General APA Guidelines

Manuscript Pages
• Title page: Title, author’s name, and other identifying information. Page 1 • Abstract: Page 2 • Introduction, Analysis & Discussion: This is body of the research report (containing four sections; Introduction, Method, Results and Discussion) beginning on page 3 • References: Listed together, starting on a separate page,
1

General APA Guidelines

Manuscript Pages
• Appendixes (if any): Each appendix starts on its own separate page. • Author note (if any): Listed together, starting on a separate page. • Tables: Each starts on its own separate page. • Figure Captions: Listed together, starting on a separate page. • Figures: Each on its own separate page.
2

General APA Guidelines Title Page The title page is the first page of the manuscript and contains four pieces of identifying information: (1) The title. 3 . (3) The author’s institutional affiliation. (2) The author name.

4 .AN APA-STYLE TITLE PAGE General APA Guidelines 1 Centre title Effect of managerial functions on the level of satisfaction of new employees Author names Author Affiliations Summaya Hqqi BBA Department of Business administration IQRA University. Karachi.

General APA Guidelines IT CONTAINS The abstract is a brief summary of the research study. The abstract focuses on what was done and what was found in the study ABSTRACT A one sentence statement of the problem or research question A brief description of the subjects or participants (identifying how many and any relevant characteristics) A brief description of the research methods and procedures A report of the results A statement about the conclusions or implications 5 . totaling no more than 120 words.

organizing. Motivation in the workplace and the role of Job Characteristics have been the cause of intensive research for many years now and have given rise to many theories. To achieve this. 6 Statement of problem Describe participants Describe method & results Conclusion Or Implications . planning and motivating have a significant effect on the level of satisfaction of employees . A total of hundred bank employees were surveyed to identify what factors have a greater effect on their level of job satisfaction. controlling and motivating. a regression model was developed based on the dependent and independent variables. The four dimensions of management that are researched upon in this paper are planning. Actually a whole range of factors satisfies employees. The model identified that out of the four independent variables. All these management functions. as the hypotheses suggests. The way supervisors treat their subordinates is obviously very important. effect the job satisfaction of employees’.AN APA-STYLE ABSTRACT General APA Guidelines Begin a new page Employees’ job satisfaction 2 Abstract Center No Indent The issue of Job Satisfaction. It is often assumed that all people receive satisfaction by the same things.

7 . and a brief description of the methods used to answer the question or test the hypothesis. including a review of the relevant background literature.General APA Guidelines THE INTRODUCTION The introduction presents a logical development of the research question. a statement of the research question or hypothesis.

A management style is an overall method of leadership used by a manager but managers must adjust their styles according to the situation that they are presented with as well as the relationship behavior (amount of support required) and the task behavior (amount of guidance required) Job satisfaction emerges from a variety of factors. is prepared to help them is respected. Rustomji & Sapre. “Level of satisfaction increases when subordinates are involved in the organizing process by their supervisors”. 8 . Each participant was handed out a questionnaire that consisted of various questions inquiring them about the practices of their supervisors and its subsequent effect on their level of job satisfaction Based on the arguments above the following hypotheses were developed Level of satisfaction increases when subordinates are involved in the planning process by their supervisors”. 1997). and the personal characteristics of the worker. (Parkinson. Rustomji & Sapre.AN APA-STYLE INTRODUCTION General APA Guidelines Employees’ job satisfaction Effect of managerial functions on the level of satisfaction of employees Begin a new page Center title General Introduction Relevant literature Purpose & Method Hypothesis Managers have to perform many roles in an organization and they need to handle various situations. 1986) Similarly. specific features of the job. “Level of satisfaction increases when the supervisors motivate their subordinates”. Within superior-subordinate exchanges. a considerate supervisor who treats his workers as human beings. 1986). respects their dignity. including characteristics of the organizational environment. participation in the decision-making process (planning) can increase job satisfaction (Parkinson. “Level of satisfaction of subordinates decreases when the supervisors implement high level of control”. subordinates' perceptions of the exchange affect their attitudes about the job itself (Wesolowski & Mossholder. A questionnaire was designed to carry out the survey. which will depend on their style of management. Higher job satisfaction has been linked with employees who are able to exercise autonomy (Sekaran 1989) and with those who have a higher level of job involvement (Mortimer and Lorence 1989).

Subjects or Participants. II.Apparatus or Material.Procedures. and III. including the subject or participants. the apparatus or material and the procedure used.General APA Guidelines The method section of a research report describes how the study was conducted. 9 THE METHOD SECTION . Usually a method section is divided into three subsections: I.

After giving informed consent. and job tenure with the company. n. in this case efficiency and effectiveness. from the respondents. each participant completed a general demographic/personal history questionnaire to collect information such as age. gender. Method Participants Describe participants Participants were selected from the newly hired employees of different banks who had one year or less job experience with the same organization. then it would become a lot easier to direct them towards what is required of them. the level of job satisfaction was measured. details of job activities. The questionnaires were recollected after being filled by the respondents and the data has been transferred to the computer software for further statistical analysis.d.AN APA STYLE METHOD SECTION End of introduction No new Page General APA Guidelines Center Italics & flush left public recognition. Once this is identified. Materials Describe Apparatus &/or Materials used This was the study of a stochastic relationship. 10 . with relation to the job experience. and/or participation (Business Balls. Procedure Describe process of conducting study Participants were given the questionnaire individually. & managerial behavior to new employees Employees’ job satisfaction 5 so no particular materials were required or used.). A questionnaire was used as a tool of primary data collection.

 It begins with a statement of the primary outcome of the study.General APA Guidelines THE RESULTS SECTION The results section of a research report presents a summary of the data and the statistical analysis.  Followed by the basic descriptive statistics (usually mean and standard deviation) then  The inferential statistics (usually the results of hypothesis tests) and finally the measure of effect size 11 .

The type of test.The degrees of freedom.The outcome of the test and IV. II.General APA Guidelines Reports of statistical significance should be made in a statement that identifies.The level of significance 12 THE RESULTS SECTION . I. III.

047 and 0.000. organizing (ORG). organizing. with regression showing variance explained by the model framed in this research. no new page General APA Guidelines Were tested individually. Discussions After surveying hundred bank employees using a questionnaire based on managerial functions and its subsequent effect on the level of satisfaction of employees.301 has a significance of 0.AN APA STYLE RESULTS SECTION End of method Section. showing that there are some significant variables missing in the model.e. 3264. Descriptive statistics In a table placed at The end of manuscript Inferential Statistics Employees’ job satisfaction 6 Table – 4 shows Sum of Squares for the total variance of the phenomena. i. A scale was developed. While. The F statistics value of 11. controlling (CTRL) & motivating (MTV). and the dependent variable i. Sig of t. Center Results A multiple regression model was used to determine the relationship between the independent variables i. Summary of the model in table – 3. shows that planning and motivating are the two functions that have greater impact on the level of satisfaction of employees with a significance of 0. organizing and controlling have a significance of 0.640.000. controlling & motivating) has explained almost 30 per cent of the influencing factors that affect job satisfaction. The significance of F value suggests that the model calculation of R Square is correct.294 with F statistics value of 11.e. indicates R Square value of 0. to measure the practices of the supervisors – independent variable. a 13 . and 1 being the lowest score.000 respectively. job satisfaction (SAT) of employees. this also indicates a 70 per cent unexplained variation. This may call for a further study in the same area. Mean while.e. planning (PLN). 3 being the highest. the residual value depicts the variance unexplained by the model.808 and 0.297 respectively which states that these two variables do not contribute immensely to the level of satisfaction of employees. However. It means that the model (independent variables: planning. so that the responses be kept unbiased. Where as.301 significant at 0. The t value states the significance of the parametric values.

14 . summarizes the results.General APA Guidelines THE DISCUSSION SECTION The discussion section of a research report restates the hypothesis. and then presents a discussion of the interpretations. implications and possible applications of the results.

808 and 0. Table – 2 provides a summary of the model.294 with F statistics value of 11. controlling & motivating. The results partially supported the hypotheses that the level of satisfaction of employees’ is affected by the four managerial functions: planning. The way supervisors treat their subordinates is obviously very important. 1986). subordinates' perceptions of the exchange affect their attitudes about the job itself (Wesolowski & Mossholder. meaning that the model has explained almost 30 per cent of the influencing factors that affect job satisfaction. . it results in lower level of job satisfaction of employees. The table also indicates that there is a 70 per cent unexplained variation. there are various other variables that have a significant effect on the level of satisfaction of employees. 1997). (Parkinson. The significance of F value suggests that the model calculation of R Square is correct. a considerate supervisor who treats his workers as human beings. showing that there are almost 70% other unexplained variables present that may have a significant effect on the level of satisfaction of employees that are not touched 15 upon in this research. participation in the decision-making process (planning) can increase job satisfaction (Parkinson. On the other hand. Where as when supervisors demonstrate control over their subordinates.AN APA STYLE DISCUSSION SECTION End of results No New page General APA Guidelines organizing and controlling have a significance of 0. Besides the four researched factors. respects their dignity. 1986) Similarly. organizing. Rustomji & Sapre. and/or pursue more organizing techniques. a regression model was formulated to determine what functions (independent variable) have a greater effect on the level of satisfaction (dependent variable). It indicates the R Square value of 0. Employees are considered to be more receptive when their supervisors engage them in the planning process and/or provide them with incentives to enhance their work performance. Restate hypothesis Center Discussion Restate Results Relate to Other Research Implications or Applications After surveying hundred bank employees using a questionnaire based on managerial functions and its subsequent effect on the level of satisfaction of employees.301 significant at 0. is prepared to help them is respected. Within superior-subordinate exchanges. Rustomji & Sapre.297 respectively which states that these two variables do not contribute immensely to the level of satisfaction of employees. A supervisor who tries to dominate his workers and insults them only creates bitterness.000.

Thricetold tales: Married couples tell their stories. Mahwah. A.Examples for Print Publications General Format: BOOKS Author. & Author. Reference List . Location: Publisher Examples: Holmberg. (2004). J. NJ: Erlbaum. provide an alphabetized "Reference List" containing complete citations for all works cited or referred to in your paper. (2004). • At the end of your paper. A. & Veroff. brief parenthetical references identifying each work referred to. D.General APA Guidelines • APA style requires that you provide. T... B. The APA format for parenthetical references is described below. Orbuch. Title of book.. 16 . in your text. B..

& C.). A. London: Sage. Editor (Eds. nnnnnn). Location: Publisher. Owen (Ed. Title of chapter. 17 . Sociology after postmodernism (pp./pp. (2004). A.General APA Guidelines CHAPTER IN A BOOK General Format: Author. “The post effects”': From taxonomy to post structuralism. In D. (1997).). Title of book (p. Editor. B. Editor. A. In A. Examples: Stein.158-172).

Title of article. Author. and visual art. C. A. narrative literature. Title of Journal. C. (2003). 55(2). Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice & Research. (2003.. page-numbers. The inner world of workplaces: Accessing this world through poetry. Stein. Spring). & Dunlap. A. H. M. McCright. A. music.General APA Guidelines JOURNAL ARTICLES General Format Author. & Author.. climate change policy. volume. B. R. Social Problems. (2004). B. 50. Defeating Kyoto: The conservative movement's impact on U. 18 . F. 348-373.84-93.S.. E.

if named or Article title if no author. February 13). Conflict and cognitive control. volume if given. A. A. & Tanako. 969-970. (2004. 19 . K. (2003.General APA Guidelines MAGAZINE ARTICLES General Format: Author. Month day). page-numbers. Title of Magazine. Title of article if not given before [useful descriptive information]. M. Examples: Kenji. 303.. Science.

Mahwah. K. music. M. 303. (2003. (2004). (1997). 348-373. Stein.158-172). T.S. London: Sage. & Veroff. Magazine Articles Journal Articles McCright A. Science. The inner world of workplaces: Accessing this world through poetry. (2003).General APA Guidelines Employees’ job satisfaction 2 References Book reference Holmberg. & Dunlap.84-93. E. Book Chapter 20 . Orbuch. 969-970.. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice & Research.. NJ: Erlbaum Kenji. Conflict and cognitive control. “The post effects”': From taxonomy to post structuralism. Social Problems. R. J.. D. and visual art. M. (2003. narrative literature. In D. & Tanako. Spring).). Stein. 50. 55(2). H. McCright.. February 13). Sociology after postmodernism (pp. F. Thrice-told tales: Married couples tell their stories. Defeating Kyoto: The conservative movement's impact on U. A. Owen (Ed. climate change policy.

General APA Guidelines Some Elements of Writing Style • • • • Impersonal Style Verb. Tense Biased Language Citations 21 .

• Double spaced • With no more than 27 lines of text per page (8.1/2 X 11 inch page). • With at least a one inch margin on all sides • The text should have a straight left-hand margin but an uneven or ragged right-hand margin without hyphenation breaking words at the ends of lines 22 .General APA Guidelines Guidelines for Typing or Word Processing The General APA guidelines require that manuscript be .

• The preferred typefaces (Fonts) are 12 point. 23 . • Indent the first line of each paragraph 5 to 7 spaces. Times Roman or 12 point Courier.General APA Guidelines Guidelines for Typing or Word Processing • Indentation should be consistent throughout the manuscript.

except the “figures” page. is numbered and identified with a page header.General APA Guidelines • Page Numbers & Page Headers Each page of the manuscript. The page number should be positioned in the upper “right-hand” edge. 24 .

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master your semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.