Cross Section Analysis Of Structural Components

Beginning Level - Example 1

XTRACT - Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components - 1

This beginning example outlines the basis features of XTRACT. In this example, a new project will be started, a section will be created from the template, the section will be copied and modified, and both a moment curvature analysis and axial force-moment analysis will be performed. The results will be viewed and interpreted and output reports printed. Contents of this detailed example include: • An outline of the basic flow of the program • Step-by-step instructions on creating a cross section using the section template. • Detailed instructions on how to analyze the section within the interface • Methods by which to access the various output capabilities • How to structure and print the various output reports

Program Flow
The following outlines the basic flow of the program from creating a new project to creating cross sections to viewing analysis data. This example will present each of the following steps in detail: • Create a new project by clicking the 'New' icon on the main toolbar. • Within the new project creation wizard, select begin from Template. • Enter section data, material models, specify mesh size, and create cross section. • Add analyses to the created section. • Analyze. • View output results in the ’Interactive Output’ dialog. • Add a graph to compare analysis results from the different cross sections. • View and print ’Analysis Reports’. XTRACT - Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components - 2

In this example. The next page of the wizard defines how to begin the project (Figure 2). XTRACT . Projects can begin from a section created from the section template. In this dialog box enter the information particular to the project. Once the information has been entered. and enter the section name as ’Section1’. click the 'New' button ( ) or from the title bar drop-down menu select New.3 . When the ’New Project’ icon is clicked the new project wizard form is opened (Figure 1). New Project Wizard.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . Click the ’Begin XTRACT’ button to continue. click the ’Forward’ button to continue.Creating a New Project To create a new project. Information entered here is reproduced in the headers of the various output reports generated after analyses. the section will be created from the template. or from a blank slate (a user defined section). imported from a section file. choose the kip-in unit system. Figure 1. select ’Template’. In the ’Start From’ drop-down menu.

they can be added later in the project. The number of bars offered in this drop-down box are contingent on the type of transverse reinforcement layout selected.Figure 2. New Project Wizard . Select #4 at 4in on center for the spacing of the transverse reinforcing and click the ’Next’ button. and 24. Click the ’Next’ button to continue to Page 3 of the template.12.#8 for the longitudinal reinforcement. The number of bars offered will satisfy ACI column requirements for spacing and transverse reinforcement and will be consistent with the selected confinement configuration.4 . there are only three options for the number of longitudinal reinforcing bars . enter 48in as the section width and height and enter 24 . If more reinforcing bars are required. Note that when creating a section with the section template. In the first page of the template (Figure 3) select the rectangular column with the triple hoop transverse reinforcing configuration.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . XTRACT . On Page 2 of the template (Figure 4). This information will be automatically printed in the section report after the section has been discretized.Page 2. For the triple hoop transverse reinforcement layout. 18. the design log updates with the user input information as the template progresses.

To edit an existing material. The crushing strain is the XTRACT . and confined concrete. The user defined model can be used to crete any type of material behavior. select it from the drop-down list of available material models.5 . click the ’Edit’ button after selecting the material to edit. the user is prompted to select the material models that are to be associated with the various shapes in the cross section. Because no materials have been created in this project.Page 1. unconfined concrete. In this dialog box enter the properties of the unconfined material stress strain model. Typical concrete cross sections will consist of 3 different material models: unconfined concrete (cover). the ’Unconfined Concrete’ model dialog box in opened (Figure 6).Figure 3. confined concrete (core). Section Template . To add the materials. The 6 preset models can be used to describe behavior of the steel. In Page 3 of the template (Figure 5). and the longitudinal reinforcing steel model. new materials need to be added. After clicking the ’Add New’ button. XTRACT has 6 predefined material models as well as a general user defined material stress strain model. The input parameters give options for varying the crushing and spalling strain. click either the ’Add New’ button or to use an existing material.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components .

the model assumes stress strain linearity with a slope of the concrete modulus of elasticity up to the rupture stress.004 and 0. the user can input the yield strain of concrete. XTRACT . In addition. and an option for tension in the concrete.Page 2. If a tension strength (rupture stress) is specified in the stress strain relation. The spalling strain is the point at which the concrete stress goes to the post crushing strength. In addition. this value is used to define the bilinearization of the moment curvature diagram (see the Bilinearization of the Moment Curvature Diagram in the XTRACT help file for more discussion).Figure 4. Other input parameters include the post crushing strength. This parameter is used to define the first yield limit state criteria for some of the analysis options described later in this example. the 28-Day compressive strength. for heavily loaded columns.6 .006 respectively. strain at which excessive cracking begins to occur followed by a rapid degradation in strength to the spalling strain. Typical values for the crushing and spalling strain for unconfined concrete are 0. Section Template .Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components .

e. Section Template .strain of 100%). Each material has a failure strain that will end computation of the moment curvature analysis. the user is prompted to enter the ’Failure Strain’. click the ’Apply’ button then close this form. XTRACT . click the ’New’ button next to the ’Column Core Concrete’ frame (Figure 7).Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . crushing and spalling of the confined cover is expected. For this example. Click the ’Apply’ button to view the material AND add it to the project. If analyzing a cross section where computation should terminate when the cover spalls. Once the unconfined material has been added to the project and the form is closed. when spalling of the cover occurs.0 . When analyzing a confined concrete component for the ultimate strain limit state. the computation should not stop. the user is directed back to Page 3 on the template. enter the crushing or spalling strain in this text field. To open the ’Confined Concrete’ material model dialog box.7 . click the ’View’ button to view the data. the confined concrete model needs to be added. If analyzing a section where cover spalling is not to control termination of the analysis. 1. Thus. Next.Figure 5. After entering the data. enter a large number in this text field (i.Page 3. Finally. for this example.

this increased strength and increased strain capacity is automatically calculated for the transverse reinforcing details and column size provided. For detailed information on the input parameters and references for the model used to find the confined concrete strength.8 .Figure 6. Unconfined Concrete Stress Strain Model Dialog.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . If any of the parameters in the dialog box XTRACT . click the ’Equals’ button next to the ’Confined Concrete Strength’ text box ( ). When the template is used. the confined strength and strain capacity of confined concrete is dependant on the transverse reinforcing details provided by the user. The ’Confined Concrete’ material model dialog box is similar to the unconfined material dialog box (Figure 8). see the ’Confined Concrete Strength Calculator’ help page in the XTRACT help file. To view the input parameters that are used in calculation of the confined concrete strength (Figure 9). For the confined mode.

change. a warning message will occur for this example (Figure 11).9 . click the ’Apply’ button.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . because the template was used. Because the confinement properties for this cross section are such that it results in large allowable crushing strain. Section Template . When the model is applied to the project. In this example. In addition. click the ’Equal’ sign next to the ’Crushing Strain’ text box on the ’Confined Concrete’ dialog box. consult the XTRACT help file. To view the input parameters for calculation of the confined concrete strain (Figure 10). because the template is used. the confined concrete strain was automatically calculated. the warning message is given to remind the user to carefully exam- XTRACT . After entering the material parameters for the confined concrete model.Page 3. the input parameters for this calculation are automatically entered and thus no changes are required in either the ’Confinement Calculator’ or the ’Crushing Strain Calculator’.Figure 7. For more information on this form. click the ’Equal’ sign at the bottom of the dialog box to recalculate the confined concrete strength.

ine the details. the input parameters for the steel model are entered automatically. After adding the confined concrete model.02 is replaced in the ’Confined Concrete’ model dialog. To apply the material model. To limit the maximum to 0. Confined Concrete Stress Strain Model Dialog.02 strain for confined concrete. In this form. click the ’Add New’ button in the ’Longitudinal Steel’ frame to open the steel material model (Figure 12).10 .02 click the ’Yes’ button on this error message.Figure 8. When the error message closes. the user is directed back to Page 3 of the template. In this dialog box. click the ’Apply’ button then close this form. select the ’A615 Grade 60’ type steel from the ’Steel Standard’ drop-down box. By selecting the steel grade. 0.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . to go beyond a 0. The default material parameters for the various material models proXTRACT . Typically. the details and construction quality need to be carefully controlled.

Figure 10.11 . Confined Concrete Strain Calculator. XTRACT .Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . Confined Concrete Strength Calculator.Figure 9.

02. Warning Message Shown when the Compressive Strain Capacity of the Confined Concrete Exceeds 0. Figure 12.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components .Figure 11.12 . enter them in the appropriate text box. XTRACT . vided by XTRACT can be found in the ASTM standards. Parabolic Steel Stress Strain Model Dialog. Click the ’Apply’ button to add this material model to the project. To use different material parameters.

this approximation will give reasonable results without too much computational demand imposed on the computer system. tion name or the default mesh. More information on the bounding box and XTRACT . The mesh size is the average distance between the corner points of the triangulation.Page 4. The grey interior is the core concrete material and the small black solid circles are the longitudinal reinforcing steel. This section was created with a 3in mesh. The fuchsia colored edges of the section visible on the screen is the unconfined concrete. The green outlines of the each shape is called the shape boundary and is used to define each shape. Click the ’Create Section’ button to generate the new cross section. On this last page of the template the user can change the sec- Figure 13. the screen should appear as shown in Figure 14. The default mesh is set as the minimum outside dimension divided by 16.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . When the template form closes. The yellow line seen off to the left of the screen is part of the bounding box. The entire section must be contained inside the bounding box. For most applications.After applying the ’Parabolic Strain Hardening Steel Model’ click the ’Next’ button to move the last page of the template (Figure 13).13 . Section Template .

the section report will show the parameXTRACT . double click the ’Section Report’ icon ( ) as shown in Figure 15. The dark grey background is the builder. Each section is created from a series of shapes that can be resized and edited as necessary. it can be edited. The builder is the window where the sections are created. To view the section report (that can be printed) open the project manager by the clicking the icon on the main builder toolbar. In the project manager. Copying and Modifying the Section After the section has been created. if the section was created using the template.14 .Figure 14. if the section is modified. But. because the section has been created using the template. the shape boundaries can be found in the XTRACT help file. the input information for the template section will be lost. and names of the material models with the cross section. moment of inertia. Section Builder. The section report shows the properties of the section including the centoid coordinates. In addition.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components .

In this Figure 16. Project Manager. Enter ’Section2’ as the new section name. if the section was creating using the XTRACT .Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . When a builder is in view. and click the ’Add’ button. close the window. other than lock. In the project manager. On the main toolbar. click the Add/ Remove Section Icon ( ) to open the ’Add/Remove Section’ dialog box (Figure 16). all analysis data is erased to protect consistency of output results. When selecting another mode. select the ’As a copy of’ in the ’Add Section’ drop-down box and select ’Section1’ as the section to be copied. After viewing the report.Figure 15. Also.15 . Add/Remove Section Dialog. ters the user input during the course of the section creation. each section begins in the lock mode. In this example. form. the section will be copied then modified. By default. click the folder for ’Section2’ to set that section as the active section thereby bringing it to the front of the screen. the ’Section Builder’ is always in one of 5 build modes.

drawn to scale. a warning message will show explaining that Figure 17.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . and select the shape type as ’Circle’. drag the circle to the (0. Figure 18. Draw/Import Shapes Dialog. clicking out of lock mode erases the template data. When the mode is changed from lock. click the ’Draw/ Import Shape’ icon on the builder tools toolbar ( ) to open the ’Draw/Import Shape’ dialog box (Figure 17).template. appears on the existing section. Warning Message Regarding Removal of Template Section Data. a hole is to be added to the center of the cross section. Using the mouse. select the ’Import Shape’ tab. For this example. The circle.16 . Click ’OK’. In the ’Draw/Import Shape’ dialog.0) coordinate (Figure 19). Enter 12in for the diameter and click the ’Import’ button. The current mouse coorXTRACT . the template data will be removed if the build mode is changed from lock (Figure 18). For this example.

XTRACT . the current x and y coordinates of the centroid of the shape are also automatically updated in the ’Draw/Import Shape’ dialog box.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . Importing a Hole in the Concrete Cross Section.Figure 19. The Discretizer. click the ’Discretize’ button on the ’Draw/Import Shape’ dialog to open the ’Discretizer’ dialog box (Figure 20). When dragging the shape. dinates are always shown on the bottom of the builder. Select Figure 20. When the shape has been moved to the proper coordinate.17 .

and Capacity Orbit (moment-moment interaction). In the ’Moment Curvature’ dialog box enter the information shown in Figure 22. Moments will be incremented about the x axis. and click the ’Discretize’ button. In this example.18 . leave the mesh size as 0.9in. After closing the ’Discretizer’ dialog and the ’Draw/Import Shape’ dialog the section should appear as shown in Figure 21. Section Discretized with a Central Hole. select ’Moment Curvature’ from the ’Loadings’ title bar menu. the constant axial load is specified at 200kips. Figure 21.the material as ’Delete’. Loadings and Analysis XTRACT has three loading (or analysis types) available to the user: Moment Curvature. The add a moment curvature analysis. and the option to calculate moment rotation should be XTRACT .Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . the animation and show graph options should be checked. a moment curvature and an axial force-moment interaction analysis will be added to both sections. select the option for ’No Cover’. Axial Force-Moment Interaction.

To see the loadings applied to the project.19 . The limiting stains dictate the maximum strains at which the interaction surface is calculated. selected. Close the ’Moment Curvature’ dialog box. For more information on limiting strains consult the XTRACT help file. To add the axial force-moment interaction loading select ’PM Interaction’ from the ’Loadings’ title bar menu. Moment Curvature Loading Dialog. change the name of the loading to ’MC2’ and the ’Applied on Section’ drop-down menu to ’Section2’. enter the information shown in Figure 24.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . click the ’Apply’ button. analysis. In the ’Axial Force Moment Interaction’ dialog box. reports.Figure 22. All sections. When all the data has entered. The Project Manager is the corner stone of XTRACT. Each material has a default PM InteracXTRACT . enter 24in. In this dialog. the user has the option for entering the limiting strains. Then. For the plastic hinge length. Enter the name of the loading as ’MC1’ applied on ’Section1’. and analysis data can be accessed from the Project Manager by double clicking the item of interest. Click ’Apply’ again to add this loading. open the Project Manager and expand the ’Section1’ and ’Section2’ directories as shown in Figure 23.

For unconfined concrete. it is the strain as the onset of strain hardening. Accessing the Moment Curvature Loading from the Project Manager.20 . it is .003.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . Axial Force-Moment Interaction Loading Dialog. it is the strain at peak stress. Then. For confined concrete. For this example. enter ’PM2’ as the loading XTRACT . enter ’PM1’ for the loading name applied to ’Section1’ and click the ’Apply’ button. Figure 24.Figure 23. tion strain. For steel.

expand the ’Section1’ section folder and then the ’MC1’ loading. Click the ’+’ next to the folder to expand the folders and the ’-’ to collapse them. respectively. The analysis result windows from the moment curvature and axial force-moment interaction analyses for ’Section2’ are given in Figure 25 and Figure 26. The ’Interactive Output’ dialog is way to step through the analysis slowly XTRACT . The color coded images in the animation show the state of the material for each analysis step during analysis. In the Project Manager. The analysis windows will appear when each analysis begins. The analysis window shows the current state of the analysis. When the analysis has completed. the yellow steel bars represents the yield plateau. the green bars show the longitudinal reinforcement in the strain hardening range of the material model. and the fuchsia and grey in the concrete represent zero or tensile strain. Close the four windows. After analysis of a particular loading. and change the ’Applied to Section’ drop-down selection to ’Section2’. Click the ’Apply’ button. the loading becomes a folder inside the Project Manager.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components .name. Analyze the Cross Section To analyze the cross sections with the defined loadings.21 . click the ’Analysis’ button on the main toolbar ( ). analysis results can be accessed from the Project Manager. Viewing Results After analyses has been performed. Check the Project Manager to insure that the loadings have been properly added to each of the two sections in the project. Double click on the ’Interactive Output’ icon in the Project Manager as shown in Figure 27 to open the ’Interactive Output’ dialog box. The dark blue represents compression in the concrete. the white is crushing of the concrete. The options for ’Show Animation’ and ’Show Graph’ set in the loading dialog boxes control whether or not the animation and graphics are shown. the screen should contain four windows showing the animation of the last load step in the analysis side by side with a plot of the analysis results.

Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components .Figure 25. XTRACT . Analysis Result Windows for the Moment Curvature Analysis on the Section Containing a Central Hole.22 .

Analysis Result Windows for the Axial Force-Moment Interaction Analysis on the Section Containing a Central Hole.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components .23 . XTRACT .Figure 26.

XTRACT . select the ’Data to View’ option as ’Fiber/Bar Property’. To change the selected fiber or bar.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . The small yellow ’+’ on each of the plots indicates the location on the curves that correspond with the analysis step selected from the slide bar at the top of the form. click desired fiber or bar. Use the zoom in and zoom out buttons on top of the ’Interactive Output’ dialog box to zoom in or zoom out of the graphic of the cross section. The ’Interactive Output’ dialog can be most helpful for troubleshooting analyses to find input errors when results do not match expectation. change the analysis step and watch the figure and plots change. the data shown in the table is for the selected fiber or reinforcing bar. Project Manager Showing Access to the Interactive Output. Close the ’Interactive Output’ dialog. Click the bottom outside fiber of the cross section (Figure 28). The maximum values (positive) are for tensile stresses or strains. The plot directly below the cross section shown shows the stress strain relation of the selected fiber/bar.Figure 27. Using the slide bar. For this example. Note that the minimum stress (and strain) for each material is the maximum compression stress (and strain). select the plots to ’Moment about the X-axis’ verses ’Maximum Steel1 Material Stress’ and ’Moment about the X-axis’ verses ’Minimum Confined1 Material Stress’. viewing all information produced from analyses of the cross section. When the ’Fiber/Bar Property’ option is set. set the load step to 17 using the slide bar at the top of the ’Interactive Output’ dialog box.24 .

Figure 28. In these plots. Interactive Output Dialog. click the ’Add Graph’ icon (Figure 29). add the axial force-moment diagram results ’Section2’ with the ’PM2’ loading (Figure 30). Then. Select ’Section1’ with loading ’PM1’. any data can be plot- Figure 29.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . plot the two axial force-moment interaction diagrams together. Note that when XTRACT . Click the ’Add Plot’ button. Select ’Moments about the X-Axis’ for the ’X-Axis Data’ to plot and ’Axial Force’ for the ’Y-Axis Data’ to plot. XTRACT Main Toolbar. Enter ’Interaction Surfaces’ for the ’Graph Name’. ted against any other data.25 . using the same method. In this form. Plotting Results and Exporting Data From the main toolbar.

Graph Dialog Showing Comparison between the two Analyzed Cross Sections. select copy. Double clicking data labels opens the ’Project Output’ dialog box.26 . critical data is updated in the table reflecting results particular to the loading and the analysis step closest to the mouse. There is no limit to the number of plots that can be added in XTRACT. passing the mouse across the graph. click the ’Print’ icon on the Graph toolbar. To add more plots. use the Project Manager (Figure 31). expand the ’Section Output’ folder under the ’MC2’ loading in the Project Manager. and paste directly in to Excel or a similar type spread sheet program. To export the data. either click the ’Save’ button to save the data in a comma delimited text file or right click the data. To print this plot.Figure 30. In the ’Project Output’ dialog box. and closing them. After closing the ’Interaction Surfaces’ plot. click the ’Add Graph’ button the Graph toolbar. Double click ’Moments about the X-Axis’ then double click the ’Curvatures about the X-Axis’ data labels. XTRACT . single click the headers (Mxx and Kxx) for the columns of data (Figure 32) to highlight them. To access the plots after creating them.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components .

For the analysis report of a moment curvature analysis. a plot of the moment curvature analysis results along with a bilinearization of the diagram is given. Project Manager Showing Access to the Data Graphs. consult the XTRACT help file. double click the ’Analysis Report’ icon in the Project Manager under the ’MC2’ loading (Figure 33). A color coded graphic showing the last state in the analysis is also provided. any of the text that is greyed can be user edited. Conclusion In this example. For more information on particular data provided in the analysis reports. In the edited section. The section was then copied and edited. ’Material Reports’ are available in the ’Materials’ folder in the Project Manager.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components .Figure 31. This includes most of the headers as well as a user comments section. Finally. Analysis reports are available for all loadings. a hole was added to the center of the cross section by changing modes in the XTRACT . In addition. a section was created using the template. similar material model reports are available for all material models used in an XTRACT project. to view or print the analysis reports. In this report.27 .

Two moment curvatures and two axial force-moment interaction loadings were added to the project and the sections were analyzed with these project loadings. builder and importing a circular shape.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . plots were added to the project to compare the axial force-moment interaction results for the nearly identical cross sections. Data from moment curvature analysis on the section with the hole was exported and the analysis was viewed in the ’Interactive Output’ XTRACT .Figure 32.28 . Using analysis results. Data Viewer.

Figure 33. dialog showing the relationship between ultimate material stresses and applied x-axis moments. the one page analysis report summary for the ’MC2’ loading was opened and viewed.29 . Finally. Moment Curvature Analysis Report.Cross Sectional Analysis of Structural Components . XTRACT .

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