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Health - A state of complete physical, mental, and social well-being. Disease - A deleterious change in the body’s condition in response to an environmental factor. Morbidity – illness Mortality – death Nutrition – food Pathogenic organisms - Organisms, including bacteria, viruses or cysts, capable of causing diseases (typhoid, cholera, dysentery) in a host (such as a person). http://www.greenfacts.org/glossary/pqrs/pathogenic-organisms.htm Infectious diseases - An infectious disease or communicable disease is caused by a biological agent such as by a virus, bacterium or parasite. http://www.metrohealth.org/body.cfm?id=1570 Sanitation - Conditions relating to public health, esp. the provision of clean drinking water and adequate sewage disposal. Vaccination programs - A series of vaccinations, including the timing of all doses, which may be either recommended or compulsory, depending on the country of residence. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vaccination_program Disability-Adjusted Life Year (DALY) - Combines premature deaths and loss of healthy life resulting from illness or disability. WHO – World Health Organization is the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations system. It is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, shaping the health research agenda, setting norms and standards, articulating evidence-based policy options, providing technical support to countries and monitoring and assessing health trends. http://www.who.int/about/en/ Malnutrition - Malnutrition is the condition that develops when the body does not get the right amount of
the vitamins, minerals, and other nutrients it needs to maintain healthy tissues and organ function. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/malnutrition Emergent disease – A disease one never known before, or has been absent for at least 20 years. Ecological Diseases - Emergent ecological diseases are relatively recent phenomena involving extensive damage being caused to natural communities and ecosystems. In some cases, the specific causes of the ecological damage are known, but in others they are not yet understood. http://www.bookrags.com/research/emergent-ecological-diseases-enve-01/
Antibiotic resistance – The ability of bacteria and other microorganisms to resist the effects
of an antibiotic to which they were once sensitive. Antibiotic resistance is a major concern of overuse of antibiotics. Also known as drug resistance. http://www.medterms.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=2276
Pesticide resistance –
The continued use of a single agent, or a group of closely allied agents,
can cause selective survival of insects with innate tolerance of the agent and lead to the development of a resistant population. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Pesticide+resistance MRSA - Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is caused by a strain of staph bacteria that's become resistant to the antibiotics commonly used to treat ordinary staph infections. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/mrsa/DS00735 Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis- MDR TB is a form of drug-resistant TB in which TB bacteria can no longer be killed by at least the two best antibiotics, isoniazid (INH) and rifampin (RIF), commonly used to cure TB. As a result, this form of the disease is more difficult to treat than ordinary TB and requires up to 2 years of multidrug treatment. http://www.niaid.nih.gov/topics/tuberculosis/understanding/whatistb/pages/tbdefinitions.aspx Hazardous chemicals – Dangerous, flammable, explosive, irritant, sensitizer, acidic, or caustic chemicals. Toxic chemicals – Poisonous; can be general or very specific. Often harmful even in dilute concentrations. Allergens - Substances that activate the immune system. Antigens - Allergens that are recognized as foreign by white blood cells and stimulate the production of specific antibodies. Sick Building Syndrome - An illness affecting workers in office buildings, characterized by skin irritations, headache, and respiratory problems, and thought to be caused by indoor pollutants, microorganisms, or inadequate ventilation. Also called building sickness. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/sick+building+syndrome EPA – Environmental Protection Agency: An independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment. http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Environmental+Protection+Agency Neurotoxins - Special class of metabolic poisons that specifically attack nerve cells. Heavy Metals - Kill nerve cells. Examples: lead and mercury Mutagens - Agents that damage or alter genetic material. Teratogens - Specifically cause abnormalities during embryonic growth and development. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – (FAS) is a pattern of mental and physical defects that can develop in a fetus
in association with high levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Surgeon General of the United 2
States, the British Department of Health and the Australian Government National Health and Medical Research Council is to drink no alcohol at all during pregnancy. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fetal_Alcohol_Syndrome
Carcinogens - Substances that cause cancer. Ex. Cigarette smoke and hexavalent chromium
Endocrine Hormone Disruptors - compound that mimics hormones or disrupts hormone regulation— e.g., alkylphenols and phthalates, which are present in pesticides, detergents, cosmetics, and plastics. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Endocrine+Disruptor Solubility - Chemicals are divided into two major groups: Dissolve more readily in water and dissolve more readily in oil. Bioaccumulation - Selective absorption and storage. Dilute toxins in the environment can build to dangerous levels inside cells and tissues.
Biomagnification - Toxic burden of a large number of organisms at a lower trophic level is accumulated and concentrated by a predator at a higher trophic level. Antagonistic Reaction - One material interferes with the effects, or stimulates the breakdown, of other chemicals. Additive Reaction - Effects of each chemical are added to one another. Synergistic Reaction - One substance multiplies the effect of the other. Metabolic Degradation - In mammals, the liver is the primary site of detoxification of both natural and introduced poisons. Excretion - Effects of waste products and environmental toxins reduced by eliminating via excretion.
Dose Response Curves - The dose–response relationship, or exposure–response relationship,
describes the change in effect on an organism caused by differing levels of exposure (or doses) to a stressor (usually a chemical) after a certain exposure time. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dose%E2%80%93response_relationship
LD50 – Dose (Lethal Dose 50) at which 50% of the test population is sensitive. Acute Effects - Caused by a single exposure and result in an immediate health problem. Chronic Effects - Long-lasting. Can be result of single large dose or repeated smaller doses.