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## Short Notes: Form 4 Chemical ChemistryFormulae and Equation

Calculation For Solid, liquid or gas For gas (only)

number of mole =

## mass of subtance molar mass

number of mole =
3

Molar volume = 24dmdat room temperature 3 Molar volume = 22.4dmdat s.t.p. For quantity of particle(atom,molecule,ion)

For Solution

## M number of mole = V 1000

M = molarity 3 V = Volume of solution in cm Summary

## quantity of number of mole = particle 6.02 d10 23

molar mass Mass of particle (in gram) molar mass molar volume

## molar volume Volume of Gas

Periodic Table
Reaction of Group 1 Elements 1. Reaction with Oxygen The entire group 1 metal can react with oxygen to form metal oxide.

ONESCHOOL.NE T

4Li + 2 O 2i 2 L O 4 a + O2 2Na2 N + O 2K 4K O
2

The metal oxide of group 1 elements can dissolve in water to form alkali (hydroxide) solution

2 aOH LiO + HO 2LiOH NaO + HO 2KO 2 2 KO 2 2 2 2 2. Reaction with halogen (Chlorine) N H 2Li + 2 2LiC l 2Cla + 2 2NaC N Cl l 2K + 2 2KC Cl l

3. Reaction with water The entire group 1 metal can react with water to produce alkali (hydroxide) solution and hydrogen gas.

## Cld+ HO HCl + 2 2 HOCl Brd+ HO HBr + 2 2 I2 + HO HIHOBr + HOI 2

2. React with Sodium Hydroxide NaI + NaOBr + HO Clb+ 2NaOH NaCl NaOI + +2 HO Brb+ + 2NaOH NaBr + NaOClHO 22 2I2 3. React with Iron

## 3Cld+ 2Fe 2FeC 3 2 2FeB 3 3Brd+ 2Fe l 2 r 3Id+ 2Fe 2FeI3 2

Preparation of Chlorine Gas

2KMnOd+ 4 16HCl

## 2KCl + 2MnCld+ 5Cld+ 2 2 8HO

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Electrolyt e
Ionisation of Electrolyte Ionisation of Molten Compound Ionisation of Aqueous Solution

Electrochemistr y

2+ +

--

2+

2-

N O servation: a

+e N a

## Discharge of Negative Ion

2 2C - Cld+ O servation: l 2e

3+ Ald+ 3e A O servation: l

Bubblesdofdpungentdyellowishdgreendgasdare produced. The gas turns moist litmus paper to red and then bleaches it.
2 2B Brd+ O servation: r 2e

2+ Pbd+ 2e Pb

2+ Cud+ 2e Cu

2I I2 + 2e

+ Agd+ e A g

## O servation: Molten electrolyte: Brown colour gas is produced.

O servation: Gas bubble is formed. A pop sound is produced when a lighted splinter is placed near the mouth of the test tube.

+ 2Hd+ 2e H2

Aqueous solution: Light brown solution is formed. The solution turns blue when a few drops of starch solution is added in.

4O O servation: H

O2 + 2HO + 2 4e

## Acid and Base

Ionisation of Acid
Hydrochloric Acid

## HCl H+ + Cl HCl + HO H3O+ + 2 ClNitric Acid

+ HNO3 H + NO3 + HNO3 + HO H3O + 2 NO3

Sulphuric Acid

Ethanoic Acid
+ 42-

Example:

## 2HCl + Zn ZnCld+ 2 2 6HNOd+ 2Fe H 2Fe(NO)d+ 3 3 3 3H4 H2SOd+ Pb PbSOd+ H 2 4

6CHCOOH + 2Al 2Al(CHCOO)d+ 3 3 3 3H Salt + 2 Acid + Metal Example: Oxide HO 2HCl + ZnO ZnCld+ 2 2 Mg(NO)d+ 2 2HNOd+ MgO HO 3 3 2 HO 4 HO H2SOd+ CuO CuSOd+ 2 4 2CHCOOH + NaO 2CHCOONa++ 3 2 3 HO Salt + 2 Acid + Metal Example: Hydroxide HO 2HCl34 + 2NHOH (NH4d2SOd+ 2HO H2SOd+ HNO + 2 Na O3 + 2HO 2 4 CaCld+ )HO 4 2 22 Ca(OH) NaOH CHCOOH + KOH N CHCOOKd+
3 3 + 2

or

H2SOd+ 4 2NH

(NH4d2SO4 )

HO Acid + Metal Carbonate Salt + COb+ 2 Example: HO ZnCld+ COd+ 2 2HCl + 3 2 2 Ca(NO)d+ COd+ 2 ZnCO 3 2HNOd+ 3 HO 3 2 2 CaCO4 NaCO 3 HO 2 4 COd+ HO2 NaSOd+ H2SOd+ 2 2

2CHCOOH + 3 MgCO

Mg(CHCOO)d+ COd+ 3 2 2 HO

Salt
Solubility of Salt

ONESCHOOL.NE T

Salt Solubility Salt of potassium, sodium and ammonium All are soluble in water Salt of nitrate All are soluble in water Salt of sulphate Mostly soluble in water except: (Pb) Lead sulphate (Ba) Barium sulphate (Ca) Calcium sulphate Salt of chloride Mostly soluble in water except: (Pb) Lead chlorie (Ag) silver chloride (Hg) mercury chlorideinsoluble in water except: Salt of carbonate Mostly Potassium carbonate Sodium carbonate Ammonium carbonate Oxide and Hydroxide Solubility Oxide Mostly insoluble in water except: KO and NaO. 2 2 Hydroxide Mostly insoluble in water except: NHOH, KOH and NaOH 4

Preparation of Salt
Preparation of Soluble Salt Salt of Potassium, Sodium and Ammonium Salt + Acid d+ Alkalid

Water Example: Preparation of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) HCl + NaOH NaCl + HO 2 Salt of non-Potassium, WaterAmmonium Sodium Acid + Reactive metal Salt + and Hydrogen Gas Salt Salt Acid + Metal Oxide + + Water + Carbon Metal Carbonate Dioxide Example: Preparation ZnSO Sulphate (ZnSO) H2SO4 + ZnO of 4Zinc42d + SOd+ Zn ZnSOd+ H 4 H2O H2SOd+ ZnCO 4 CO2
3d

ZnSO4 d + HO + 2

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## Preparation of Insoluble Salt

Ionic Precipitation Insoluble salts can be made by double decomposition. This involves mixing a solution that contains its positive ions with another solution that contains its negative ions. Example: Preparation of Silver Nitrate

AgN O A g
Colour of Salt Salt or metal oxide
+ (aq)

3 (aq) +

(aq)

## + C1- (aq) AgCl (s)

(ionic equation)
Solid White Aqueous solution Colourless

Salt of: Sodium, Calcium, Magnesium, Aluminium, zinc, Lead, ammonium Chloride, sulphate, nitrate, carbonate Salt of Copper(II).Copper(II) Carbonate Copper(II) sulphate, Copper(II) nitrate, Copper(II) chloride Copper(II) oxide Salt of Iron (II) Iron(II) sulphate; Iron(II) nitrate; Iron(ID chloride Salt of Iron (III). Iron(III)dsulphate;dIron(III)dnitrate Iron(III) chloride ; Lead Iodide Lead Chloride Zink oxide Lead(II) oxideMagnesium oxide, Aluminium oxide Potassium oxide, Sodium oxide, Calcium oxide

Green Blue Black Green Brown Yellow White Yellow when it is hot an white when it is cold. Brown when it is hot an yellow when it is cold. White White

Insoluble Blue Insoluble Green Brown Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Insoluble Colourless

## SCHOOL.NET Heating effect on Salt

Heatin Effec g t CO3
2-

ONE-

NO3
Most No effect Release Probably NO

SO4

2-

Cl

## Most Release Probably SO 3

Most Probably

Heating Effect on Carbonate Salt Carbonate Salt Equation of The Reaction Potassium carbonate Sodium carbonate Calcium carbonate Magnesium carbonate Aluminium carbonate Zinc carbonate Iron (III) carbonate Lead(II) carbonate Copper(II) carbonate Mercury(II) carbonate Silver(I) carbonate Ammonium carbonate

Not decomposible

CaCO3 CaO + CO 2 MgC 3 MgO + 2 O2 AlOd+ Al(CO 3 3 CO 2 3 ) 3CO ZnC 3 ZnO + CO 2 O2 2 3 Fe(CO)3 3 FeOd+ 3CO PbCO3 PbO + CO 2 CuCO3 CuO + CO 2

## 2HgC 3 2Hg + 2COd+ 2 2 O O 2 3 4Ag + 2COd+ 2 2AgC 2 O O (NH4d2CO3 NH3 + COd+ HO ) 2 2

Heating Effect on Nitrate Salt Nitrate Salt Equation of The Reaction Potassium nitrate 2KNO3 2KNOd+ 2 Sodium nitrate O 2NaNO 2NaNOd+
3

2 2

Calcium nitrate Magnesium nitrate Aluminium nitrate Zink nitrate Iron (III) nitrate Lead(II) nitrate Copper(II) nitrate Mercury(II) nitrate Silver(I) nitrate Ammonium nitrate

O 2Ca(NO3 2 2CaO + 4NOd+ 2 2 ) O Mg(NO3 2 2MgO + 4NOd+ 2 2 2AlOd+ ) 4Al(NO3 3 O 2 3 12NOd+ 2 ) 3O 2ZnO + 4NOd+ 2 Zn(NO3 2 2 ) 2FeOd+ 4Fe(NO3 3 O 2 3 12NOd+ 2 ) 3O Pb(NO3 2 2PbO + 4NOd+ O 2 2 ) Cu(NO3 2 2CuO + 4NOd+ 2 2 ) Hg Hg(NO3 2 O + 2NOd+ 2 2 ) O 2AgN 3 2Ag + 2NOd+ 2 2 O O NH4NO3 N2O + 2HO 2

## [NOTES: Nitrogen dioxide, NObis acidic gas and is brown in colour.] 2

Heating effect on sulphate salt Most sulphate salts do not decompose by heat. Only certain sulphate salts are decomposed by heat when heated strongly. Zinc sulphate, Copper (II) sulphate, Iron sulphate (III)

The heating effect on chloride salts All chloride salts are not decomposable by heat except ammonium chloride. Example:

## ZnS 4 ZnO + SO 3 O CuSO4 CuO + SO 3

Ammonium sulphate

## 2 3 2Fe(SO)4 3 FeOd+ SOd+ SO 2 2 (NH4d2SO4 2 H3 + HSO ) 2 N Identification of Gases

Gasses Oxygen Hydrogen Carbon Dioxide Chlorine Ammonia Sulphur Dioxide Nitrogen Dioxide
4

Characteristics Rekindle glowing splinter. Explode with a pop sound when brought close to a lighted splinter. Turns lime water chalky. Bleach moist litmus paper. Pungent smell. Turn moist red litmus paper to blue. Produces white fume when reacts with concentrated hydrochloric Acid. Pungent smell. Bleach the purple colour of potassium manganate(VII). Turn moist blue litmus paper to red. Pungent smell. Brown in colour. Turn moist blue litmus paper to red.

Qualitative analysis Identification of Anions (Negative ions) Diluted HCl bor BaCl (aq) or Ba(NO) 3 2 AgNO3 follow y BrownbRingbTest diluted HNObor (aq)bfollow ybdiluted diluted HNO. ( + FeSO 4 (aq ) + 3 3 diluted HSO 4 HCl/HNO3 concentratedHSO 4 2 2 White precipitate is White precipitate is formed. It is soluble in Carbon Dioxide is 2formed. It is soluble in iluted HCl/HNO3 CO3 released. iluted HNO3 White precipitate is formed. It is NOT soluble in diluted HCl/HNO3 White precipitate is formed. It is NOT soluble in diluted HNO3 Ring -

SO4

2-

Cl

Formation of Brown

NO3

1111111111111111

Idendification of cation 10 Na
+

NaOH(ak)

NH(ak) 3

HCl or NaCl

H2SO4 or Na 2SO 4

NaCO 2

KI

Ca2+

White precipitate. White precipitate is produced. White precipitate is produced. Dissolve in excess NaOH solution. White precipitate is produced. Dissolve in excess NaOH solution. White precipitate is produced. Dissolve in excess NaOH solution. Dirty green precipitate is produced. Red brown precipitate is produced. White precipitate is produced.

## White precipitate is produced. White precipitate is produced.

Mg

2+

Al
.

3+

White precipitate is produced. White precipitate is produced. Dissolve in excess NH3 solution. White precipitate is produced. White precipitate is produced. Dissolve in hot water White precipitate is produced.

## White precipitate is produced.

produced.

Zn

2+

White precipitate is

2+

## Yello precipitate is w produced. Dissolve in hot water

Fe

2+

Dirty green precipitate is produced. Red brown precipitate is produced. Blue precipitate is produced. Dissolve in excess NH3 solution and form a blue solution.

Green precipitate is produced. Brown precipitate is produced. A red brown solution formed.

Fe

3+

Cu

2+

## White precipitate form in brown solution

NH4

= No changes is observe

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Distibguish Iron(II) and Iron(III) Reagent Solution of potassium hecxacianoferate(II) Solution of potassium hecxacianoferate(III) Solution of potassium Thiocyanate(II) Observation Light blue precipitate Dark Blue precipitate Dark blue precipitate Greenish brown solution Pinkish solution Blood red solution

ONESCHOOL.NE T
Ion presents 2+ Fe 3+ Fe 2+ Fe 3+ Fe 2+ Fe 3+ Fe

## Manufactured Substances in Industry

Contact Process (Making Sulphuric Acid) Stage 1: Formation of SO2 Combustion of Sulphur

## S d+ Od(g) SO2 (g) (s) 2

or Heating of metal sulphide such as lead(II) sulphide

2PbSd+ 3O (s)

2(g)

2PbOd+ (s)
or

2SO2(g)
Combustion of hiydrogen sulphide

2H2 S

(g)

(ce)

## 2SO2 (g) + O2 (g) 2SO3 (g)

Catalyst: vanadium(V) oxide Temperature: 450C Pressure: 2-3 atmospheres

## Stage 3 Formation of oleum H2S 2O7 b

SO3(g) + HSO 2

4(aq)

H2d2 O7(l) S
Stage 4:Formation of Sulphuric acid

H2S 7 0 2

(1)

+ HO 2

(1)

Ha er Process (Making Iron(III) Distibguish Iron(II) and Ammonia) Sources of the raw material Hydrogen

2HdSO4(aq) 2 H2O + C CO + H2

ONESCHOOL.NE T

1. Reaction between steam and heated coke 2. Reaction between steam and natural gas.

2H 2 O + CH 4 COd+ 4H 2 2
Nitrogen The reaction 1. Ammonia is made by the Haber process from nitrogen and hydrogen: N2(g) + 3H(g) 2NH(g); dH = -92 kJ mo1 2 3
-1

## From distillation of liquid air.

Catalyst: Iron Promoter: Aluminium oxide Temperature: 450 C Pressure: 200-1000 atm