. quarrelsome. controversial. Ella’s cogent ˘ arguments helped the debate team win the state championship. mollifying. The double agent had a conclave with the spy he was supposed to be observing. who thought he had prepared his students for the test. The school board reached a consensus about building a new high school. etc. (often ˘ with reluctance). conspiracy. complacent (kom·'play·sent) adj. 2. The leader conceded the right to vote to all her country’s inhabitants.130 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT coalesce (koh·a·'les) v. appeasing. an opinion or position ˘ ˘ reached by a group. it was sure to be a lively debate. making or willing to make concessions ˘ ˘ to reconcile. contentious (kon·'ten·shus) adj. to acknowledge or admit as true. large in number or quantity. of the same time period. a private or secret meeting. collusion (ko·'loo·zhon) n. to grant as a right or privilege. concede (kon·'seed) v. soothe. uncon˘ ˘ cerned. coeval (koh·'ee·val) adj. convincing. Renee was complacent even when she learned that her coworkers were trying to get her ﬁred. to combine and form a whole. quick to ﬁght. . or comfort. With two contentious candidates on hand. The look of consternation on the faces of the students taking the history exam alarmed the teacher. to yield. copious ('koh·pi·us) adj. proper. Abraham Lincoln made conciliatory gestures toward the South at the end of the Civil War. cogent ('koh·jent) adj. causing contention. incapacitating horror or ˘ ˘ dismay. The discovery of the e-mail proved that collusion existed between the CEO and CFO to defraud the shareholders. The ˘ shipwrecked couple found a copious supply of coconut trees and shellﬁsh on the island. plentiful. The poet Ben ˘ Jonson was coeval to Shakespeare. general agreement or accord. to join together. ˘ ˘ 2. fuse. Alex’s logic professor gave the class a conundrum to work on over the weekend. contemporary. a feeling of deep. conundrum (ko·'nun·drum) n. compelling belief. conclave ('kon·klav) n. consensus (kon·'sen·sus) n. a hard riddle. surrender. contented to a fault. consternation (kon·ster·'nay·shon) n.
a sudden disaster or collapse. As she walked down the aisle. . When my prank ending up breaking Andrea’s lamp. hasty and superﬁcial. D daunt (dawnt) v. Putting the bridge’s supporting beams in loose sand caused a total debacle when the sand shifted and the bridge fell apart. deserving blame or censure for being or doing some˘ ˘ thing wrong or harmful. ˘ ˘ graphs. culpable ('kul·pa·bel) adj. Although I should have proofread ˘ the essay carefully. often caused by the breaking up of ice in a river. All the tables. the appearance of a person’s face. I admitted that I was culpable. too willing to believe things. Both Irma’s and Ye’s statements corroborate Tia’s story. given to prompt or remind someone of something. crux (kruks) n. “This craven act of violence will not go unpun˘ ished. so she must be telling the truth. I only had time to give it a cursory review. conﬁrm. a signal. abundance. secret. ˘ 2. a sudden breaking up or breaking loose. 1. cryptic ('krip·tik) adj. blameworthy. The crux of the trial was her whereabouts at the time of the burglary. credulous ('krej·u·lus) adj. Jimmy was confused by the cryptic note he found written on the refrigerator. a hint or suggestion. to make more certain. craven ('kray·ven) adj. a total defeat or failure. facial features ˘ ˘ and expression. gullible. cursory ('kur·so·ree) adj. to strengthen or support with evidence or ˘ ˘ authority. such as a word or action. violent ﬂood waters. mysterious. When the timer buzzed.” remarked the police chief. cowardly. a queue. occult. the central or critical point or feature. to make afraid or discouraged. a horn of plenty. corroborate (ko·'rob·o·rayt) v. debacle (di·'bah·kel) n.WO R D LI ST 131 cornucopia (kor·nyu·'koh·pi·a) n. to intimidate. 1. 2. and charts made the company’s assets look too good to the credulous potential investors at the meeting. His austere manner daunted the small children. hidden. The ﬁrst-graders ˘ ˘ made cornucopias for Thanksgiving by placing papier-mache vegetables into a hollowed-out horn. a line of waiting people or vehicles. guilty. countenance ('kown·te·nans) n. having a hidden or secret meaning. especially of a problem. cue (kyoo) n. Julia’s countenance was absolutely radiant. Sonia realized that it was a cue to take the hamburgers off the grill.
to express disapproval of. denouement (day·noo·'mahn) n. depreciate. Neglect and time would eventually decimate much of the housing in the inner cities. decorum (di·'kohr·um) n. or pretending to be so. the outcome or solution of an often complex series of events. The survey will clearly delineate where their property ends. Irina’s Carnegie Hall debut received rave reviews. deign (dayn) v. but she didn’t think adding ten cloves of garlic to the recipe would taste good. hesitate. ˘ Grandpa’s tendency to deprecate the children’s friends was a frequent source of family strife. the resolution or clearing up of the plot at the end of a narrative. The students sat at the edge of their seats as they listened to the denouement of the story. in reality or fact. Nicole deluded Maria when she claimed to forgive her. to raise objections. sketch. delude (di·'lood) v. When it was to her advantage. propriety. I always refer to Emily Post. appropriateness of behavior. to belittle. When questions concerning decorum arise. make someone believe something that is wrong. a ﬁrst appearance in or presentation to the public. depict. demagogue ('dem·a· aw ) n. demure (di·'myoor) adj. a leader who obtains power by appealing to peo˘ ple’s feelings and prejudices rather than by reasoning. deprecate ('dep·re·kayt) v. actual. describe. modest and shy. demur (di·'mur) v. to deceive. to condescend. to destroy a large portion of. decency in ˘ manners and conduct. denigrate ('den·i· rayt) v. disparage. to draw or outline. de facto (dee 'fak·toh) adj. to make a ﬁrst appearance in public. The king is only the nominal head of the country. defame. & adv. to blacken the reputation of.132 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT debut (day·'byoo) n. but otherwise she was quite outgoing. decimate ('des·˘·mayt) v. Sharon could be very demure. . the de facto leader is the prime minister. to portray. so those scenes were removed. v. The dictator was widely regarded as an infamous demagogue. to be kind or gracious enough to do something thought to be beneath one’s dignity. The movie script reportedly contained scenes that would denigrate the queen. Would you deign to spare a dime for a poor old beggar like me? delineate (di·'lin·ee·ayt) v. Polly hated to demur.
derisive comments were forbidden in the classroom. 1. to stray from the main subject in writing or speaking. 1. to violate the sacredness of. In order to promote freedom of expression.WO R D LI ST 133 derisive (di·'r¯·siv) adj. intended to delay. wordy. Someone dese˘ crated the local cemetery by spray-painting grafﬁti on tombstones. to profane. or swerve. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of the party. utterly lacking. derivative (di·'riv·a·tiv) n. difﬁdent ('dif·i·dent) adj. there was a predictable dichotomy among the students. Ichabod’s desultory ramblings worsened as his disease progressed. make less brilliant. recognize as being distinct. destitute ('des·ti·toot) adj. shy and timid. penniless. aimless. The word “atomic” is a derivative of the word “atom. 2. diffuse (di·'fyooz) v. something that is derived or made by derivation. not concentrated. disperse. division into two usually contradictory parts or ˘ kinds. Remy discerned that Opal had no intention of calling him back. to remove part of something. to perceive clearly. slow or late in doing something. Miguel’s dilatory approach to getting himself up and dressed was his own small act of passive resistance to having to work on a holiday. deviate. After the economy declined. to undeceive. dichotomy (d¯·'kot·o·mee) n. . Her argument digressed from the main problem she had about her friend’s spending habits. unoriginal. to draw or take away from. dilatory ('dil·a·tohr·ee) adj. to turn aside. diminish. to distinguish. Unfortunately. scattered. mocking. lacking self-conﬁdence. desultory ('des·ul·tohr·ee) adj. spread out. discern (di·'surn) v. ˘ especially to gain time.” desecrate ('des·e·krayt) v. adj. many families were left destitute. detract (di·'trakt) v. ˘ derived from another source. digress (d¯·' res) v. extend. jeering. adj. Alan used to be so ˘ difﬁdent. extremely poor. 2. haphazard. The perfume she sprayed diffused throughout her bedroom. When the teacher broached the subject of politics. correct a false impression or erroneous ˘ belief. Helen’s slovenly appearance detracted from the impact of her otherwise brilliant presentation. verbose. to spread throughout. expressing ridicule. moving from one subject to ˘ another without logical connection. 2. disabuse (dis·a·'byooz) v. Natalie needed to disabuse Chin of his belief that she was in love with him. 1. scornful. to soften.
The arrival of Miriam’s ex-husband and his new wife managed to disconcert the typically unﬂappable Miriam. to upset the composure of. rufﬂe. to discourage from or persuade against a course of action. Comedians often disparage politicians as part of their comedic routines. 1. I was humiliated by the way Angelica disdained every idea I proposed at that meeting. to shake or ˘ quiver. squander. 1. 2. Tom needed to dissemble his goal of taking his boss’s job by acting supportive of his boss’s planned job change. 2. to be extravagant and wasteful. 1. whereas others ﬁnd it too restrictive. dissipate ('dis·˘·payt) v. 1. 2. it is important to have a leader who will not dither. to hesitate. to separate and scatter completely. dejected. to frustrate ˘ plans by throwing into disorder. or nearly so. disparage (di·'spar·ij) v. 2. The disconsolate look on Peter’s face revealed that the letter contained bad news. but they didn’t listen. to deprive of the rights of citizenship. be indecisive and uncertain. The crowd dissipated when the riot police arrived. dither ('dith·er) v. ˘ Some ﬁnd the dogma inherent in religion a comfort. especially in the pursuit of pleasure. I tried to dissuade them from painting their house purple. disingenuous (dis·in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. 2. dissuade (di·'swayd) v. v. to disguise or conceal one’s true feelings or motives ˘ behind a false appearance. especially the right to vote. a prescribed doctrine. ˘ hopelessly unhappy. disdain (dis·'dayn) n. 1. calculating. During a crisis. The independent monitors were at polling locations to ensure neither party tried to disenfranchise incoming voters. insincere. .134 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT disconcert (dis·kon·'surt) v. a state of being despised. not straightfor˘ ward or frank. belittle. 2. Carl’s disingenuous comments were not taken seriously by anyone in the room. and only the very angriest protesters remained. despise. disenfranchise (dis·en·'fran·ch¯z) v. dogma ('daw ·ma) n. falsely pretending to be unaware. a system of principles or beliefs. disappointed. sad. to consider or reject (someone or something) as unworthy or beneath one’s dignity. a feeling or showing of haughty contempt or scorn. to regard with haughty contempt or scorn. to disperse to the point of disappearing. inconsolable. dissemble (di·'sem·bel) v. disconsolate (dis·'kon·so·lit) adj. to speak of in a slighting or derogatory way. 1.
to fall back. ˘ 2. draconian (dray·'koh·ni·an) adj. I hope Mark’s anger has ebbed. 1. droll (drohl) adj. 2. Her artwork was unlike any other artist at the museum. The ebul˘ lient children were waiting to stick their hands into the grab bag and pull out a toy.WO R D LI ST 135 dormant ('dor·mant) adj. I am eager for a reconciliation. inactive. decline. deviating from the conventional or established norm or pattern. systems. to ﬂow back or recede. to deceive. 1. conspicuous success. . or trivial. Work crews immediately began the task of cleaning the dross at the abandoned plastics factory. 2. v. something worthless. eccentric (ik·'sen·trik) adj. extremely severe (especially a law or ˘ punishment). harmonious. great acclaim or applause. eclectic (i·'klek·tik) adj. éclat (ay·'klah) n. selecting or employing elements from a variety of sources. consisting of elements from a variety of sources. droll story—the children will love it! dross (draws) n. E ebb (eb) n. waste product. irregular. bubbling over with enthusiasm. inactive but capable of becoming active. You’re sure to meet someone interesting at the party—Marieka always invites an eclectic group of people to her gatherings. Charlene was duped into buying this lemon of a car by a slick-talking salesman. ebullient (i·'bul·yent) adj. trick. or styles. exuberant. someone who is easily deceived. commonplace. 2. as the tide. anomalous. lying asleep or as if asleep. 1. The chamber orchestra’s dulcet tunes were a perfect ending to a great evening. brilliant performance or achievement. melodious. latent. Students of international policy are often shocked by the draconian punishments used by other countries for seemingly minor offenses. dupe (doop) n. temporarily quiescent. the return of the tide to the sea. Even the ruinous deceit of the envious Salieri could not impede the dazzling éclat of the young and gifted Mozart. sweet-sounding. amusing in an odd or whimsical way. v. very harsh. gullible. This is a wonderful. each painting had its own eccentric color scheme. at rest. sludge. 1. The geology students made a surprising discovery: the volcano believed to be dormant was about to erupt. dulcet ('dul·sit) adj.
eke (eek) v. eminent ('em·˘·nent) adj. distinguished. brazen boldness.. difﬁcult to capture. Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is considered one of the most eloquent speeches ever given by a U. evasive. etc. Hannah was moved by the candidate’s egalitarian speech. improving. impudence. The bank robber was not caught during his ﬁrst crime spree and he proved to be a very elusive fugitive. towering above or more prominent than others. Anne’s unexpected effusive greeting made Tammy uncomfortable. instructing. there existed a small group of musical elite who performed around the country. and economic rights for all persons. describe or comprehend. 1. 1. expressing strong emotions or arguments in a power˘ ˘ ful. eluding the grasp. and persuasive manner. expressing emotions in an unrestrained or excessive way. overﬂowing. The customs ˘ ofﬁcials were infuriated by the effrontery of the illegal alien who nonchalantly carried drugs into the country in his shirt pocket. reputation. distinctive style or ﬂair. civil. eloquent ('el·o·kwent) adj. the best or most skilled members of a social group or class. The new designer’s élan and originality were sure to help him succeed in the highly competitive fashion industry.136 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT edifying ('ed·˘·f¯·in ) adj. social. elusive (i·'loo·siv) adj. elite (i·'leet) n. After her egregious accounting error cost the company thousands of dollars. profuse. vigor. conspicuously and outrageously bad or offensive. a person or group regarded as superior. efﬁcacious (ef·˘·'kay·shus) adj. egregious (i·' ree·jus) adj. character. to earn or accomplish laboriously. ﬂa˘ grant. gushy. ˘ standing above others in quality.S. effrontery (i·'frun·te·ree) n. enlightening or uplifting with the aim of improving intellectual or moral development. élan (ay·'lahn) n. enthusiasm. egalitarian (i· al·i·'tair·ee·an) adj. effusive (i·'fyoo·siv) adj. Enid was ﬁred. The . lofty. Margaret’s efﬁcacious approach to her job in the collections department made her a favorite with the CFO. to get or supplement with great effort or strain. 2. vivacity. producing the desired effect or ˘ result. president. Within the student orchestra. 2. characterized by or afﬁrming the principle of ˘ equal political. Working two jobs enabled Quincy to eke out a living wage for his family. insolence. His edifying speech challenged the audience to devote more time to charitable causes. ﬂuent. acting effectively.
he began his secret mission. bring into existence. to make fee˘ ble or impotent. The country of Lesotho is an enclave of South Africa. enigma (e·'ni ·ma) n. enormity (i·'nor·mi·tee) n. Kudzu.. larger territory. especially by imitation. lasting only a very short time. Joan became a true epicurean. 2. based on observation or experience rather than theory. epicurean (ep·i·'kyoor·ee·an) n. a ˘ ˘ bafﬂing problem or riddle. empirical (em·'pir·i·kal) adj. (Note: Enormity is often used to indicate something of great size—e. the enormity of the task—but this is considered an incorrect use of the word. endemic (en·'dem·ik) adj. something that is puzzling or difﬁcult to understand. The tour guide’s façade of enthusiasm could not hide his ennui. ennui (ahn·'wee) n. native to a particular region. Once the spy was comfortably ensconced in his new identity. ensconce (en·'skons) v. 1. it’s time to go back to school again. atrocity. a distinct territory lying wholly within the boundaries of another.) The enormity of the serial killer’s crimes will never be forgotten. a hairy. deprive of strength or vitality. give rise to. to try to equal or excel. to place or hide securely. Summer ˘ ˘ always seems so ephemeral. Ricky ˘ admired his sister Joan and always tried to emulate her behavior. While on vacation at a posh resort hotel.WO R D LI ST 137 chairperson proudly announced that the keynote speaker at the animal rights convention would be the eminent primatologist Jane Goodall. to ﬁx or settle ﬁrmly and securely. purple-ﬂowered vine thought to be endemic to the southeastern United States. . enclave ('en·klayv) n. a monstrous offense or evil act. to produce. was actually imported from Japan. ephemeral (i·'fem·e·ral) adj. Professor ˘ Sorenson’s support worked to engender Samantha’s desire to pursue a PhD. prevalent in or characteristic of a speciﬁc area or group of people. conceal. emulate ('em·yu·layt) v. to weaken. before you know it. boredom and listlessness resulting from something tedious or uninteresting. Stephanie’s cutting remarks managed to enervate Hasaan. excessive wickedness. especially the enjoyment of good food and comfort. transitory. Frank’s empirical data suggested that mice would climb over the walls of the maze to get to the cheese rather than navigate the maze itself. 1. The math problem was difﬁcult to solve and proved to be an enigma. enervate ('en·er·vayt) v.g. engender (en·'jen·der) v. 2. a person devoted to the pursuit of pleasure and ˘ luxury. 1. 2.
The hostage negotiator’s equanimity during the stand-off was remarkable. a manifestation of the divine. . or inconsistent manner. answering. I had a sudden epiphany that I was in the wrong major. The ethos of their group included a commitment to paciﬁsm. 3. 2. calmness of temperament. During an earthquake. moving or behaving in an irregular. uneven. patience and composure. to use unclear or ambiguous language in order to ˘ mislead or conceal the truth. erratic (i·'rat·ik) adj. When falling ˘ in love. 1. artiﬁcial. a seismograph’s needle moves in an erratic manner. to root out and utterly destroy. equanimity (ee·kwa·'nim·i·tee) n. a sudden.138 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT epiphany (i·'pif·a·nee) n. eradicate (i·'rad·˘·kayt) v. etc. Einstein is the epitome of true genius. As I listened to Professor Lane’s lecture. region. deviating from the normal or typical course of action. opinion. etc. Raj tried to equivocate when explaining why he came home after his curfew. having or showing great learning. 2. ersatz (er·'zats) adj. a representative example or a typical model. eulogy ('yoo·lo· ee) n. or doing. a formal speech or piece of writing in praise of someone ˘ or something. even˘ temperedness. attitude. The scholarly work of nonﬁction was obviously written by an erudite young man. being an imitation or substitute. Though most of the guests couldn’t tell the difference. disposition or beliefs characteristic of a community. a perceptive revelation. Richard was asked to give a eulogy for his fallen comrade. something or someone that embodies a particular ˘ quality or characteristic. ˘ scholarly. intuitive realization of the essence or ˘ meaning of something. The exterminator said he would eradicate the vermin from the house. The thief evaded the store’s security guards by escaping out the back door. especially one ˘ ˘ that is inferior. to elude or avoid by cleverness or deceit. Waldo knew that the dish was made with ersatz trufﬂes. euphoria (yoo·'fohr·ee·a) n. 2. ethos ('ee·thos) n. profoundly educated. Epiphany. to avoid fulﬁlling. a Christian feast on the twelfth day after Christmas celebrating the divine manifestation of Jesus to the Magi. equivocate (i·'kwiv·o·kayt) v. especially under stressful circumstances. 1. it is not uncommon to experience feelings of euphoria. evade (i·'vayd) v. epoch. 1. 2. a brief summary or abstract. exterminate. to annihilate. erudite ('er·yu·d¯t) adj. epitome (i·'pit·o·mee) n. the spirit. a feeling of well-being or high spirits.
the face or front of a building. greatly exceeding the bounds of what is normal ˘ or reasonable. he is really a deeply emotional person. exigent ('ek·si·jent) adj. 2. 1. violence. straightforward. extenuate (ik·ten·'yoo·ayt) v. humorous and witty. to make worse. 1. The subject of the poem is the evanescent nature of young love. ˘ or bitterness of. cleverly amusing. A quick divorce was an expedient end to the couple’s two-month marriage. 2. delete. 1. jocular. to try to partially excuse. inordinate and excessive. explicit (ik·'splis·it) adj. to increase the severity. to wipe or rub out. . to free from blame. an artiﬁcial or deceptive ˘ front. serving to promote one’s own interests rather than principle. requiring immediate action or attention. to show or demonstrate clearly. ˘ ˘ sportive. exacerbate (i ·'zas·er·bayt) v. to clear from a charge of guilt. to reduce the strength or lessen the seriousness of. facetious (fa·'see·shus) adj. The safety ofﬁcer tried to evince the dangers of driving under the inﬂuence by showing pictures of alcohol-related automobile accidents. Jude’s facetious reply angered his teacher but made his classmates laugh. especially one intended to hide something unpleasant. The late-night call on Paul’s cell phone concerned matters of an exigent nature. exact. Antoine’s stoicism is just a façade. Three thousand dollars is an exorbitant amount to pay for a scarf. annihilate. 2. adj. When Anthony admitted to the crime. evince (i·'vins) v. requiring much effort or precision. expedient (ik·'spee·dee·ent) n. After ﬁnishing probation. expunge (ik·'spunj) v.WO R D LI ST 139 evanescent (ev·a·'nes·ent) adj. We should have known that splashing salt water on Dan’s wound would exacerbate his pain. ﬂeeting. exculpate (eks·'kul·payt) v. crit˘ ical. demanding. to make evident. The man’s desperation extenuated his actions. juveniles can petition the courts to expunge their criminal records. it served to exculpate Marcus. stated clearly and fully. vanishing or tending to vanish like vapor. to eliminate completely. The terms of the rental agreement were explicit in the document. a short-lived means to an end. transi˘ ˘ tory. urgent. appropriate ˘ for a purpose. exorbitant (i ·'zor·bi·tant) adj. F façade (fa·'sahd) n. suitable for a means to an end.
(of complexion) ruddy. to shackle. forbearance (for·'bair·ans) n. marked by good ˘ fortune. mock. put in chains. lacking purpose or vitality. 2. ornate. 1. something that misleads. Britt was surprised to discover that Sam’s well-meaning but fatuous parents were not at all like him. a false notion or misconception resulting from incorrect ˘ or illogical reasoning. that which is deceptive or has a false appearance. 2. fatuous ('fach·oo·us) adj. 1. felicitous (fi·'lis·i·tus) adj. tolerance. to disobey openly and scornfully. weak. to impede or restrict. zeal. Mr. rosy. feeble-minded and silly. 1. complacently stupid. incompetent and ineffective. ﬂabby. not showing proper seriousness. patience. 1. to reject. elaborate. weak. saucy. to pretend. ﬂippant ('flip·ant) adj. ˘ Ursula’s ﬂippant remarks in front of her ﬁancé’s parents were an embarrassment to us all. I prefer buildings without so much ornamentation. The presence ˘ of two security guards fettered their plans to get backstage. The skin of cadavers becomes ﬂaccid in a matter of hours. feckless ('fek·lis) adj. Y and Z will automatically follow. Gustaf ˘ dreaded the security check in the airport. 2. . willingness to wait. 1.140 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT fallacy ('fal·a·see) n. 2. Flappers in the early twentieth century ﬂouted convention by bobbing their hair and wearing very short skirts. fecund ('fek·und) adj. deception. Jake’s feckless performance led to his termination from the team. fetter ('fet·er) v. suitably expressed. ﬂout (flowt) v. fertile. intense emotion. The fecund soil in the valley was able to sustain the ˘ growing community. Because ˘ Sam was such an intellectually accomplished student. feign (fayn) v. The ﬂorid architecture in Venice did not appeal to me. The “slippery slope” fallacy argues that once X happens. The felicitous turn of events during her promotional tour propelled Susan’s book to the best-seller list. Walter feigned illness to avoid attending the meeting. The fervor of the fans in the stands ˘ helped propel the team to victory. go against (as in a tradition or convention). but he faced it with great forbearance because he knew it was for his own safety. ﬂaccid ('fla·sid) adj. ardor. hanging loose or wrinkled. apropos. apt. not ﬁrm. fervor ('fur·vor) n. careless. to give the false appearance of. feeble. disrespectful. ﬂorid ('flor·id) adj. 2.
tastelessly showy. ˘ My grandparents survived the Great Depression by being very frugal. hopeless. to amass. to oppose. vain. In its true sense. (Note: Fortuitous is commonly used to mean a happy accident or an unexpected but fortunate occurrence. Whitney garnered ˘ enough money to buy a used car. gigantic. Wei chose a small. renounce. surreptitious. especially excess ﬂattery ˘ or praise. It was a gargantuan super˘ market for such a small town. occurring ˘ unexpectedly or without any known cause. 2. garish (' air·ish) adj. to give up. to prevent by taking action ﬁrst. 1. gargantuan ( ahr·' an·choo·an) adj. Harriet’s furtive glance told me I had better keep quiet about what I had just seen. suggesting a hidden motive. useless. however. sparing. offensive due to excessiveness. happening by accident or chance. a fortuitous event can be either fortunate or unfortunate.) By a stroke of fortuitous bad luck. exclusive resort for her vacation—only to ﬁnd that the ex-boyfriend she wanted to get away from had also chosen the same resort. berate. garner (' ahr·ner) v. The diplomat was able to forestall a conﬂict by holding secret meetings with both parties. Her new coworker’s fulsome attention bothered Kathryn. or declare false. to deny under oath. fulsome ('fuul·som) adj. to explode or detonate. thrifty. shifty. The Senator liked to fulminate when other legislators questioned her ideology. . acquire. Emily thought it was perfectly beautiful. 1. costing little. fulminate ('ful·m˘·nayt) v. producing no result. fortuitous (for·'too·i·tus) adj. to issue a thunderous verbal attack. excessively bright or over-decorated. 1. preempt. 1. Natasha had to forswear her allegiance to her homeland in order to become a citizen of the new country. 2. G gainsay (' ayn·say) v. My mother would never let me attend the party. 2. careful and economical. to gather and store up. gaudy. furtive ('fur·tiv) adj.WO R D LI ST 141 forestall (fohr·'stawl) v. 2. contradict. characterized by stealth or secrecy. forswear (for·'swair) v. Petra would gainsay all accusations made against her. frugal ('froo· al) adj. arguing with her was futile. futile ('fyoo·t˘l) adj. to deny. huge. Though Susan thought Las Vegas was garish.
˘ ˘ sociable. My little brother is so gauche that it’s embarrassing to be with him in public. genteel (jen·'teel) adj. well bred. crafty deceit. H hallow ('hal·oh) v. but now he’s as gregarious as can be and is usually the life of the party. clumsy or awkward. to encircle or bind with a belt or band. or fearful manner. consecrate. 1. missed connections. 1. and the soldiers girded for battle. to lie or creep with one’s face to the ground in a servile. the act of gerrymandering. elegantly polite. guffaw ( u·'faw) n. Alan used to be so difﬁdent. reﬁned. 4. surround. grovel (' ruv·el) v. 3. The genteel host made sure that each entrée was cooked to each guest’s speciﬁcations. without tact. gibe. to make holy. Michael let out quite a guffaw when Jamal told him the outlandish joke. The election was rigged by gerrymandering that gave unfair advantage to the incumbent. Aunt Midge is as garrulous as they come. to divide an area ˘ into voting districts so as to give one party an unfair advantage. 2. mock. and a very late arrival. v. if you want your boss to treat you with respect. Panji. . to prepare for action. so be ˘ ˘ prepared to listen for hours. shrewd. seeking and enjoying the company of others. gerrymander ('jer·i·man·der) n. to encompass. gird ( urd) v. especially military confrontation. a noisy. hum˘ ble. The most infamous pirates displayed tremendous guile. coarse burst of laughter. The hapless circumstances of her journey resulted in lost luggage. you’ve got to stop groveling and stand up for yourself. hapless ('hap·lis) adj. to sneer at. 2. gregarious ( re·' air·ee·us) adj. The negotiations had failed. One of the fundamental beliefs of gestalt therapy is that we exist in a web of relationships to other things. a conﬁguration or pattern of elements so uniﬁed as a whole ˘ ˘ that it cannot be described merely as a sum of its parts. 1. tending to form a group with others of the same kind. lacking social graces or polish. gauche ( ohsh) adj. unlucky. guile ( ¯l) n. gestalt ( e·shtalt) n.142 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT garrulous (' ar·u·lus) adj. The religious leader hallowed the new worship hall. 2. talkative. and that it is possible to understand ourselves only in the context of these relationships. unfortunate. treacherous cunning.
lacking nobility in character or purpose. dishonor˘ able. despicable. 1. having an airtight closure. I honed my computer skills. creating great stress or torment. acting as though one is superior and others unworthy. Oedipus’s hubris leads to his downfall. the well-spoken iconoclast challenged political hypocrisy and fanaticism wherever she found it. By practicing creating spreadsheets. The hegemony of his country borders on imperialism. After he was laid ˘ off by the bank. harbinger ('hahr·bin·jer) n. overbearing pride or presumption. a long. Mark was an ignoble successor to such a wellrespected leader. The turbulent ﬂight proved to be a harrowing experience for Jane. to ˘ speak in a pompous maner. Using words as weapons. or event that foreshadows or indi˘ cates what is to come. to declaim. scornfully arrogant and condescending. . to perfect. marked by shame or disgrace. disdainful. the inhabitants did not even know that their country was on the brink of war. someone who opposes and destroys idols used in worship. a tirade. to sharpen. hone (hohn) v. 1. 1. 2. beliefs. haughty ('haw·tee) adj. 1. harrowing ('har·oh·in ) adj. make more effective. The arrival of the robins is a harbinger of spring. 2. and many members of the organization resigned. a gap or opening. an interruption or break. deserv˘ ˘ ing disgrace or shame. hegemony (hi·'jem·o·nee) n. In the hermetic world of the remote mountain village. v. In the Greek tragedy Oedipus Rex. especially of ˘ one government over others. not of the nobility. Stanley is so often haughty that he has very few friends. hermetic (hur·'met·ik) adj. Members of the audience began to get restless during the senator’s political harangue. ignoble (i ·'noh·bel) adj. or institutions. thing. protected from outside inﬂuences. Kobitu decided to take a long hiatus from the ﬁnancial world and took a job as a middle school math teacher. a person. often scolding or bombastic speech. predominant inﬂuence or leadership. 2. The evidence of plagiarism brought an ignominious end to what had been a notable career for the talented young author. common. a forerunner or precursor. I iconoclast (¯·'kon·oh·klast) n. ignominious (i ·no·'min·ee·us) adj. hubris ('hyoo·bris) n. 2. distressing. a person who attacks and seeks to overthrow traditional ideas.WO R D LI ST 143 harangue (ha·'ran ) n. hiatus (h¯·'ay·tus) n.
to destroy (one thing for another). to kill. impetuous (im·'pech·oo·us) adj. bossy. impulsive. impecunious (im·pe·'kyoo·nee·us) adj. overbearing. make incessant requests. impassive (im·'pas·iv) adj. imperious (im·'peer·ee·us) adj. ˘ 3. 2. incapable of being penetrated.144 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT imbroglio (im·'brohl·yoh) n. impervious (im·'pur·vee·us) adj. a difﬁculty without a solution. acquiring so many territories that the sun never set on the British Empire. there is often an imbroglio caused by a case of mistaken identity. forceful energy or ˘ emotion. 1. having little or no money. not showing or feeling emotion or pain. impasse ('im·pas) n. incapable of being placated or appeased. constantly nagging for the irresistible toys they see advertised on television. In the book I’m ˘ ˘ reading. implacable (im·'plak·a·bel) adj. unduly hasty and without thought. Stella was ˘ relieved with her new job transfer because she would no longer be under the control of such an imperious boss. marked by violent force. as a sacriﬁce. 2. 2. domineering. the policy of extending the rule or author˘ ˘ ity of a nation or empire by acquiring other territories or dependencies. a confused or difﬁcult situation. In Shakespeare’s comedies. characterized by sudden. stalemate. but most are relatively easy to serve. immolate ('im·o·layt) v. importune (im·por·'toon) v. Hadley is such a diehard libertarian that he is impervious to any attempts to change his beliefs. It was an impetuous decision to run off to Las Vegas and get married after a one-week courtship. I had to immolate the weeds. 1. imperialism (im·'peer·ee·a·liz·em) n. a curse. 1. Great Britain embraced imperialism. usually involving a disagreement or misunderstanding. and a strike seemed imminent. In order for the plants to grow. to ask incessantly. a deadlock. 1. the gypsy queen levies an imprecation on the lead character. It was hard to know what she was feeling by looking at the impassive expression on her face. . imprecation (im·pre·'kay·shon) n. 2. to kill (oneself) by ﬁre. an invocation of evil. poor. inex˘ ˘ orable. Children can’t help but importune during the holidays. to beg persistently and urgently. The labor negotiations with management reached an impasse. penni˘ ˘ less. not able to ˘ be inﬂuenced or affected. Many impecunious immigrants to the United States eventually are able to make comfortable lives for themselves. Some of the people who call the customer service desk for assistance are implacable.
a frog. to attack as false or questionable. a raid or temporary invasion of someone else’s terri˘ tory. My parents worked hard to inculcate in me a deep sense of responsibility to others. ˘ ˘ 2. to contradict or call into question. ascribe. undeveloped. incipient. Marcel’s criticism incensed his coworker. or a human. inchoate (in·'koh·it) adj. inculcate (in·'kul·kayt) v. in an initial or early stage of development. to indoctrinate. not yet fully formed. instill. (in·'sens) v. inﬂammatory. incognito (in·ko ·ne ·toh) adj. incendiary (in·'sen·dee·er·ee) adj. their relationship was an incontrovertible fact. 1. skeptical. unwilling to believe. boldly showing a lack of respect. it is difﬁcult to distinguish between a cow. hoping to ﬁnd some measure of privacy on her vacation. incredulous (in·'krej·u·lus) adj. incontrovertible (in·kon·tro·'vur·t˘·bel) adj. The editorial impugned the senator’s reelection platform and set the tone for the upcoming debate. 1. in disguise ´e or under an assumed character or identity. 2. impugn (im·'pyoon) v. 3. incursion (in·'kur·zhon) n. to teach and impress by frequent instruction or repetition.WO R D LI ST 145 impudent ('im·pyu·dent) adj. The ˘ ˘ photographs showed Brad and Allison together. undeniable. During the inchoate stage of fetal growth. of or involving arson. tending to incite or inﬂame. Doctors impute the reduction in cancer deaths to the nationwide decrease in cigarette smoking. immodest. to make (someone) angry. the developing embryos take on the characteristics of their own particular species. with one’s identity concealed. 1. Fire marshals checked for incendiary devices in the theater after they received an anonymous warning. credit. or adv. shamelessly forward. causing or capable of causing ﬁre. The members of ˘ ˘ the jury were incredulous when they heard the defendant’s farfetched explanation of the crime. incense ('in·sens) n. There was an incursion on the western border of their country. impute (im·'pyoot) v. incomplete. indisputable. burning readily. as they mature. fragrant material that gives off scents when burned. insolent. 2. the act of entering or running into a territory or domain. just begun. to attribute to a cause or source. . Thumbing his nose at the principal was an impudent act. The star was traveling incognito.
indolent ('in·do·lent) adj. lazy. foolish. 1. 1. nonchalant. not suitable. disrespectful. or system of beliefs. ingenuous (in·'jen·yoo·us) adj. they worked until every piece of trash was removed from the beach. haughty and contemptuous. incapable of being ˘ ˘ understood. bafﬂing.146 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT indefatigable (in·di·'fat·˘· a·bel) adj. The ineluctable outcome of the two-person race was that there would be one winner and one loser. not to be avoided or over˘ ˘ come. 1. a person with no religious beliefs. inclined to avoid labor. insolent ('in·so·lent) adj. 2. forbid. Julian’s insouciant attitude about his ﬁnances will get him in trouble someday. Parents of teenagers often observe the insolent behavior that typically accompanies adolescence. tireless. inimitable (i·'nim·i·ta·bel) adj. Because he did not subscribe to the beliefs of the party. unable to mask feel˘ ings. It was completely inscrutable how the escape artist got out of the trunk. bungling and clumsy. 1. ineluctable (in·i·'luk·ta·bel) adj. doctrine. causing lit˘ ˘ tle or no pain. 2. not easily exhausted or fatigued. slow to grow or heal. not cunning or deceitful. Don’s expression of regret was ingenuous. he felt a deep sadness when Mary died. Carlos argued that the agriculture ˘ department should interdict plans to produce genetically modiﬁed foods. 2. His performance ˘ ˘ on the tennis court was inimitable. sincere. 3. ˘ ˘ impertinent. a nonbeliever. defying imitation. The indomitable spirit of the Olympic athletes was inspirational. unmatchable. interdict (in·ter·'dikt) v. one ˘ who does not accept a particular religion. . for even though he didn’t know her well. ˘ indifferent. and he won three championships. lacking sophistication or worldliness. not easily discouraged or subdued. 2. inappropriate. incompetent. to prohibit. artless. frank. The construction foreman was hesitant to hire Earl because of his reputation of being indolent. Trying to carry all her suitcases at once was an inept way for Amanda to save time. absurd. brazen. certain. not able to be vanquished or overcome. ˘ ˘ The volunteers were indefatigable. insouciant (in·'soo·see·ant) adj. the members considered him an inﬁdel. ˘ ˘ unconquerable. inscrutable (in·'scroo·ta·bel) adj. inept (in·'ept) adj. inevitable. inﬁdel ('in·fi·del) n. blithely unconcerned or carefree. unfathomable. indomitable (in·'dom·i·ta·bel) adj. lethargic.
easily aroused to anger. indecisive. you might help her make up her mind. vex. inveigle (in·'vay· el) v. unmanageable. hence: (a) lacking in interest or signiﬁcance. hot tempered. I was ﬁlled with ire when Vladimir tried to take credit for my work. anger. Her ˘ irascible temperament caused many problems with the staff at the ofﬁce. to annoy. the smallest possible quantity. irritable. lacking substance. jejune (ji·'joon) adj. and training had to be cancelled temporarily. J jargon ('jahr· on) n. fearless. unruly. stubborn. Being a teenager means being continually irked by your parents—and vice versa. insipid or dull (b) lacking in maturity. stubborn. so if you talk to her. irritate. childish (c) lacking nutritional value. meager. to inﬂuence or persuade through gentle coaxing or ﬂat˘ tery. brave. to entice. complex. hesitant. irresolute (i·'rez·o·loot) adj. Young ˘ children can be intransigent when it comes to what foods they will eat. iota (¯·'oh·ta) n. insisting on familiar favorites and rejecting anything new. feeling or showing uncertainty. involute ('in·vo·loot) adj. intricate. undaunted. intrepid (in·'trep·id) adj. ire (¯r) n. The young colt ˘ ˘ was intractable. irk (urk) v. wrath. a very small amount. I am an ˘ inveterate paciﬁst and am unlikely to change my mind. Hunger had made the caveman intrepid. 1. and he faced the mammoth without fear. ˘ Sandra is still irresolute. inured (in·'yoord) adj. deep rooted. inveterate (in·'vet·e·rit) adj. ﬁrmly established. nonsensical or meaningless talk. 2. specialized or technical language of a speciﬁc trade or ˘ group. adapted.WO R D LI ST 147 intractable (in·'trak·ta·bel) adj. The movie’s trite and overly contrived plot make it a jejune sequel to what was a powerful and novel ﬁlm. The technical manual was full of a lot of computer jargon. Trisha had become inured to her boss’s criticism. accustomed to. . unwilling to compromise. and it no longer bothered her. Vanessa inveigled her way into a promotion that should have gone to Maxon. irascible (i·'ras·˘·bel) adj. intransigent (in·'tran·si·jent) adj. The tax reform committee faces an ˘ extremely involute problem if it wants to distribute the tax burden equally. Professor ˘ Carlton is so unpopular because he doesn’t have one iota of respect for his students. habitual.
Juggernaut. lacking in rigor or strictness. noninterference by the government in business and economic affairs. Alexi’s jocund ˘ nature makes it a pleasure to be near her. 2. not taut or rigid. brief and to the point. one who lives or acts in an immoral or irresponsible ˘ way. but in my opinion. Julian’s ˘ latent musical talent surfaced when his parents bought an old piano at a garage sale and he started playing. languish ('lan · wish) v. lax (laks) adj. libertine ('lib·er·teen) n. 1. where the children must follow a long list of rules and regulations. 1. hands-off. Zse’s laconic reply made it clear that he did not want to discuss the matter any further. 2. title for the Hindu god Krishna. succinct. juggernaut ('ju ·er·nawt) n. 1. especially one that is secretive or adulterous. concise. 2. slack. L laconic (la·'kon·ik) adj. a close relationship or link. 'lee·a·zon) n. I have been elected to be the liaison between the union members and management. Raheeb’s laissez-faire management style is not only popular with our employees but also very successful—employee satisfaction is high and proﬁts are up for the third quarter in a row. 1. one who maintains such communication. to lose vigor or strength. latent ('lay·tent) adj. terse. liaison (lee·'ay·zon. laissez-faire (les·ay 'fair) adj. weak. Lucinda languished in despair when Sven told her he’d fallen in love with another woman. . They claim to be avant-garde. If parents are too lax with their toddlers. a channel or means of connection or com˘ munication between two groups. they’re just a bunch of libertines. lenient.148 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT jocund ('jok·und) adj. ﬂaccid. to exist or continue in a miserable or neglected state. 2. to become languid. a massive. A shroud of fear covered Eastern Europe as the juggernaut of communism spread from nation to nation. one who acts according to his or her own impulses and desires and is unrestrained by conventions or morals. present or in existence but not active or evident. chances are they will have a lot of trouble once they enter school. often to ˘ the point of being curt or brusque. feeble. cheerful. merry. overwhelmingly powerful and unstop˘ pable force that seems to crush everything in its path. sprightly and lighthearted.
producing much money. disable. Wella ﬁnally ˘ learned the cause of her malaise: She was allergic to her new Siamese cat. malapropism ('mal·a·prop·iz·em) n. The maladroit waiter broke a ˘ dozen plates and spilled coffee on two customers. especially by depriving of the use of a limb or other part of the body. to mutilate. proﬁtable. excessively dismal or mournful. Macbeth’s machinations failed to bring him the glory he coveted and brought him only tragedy instead. intelligible. but unfortunately it is not very lucrative. The loquacious woman sitting ˘ next to me on the six-hour ﬂight talked the entire time. improper professional conduct. . lucid ('loo·sid) adj. 2. malaise (ma·'layz) n. malinger (ma·'lin · er) v. especially by a pub˘ ˘ lic ofﬁcial. a feeling of illness or unease. and I am thankful that I do not have such major issues in my life. 2. comical misuse of words. talkative. to pretend to be injured or ill in order to avoid work. The mining accident severely maimed Antol. M machination (mak·˘·'nay·shon) n. very small. lugubrious (luu·' oo·bree·us) adj. inept. clumsy. tiny. His malapropisms may make us laugh. especially those ˘ ˘ that are similar in sound. to wound. lucrative ('loo·kra·tiv) adj. trivial or petty. sane or rational. disﬁgure. Teaching is a very ˘ rewarding career. 1. maladroit (mal·a·'droit) adj. easy to understand. 1. bungling. misconduct or wrongdoing. but they won’t win our vote. garrulous. the act of plotting or devising. After several tests. very clear. maim (maym) v. a crafty ˘ or cunning scheme devised to achieve a sinister end. or injure. Andrea presented a very lucid argument that proved her point beyond a shadow of a doubt. 2. often exag˘ geratedly or ridiculously so. malfeasance (mal·'fee·zans) n. cripple. 1. The city comptroller was found guilty of malfeasance and was removed from ofﬁce. loquacious (loh·'kway·shus) adj. Irina’s lugubrious tears made me believe that her sadness was just a façade. My troubles ˘ are lilliputian compared to hers.WO R D LI ST 149 lilliputian (lil·i·'pyoo·shan) adj. ˘ ˘ Stop malingering and give me a hand with this job.
. trying to ﬁgure out how I could have made such an egregious mistake. With its casinos and attractions. 1. one who acts independently. You should be able to convince Xiu quickly. Fiona is so mercurial that you never know what kind of reaction to expect. mendacity (men·'das·i·tee) n. showily attractive but false or ˘ ˘ insincere. melliﬂuous (me·'lif·loo·us) adj. who don’t feel they can trust him. mélange (may·'lahnzh) n. ˘ Madonna has always been a maverick in the music industry. courageous. high-spirited. Carlos’s mendacity has made him very unpopular with his classmates. nonconformist. easily molded or pressed into shape. allot. apportion. a falsehood or lie. 2. Tibor was awed by the meticulous detail in the painting—it looked as real as a photograph. liable to change moods suddenly. gaudy. The strident sounds of Omar’s abysmal saxophone playing marred the serenity of the afternoon. to spoil the perfection or integrity of. Alice’s mettlesome atti˘ ˘ tude was infectious and inspired us all to press on. ˘ ˘ changeable. to wan˘ der about. meander (mee·'an·der) v. lively. she’s quite a malleable person. environment or setting. easily adapting to changing circumstances. paying great ˘ ˘ ˘ attention to detail. some people consider Las Vegas the most meretricious city in the country. 2. volatile. mete (meet) v. 1.150 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT malleable ('mal·ee·a·bel) adj. 3. to move on a winding or turning course. The eclectic mélange of people at the party made for a scintillating evening. to distribute. 2. 1. The punishments were meted out fairly to everyone involved in the plot. Her mel˘ liﬂuous voice ﬂoated in through the windows and made everyone smile. tawdry. a mixture or assortment. sounding sweet and ﬂowing. 1. the tendency to be dishonest or untruthful. 2. honeyed. mercurial (mer·'kyoor·ee·al) adj. make defective or imperfect. extremely careful and precise. milieu (meel·'yuu) n. to impair or damage. mettlesome ('met·el·som) adj. The milieu at the writer’s retreat is designed to inspire creativity. meretricious (mer·e·'trish·us) adj. rebel. mar (mahr) v. 1. easily ˘ ˘ controlled or inﬂuenced. I meandered through the park for hours. 2. meticulous (me·'tik·yu·lus) adj. maverick ('mav·er·ik) n. move aimlessly or without a ﬁxed direction or course.
miscreant ('mis·kree·ant) n. to cut into very small pieces. to say something more delicately or indirectly for the sake of politeness or decorum. n. vast amount. worldly. one who hates or distrusts humankind. melancholy. ordinary. To the refugees from Somalia. criminal. soften. the extenuating circumstances will mitigate the severity of your punishment. going to work each day can become mundane. as with studied reﬁnement. to soothe the anger of. gloomy. morose (mo·'rohs) adj. sullen. Although this is a moot issue. 3. but today he was ﬁnally captured. very small details. myriad ('mir·ee·ad) adj. mitigate ('mit·˘· ayt) v. The crying child was quickly molliﬁed by her mother. greatly diversiﬁed. the myriad choices in the American supermarket were overwhelming. commonplace. If you do not have passion for your job. joyous laughter. alleviate. make less rigid. calm. secular. mundane (mun·'dayn) adj. diminish. 1. . too numerous to be counted. debatable. misanthrope ('mis·an·throhp) n.WO R D LI ST 151 mince (mins) v. to make less intense or severe. 3. trivial or triﬂing matters. to lessen in intensity. 2. it is one that is often debated among certain circles. The joyous wedding celebration ﬁlled the reception hall with mirth throughout the evening. 1. great merriment. Pay no mind to his criticism. 1. very varied. an immense number. not spiritual. moot (moot) adj. 2. dull. mollify ('mol·˘·f¯) v. to walk or speak affectedly. The job requires the ability to handle multifarious tasks. His ¯o ¯ attention to the minutiae of the process enabled him to make his great discovery. 2. and no one can do anything right in his eyes. having many ˘ aspects. minutiae (m˘·no¯'she·a) n. evil person. to moderate the force or intensity of. a villain.. innumerable. 1. mirth (murth) n. he’s a real misanthrope. 2. undecided. I am sure that if you tell the headmaster the truth. The miscreant had ˘ eluded the police for months. to soften. My daughter has been morose ˘ ever since our dog ran away. an indeﬁ˘ nitely large number. pl. multifarious (mul·ti·'fair·ee·us) adj. Please don’t mince your words—just tell me what you want to say.
offensive. but I could tell she was nervous. 2. agent of retribution or vengeance. invalidate. 3. the lowest point. not showing anxiety or ˘ excitement. noxious ('nok·shus) adj. the cause of one’s misery or ˘ downfall. O obdurate ('ob·du·rit) adj. a means of connection. the monster Victor creates becomes his nemesis. In Frankenstein. stubborn and inﬂexible. not easily moved ˘ to pity. ˘ noxious. a link or tie between a series of ˘ things. he’s the most obdurate person I know.152 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT N nadir ('nay·d˘r) n. to counteract or neutralize the effect of. The nexus between the lobbyists and the recent policy changes is clear. Some critics say that movie stars are guilty of narcissism. The opponents wanted to nullify the bill before it became a law. foul. but it degenerated into a series of non sequiturs. unwholesome. unpleasant and harmful. 1. Robert began to practice mediation to elevate his spirits. strikingly new. the core or center. 2. source of harm or ruin. putrid. What a noisome odor is coming from that garbage can! non sequitur (non 'sek·wi·tur) n. emerging. 2. ˘ The chef’s new idea to add mango to the salad was novel. harmful. nonchalant (non·sha·'lahnt) adj. The nascent movement ˘ gathered strength quickly and soon became a nationwide call to action. nemesis ('nem·e·sis) n. especially in odor. 2. nascent ('nas·ent) adj. 1. nexus ('nek·sus) n. hardhearted. narcissism ('narh·si·siz·em) n. to make null (without legal force). . a conclusion that does not logically follow ˘ from the evidence. 1. Marcus’s argument started off strong. 1. noisome ('noi·som) adj. or different. original. admiration or worship of oneself. excessive inter˘ est in one’s own personal features. adj. coming into existence. novel ('nov·el) n. bane. a connected series or group. Victoria tried to be nonchalant. a genre of literature. the very bottom. nullify ('nul·˘·f¯) v. I doubt he’ll change his mind. When he felt he was at the nadir of his life. The noxious smell ˘ drove everyone from the room. indifferent or cool.
not sharp or ˘ pointed. ˘ ˘ In Greek mythology.WO R D LI ST 153 obfuscate (ob·'fus·kayt) v. occult (o·'kult) adj. to muddle or make difﬁcult to understand. omnipotent (om·'nip·o·tent) adj. form of government in which the power is in the hands of a select few. attentive in a servile or ingratiating manner. . to make obscure or unclear. etc. the total lifework of a writer. Zeus was the most powerful god. having unlimited or universal power or force. secret. a work of art. but he was not omnipotent. The embezzler was good at keeping his ﬁnancial records occult from the authorities. blunt. Minsun survived the accident. concealed. 2. involving the realm of the ˘ supernatural. but she was left with several obtrusive scars. obstreperous (ob·'strep·e·rus) adj. you know what I mean. 1. 1. prominent. hateful. detestable. ˘ thrusting out. com˘ poser. Thankfully. to dim or darken. Zachary found the work ˘ in the slaughterhouse so odious that he quit after one day and became a vegetarian. The obstreperous child refused to go to bed. Please don’t be so obtuse. for she is also a classical pianist. 1. The small governing body calls itself a democracy. forward. because even his rule was often held in check by the unchangeable laws of the Three Fates. aggressively ˘ ˘ boisterous. bossy. but it is clearly an oligarchy. obtrusive (ob·'troo·siv) adj. odious ('oh·di·us) adj. hidden. 2. stupid and slow to understand. contemptible. The obsequious manner of the butler made it clear that he resented his position. oeuvre ('uu·vre) n. fawning. artist. 1. My ofﬁcious Aunt Midge is coming to the party. 2. tending to push one’s self or one’s ideas upon others. to make unnecessary. undesirably noticeable. oligarchy ('ol·˘· ahr·kee) n. beyond ordinary understanding. 3. intrusive. 2. Walter only obfuscated it further. Constanta’s latest oeuvre is an avant-garde symphony featuring a cow bell solo. obviate ('ob·vee·ayt) v. projecting. so be prepared for lots of questions and advice. noisily and stubbornly deﬁant. unruly. Hiring Magdalena would obviate the need to hire a music tutor. obtuse (ob·'toos) adj. excessively or ingratiatingly compliant or ˘ ˘ submissive. incomprehensible. meddlesome. get rid of. 2. ofﬁcious (o·'fish·us) adj. 1. Instead of clarifying the matter. eagerly offering unnecessary or ˘ ˘ unwanted advice. 3. obsequious (ob·'see·kwee·us) adj.
1. pallor ('pal·or) n. insigniﬁcant. . onus ('oh·nus) n. overbearing. ˘ 2. In ˘ a story with an omniscient narrator. but her pallor remained ˘ for several weeks. ostracize ('os·tra·s¯z) v. 2. oscillate ('os·˘·layt) v. The ostensible reason for the meeting is to discuss the candidates. immoderate. we can hear the thoughts and feelings of all of the characters. such as friendly ﬁre. scornful. 1. opulent ('op·yu·lent) adj. oxymoron (oks·ee·'moh·ron) n. 1. 2. to gloss over. paleness. knowing all things. luxu˘ ˘ rious. having inﬁnite knowledge. The rhythm of the oscillating fan put the baby to sleep. put forward (as of a ˘ reason) but not necessarily so. relieve the symptoms of a disease or disorder. to reject. Walton couldn’t believe the billionaire offered such a paltry reward for the return of his lost dog. but he does not live an opulent lifestyle. possessing great wealth. afﬂuent. The governor tried to palliate his malfeasance. 2.154 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT omniscient (om·'nish·ent) adj. P palliate ('pal·ee·ayt) v. uninterrupted rhythm. burden. Kendall ˘ was ostracized after he repeatedly stole from his friends. pitiful. but it soon became clear that he would not be able to prevent a scandal. 2. abundant. appearing as such. lack of color. mitigate. alleviate. Lee is very wealthy. to waver. vacillate. The fever subsided. I quit because I couldn’t stand to work for such an overweening boss. duty or responsibility of doing something. paltry ('pawl·tree) adj. wretched or contemptible. bringing shame or disgrace. excessive. to make something less intense or severe. It was inappropriate to make such opprobrious remarks in front of everybody. 2. put a positive spin on. task. overweening (oh·ver·'wee·nin ) adj. ˘ ˘ abusive. so the onus is on him to show us that it will work. lacking in importance or worth. a ﬁgure of speech containing a seemingly con˘ tradictory combination of expressions. 1. to swing back and forth or side to side in a steady. seeming. contemptibly small in amount. 1. as between two conﬂicting options or opinions. 1. cast out from a group or from society. but I believe they have already made their decision. ostensible (o·'sten·s˘·bel) adj. The term nonworking mother is a contemptible oxymoron. It was ˘ Clark’s idea. opprobrious (o·'proh·bree·us) adj. to provide relief from pain. presumptuously arrogant. expressing contempt or reproach. pretended.
values or practices that constitutes a way of understanding or doing things. Elected “Employee of the Month. Jason was treated like a pariah by all of the women in the ofﬁce. pecuniary (pi·'kyoo·nee·er·ee) adj. scarcity. Rosen was relieved to learn that his penalty would be pecuniary only and that he would not have to spend any time in jail. beyond comparison.” Winona is a paradigm of efﬁciency. ˘ 2. unremarkable. a person fervently and often uncritically supporting a ˘ group or cause. but because he was “new money” in an “old money” town. of course. ˘ 2. especially of rules or trivial matters. pedestrian (pe·'des·tri· an) n.. a guerilla. Ronnel was nice enough. 1. Bob Hope was an entertainer par excellence. pariah (pa·'r¯·a) n. something that serves as a model or example. of. of writing) very clear. partisan ('pahr·ti·zan) n. smallness of supply or quantity. Her lessons were so pedantic that I found I was easily bored.g. 1. its pedestrian plot has been overused by screenwriters for decades. (e. Don’t make such ˘ a big deal out of a little peccadillo. a person who has suddenly risen to a higher social or ˘ economic status but has not been socially accepted by others in that class. peccadillo (pek·a·'dil·oh) n. dull. a rejected and despised person. pellucid (pe·'loo·sid) adj. a member of an organized body of ﬁghters who attack or harass an enemy. able to be seen through with clarity. The paucity of food in the area drove the herd farther and farther to the south. 1. ˘ ˘ unimaginative. an upstart.WO R D LI ST 155 paradigm ('par·a·d¯m) n. he was a parvenu who struggled to be accepted by his wealthy peers. being the best or truest of its kind. translucent. set of assumptions. a trivial offense. marked by a narrow. The partisan lobby could not see the logic of the opposing senator’s argument and did not understand how the proposed legislation would infringe upon basic constitutional rights. beliefs. an outcast. Although the ﬁlm received critical acclaim. a walker adj. quin˘ tessential. or involving money. tiresome focus on or ˘ display of learning. having the highest degree of excellence. parvenu ('pahr·ve·noo) n. a walker. par excellence (pahr 'ek·se·lahns) adj. Senator Waterson’s pellucid argument made me change my vote. easy to understand. a small sin or fault. . commonplace. paucity ('paw·si·tee) n. pedantic (pi·'dan·tik) n. trite. relating to. 2. adj. After he told a sexist ˘ ˘ joke.
it’s ˘ good to be ﬁnancially secure again. treacherous. deadly. Consuela ˘ has a penchant for wearing the latest fashions. peremptory (pe·'remp·to·ree) adj. dictatorial. to spread everywhere. The mother’s peremptory tone ended the children’s bickering. deeply thoughtful. harmful. penultimate (pi·'nul·t˘·mit) adj. . 2. a strong liking or inclination (for something).156 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT penchant ('pen·chant) n. William was convicted of perjury for lying about his whereabouts on the night of the crime. pensive ('pen·siv) adj. to make hard or stiff like a stone. very destructive. penury ('pen·yu·ree) n. not allowing contradiction or refusal. purpose. perfunctory (per·'fun k·to·ree) adj. perjury ('pur·ju·ree) n. pervade (per·'vayd) v. After the terrible car accident. superﬁcial. attractive. Anoki was pensive about what he should do with his life. Fear pervaded the classroom after Sally started a rumor that Mr. the deliberate willful giving of false. personable ('pur·so·na·bel) adj. commanding. not thorough. extreme poverty. We were not satisﬁed with his perfunctory work. perﬁdious (per·'fid·ee·us) adj. extremely stubborn or persistent. or dread. destitution. astonishment. or course of action. pernicious (per·'nish·us) adj. I was petriﬁed when I heard the door open in the middle of the night. Nancy’s opponent ˘ ˘ started a pernicious rumor that destroyed her chances of winning. permeate. The pertinacious journalist ﬁnally uncovered the truth about the factory’s illegal disposal of toxins. violating good faith. Higgins would be their new teacher. 3. dis˘ ˘ loyal. petrify ('pet·r˘·f¯) v. next to last. putting an end to debate or action. imperative. ˘ ˘ 2. especially in a serious or melancholy manner. 1. we felt a more thorough job could have been done. 1. done out of a sense of duty or routine but ˘ ˘ without much care or interest. pleasing in appearance or manner. dishonest. pertinacious (pur·t˘·'nay·shus) adj. After ten years of penury. to be diffused or present ˘ throughout. misleading. There’s a real surprise for the audience in the penultimate scene. ˘ ˘ ˘ Sandra is personable and well liked by her peers. to stun or paralyze with fear. offensively self-assured. holding ˘ ﬁrmly to a belief. The perﬁdious knight betrayed his king. or ˘ incomplete testimony while under oath.
1. pith (pith) n. pique (peek) v. mournful. (in biology) the soft. the essential or central part. unreasonably or easily irritated or annoyed. the heart or essence (of the matter. 2. ˘ ˘ The pouting and sulking child could only be described as petulant. The barbarians pillaged the village before destroying it with ﬁre.). extreme excess. controversial. free from disturbance or tumult. poignant ('poin·yant) adj. spongelike central cylinder of the stems of most ﬂowering plants. calm and peaceful. Matthew offered me several platitudes but no real advice. 1. to wound (someone’s) pride. but concise. The article really piqued my interest in wildlife preservation. to forcibly rob of goods. Lake Placid is as calm and peaceful as its name suggests. placid ('plas·id) adj. 2. a person or thing that has become renewed or restored after suffering calamity or apparent annihilation (after the mythological bird that periodically immolated itself and rose from the ashes as a new phoenix). to plunder. a smug. crucial. piquant ('pee·kant) adj. There was a plethora ˘ ˘ of food at the reception. 2. expressing sorrow. idea. Janice’s plaintive voice made me decide to stay and comfort her longer.WO R D LI ST 157 petulant ('pech·u·lant) adj. . melancholy. an overabundance. especially in time of war. to offend. sharp or tart in taste. argumentative. 1. to arouse or provoke. statement went right to the pith of the argument and covered the most important issues. agreeably pungent. 2. keenly ˘ distressing. 1. Her brief. The spicy shrimp salad is wonderfully piquant. deeply moving. the wrong move now could ruin everything. peevish. etc. plaintive ('playn·tiv) adj. philistine ('fil·i·steen) n. We are at a pivotal point ˘ ˘ in the negotiations and must proceed very carefully. The phoenix is often used to symbolize something that is indomitable or immortal. touching. ignorant person. 2. pleasantly ˘ stimulating or provocative. experience. a trite or banal statement. Richards thinks he is cosmopolitan. but he’s really just a philistine. being of vital importance. They captured the poignant reunion on ﬁlm. a person or thing of unmatched beauty or excellence. polemical (po·'lem·ik·al) adj. platitude ('plat·i·tood) n. especially one uttered as if it were new. pivotal ('piv·o·tal) adj. The analyst presented ˘ ˘ a highly polemical view of the economic situation. arousing emotion. 1. pillage ('pil·ij) v. someone who is uncultured and commonplace. phoenix ('fee·niks) n. piercing or incisive. plethora ('pleth·o·ra) n.
to tell lies. 1. foolhardy. proﬂigate ('prof·l˘· it) adj. practical. lacking moral restraint. propinquity (proh·'pin ·kwi·tee) n. afﬁnity. My ﬁrst impression of the arrogant newcomer told me that he was a poseur. pompous. similarity in nature. lavish or profuse. primeval (pr¯·'mee·val) adj. The crocodile hunter is constantly placing himself in very precarious positions. Because we don’t have money or time to waste. I just had a hunch that he wasn’t what he seemed to be.158 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT poseur (poh·'zur) n. pretentious (pri·'ten·shus) adj. 1. given in great abundance. The ˘ primeval art found in the caves was discovered by accident. dissolute. original. proletariat (proh·le·'tair·ee·at) n. free from contamination. especially with ˘ money. His prodigal actions led to his ﬁnancial ruin. pure. but she is sorely mistaken. someone who takes on airs to impress others. 2. a phony. The proﬂigate man quickly depleted his fortune. ˘ rash. propitious (proh·'pish·us) adj. 2. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. proximity. hasty. we spotted a grizzly bear on a precipitous cliff and wondered if he would fall. Quit prevaricating and tell me what really happened. I think we should take the most pragmatic approach. favoring utility. a rule establishing standards of conduct. The proletariats demanded fewer hours and better wages. pragmatic (pra ·'mat·ik) adj. 1. Hannah thinks ˘ that being pretentious will make people like her. in its original and unspoiled condition. pristine ('pris·teen) adj. those who do manual labor ˘ ˘ to earn a living. prodigal ('prod·˘· al) adj. prevaricate (pri·'var·˘·kayt) v. 1. unadulterated. putting on airs. 2. precept ('pree·sept) n. 1. We were awed by the beauty of the pristine forest in northern Canada. belonging to the earliest ages. precipitous (pri·'sip·i·tus) adj. ancient. dropping sharply. matter-of-fact. fraught with danger. recklessly wasteful or extravagant. to stray from or evade the truth. Driving through the state park. dangerously unsteady ˘ or insecure. 2. auspicious. 1. The headmaster reviewed the precepts of the school with the students. presenting favorable circumstances. precarious (pri·'kair·ee·us) adj. 2. clean. extremely steep. showy. nearness. The propinquity of these two elements make them difﬁcult to tell apart. . 2. the working class. ˘ These are propitious omens and foretell a good journey. prodigal.
to banish or outlaw. quarrelsome. protocol ('proh·to·kawl) n. . suitable only for children. ˘ caustic. a learned person or scholar. 2. I love the pungent taste of a good. puerile ('pyoo·r˘l) adj. frugal. Clarissa has always been very prudent. sharp taste or smell. Don’t be so pugnacious—I don’t want to ﬁght. or procedure with regard to ˘ people’s rank or status. a person or agent authorized to represent or act for another. ceremony. ˘ belonging to or of childhood. economi˘ cal. Because my parents were so provident. penetrating. so her recent bout of poor choices and boisterous behavior tells me she is very upset about something. bel˘ ligerent.WO R D LI ST 159 prosaic (proh·'zay·ik) adj. exercising good judgment. 1. to denounce or condemn. proscribe (proh·'skr¯b) v. Jackson was ﬁred for repeatedly refusing to follow protocol. 2. 1. a ﬁrst copy of a treaty or document. variable. The president appointed a proxy to handle business matters during his absence. After a few minutes. ordinary. strong curry. very meticulous ˘ and precise. changeable. I didn’t have to struggle to pay for college. judicious. childish. stinging. one who is an authority on a subject. pungent ('pun·jent) adj. 1. In ˘ Native American mythology. Andrew is a remarkably successful businessman for someone so puerile. 1. unimaginative. to convert or seek to convert someone to another ˘ religion. wisely providing for future needs. dull. The prosaic novel was rejected by the publisher. pundit ('pun·dit) n. provident ('prov·i·dent) adj. to prohibit. extremely attentive to detail. pugnacious (pu ·'nay·shus) adj. protean ('proh·tee·an) adj. 2. eager to ﬁght. careful and sensible regarding one’s actions and inter˘ ests. the coyote is often called the “shape shifter” because he is such a protean character. 2. 1. having a strong. etiquette. belief. contentious. punctilious (pun k·'til·i·us) adj. it became clear to Hannah that the purpose of the meeting was really to proselytize as many attendees as possible. 2. immature. One of the reasons he excels as an editor is because he is so punctilious. The king proscribed the worship of idols in his kingdom. taking many forms. proxy ('prok·see) n. prudent ('proo·dent) adj. proselytize ('pros·e·li·t¯z) v. The journalist consulted several legal pundits before drafting the article. doctrine or cause. a document authorizing this substitution. forbid. versatile.
2. inactive. a thing given in return for something. pure. peevish. to draw back in fear. quid pro quo (kwid proh 'kwoh) n. to swallow in large draughts. propose or intend. the perfect ˘ example or embodiment of something. I won’t agree to any deal that isn’t quid pro quo— it must be a win-win arrangement. 2. impractical. After Leon writes a draft. daily. He quickly quaffed three glasses of water. but who knows when it will erupt again. discontented. The letter purports to express your opinion on the matter. queue (kyoo) n. quiet. pedestrian. quail (kwayl) v. extravagantly chivalrous and unselﬁsh. purport ('pur·pohrt) v. latent. to have the appearance of being. Mona quailed as soon as the vicious dog entered the room. the essence of a substance. 1. romantically idealistic. quixotic (kwik·'sot·ik) adj. quintessence (kwin·'tes·ens) n. to drink hurriedly or heartily. 2. The volcano is ˘ quiescent at the moment. quiescent (kwi·'es·ent) adj. Look how long the queue is! We’ll be waiting for hours.160 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT purge (purj) v. His quixotic ways charmed all the women at the dance. purloin (pur·'loin) v. but I love him. querulous ('kwer·u·lus) adj. Maura is the quintessence of kindness. commonplace. (in information processing) an ordered list of tasks to be performed or sequence of programs awaiting processing. an equal exchange or substitution. 2. ﬂinch. 1. to free from impurities. The thief purloined a sculpture worth thousands of ˘ dollars. to make or become clean. . cower. 1. at rest. to steal. He’s a cantan˘ ˘ kerous and querulous old man. to be intended to seem. he purges the text of unnecessary words to make it more succinct. especially to rid of that which is undesirable or harmful. a line of people or vehicles waiting their turn. Q quaff (kwahf) v. 1. complaining. quotidian (kwoh·'tid·ee·an) adj. Prudence ˘ took her quotidian dose of medicine. dormant.
abstruse. long-lasting resentment. After weeks of being rebuked in front of his coworkers for minor infractions and imaginary offenses. censure. reactionary (ree·'ak·sho·ner·ee) n. unruly. rancor ('ran ·kor) n. to reprove or reprimand. stubborn. disorderly. It should be an interesting marriage: he’s a reactionary and she’s as liberal as they come. to criticize sharply. recondite ('rek·on·d¯t) adj. 1. rebuke (ri·'byook) v. reconnoiter (ree·ko·'noi·ter) v. Ameer realized he was being persecuted by his boss. disobedient. 1.WO R D LI ST 161 R rakish ('ray·kish) adj. plundering. dissolute or debauched. 1. a relapse or backslide. raucous ('raw·kus) adj. not easily understood. and this causes tension at family gatherings. unmanageable. The raucous music kept us awake all night. recidivism (ri·'sid·˘·vizm) n. The rakish young woman charmed everyone at the table. ˘ ˘ especially to gather military information or prepare for military operations. 2. ˘ The recalcitrant child was sent to the principal’s ofﬁce for the third time in a week. boisterous. a bitter feeling of ill will. unpleasantly loud and harsh. recalcitrant (ri·'kal·si·trant) adj. debonair. obscure. 2. resisting control or dis˘ cipline. Elena is a counselor for refractory children in an alternative school setting. a person who favors political conservativism. . excessively greedy and grasping (especially for ˘ ˘ money). rapacious (ra·'pay·shus) adj. voracious. The rapacious general ordered his soldiers to pillage the town. to delight or entertain with a splendid feast or pleasant amusement. deal˘ ing with abstruse or profound matters. My job was to reconnoiter the party and let my friends know if it was worth attending. regale (ri·' ayl) v. 2. unconventional and disreputable. ˘ one who is opposed to progress or liberalism. He loves the challenge of grasping a recondite subject. to repress or restrain by expressing harsh disapproval. The king regaled his guests until the early morning hours. 2. especially into antisocial or criminal behavior after conviction and punishment. to make a preliminary inspection or survey of. Allowing prisoners to earn their GED or a college degree has been shown to greatly reduce recidivism. jaunty in appearance or manner. Greg is ˘ full of rancor towards his brother. refusing to obey authority. smartly dressed or mannered. 1. refractory (ri·'frak·to·ree) adj. ˘ disturbing the peace.
1. The renegade soldier decided to join the guerrilla ﬁghters. 1. disavow. reject completely. one without ˘ scruples. group. 2. reprieve (ri·'preev) n. especially a popular gathering place. Mrs. a deserter. The president promised a swift reprisal for the attack. 1. to bring or come together at a certain place. to say or plead in protest. 1. 2. The repre˘ hensible behavior of the neighborhood bully angered everyone on the block. The house was replete with expensive antiques. The court granted him a reprieve at the last moment because of DNA evidence that absolved him. 2. repudiate (ri·'pyoo·di·ayt) v. famous. a place where people meet. . resting or being at rest. replete (ri·'pleet) adj. The children remonstrated loudly when their mother told them they couldn’t watch that movie. especially of the death sentence. v. 2. and a traitor in his written confession. calmness. The wail of a police siren disturbed my repose. reprehensible (rep·ri·'hen·s˘·bel) adj. well stocked or abundantly supplied. rendezvous ('rahn·de·voo) n. ˘ 2. to scold or reprove. objection. renegade ('ren·e· ayd) n. reprobate ('rep·ro·bayt) n. widely known and esteemed. 2. one who rejects a cause. an immoral or unprincipled person. reprisal (ri·'pr¯·zal) n. 2. temporary relief from danger or discomfort. 1. an act of retaliation for an injury with the intent of ˘ inﬂicting at least as much harm in return. gorged. repartee (rep·ar·'tee) n. peace of mind. Tallon has repeatedly repudiated your accusations. renowned (ri·'nownd) adj. etc. to disown. a criminal. a quick. postponement or cancellation of punishment. to meet at a rendezvous. 1. the practice of using political or military force without actually resorting to war. deserving rebuke or censure. Edgar deemed himself a reprobate. 1. witty reply. He wasn’t expecting such a sharp repartee from someone who was normally so quiet. a prearranged meeting at a certain time and ˘ place.162 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT remonstrate (ri·'mon·strayt) v. repose (ri·'pohz) n. 1. 2. or opposition. the ability to make witty ˘ replies. tranquility. full. a person who rebels and becomes an outlaw. The renowned historian Stephen Ambrose wrote many books that were popular both with scholars and the general public. Clarissa and Ahmed planned a rendezvous in the park after lunch.
The new announcer at the stadium ˘ ˘ has a wonderfully resonant voice. 1. today he’s switched everything around in the cupboards! roil (roil) v. The Olsens rescinded their offer to buy the house when they discovered the property was in a ﬂood zone. untalkative. When you look at Judith’s work. 2.WO R D LI ST 163 rescind (ri·'sind) v. disrespectful or irreverent towards something ˘ regarded as sacred. a vicious and solitary animal living apart from the herd. or note of explanation or direction. unprincipled person. 1. hold in highest respect or estimation. to regard with reverence or awe. it’s easy to see which painter she reveres most. resounding. a dishonest. The crowd was roiled by the speaker’s insensitive remarks. every painting is an homage to Cezanne. confusing. ˘ reserved. echoing. 2. prominent. I would put this under the rubric of “quackery.” S sacrilegious (sak·r˘·'lij·us) adj. My sagacious uncle always gives me good. sound advice. Her book was criticized by the church for being sacrilegious. . Annette is very reticent. salient ('say·lee·ent) adj. 3. 2. resonant ('rez·o·nant) adj. to void or annul. to make a liquid cloudy or muddy. having or showing sound judgment. rigmarole ('ri ·ma·rohl) (also rigamarole) n. having great splendor or beauty. Sanjay stood for a long time on the deck. Yesterday. revere (ri·'veer) v. so don’t expect her to tell you much about herself. reticent ('ret·i·sent) adj. silent. incoherent ˘ talk. resplendent (ri·'splen·dent) adj. a pleasantly mischievous person.” not “alternative medicine. watching a resplendent sunset over the mountains. springing up or jutting out. 2. to stir up or agitate. highly noticeable. 3. 1. title. ˘ ˘ wise. conspicuous. to anger or annoy. a heading. tending to keep one’s thoughts and feelings to oneself. sagacious (sa·' ay·shus) adj. 1. 2. 1. dazzling. to repeal or cancel. that rogue hid all of my cooking utensils. We had to go through a great deal of rigmarole to get this approved. bril˘ liant. rogue (roh ) n. rambling. a class or category. a complicated. to venerate. rubric ('roo·brik) n. drawing ˘ attention through a striking quality. perceptive. petty procedure. Jill’s most salient feature is her stunning auburn hair.
. gloomy. sanctimonious (san k·t˘·'moh·nee·us) adj. sardonic (sahr·'don·ik) adj. to approve or permit. but the conversation was so scintillating that I stayed until 2:00 in the morning. She has not one ˘ scintilla of doubt about his guilt. I’ve decided to move to a more salutary climate. The thief’s sanctimonious remark that “a fool and his money are soon parted” only made the jury more eager to convict him. mean. 1. optimistic. mocking scornfully. seditious (si·'dish·us) adj. v. sanguine ('san · win) adj. red. a separation or division into factions because of a difference ˘ in belief or opinion. sanction ('san k·shon) n. scurvy ('skur·vee) adj. ratify. 2. contemptible. sullen. a trace or particle. I wish I had Jane’s sangfroid when I ﬁnd myself in a confrontational situation. ˘ excessively self-righteous. The city council has sanctioned our request to turn the empty lot into a community garden. sarcastic. brilliantly clever and animated. People are drawn to her because of her sanguine and pleasant nature. knowledge of the right thing to do or say in a social situation. engaging in or ˘ promoting sedition (conduct or language which incites resistance or opposition to lawful authority).164 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT salutary ('sal·yu·ter·ee) adj. Adele’s savoir faire makes her the quintessential hostess. shining brilliantly. The saturnine child sulked for ˘ hours. 1. arousing to insurrection or rebellion. ofﬁcial authorization or approval. 1. of the color of blood. minute amount. The schism between the two parties was forgotten as they united around a common cause. sangfroid (sahn·'frwah) n. iota. composure. 2. scintilla (sin·'til·a) n. savoir faire ('sav·wahr 'fair) n. saturnine ('sat·ur·n¯n) adj. hypocritically pious or devout. conﬁdently cheerful. I had planned to leave the dinner party early. schism ('siz·em) n. to give ofﬁcial authorization or approval for. 1. dark. To promote better health. scintillating ('sin·t˘·lay·tin ) adj. Toby’s seditious behavior nearly started a riot at the town meeting. a penalty ˘ imposed to coerce another to comply or conform. producing a beneﬁcial or wholesome effect. 2. reme˘ dial. sparkling. especially in dangerous or difﬁcult circumstances. I was hurt by his sardonic reply. That scurvy knave has ruined my plans again. graceful tact.
petition. 2. to reduce the intensity of. but knew he had a little more research to do before he presented his argument to the distinguished scholars in his ﬁeld. to seek to obtain by per˘ suasion or formal application. to approach with an offer for paid services. but the matter is not open to interpretation. persevering. pithy. sententious (sen·'ten·shus) adj. connotation. Frank’s solecism caused his debate team much embarrassment. symbols. sodden ('sod·en) adj. or other forms. allay. quench. 1. slavish. solicit (so·'lis·it) v. 2. 2. to satisfy. impropriety. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited support for Tuesday’s vote. expressing oneself tersely. the study of relationships between signs or symbols and their meanings. It is dangerous to drive ˘ fast on such a sinuous road. serpentine. 1. 1. sinuous ('sin·yoo·us) adj. simian ('sim·ee·an) adj. ˘ unimaginative. 2. 2. Caught in an unexpected rainstorm. I was sodden by the time I reached the bus stop. of or like an ape or monkey. diligent. soaked. semantics (si·'man·tiks) n. or purpose. not a sententious reply. 2. ﬁnds the courage to break the engagement and marry the man she truly loves. expressionless or dull. thoroughly saturated. the study of meaning in language. clever but faulty reasoning. 3. solecism ('sol·e·siz·em) n. 1. or interpretation of words. slake (slayk) v. abjectly submissive. moderate. winding. I was amused by his sophistry. He claims it’s an issue of semantics. pertaining to or beﬁtting a slave or forced labor. 2. 1. the researchers discovered a cure. lacking ambition. shiftless ('shift·lis) adj. full of ˘ maxims and proverbs offered in a self-righteous manner. lazy and inefﬁcient. a mistake in the use of language. After years of sedu˘ ˘ lous research. 3. Scientists have studied ˘ humans’ simian ancestors. . My shiftless roommate has failed all of his classes. 1. The climax comes when Yolanda. servile ('sur·v¯l) adj. violation of ˘ ˘ good manners or etiquette. undulating. a plausible but invalid argument intended to deceive by appearing sound.WO R D LI ST 165 sedulous ('sej·u·lus) adj. the meaning. The deer slaked its thirst at the river. initiative. 1. sophistry ('sof·i·stree) n. who had believed she was doomed to play the role of a servile wife to a domineering husband. to ask for earnestly. I was looking for your honest opinion. hard working.
spurious ('spyoor·ee·us) adj. I have always been a staunch believer in the power of positive thinking. Oscar knew he was in big trouble. seemingly unaffected by pleasure or pain. 3. counterfeit. but underneath. ﬁrm and constant in principle or loyalty. seemingly plausible but false. thwart. 1. unswerving. sublime (su·'bl¯m) adj. or reverence. Beethoven’s music is simply sublime. Subliminal ˘ advertising is devious but effective. ˘ impassive. She quietly subverted his authority by sharing internal information with outside agents. The negotiations were stymied by yet another attack. inspiring awe. indifferent. false. wretched. to overthrow. ﬁrm and steadfast. . subvert (sub·'vurt) v. morally degraded. lofty. Of course I’m angry! You stultiﬁed me at that meeting! stymie ('st¯·mee) v. succinct (suk·'sin kt) adj. 2. to ruin. strident ('str¯·dent) adj. sordid. destroy completely. ﬁlthy and wretched. stoical ('stoh·i·kal) adj. 1. grating. to undermine. he is every bit as emotional as we are. to impair or make ineffective. ﬁrmly loyal and constant. The housing inspectors noted such deplorable and squalid living conditions in the decrepit building on Water Street that they were forced to evacuate the tenants. steadfast ('sted·fast) adj. unpleasantly loud and harsh. cripple. staunch (stawnch) v. stultify ('stul·t˘·f¯) v. unswerving. ﬁrmly ﬁxed or unchanging. specious ('spee·shus) adj. discordant. 2. Cole’s eloquent and succinct essay on the power of positive thinking won ﬁrst place in the essay contest. 2. (also stanch) stopping the ﬂow of something. to prevent the accomplishment of something. to hinder. to make (someone) look foolish or incompetent. Ian’s ˘ surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. obstruct. morally repulsive. 2. having noble or majestic qualities. The captain held a steadfast course despite the rough seas. adj. subliminal (sub·'lim·˘·nal) adj. deceptively pleasing ˘ in appearance. 2. dirty. adora˘ tion. 1. squalid. squalid ('skwol·id) adj. Vinnie did not fool me with his specious argument. expressed clearly and precisely in few words. ˘ When he heard the strident tone of his mother’s voice. supreme. below the threshold of consciousness. Michael was stoical.166 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT sordid ('sor·did) adj. 1. ˘ terse. not genuine or authentic. 2. shrill. concise. resolute. This sordid establishment should be shut down immediately. 1. 1.
surly ('sur·lee) adj. 1. reserved. The svelte actress offered a toast to her guests. or fraudulent means. T taciturn ('tas·i·turn) adj. assistance or relief in time of difﬁculty or distress. The Red Cross and other relief organizations provide succor to the needy during natural disasters. . v. but yesterday he regaled me with tales of his hiking adventures. surmise (sur·'m¯z) v. glut. Lakisha surmised that someone had stolen her misplaced jewelry. 2. Ian’s surreptitious manner makes me believe his support for you is spurious and that he has a hidden agenda. habitually untalkative. Omar realized that one of the drawbacks of his celebrity was that he would always be surrounded by sycophants. an excessive amount or overabundance. a substitute. a person who asks humbly for something. svelte (svelt) adj. surrogate ('sur·o· it) n. to infer based upon insufﬁcient evidence. ˘ ˘ clandestine. sundry ('sun·dree) adj. made. marked by or acting with stealth or secrecy.WO R D LI ST 167 succor ('suk·or) n. Emily received a surly greeting from the normally cheerful receptionist. suave. supercilious (soo·per·'sil·ee·us) adj. satiety. the state of being or eating until excessively full. done. surfeit ('sur·fit) n. I’ve always known him to be taciturn. haughty. various. surreptitious (sur·ep·'tish·us) adj. or unfriendly in a way that suggests menace. conjec˘ ture. bad-tempered. overindulge. the leaders and a select few enjoy a surfeit of wealth while most of the population lives in squalor. disdainful. Sunil’s super˘ ˘ cilious attitude and sarcastic remarks annoy me greatly. supplicant ('sup·l˘·kant) n. or disgust. 1. to feed or ﬁll to excess. After ﬁnding dirty footprints in her apartment. or obtained through stealthy. Martha ˘ agreed to be a surrogate mother for her sister. one who takes the place of another. a person who tries to win the favor of inﬂuential or ˘ ˘ powerful people through ﬂattery. gruff. In some countries. v. The sundry items in her backpack reveal a great deal about her personality. The supplicants begged for forgiveness. miscellaneous. sycophant ('sik·o·fant) n. one who ˘ beseeches or entreats. slender and graceful. to guess. scornful. 2. to pro˘ vide assistance or relief in time of difﬁculty or distress. a fawning parasite.
(of memory) retentive. it’s all hearsay. using no unnecessary words. such as a right or ˘ ˘ principle. holding ﬁrmly to something. Heidi and I engaged only in terse exchanges. Rudy’s thesis paper contained tangential statements. fearful. doctrine or principle held to be true by a person. audacity. not impartial. tenet ('ten·it) n. lacking conﬁdence. There is no tangible evidence of misconduct. 2. afraid. This pamphlet describes the tenets of Amnesty International. only superﬁcially relevant. of or relating to a tangent. 3. This ˘ is no time for temerity. biased. palpable. gaudy or showy but without any real value. hesitant. 4. partisan. to be full of. ﬂashy and tasteless. The general thwarted an attack by the opposing army. we must move cautiously to avoid any further damage. tangible ('tan·j˘·bel) adj. of no substantive ˘ connection.168 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT tangential (tan·'jen·shal) adj. timid ('tim·id) adj. shy. 1. tenuous ('ten·yoo·us) adj. conviction. terse (turs) adj. having little substance or ˘ validity. unsubstantial. thwart (thwort) v. and it ˘ ˘ took a great deal of coaxing to get him to come near the car. stubbornly unyielding. real or con˘ crete. The stray dog was timorous. timorous ('tim·o·rus) adj. After our disagreement. The ﬁsherman found a stream teeming with bass. or courage. . fearful. sticking ﬁrmly. tawdry ('taw·dree) adj. 1. persistent. timid. concise. supporting a ˘ particular cause or position. 1. opinion. she is the most tenacious person I know. The tendentious proposal caused an uproar on the Senate ﬂoor. tenacious (te·'nay·shus) adj. tendentious (ten·'den·shus) adj. to prevent the accomplishment or realization of something. holding ﬁrmly. cohesive. 2. Though the connection between the two crimes seemed tenuous at ﬁrst. temerity (te·'mer·i·tee) n. ﬂimsy. a thorough investigation showed they were committed by the same person. group. a belief. able to be perceived by touch. When it comes to ﬁghting for equality. to be present in large numbers. or organization. Adele was so timid she could barely muster the courage to look another person in the eye. brashness. succinct. not relevant facts. I’ve never seen such a tawdry outﬁt as the three-tiered taffeta prom gown that the music singer wore to the awards ceremony! teem (teem) v. foolish disregard of danger. adhesive. 2.
transient ('tran·zhent) adj. penetrating. a ˘ state of confusion. tumult. noisy. forceful. 1. to shorten or terminate by (or as if by) cutting the top or end off. The outspoken congresswoman gave a truculent speech arguing against the proposal. 1. a violent denunciation or condemnation. Their relationship was transient but profound. hackneyed. to work laboriously. effective. deﬁantly aggressive. He will be sentenced for his war crimes ˘ by an international tribunal. totalitarian (toh·tal·i·'tair·ee·an) adj. Evan toiled for hours before solving the problem. angry. a court of justice. the World Controllers use hypnosis and a “happiness drug” to make everyone tractable. a long. demanding total submission of the individual to the needs of the state. violent. It was another tumultuous day for the stock market. disorderly. The theme of the novel was trite. or agitation. of a form of government in which those in ˘ control neither recognize nor tolerate rival parties or loyalties. Cy was touting the merits of the referendum as he solicited support for Tuesday’s vote. easily managed or controlled. and it forced me to change my mind about the issue. 3. 2. trenchant ('tren·chant) adj. turbulence. his tirade did not surprise his roommate. trite (tr¯t) adj. lasting only a very short time. extremely per˘ ceptive. ˘ brief. ﬁerce. obedient. incisive. etc. to promote or praise highly and energetically. 2. toil (toil) n. especially with the goal of getting a customer. 1. repeated too often. to solicit (customers. many writers had written about death in a similar way. ﬂeeting. difﬁcult or laborious work. It was a trenchant argument. overly familiar through overuse. 2. and ﬂuctuating prices wrought havoc for investors. v. 1. exhausting labor or effort. votes. clear-cut. creating an uproar. 3. vote. 2. truculent ('truk·yu·lent) adj. Since Andre was known for his temper.) in an especially brazen or persistent manner. tumultuous (too·'mul·choo·us) adj. In the ˘ ˘ novel Brave New World.WO R D LI ST 169 tirade ('t¯·rayd) n. tractable ('trak·ta·bel) adj. labor strenuously. docile. . etc. The glitch in the software program truncated the lines of a very important document I was typing. often highly critical speech. transitory. truncate ('trun ·kayt) v. tribunal (tr¯·'byoo·nal) n. worn out. tout (towt) v. sharply deﬁned. bitterly ˘ ˘ expressing opposition. The totalitarian regime fell quickly when the people revolted.
1. to seize. troublesome. undulate ('un·ju·layt) v. unctuous ('un k·choo·us) adj. ﬂuctuate. extremely tactful and polite. The child was upbraided for misbehaving during the ceremony. unpleasantly and excessively or insincerely ˘ earnest or ingratiating. waver. wickedness. stupid. elegant. 2. 1. improper. to wrongfully take over. usurp (yoo·'surp) v. resentment. offense. 1. After the king’s half-brother usurped the throne. to destroy in an underhanded way. V vacillate ('vas·˘·layt) v. to be indecisive. highly reﬁned in manners. course of action. to weaken or injure. Jackson’s untoward remarks made Amelia very uncomfortable. etc. a corrupt or depraved act. senseless. adverse. U umbrage ('um·brij) n. purposeless. 2. containing or having the quality of oil or ointment. greasy. by force and without right. vacuous ('vak·yoo·us) adj. I left without test driving the car because the salesperson was so unctuous that I couldn’t trust him. who had forbade them to eat sweets. 2. unseemly. to reprove. 1. condemn. I took great umbrage at your suggestion that I twisted the truth. untoward (un·'tohrd) adj. undermine (un·der·'m¯n) v. the babysitter undermined their mother. admonish. Christopher thinks he’s so urbane. contrary to one’s best interest or welfare. suave. or take possession of. 2. but he’s really quite pedestrian. to swing back and forth about an opinion. to move in waves or in a wavelike fashion. inane. 1. reproach sharply. empty. ﬂuctuate. 2.. who was the rightful heir to the throne. ˘ The curtains undulated in the breeze. to move or sway from side to side. he executed the king and queen and imprisoned the prince. This TV ˘ show is yet another vacuous sitcom. urbane (ur·'bayn) adj. Denise vacillated for weeks before she decided to accept our offer. slippery. By telling the children that they could eat chocolate. Such turpitude deserves the most severe punishment. perverse.170 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT turpitude ('tur·pi·tood) n. . especially by wearing away at ˘ the foundation. upbraid (up·'brayd) v. inconvenient.
˘ Her verbose letter rambled so much that it didn’t seem to have a point. worthy of reverence or respect because of age. dig˘ ˘ ˘ nity. Jin handed in her letter of resignation. veritable ('ver·i·ta·bel) adj. indeed. to cause worry to. savagely hostile or bitter. verisimilitude (ver·i·si·'mil·i·tood) n. 2. easily bribed or corrupted. vituperate (v¯·too·pe·rayt) v. the lights came back on. referring or directing attention to. to strive for superiority or victory. and Suki suddenly found herself vis-à-vis with the man of her dreams. long-winded. 1. extremely poisonous. using more words than necessary. verbose (ver·'bohs) adj. The two scientists were vying to be the ﬁrst to ﬁnd concrete evidence of extraterrestrial life. vie (v¯) v. ˘ ˘ vex (veks) v. face to face ˘ with or opposite to. The ﬁlm is a series of interrelated vignettes rather than one continuous narrative. true. vignette (vin·'yet) n. genuine. acrimonious. marked by great force. Einstein was a veritable genius. I was completely vexed by his puerile behavior. irritate. 2. adv. injurious or infectious. berate. venerable ('ven·e·ra·bel) adj. They say that the pen is mightier than the sword. character or position. a brief description or depiction. The venal judge was ˘ removed and disbarred. 1. unprincipled. face to face. vitriolic (vit·ri·'ol·ik) adj. words can be every bit as virulent as the sting of a scorpion. 2. 1. characterized by extreme intensity of emotion or ˘ ˘ forcefulness of expression or conviction. . The venerable Jimmy Carter has won the Nobel Peace Prize. bitterly hostile or hateful. vis-à-vis (vee·za·'vee) adj. After being vituperated by her boss for something that wasn’t even her fault. to annoy. especially a short literary sketch or scene or ornamental sketch in a book. venal ('vee·nal) adj.WO R D LI ST 171 vehement ('vee·e·ment) adj. to criticize or rebuke harshly or abusively. After a few minutes of pandemonium. the appearance of being true or real. Her vitriolic attack on her opponent was so hostile that it may cost her the election. wordy. to cen˘ sure severely. to compete with or contend. The movie aims for complete verisimilitude and has painstakingly recreated the details of everyday life in the 1920s. The senator was vehement in her denial of any wrongdoing and maintained her innocence throughout the investigation. or energy. real. 1. ˘ ˘ 2. vigor. caustic. virulent ('vir·yu·lent) adj.
watchful. 1. to separate the grain from the chaff by using the wind or other current of air to blow the chaff away. to separate the good from the bad. X xenophobia (zen·o·'foh·bee·a) n. or fear of foreigners. 2. ﬁckle. 1. Your new spokesperson is very voluble and clearly comfortable speaking in front of large audiences. I have always been a voracious reader and literally consume dozens of books every month. 1. varying widely. top. winnow ('win·oh) v. 3. The stock market has been so volatile lately that I have decided to invest in bonds instead. Z zealous ('zel·us) adj. likely to change suddenly or violently. unstable. (in chemistry) evaporating readily. talking a great deal and with great ease. She is at the zenith of her career and has won every case this year. inconstant. Bridget was wary of most salespeople. ˘ earnest. language ˘ ˘ marked by great ﬂuency. cautious. the point in the sky directly above the observer. the spirit of the times. eager. the general intellectual and moral outlook or attitude characteristic of a particular generation or period of time. excessively greedy. rapid. Shalom was such a zealous student that he begged his teacher to assign him extra projects. having a great ˘ appetite for something. W wary ('wair·ee) adj. guarded. After being swindled by the street vendor. 2. changeable. 1. nimble speech. We have winnowed the list of applicants down to ﬁve highly qualiﬁed candidates. voluble ('vol·yu·bel) adj.172 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT volatile ('vol·a·til) adj. devouring greedily. fervent. voracious (voh·'ray·shus) adj. ˘ 2. explosive. the highest point. to examine or sift through to remove undesirable elements. rapacious. . ˘ ˘ Many atrocities have been committed because of xenophobia. 2. turning or rotating easily on an axis. peak. ﬁlled with or marked by great interest or enthusiasm. zeitgeist ('ts¯t· ¯st) n. The revolutionary zeitgeist of the sixties and seventies is in sharp contrast to the conservative zeitgeist of the ﬁfties. a strong dislike. distrust. zenith ('zee·nith) n.
WO R D LI ST
Preﬁxes, Sufﬁxes, and Word Roots
The following table lists the most common English language preﬁxes, their meanings, and examples of words with each preﬁx.
PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES
a-, anab-, absanteant-, antibicircumco-, com-, concontracounterdedis-
not, without from, away, off prior to, in front of, before opposite, opposing, against two, twice around, about, on all sides with, together, jointly against, contrary, contrasting contrary, opposite or opposing; complementary do the opposite or reverse of; remove from, reduce away from, apart, reversal, not
atypical, anarchy, amorphous abnormal, abduct, abscond antedate, antecedent, antebellum antidote, antagonist, antipathy bisect, bilateral, bicameral circumference, circumnavigate, circumspect cooperate, community, consensus contradict, contraindication counterclockwise, countermeasure, counterpart deactivate, dethrone, detract disperse, dismiss, disinterested
VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES
two out, out of, away from
duo, duet, duality expel, exclaim, exorbitant induct, impart, inculcate invariable, incessant, illicit, inept, impervious intervene, interact, intermittent intramural, intravenous introvert, introduction malfunction, malpractice, malign misspell, miscreant, misanthrope monologue, monogamy, monocle multiple, multimillionaire, multifarious neologism, neonatal, neophyte nonconformist, nonentity, nonchalant overabundance, overstimulate polytechnic, polyglot postpone, postpartum, postoperative precaution, precede, presage proceed, proclivity, profess pseudonym, pseudoscience recall, reconcile, rescind semiannual, semiconscious subconscious, subdue, subjugate superhero, superﬁcial, supercilious transmit, translate, translucent triangle, tricycle, triumvirate unable, uninterested, unorthodox unite, uniform, unilateral
in- (also il-, in, into, within in- (also il-, not im-, ir-) interintraintromalmismonomultineononoverpolypostprepropseudoresemisubsupertranstriununibetween, among, within within, during in, into, within bad, abnormal, evil, wrong bad, wrong, ill; opposite or lack of one, single, alone many, multiple new, recent, a new form of not exceeding, surpassing, excessive many, much after, subsequent, later (than), behind before (a) earlier, before, prior to; in front of (b) for, supporting, in behalf of (c) forward, projecting false, fake back, again half, partly, incomplete under, beneath, below above, over, exceeding across, beyond, through three, thrice not one
P R E F I X E S, S U F F I X E S, AN D WO R D R O OTS
The following table lists the most common English language sufﬁxes, their meanings, and examples of words with each sufﬁx.
SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES
-age -al -an, -ian -ance, -ence -ancy, -ency -ant, -ent -ary -cide -cy -er, -or -ion, -tion -ism -ist -ity -ment -ness -ology -or -sis -ure -y
(a) action or process (b) house or place of (c) state, rank action or process of or relating to; a person specializing in action or process; state of quality or state one that performs, promotes, or causes an action; being in a speciﬁed state or condition thing belonging to or connected with killer, killing action or practice; state or quality of one that is, does, or performs act or process; state or condition act, practice, or process; state or doctrine of one who (performs, makes, produces, believes, etc.) quality, state, or degree action or process; result, object, means, or agent of an action or process state, condition, quality or degree doctrine, theory, or science; oral or written expression condition, activity process or action act or process; ofﬁce or function state, condition, quality; activity or place of business
drainage, orphanage, marriage rehearsal, disposal, reversal guardian, pediatrician, historian adolescence, benevolence, renaissance agency, vacancy, latency disinfectant, dissident, miscreant adversary, dignitary, library suicide, pesticide, homicide democracy, legitimacy, supremacy builder, foreigner, sensor attraction, persecution, denunciation criticism, anachronism, imperialism anarchist, feminist, imperialist clarity, amity, veracity entertainment, embankment, amazement happiness, readiness, goodness biology, theology, eulogy candor, valor, succor diagnosis, dialysis, metamorphosis exposure, legislature, censure laundry, empathy, anarchy
-ible -al. servile Swedish. unable to act or be acted on (in a speciﬁed way) full of. American. relating to. synchronize . to cause to be or become to cause to be or have. having the quality of tending to or capable of having the quality of performing or tending towards (an action). futile. tending or liable to having the quality of. archaic fragile. or characterized by one who is or does. fearless. -y capable or worthy of. tending or inclined to ﬂammable. -ent -ful -ic -ile -ish -ive -less -ous. relating to characterized by. lengthen. cursory. cooperative. to bring about violate. -ical -an. plagiarize. bookish. egregious sleepy. -ial. exacerbate. peaceful. of. glorious. full of. culpable. desultory VERB ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -ate -en -ify. squeamish sensitive. form into to cause to be or become. wistful fantastic. -fy -ize to make. emanate quicken. listless adventurous. having the nature of without.176 VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT ADJECTIVE ENDINGS SUFFIX MEANING EXAMPLES -able. pensive endless. incessant. preeminent helpful. frighten beautify. tolerate. chronic. having the qualities of. electrify. inscrutable educational. agrarian important. to come to be or have to make. -ian -ant. -ose. related to. peripheral. tending or liable to pertaining or relating to. ephemeral human. having the qualities of. rectify colonize. characteristic of performing (a speciﬁc action) or being (in a speciﬁed condition) full of. lacking.
incessant central. monarchy. ept arch. ﬁtness. adhere. castigate exceed. intercept. chronology. try breaking the list down into manageable chunks of ten to 20 roots and memorize them section by section. ag ad. bemoan. principal. recant capital. capitulate capture. to decide time acid. adept. acute. to get heart ﬂesh cut to go. carnage caste. benevolent. belittle rebel. agitate adjacent. apotheosis adapt. Some of these roots many already be familiar to you—you use words with these roots every day! ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES ac. belligerent. autonomy. alien amiable. cord. cid cant. headlong to take. acr act. antebellum beneﬁt. amphitheater unanimous. human away skill. ambivalent. animosity. ennui anthro. enact. archy auto be bel. crit chron sharp. amity. cret. cardiac. emancipate encourage. ceed. ability chief. bitter to do. perennial anthropology. inept hierarchy. coincidence. ruler self to be. concede. mind. to lead to. alter am amb amb. discord carnivore. spirit year man. to drive. eccentric ascertain. another love to go. to yield. around life. bonus accident.P R E F I X E S. chastise. android. cascade chant. to distinguish. critique. concentric. S U F F I X E S. acrimonious agent. to have a certain quality war good to fall. andr apo apt. preamble. archi. their meanings. to happen by chance to sing head. AN D WO R D R O OTS 177 WORD ROOTS The following table lists the most common word roots. near other. bell ben. enamor ambulatory. misanthrope apology. discern chronic. to walk both. synchronize . to force. cour carn cast. alias. amph anim annui. to stop center to separate. and examples of words with those roots. al al. There are more than 150 roots here. to judge. capit. soul. anarchy automatic. cess centr cern. ambush ambiguous. allure alternative. but don’t be intimidated by the length of this list. ali. reincarnation. equanimity annual. cent. cipit cap. automaton befriend. cip. more than one. apocalypse. principal. chant cap. cept card. toward. To learn these roots. bon cad. cert. enchant. chast ced. anniversary. crim.
even to wander becoming good. cret cred cryp cub. endow. through to say. fam fac. to use words worth opinion suffer. increase. inﬁdel ﬁnal. paradox condolence. famous.178 ROOT MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES cis cla. transfer. fait. ﬂuctuation. induct. trust end to burn to bend to ﬂow scissors. fy fer ferv ﬁd ﬁn ﬂag. cracy cre. dot. cryptic. incursion. coalesce. dow dub duc. bend running. ﬂux to cut shut. dolorous donate. euthanasia fable. feign offer. fervid. culpable. enclose. indoctrinate. clu claim. proclaim. dict. to cry out to lean toward. epigraph equation. indubitable. recline. dyslexia epidemic. cresc. clamor decline. endow dubious. close to shout. conducive endure. equanimity. ﬂammable. well speak to do. obdurate dysfunctional. to trust hidden to lie down blame to teach people apart. epidemic. bureaucracy creation. ﬁdelity. reﬂect. clo. docile democracy. increment incredible. afﬁnity ﬂame. erratic adolescent. indignant dogma. dictionary. inﬂammatory deﬂect. exculpate doctor. abnormal upon equal. acquiesce euphoria. incisive closet. pandemic dialogue. autocracy. a course to govern to grow to believe. ﬂexible ﬂuid. dichotomy predict. epigram. effervescent conﬁde. diatribe. durable. affable ﬁction. to make to bring. cumb culp dac. ﬁc. factory. doc dem di. error. orthodox. ﬁnite. cursory democracy. to bubble faith. to carry. indict dignity. indolence. ﬁg. equivocate err. clam cli. dubiety conduct. incubate. feit. dystopia. duct dur dys epi equ err esce eu fab. preclude exclaim. dia dic. precise. proclivity recur. ﬂam ﬂect. pain to give doubt to lead hard faulty. proliferate fervor. credit. ﬂex ﬂu. incumbent culprit. dox dol don. dit dign dog. cur crat. to tell. to bear to boil. clin cour. eulogy. incredulous crypt. cryptography succumb. superﬂuous .
creation. hyperextend. luv mag. incognito progress. loqu luc. juxtapose jury. death name immortal. to join to swear to select. ingratiate cohere. imminent. magnanimous manual. innocuous nominate. gratitude. hyperbole idiom. nom. inherent heterosexual. heterodox homogeneous. leg lev loc. deluge magnify. lut. rise word. homonym. minutiae prominent. intermittent monitor. junct jur lect. digress grateful. nic. order to be born harm. maj. hes (h)etero (h)om hyper id ject join. diffuse generous. autonomy native. luminous illusion. nym nat. gno grad. infringe infusion. homonym hyperactive. nominal . moratorium mutate. fraction. nai nec. monit morph to pour birth. lum. heterogeneous. noc. nown death change rule. ideology eject. nox nom. diminish. noun. metamorphosis. genetics. fortuitous fracture. race. eloquent. aggressive. mit mon. kind to know to step pleasing to stick different. junction. dejected. excessive one’s own to throw. fring to break fus gen gn. magnitude. select. eclectic elevator. allude lavatory. immutable. nym. morbid. noun. to choose lift. loquacious illustrate. noxious. lus lud. light. adherent. anthropomorphic fra. lever. manufacture. forbear fortune. other same over. to hang over to send to warn shape mort mut nam. permutation economy. nas. taxonomy. fortunate. AN D WO R D R O OTS ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES 179 fore fort before chance foresight. frag. preeminent transmit. frac. abjure election. idiosyncrasy. renaissance innocent. homogenous ignore. elude. remit. log. remonstrate amorphous. nascent. perjury. conjecture joint. alleviate dialogue. speech light to play to wash big hand small to project. lus lug.P R E F I X E S. gress grat her. dilute. lucid. max man min min mis. recognize. to throw down to meet. forestall. S U F F I X E S. manifest minute. admonish. nown.
novel. bibliophile telephone. peripatetic compete. ply pon. neophyte object. puncture. quis qui rid. scrip se to announce new toward. obsequious omnipresent. sacrament. denounce novice. encyclopedia. pov. paradox passionate. poor child. pound port prehend. wrong around to go. science. a lot to prove. omniscient scribble. pervade perimeter. query quiet. impoverish pediatrician. antipathy. of. to strive love sound to please to ﬁll to fold. segregate. sanct. omniscient pacify. conquest. disparate. permeate. poign que. op omni pac. pun pend. education foot to pay. probation. pit phil phone plac ple plex. punctilious inquisitive. importune surprise. impetuous philosophy. little. against. plic. impugn point. pu ped ped. to jump to know to write apart announce. omnipotent. tranquil. deplete. juxtapose import. component. derision interrogate. compensate. peas pan par para pas. prescribe. penance depend.180 ROOT MEANING VO CA B U LA RY F O R TO E F L iBT EXAMPLES nounc. complacent complete. to weigh. proselytize probe. secr sal. pens per peri pet. pensive perplex. pos. pat. to get. abrogate sacred. philanthropy. profuse. sanction assault. reprisal proliferate. to compensate to hang. nou ob. acquiesce riddle. comply. prise pro prob pug punc. sault. circumscribe separate. pugnacious. suffering. sult sci scribe. nunc nov. beside feeling. paciﬁer panorama. sil. to twist. to seize much. seditious . ridiculous. for. punishment. paragon. homophone. pedantic pedestrian. panacea par. obstruct. path pau. pung. oc. to place to carry to take. to. everyone equal next to. placebo. ris rog sacr. to tangle. pauper. expedite. desultory conscious. surrogate. po. portable. to pay completely. apprehend. to prick to seek quiet to laugh to ask sacred to leap. petition. peripheral. pandemic. completely. over all peace all. to test to ﬁght to point. pronounce. apathetic poverty. parity parallel. plethora complex. disease few. impede penalty. implicit expose. to bend to put. insolent. appease. reprobate repugnant. neo. pod pen. cacophony placid. to seek.
tractable abuse. versatile vivid. sti sua tac. S U F F I X E S. sequel. survey. steadfast suave. tic tain. tent. benevolence . assiduous. advocate. to be in place smooth to be silent to hold to stretch. religion to drag. to see to stand. vigorous. verisimilitude. tenu theo tract us. AN D WO R D R O OTS ROOT MEANING EXAMPLES 181 sec.P R E F I X E S. tenuous atheist. tent. sequ sed. spic. tenacious extend. ten. dissident sense. dissent dissolve. speculation. vok vol to follow to sit. reticent. tin tend. vent ver vers. visionary vocal. vis voc. equivocate volunteer. to draw to use to come. venture. obsequious subside. intervene verdict. sid sens. to move toward truth to turn life to see to call to wish consequence. persuade. sustain. sentiment. to thin god. aversion. resolution. vicarious evident. to plot to feel. obstinate. dissolution perspective. to free to look. to be still. usurp convene. tens. theology. detract. to be aware to loosen. circumspect static. to pull. apotheosis attract. sess. volition. utility. spit sta. tension. dissuade tacit. veritable revert. sent sol spec. to plan. ut ven. vert vi vid. taciturn detain.
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