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C B B B C D A B A

10. D 11. D 12. B 13. B 14. B 15. D 16. C 17. B 18. B 19. C 20. A 21. D 22. D 23. B 24. C 25. D 26. C 27. D 28. C 29. D 30. D

31.

(a) In one minute, 2 kg of water flows through the heater. Energy supplied by heater = energy absorbed by water Pt = mcT 8000 60 = 2 4200 (T 15) T = 72.1 C The temperature of the hot water is 72.1 C. (b) In one minute, energy lost by hot water = energy gained by cold water m1cT1 = m2cT2 2 (72.1 42) = m2 (42 15) m2 = 2.23 kg The flow rate of cold water is 2.23 kg min1. 1A 1A (a) TA = 30 C Let m be the initial mass of water in each cup. Energy gained by cold water = energy lost by hot water 1M 1M 1M 1A 1M 1M

32.

1 mc (TB 30) = mc (60 TB) 2


1 TB 15 = 60 TB 2
TB = 50 C (b) TA will be unchanged. TB will be lower than 50 C. 33. (a) Energy absorbed = Pt = 1000 180 = 180 000 J (b) By Q = mcT, specific heat capacity = =

1A 1A 1A 1M

1A 1M

Q mT
180 000 0.5 (200 50 )

= 2400 J kg1 C1 (c) Since the temperature of the pot increases, it absorbs energy from the immersion heater. The energy actually absorbed by the cooking oil is less than that supplied by the heater. Hence, the actual value of the specific heat capacity of the cooking oil is lower than that found in (b).

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1A

1A

1A

34.

(a) After some time, the water inside and outside the aluminium can is heated to 100 C. The energy transfer between the water inside and outside the can is zero. Therefore, the water inside the can cannot obtain latent heat of vaporization. (b) Power = 1A 1A 1A 1M

Q t
mcT t
0.15 4200 (100 25) 90

1M

= 525 W (c) Energy transferred = mlv = 0.005 2.26 106 = 11 300 J 35. (a) Energy lost by horseshoe = energy absorbed by water mHcT = mWcT + mWlv 0.5 450 (500 100) = mW [4200 (100 20) + 2.26 10 ]
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1A 1M

1A 1M 1M

m = 34.7 g The maximum amount of water vaporized is 34.7 g. (b) Less water will be vaporized because more energy from the horseshoe will be used to raise the temperature of the whole bucket of water. 36. (a) Energy required to heat 5 bowls of water from 20 C to 100 C = mcT = (0.15 5) 4200 (100 20) = 252 000 J Energy required to vaporize 2 bowls of water = mlv = (0.15 x 2) x 2.26 x 106 J = 678 000 J Total energy required = 252 000 + 678 000 = 930 000 J (b) Some energy is lost to the surroundings during heating. 37. (a) The water in flask A takes the shortest time to drop 1 C. The dull black surface of the flask is a good radiator of heat. The large temperature difference between the water and the surroundings leads to a high rate of heat loss. (b) The rate of heat loss of water decreases.

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1A

1A

1M

1M

1M 1A 1A 1A 1A

1A 1A

38.

(a) Put the thermometer in boiling water and mark the mercury level. Then put the thermometer in melting ice and mark the mercury level. The temperatures of the boiling water and melting ice are taken as 0 C and 100 C respectively. The separation between these two mercury levels is divided into 100 equal divisions and each division is 1 C.

1A

1A

1A

1A (b) By proportion, room temperature =

8.4 4.0 100 24.0 4.0

1M 1A

= 22 C (c) (i) Initial temperature = 22 C Final temperature =

15.5 4.0 100 = 57.5 C 24.0 4.0

1M 1M 1M

Energy supplied by heater = energy absorbed by liquid L Pt = mcT 50 5 60 = 0.5 c (57.5 22) c = 845 J kg1 C 1 The specific heat capacity of liquid L is 845 J kg1 C1. (ii) The result of experiment is different from the actual value because energy is lost to the surroundings. Methods to reduce heat loss to the surroundings (any two of the following): Use a more powerful heater to reduce the heating time. Replace the glass with a polystyrene cup. Add a lid to cover the cup. Add a polystyrene tile under the cup. 39. (a)

1A

1A 2 1A

(Heater and ice placed in the funnel) (Beaker placed under the funnel) (Power supply, joulemeter and heater connected correctly)

1A 1A 1A

(b) He should use melting ice. (c) Energy supplied by heater = 46 400 - 35 000 = 11 400 J Specific latent heat of fusion of ice =

1A 1M 1M

Q m
11 400 0.04

= 2.85 x 105 J kg1 (d) To measure the amount ice melted at room temperature, a set of control apparatus is needed. The control apparatus is identical to that of the experimental apparatus except that the immersion heater is not turned on. Before putting the beakers underneath the funnels and switching on the heater in the experimental apparatus, make sure that the drip rates are about the same.

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1A

1A

1A After switching off the heater, do not remove the beakers immediately. Wait until the drip rates are about the same again. (e) Ice can be prepared easily. Ice has a large specific latent heat of fusion. It melts at room temperature. 40. (a) Metal is a better conductor of heat than paper. It conducts energy away from the hand more easily. (b) (i) (ii) Radiation The candle flame heats up the air around it. The hot air expands and rises, producing a convection current. The air flowing upwards pushes the fan of the cylinder and drives the cylinder to rotate. (iii) The plastic bag will rise. (iv) The cylinder will rotate. This is because the dry ice cools the air. Cold air sinks and pushes the fan of the cylinder. 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A 1A