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Chickenpox is an infectious disease caused by the varicella virus. Most cases occur in children under age 15 but older children and adults can get it. It spreads very easily by coughing and sneezing, by direct contact, and by aerosolization of virus from skin lesions.
A skin rash of blister-like lesions, covering the body but usually more concentrated on the face, scalp, and trunk. Most, but not all, infected individuals have fever, which develops just before or when the rash appears. The disease is usually mild and lasts 5 to 10 days, but it may cause serious complications, such as bacterial infection of the skin, swelling of the brain, and pneumonia. Adolescents and adults are more at risk for severe disease.
Parents can do several things at home to help relieve their child´s chickenpox symptoms. Because scratching the blisters may cause them to become infected, keep your child´s fingernails trimmed short. Calamine lotion and Aveeno® (oatmeal) baths may help relieve some of the itching. Do not use aspirin or aspirin-containing products to relieve your child's fever. The use of aspirin in children with chickenpox has been associated with development of Reye´s syndrome (a severe disease affecting all organs, but most seriously affecting the liver and brain, that may cause death). Use non-aspirin medications such as acetaminophen (e.g., Tylenol®). Your health-care provider will advise you on treatment options. Acyclovir, famcyclovir, or valacyclovir (medicines that work against herpesviruses) are recommended for persons who are more likely to develop serious disease, including persons with chronic skin or lung disease, otherwise healthy individuals 13 years of age or older, and persons receiving steroid therapy. However, only acyclovir is currently licensed for use in treating varicella.
Chickenpox vaccine is the best way to prevent chickenpox. Vaccination not only protects vaccinated persons, it also reduces the risk for exposure in the community for persons unable to be vaccinated because of illness or other conditions, including those who may be at greater risk for severe disease. While no vaccine is 100% effective in preventing disease, the chickenpox vaccine is very effective: about 8 to 9 of every 10 people who are vaccinated are completely protected from chickenpox. In addition, the vaccine almost always prevents against severe disease.
Dengue is not contagious from person to person. up to 105 degrees Fahrenheit •Severe headache •Retro-orbital (behind the eye) pain •Severe joint and muscle pain •Nausea and vomiting •Rash The rash may appear over most of the body 3 to 4 days after the fever begins. hence the name. Some people may get a second rash later in the disease. Southeast Asia. Worldwide. 2 . and later transmit infection to other people they bite. The dengue virus infections are transmitted via bite of an infected Aedes mosquito. DEN-3. Symptoms and Diagnosis Symptoms of typical uncomplicated (classic) dengue usually start with fever within 5 to 6 days after being bitten by an infected mosquito. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. which are more severe than the classic dengue. Dengue fever is found mostly during and shortly after the rainy season in tropical and subtropical areas of Africa. and Australia. They include •High fever.Dengue fever is an infectious disease carried by mosquitoes and caused by any of four related dengue viruses. DEN-2. Two main species of mosquito. DEN-1. have been responsible for all cases of dengue transmitted in this country. Symptoms of dengue hemorrhagic fever include all of the symptoms of classic dengue plus •Marked damage to blood and lymph vessels •Bleeding from the nose. Mosquitoes become infected when they bite infected humans. or under the skin. and DEN-4. India. Complications Dengue infection may cause dengue hemorrhagic fever or dengue shock syndrome. This disease used to be called "break-bone" fever because it sometimes causes severe joint and muscle pain that feels like bones are breaking. Central and South America. gums. causing purplish bruises This form of dengue disease can cause death. more than 100 million cases of dengue infection occur each year.
Treatment There is no specific treatment for classic dengue fever. health care experts recommend •Getting plenty of bed rest •Drinking lots of fluids •Taking medicine to reduce fever The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) advises people with dengue fever not to take aspirin. and most people will recover completely within 2 weeks.. Acetaminophen or other over-the-counter pain-reducing medicines are safe for most people. The following is an excerpt of the prevention methods published by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. For severe dengue symptoms. and treating certain STDs in recent years. Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) remain a major public health challenge in the United States. including shock and coma. For information about specific STDs. It is sometimes fatal. To help with recovery. please visit the pages from the left menu. While substantial progress has been made in preventing. oral. almost half of them among young people ages 15 to 24. especially in children and young adults. 3 . Prevention Methods Abstinence and Reduction of Number of Sex Partners The most reliable way to avoid transmission of STDs is to abstain from sex (i. about 19 million new infections occur each year. early and aggressive emergency treatment with fluid and electrolyte replacement can be lifesaving. diagnosing. plus •Fluids leaking outside of blood vessels •Massive bleeding •Shock (very low blood pressure) This form of the disease usually occurs in children (sometimes adults) experiencing their second dengue infection.Symptoms of dengue shock syndrome--the most severe form of dengue disease--include all of the symptoms of classic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever.e.
vaginal. AquaLube. In addition... massage oils.e.g. which might require the use of exogenous water-based lubricants. hold the condom firmly against the base of the penis during withdrawal. Female Condoms Laboratory studies indicate that the female condom (Reality. •Put the condom on after the penis is erect and before any genital. Oil-based lubricants (e..vaginal. Male Condoms When used consistently and correctly. hepatitis A vaccine is licensed and is recommended for men who have sex with men (MSM) and illicit drug users (i. or anal contact with the partner. oral. gonorrhea. •Carefully handle the condom to avoid damaging it with fingernails. •To prevent the condom from slipping off. or anal sex) or to be in a long-term. is 4 . body lotions. or other sharp objects. and withdraw while the penis is still erect. teeth. A vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV types 6.. mineral oil. including chlamydia. Astroglide. uninfected persons being evaluated for an STD. mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner. shortening. hepatitis B vaccination is recommended for all unvaccinated. Rates of condom breakage during sexual intercourse and withdrawal are approximately two broken condoms per 100 condoms used in the United States. and might reduce the risk of women developing pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). 18) is now available and licensed for females aged 9-26 years.g. because HBV infection is frequently sexually transmitted. K-Y Jelly. The following recommendations ensure the proper use of male condoms: •Use a new condom with each sex act (e. •Use only water-based lubricants (e. For example. and cooking oil) can weaken latex. both injecting and noninjecting). •Ensure adequate lubrication during vaginal and anal sex. and trichomoniasis. male latex condoms are highly effective in preventing the sexual transmission of HIV infection and can reduce the risk for other STDs. petroleum jelly. 16. which consists of a lubricated polyurethane sheath with a ring on each end that is inserted into the vagina. oral.g. Preexposure Vaccination Preexposure vaccination is one of the most effective methods for preventing transmission of some STDs. The failure of condoms to protect against STD transmission or unintended pregnancy usually results from inconsistent or incorrect use rather than condom breakage. Each latex condom manufactured in the United States is tested electronically for holes before packaging. and anal). and glycerin) with latex condoms. 11.
which might provide a portal of entry for HIV and other sexually transmissible agents. and Hysterectomy Sexually active women who are not at risk for pregnancy might incorrectly perceive themselves to be at no risk for STDs. Norplant. Therefore.g. and have been associated with urinary tract infection in young women. have been surgically sterilized.an effective mechanical barrier to viruses. and those that are lubricated with N-9 pose the concerns that have been previously discussed. Emergency Contraception (EC) Emergency use of oral contraceptive pills containing levonorgesterol alone reduces the risk for pregnancy after unprotected intercourse by 89%. including HIV infection.. N-9 can damage the cells lining the rectum. Use of condoms lubricated with N-9 is not recommended for STD/HIV prevention because spermicide-coated condoms cost more. and trichomoniasis. In case-control and cross-sectional studies. Diaphragm and spermicide use have been associated with an increased risk for bacterial urinary tract infections in women. Nonbarrier Contraception. Condoms and N-9 Vaginal Spermicides Condoms lubricated with spermicides are no more effective than other lubricated condoms in protecting against the transmission of HIV and other STDs. Therefore. frequent use of spermicides containing N-9 has been associated with disruption of the genital epithelium. Vaginal Spermicides and Diaphragms Vaginal spermicides containing nonoxynol-9 (N-9) are not effective in preventing cervical gonorrhea. oral contraceptives. Contraceptive methods that are not mechanical barriers offer no protection against HIV or other STDs. Emergency insertion of a copper IUD also is highly effective. a randomized controlled trial will be conducted. N-9 should not be used as a microbicide or lubricant during anal intercourse. have in-trauterine devices (IUD). and to semen. and Depo-Provera. which might be associated with an increased risk for HIV transmission. or have had hysterectomies should be counseled regarding the use of condoms and the risk for STDs. Rectal Use of N-9 Spermicides Recent studies indicate that N-9 might increase the risk for HIV transmission during vaginal intercourse. chlamydia. including HIV infection. On the basis of all available evidence. N-9 is not recommended for STD/HIV prevention. diaphragm use has been demonstrated to protect against cervical gonorrhea. Surgical Sterilization. have a shorter shelf-life than other lubricated condoms. diaphragms should not be relied on as the sole source of protection against HIV infection. Furthermore. including HIV. chlamydia. 5 . Although similar studies have not been conducted among men who use N-9 spermicide during anal intercourse with other men. or HIV infection. Women who use hormonal contraception (e. Pills containing a combination of ethinyl estradiol and either norgestrel or levonorgestrel can be used and reduce the risk for pregnancy by 75%.
and provide it in a timely fashion if desired by the woman. yellow. or green discharge from the penis.reducing the risk by as much as 99%. These bacteria can grow and multiply easily in the warm. The only medical contraindication to provision of EC is current pregnancy.. Sometimes men with gonorrhea get painful or swollen testicles. and anus. and fallopian tubes (egg canals) in women. and in the urethra (urine canal) in women and men. Infections in the throat may cause a sore throat but usually causes no symptoms. Providers who manage persons at risk for STDs should counsel women concerning the option for EC. bleeding. including the cervix (opening to the womb). but most women who are infected have no symptoms. It is estimated that more than 700. get new gonorrheal infections each year. The initial symptoms and signs in women include a painful or burning sensation when urinating. or a white. Health care providers usually use three laboratory techniques to diagnose gonorrhea. Gonorrhea can also be spread from mother to baby during delivery. Ejaculation does not have to occur for gonorrhea to be transmitted or acquired. regardless of the presence or severity of symptoms. throat. vagina. eyes.S. or anus. mouth. uterus (womb).e. Rectal infection also may cause no symptoms. the symptoms of gonorrhea are often mild. In women. Even when a woman has symptoms. they can be so non-specific as to be mistaken for a bladder or vaginal infection. some men have some signs or symptoms that appear two to five days after infection. anal itching. or vaginal bleeding between periods. Women with gonorrhea are at risk of developing serious complications from the infection.000 persons in the U. or painful bowel movements. EC with oral contraceptive pills should be initiated as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse and definitely within 120 hours (i. soreness. increased vaginal discharge. Gonorrhea Gonorrhea is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by bacteria called Neisseria gonorrhoeae. moist areas of the reproductive tract. if indicated. symptoms can take as long as 30 days to appear. Plan B (two 750 mcg levonorgestrel tablets) has been approved by FDA and is available in the United States for the prevention of unintended pregnancy. 6 . Symptoms and Diagnosis Although many men with gonorrhea may have no symptoms at all. Gonorrhea is spread through contact with the penis. The bacteria can also grow in the mouth. Symptoms of rectal infection in both men and women may include discharge. Symptoms and signs include a burning sensation when urinating. 5 days).
About one million women each year in the United States develop PID. HIV-infected people with gonorrhea are more likely to transmit HIV to someone else. In addition. or a life-threatening blood infection in the baby. gonorrhea can cause epididymitis. PID can damage the fallopian tubes enough to cause infertility or increase the risk of ectopic pregnancy. This can cause blindness. they can be very severe and can include abdominal pain and fever. Complications Untreated gonorrhea can cause serious and permanent health problems in both women and men. chronic pelvic pain. Women with PID do not necessarily have symptoms. she may give the infection to her baby as the baby passes through the birth canal during delivery. This condition can be life threatening. Gonorrhea can spread to the blood or joints. the virus that causes AIDS. people with gonorrhea can more easily contract HIV. Treatment Health care providers usually prescribe a single dose of one of the following antibiotics to treat gonorrhea. In men. A health care provider can prevent infection of the baby's eyes by applying silver nitrate or other medicine to the eyes immediately after birth. If a pregnant woman has gonorrhea. joint infection. a painful condition of the testicles that can lead to infertility if left untreated. usually in a fallopian tube. Ectopic pregnancy is a life-threatening condition in which a fertilized egg grows outside the uterus. PID can lead to internal abscesses (pus-filled "pockets" that are hard to cure) and long-lasting. •Cefixime •Ceftriaxone •Ciprofloxacin •Ofloxacin •Levofloxacin 7 . When symptoms are present. gonorrhea is a common cause of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). In women.•Staining samples directly for the bacterium •Detecting bacterial genes or DNA in urine •Growing the bacteria in laboratory cultures The staining test works better for men than for women.
Typically. Most genital herpes is caused by HSV-2. Although the infection can stay in the body indefinitely. 8 . and by taking a sample from the sore(s) and testing it in a laboratory. Therefore. health care providers usually prescribe a combination of antibiotics. they typically appear as one or more blisters on or around the genitals or rectum. They may also be released between outbreaks from skin that does not appear to be broken or to have a sore. headache. although the results are not always clear-cut. all of your sexual partners should get tested and then treated if infected. Blood tests. but it also can infect the mouth. Health experts also recommend that you not have sex until your infected partners have been treated. Gonorrhea and chlamydia often infect people at the same time. muscle aches. another outbreak can appear weeks or months after the first. Your health care provider can prescribe the best and safest antibiotic for you. Other symptoms that may accompany the first (and less often future) outbreak of genital herpes are fever. or are younger than 18 years old. Herpes viruses are released from the sores that the viruses cause. painful or difficult urination. the number of outbreaks tends to decrease over a period of years. but it almost always is less severe and shorter than the first outbreak. There are two types of HSV. 1 out of 5 teenagers and adults is infected with HSV. whether or not they have symptoms.If you are pregnant. •HSV type 2 mainly infects the genitals. Symptoms and Diagnosis Most individuals with genital herpes have no or only minimal signs or symptoms. such as ceftriaxone and doxycycline or azithromycin. In the United States. which detect HSV1 or HSV-2 infection. It may also cause sores to the genitals. which will treat both diseases. HSV infections can be difficult to diagnose between outbreaks. Most people get genital herpes by having sex with someone who is shedding the herpes viruses either during an outbreak or during a period with no symptoms. •HSV type 1 most commonly infects the mouth and lips. you should not be treated with certain types of antibiotics. Complications Genital herpes infections usually do not cause serious health problems in healthy adults. When signs do occur. may be helpful. Health care providers can diagnose genital herpes by visual inspection if the outbreak is typical. If you have gonorrhea. and swollen glands in the groin area. vaginal discharge. causing sores known as fever blisters or cold sores. leaving tender ulcers (sores) that may take two to four weeks to heal the first time they occur. The blisters break. Genital Herpes Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted disease (STD) caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV).
skin. Genital herpes. Symptoms The most common symptoms of scarlet fever are: •A rash first appears as tiny red bumps on the chest and abdomen. The rash lasts about 2-5 days. your health care provider might prescribe an antiviral medicine to treat your symptoms and to help prevent future outbreaks. After the rash is gone. genital herpes outbreaks can be unusually severe and long lasting. called ocular herpes. people with normal immune systems can get herpes infection of the eye. Treatment Although there is no cure for genital herpes. 9 . Babies who are born with herpes do better if the disease is recognized and treated early. Medicines to treat genital herpes are •Acyclovir (Zovirax) •Famciclovir (Famvir) •Valacyclovir (Valtrex) Scarlet Fever Scarlet fever is a disease caused by a bacterium called group A streptococcus. It can occasionally result in serious eye disease. A baby born with herpes might die or have serious brain. or eye problems. often the skin on the tips of the fingers and toes begins to peel. It is usually redder in the arm pits and groin areas. This can decrease the risk of passing herpes to sexual partners.In some people whose immune systems do not work properly. Scarlet fever is a rash that sometimes occurs in people that have strep throat. is important in the spread of HIV infection. •The face is flushed with a pale area around the lips. the same bacterium that causes strep throat. Ocular herpes is usually caused by HSV-1 but sometimes by HSV2. like other genital diseases that cause sores. It looks like a sunburn and feels like a rough piece of sandpaper. A woman with herpes who is pregnant can pass the infection to her baby. The rash of scarlet fever is usually seen in children under the age of 18. Occasionally. Pregnant women who have herpes. This rash may then spread all over the body. or whose sex partner has herpes should discuss the situation with her health care provider. including blindness. Together they can make a plan to reduce her or her baby's risk of getting infected.
Treatment Scarlet fever can be treated with antibiotics.3 degrees Celsius) or higher is common. The tongue itself looks like a strawberry because the normal bumps on the tongue look bigger. if you drink from the same glass or eat from the same plate as the sick person.•The throat is very red and sore. If you touch your mouth. •Glands in the neck are often swollen. nose or eyes after touching something that has these fluids on them. Chills are often seen with the fever. Transmission The disease is spread through the mouth and nasal fluids of an infected person. 10 . It can have white or yellow patches. you may become ill. •A fever of 101 degrees Fahrenheit (38. •A whitish coating can appear on the surface of the tongue. The best way to keep from getting sick is to wash your hands often and avoid sharing eating utensils. you could also become ill. Also.
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