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WORD POWER To communicate effectively, you must not only acquire word power but must also understand

the distinguishing features of the English language. English language is in some ways the most important language in the world - Is spoken by close to 300 million people - Is the language not only of England but of the extensive dominions and colonies associated with the British Empire, and it is spoken in the United States WORD PARTS AND COMBINATIONS Word - the smallest unit of speech or writing which has meaning in itself. - It may vary from one letter (a), to many letters and syllables (chauvinism, anthropomorphosis). - It may consist of a sound (clang, hiss) or a combination of sounds (ta-tumtum, bang-whang-whang) Word Building is the process of composing new words by utilizing certain derivational or compounding elements Elements that enter into words: 1. Root a word that is the core of one or two syllables 2. Stem is an important element that has in a compound all the properties of the word, and yet is found only as part of the word. 3. Prefixes syllables that are added before the root 4. Suffixes syllables that are added after the root. aafterbydownforforeinmisoff-ar -craft -dom -er -ful -hood -ing -kin Prefixes from Anglo-Saxon abroad ononlooker, onward afternoon outoutlook, output by laws, bypass overovertake, overprice downfall, downpour ununfurl, unload forgive, forget underunderstand, forecast, foresee underestimate income, intake upupgrade, upturn misgiving, mistake withwithstand, withhold offset, offshore Anglo-Saxon beggar, liar handicraft, witchcraft freedom, wisdom builder, painter cupful, spoonful girlhood, manhood running, swimming sheepkin, akin Suffixes -le, el -ling -ness -ock -ship -ster -t -th fiddle, kernel darling, yearling goodness, smallness bullock, hammock friendship, ownership roadster, spinster drift, flight birth, wealth

Suffixes in English There are two kinds of Suffixes in English: 1. Inflectional suffixes are the ones learned in the study of grammar: the s or es endings on verbs with a singular subject; the ing ending on verb forms; the ed or of the past tense of verbs; the s that makes nouns plural; the er that makes adjectives comparative. 2. Derivational suffixes change the meaning of the base in some important way, or else change it into a different word class. They turn nouns into adjectives, adjectives into verbs, nouns of one type into nouns of another type. Example: establish Disestablish Disestablishment Disestablishmentarian disestablishment DisestablishmentarianismAntidisestablishmentarianism disestablishing the to build, to settle into a position take away special privileges to alter the status of one who advocates the doctrine of disestablishment opposition to the doctrine of Church NOUN-FORMING SUFFIXES 1. ment (Always pronounce with weak stress) Verb Noun Achieve Achievement Bewilder Bewilderment Command Commandment 2. al (Always pronounce with weak stress) Verb Noun Bestow bestowal Betray betrayal Dispose disposal 3. t (rare, except when the base ends in a vowel) Verb Noun Ascend ascent Extend extent Pursue pursuit Restrain restraint 4. ance or ence Verb Noun Acquaint acquaintance Assist assistance Confer conference 5. sion Verb Noun Conclude conclusion Exclude exclusion Include inclusion

6. ssion Verb Admit Commit Permit VERB-FORMING SUFFIXES 1. ize Noun Crystal Drama Economy 2. ate Noun Captive Facility Motive 3. ify Noun Beauty Class Fort ADJECTIVE-FORMING SUFFIXES 1. al, -ial Noun Ancestor Bride Emotion 2. ic, -ical Noun Poet Economy Base 3. y Noun Boss Breeze Chill 4. ary Noun Discipline Legend Planet WORDS AND MEANINGS Denotation the basic, literal meaning of words Connotation the additional shade of meaning that words imply aside from its actual dictionary meaning Noun admission commission permission

Verb crystallize dramatize economize Verb captivate facilitate motivate Verb beautify classify fortify

Adjective ancestral bridal emotional Adjective poetical economical basic Adjective bossy breezy chilly Adjective disciplinary legendary planetary

The emotional side of the word as contrasted with its factual side, and has the power to call up associated images Synonyms words that have nearly the same meaning, but suggest slightly different things, that is, they have much the denotation but different connotations. Antonym is a word that means the opposite of any given word. Homonyms are words pronounced alike but different in meaning, the meaning of such words is usually made clear by the context, but their spelling is likely to cause trouble. Heteronyms - are words that are written identically but have different pronunciations and meanings. Group Names These are words that indicate an assemblage of insects, animals, objects, persons or the like. Examples: Bevy quail, grouse, lark, roe Hive bees, wasps Colony ants, termites Muster peacocks Covey quail, partridges Pack dogs, wolves Flock birds and animals like School marine animals goats and sheep Shoal fish Herd cattle, elephants, whales, Swarm bees and seals Wisp snipes Diminutives indicates smallness or qualities such as youth The diminutives of certain nouns are formed by the addition of a distinct suffix or by the use of a distinct word, as in these examples Bear cub Fort fortalice Bird birdling Goat kid Bull bullock Goose gosling Cat kitten Hen pullet or chick Cod codling Horse colt, filly or foal Cow calf or heifer Lion cub Deer faun Mare filly Dog puppy Seal calf Duck duckling Sheep lamb Elephant - calf Swan cygnet