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, ROMANIA, Bucharest (Research Institute for Electrical Engineering - Electric Drives)

CATEGORY CODE SRATN IEN/UEN UPL - 1/2 - 3 S = system R = regulation A = automatic T = voltage N = digital IEN = Excitation system rated current (Adc) - direct current at the excitation output terminals which the excitation system can supply under defined conditions of operation (taking in account the most demanding excitation requirements of the machine); UEN = Excitation system rated voltage (Vdc) - direct voltage at the excitation output terminals which the excitation system can provide when delivering excitation rated field current; UP = Excitation ceiling voltage (Vdc) - The maximum direct voltage which the excitation system is able to provide from its terminals under defined conditions; 1 = one rectifying bridge (without redundancy in the power circuit) 2 = two rectifying bridges (100% redundancy) 3 = excitation transformer (installed in cubicle), for excitation current over 50ADC.



The parametrization range offered by ICPE ACTEL for Static Excitation Equipment is: Three-phase supply voltage (Usupply) +10%, -15%: 3x400Vac or another voltage, by means of a transformer. Rated power (PN). Generator: 3...330MW; Motor: 100kW...8MW. Maximum rated excitation current (IEN max). Generator: 3200Adc; Motor: 1600Adc. Rated excitation voltage (UEN): related to synchronous machine excitation parameters. Control accuracy: 0,5%. Maximum forcing coefficient for current and voltage: 2.

Based on the support of its highly qualified specialists, ICPE ACTEL has focused its activities on offering not only products, but also complete solutions, custom made to meet the clients requirements, for normal and extreme climate.

Our products are always accompanied by technical assistance and additional services throughout their entire lifespan, from drawing-up of then application up to the client training.

SRATN is found in almost all hydro and steam power plants in Romania. ICPE ACTEL has also exported such equipment in: France, Turkey, India, Republic of Moldavia, Kenya, Thailand and Vietnam.

Concerning the applications of SRATN for synchronous motors, some references are as follows: Iraq, Republic of Moldavia, Arcelor Mittal- Galati, Romgaz Medias, Hidroelectrica and SNCF (Railway National Society) in Romania. ICPE ACTEL is a reliable long-term partner.



Static excitation equipment provides supply, control and protection of synchronous machine excitation: generators in hydro and steam power plants and synchronous motors for various applications. They ensure a stable and safe operation of synchronous machines, especially relevant when these machines are connected to the public mains, characterized by a lot of perturbations due to connecting and disconnecting of important loads, shortcircuit, etc. Common applications are: - supply of the generator's field windings in hydro and steam power plants, connected to a public mains; - supply of synchronous motor's field windings for applications such as fans, air compressors, debit pumps, water feed pumps. The excitation system provides the dc power supply required by the synchronous machine field circuit to meet the specified ratings and operating ranges of the generator/motor for all operating condition. The excitation system is a static type. Its main power device consists in 3phase full wave thyristor rectifier bridges supplied from the ac terminals of the synchronous generator/ motor or from an independent power supply. The excitation system has a microproccesor based digital type automatic voltage regulator and rectifier control that brings the suitable operating stability for the synchronous generator/motor. ADVANTAGES Static excitation equipment, fitted with a digital control solution, ensures: - higher stability of parameters related to electromagnetically perturbations and environmental condition variations; - user friendly interface, with many settings and diagnosis options; - strict monitoring of internal and external failures, that lead to equipment tripping; - possibility of complete remote control; - enhanced reliability;



- Higher safety of the operating process, due to digital control and significant subassembly redundancy; - Enhanced availability and competence in custom-made equipment (functions, special environment conditions, new design alternatives on demand); - Possibility of intervention, software programming and license granting for the operating mode parameter setting; - Enhanced efficiency; - Higher availability through additional preset options; - Advanced diagnostic capabilities for failure analysis; - Cost saving and oriented solution in accordance with the clients budget; - Technical assistance throughout the entire product lifespan from mounting to post guarantee service.



Static excitation equipment, especially in hydro and steam power plants represents a complex type of product, meant to provide the control and protection of synchronous machine excitation in a large range of perturbations and in compliance with the requirements of electric generators correct running. The technology of public mains is, by itself, a complex process, which has to face several specific perturbations, such as the connecting and disconnecting of important inductive loads, local and remote short-circuits, sudden unloading, automatic turn-on of stand-by equipment. The power supply systems, with static excitation equipment as their core, have to operate very stably and safety, in the event of such perturbations. Static excitation equipment is meant to preserve generator set-points with high accuracy, in strict respect of its stability diagrams (synchronous machine limit values, cross current criterion, line drop compensation criterion, etc.) and provide a very accurate dynamic regime.

3x...kV/3x...V 10VA



Generator Circuit Breaker

Measuring Board Measuring Board

Digital input signals

TTA ...kVA 3x...V/....V




Digital output signals

Analog output signals

TTA ...kVA 3x...kV/....V

Measuring Board


Measuring Board


Comunication for SCADA RS232 RS485 RJ45

3x...kV/3x...V 10VA


SRATN Bloc Diagram (example)

Operating panel

Optional devices

Pn= .....MW Un= .....kV In= ........A cos = ......

Un ex = ......V Ine x= ........A

FDC + Crowbar

Fieldflash voltage dc/ ac


Auxiliary dc/ac power supply


DCGN = Digital firing pulses board

BRIDGE 1, BRIDGE 2 - full wave thyristor rectifiers AVR1, AVR2 - PLC with Automatic Voltage Regulator MAN1, MAN2 - PLC with Field Current Regulator FFC - Field Flash Circuit FDC - Field Discharge Circuit


Rectifier power supply voltage : Power supply frequency: Field flash power supply: Control electronics power supply voltage Maximum output voltage: Forcing in current: Forcing in voltage: Control Modes:


Max 3 x 750V AC. +20% , -20% 50Hz 5% - from the power plant battery - from the auxiliary ac power supply - 3 x 400V/ 230 (Vac)// max 10A - power plant battery 24/ 110/ 200 (Vdc) // max10A Minimum 1,2*U supply Minimum 1.8*In excitation for 30 sec Minimum 1.8*Un excitation AVR VOLTAGE REGULATOR POWER FACTOR REGULATOR REACTIVE POWER REGULATOR MANUAL: CURRENT REGULATOR (FCR) - control for machine voltage - maximum field current limitation with inverse time delay characteristic; - stator current limitation with inverse time delay characteristic for leading or lagging working of the machine; - lead or lag reactive power working limitation, according to the real power; - V/Hz limiter - load (cross) current compensation; - soft start; - power system stabilizer - PSS1A/ PSS2A; - control for (cos) - maximum field current limitation with inverse time delay characteristic; - stator current limitation with inverse time delay characteristic for leading or lagging working of the machine; - limitation of the minimum and maximum generator voltage; - control for reactive power - maximum field current limitation with inverse time delay characteristic; - stator current limitation with inverse time delay characteristic for leading or lagging working of the machine; - limitation of the minimum and maximum generator voltage; - control for field current - limitation of the regulator output

VOLTAGE REGULATOR (AVR) mode has the following control loops:

POWER FACTOR REGULATOR (APFC) mode has the following control loops:

REACTIVE POWER REGULATOR (kVAR) mode has the following control loops:

CURRENT REGULATOR (FCR) mode mode has the following control loops:


Starting sequence in case of field flash


After the generator reaches 90% of its rated speed the start command is followed by the following actions: - the field is supplied from an auxiliary power supply until the generator voltage reaches over 50% of the rated value then the excitation equipment is supplied from the excitation transformer connected to generator terminals. - Asynchronous mode start on a starting resistor with adjustable final level of sliding. - During operational shut-down the field is discharged by inverter operation of the thyristor converter; - In case of excitation or machine fault, the synchronous machine will be de-energized using the field discharge circuit. Field discharge breaker fault (field discharge resistor over-temperature) Generator over-voltage Excitation over-current Loss of field excitation current Generator field ground protection Transformer over-current Natural/ 2 fans for each rectifier.

Starting sequence of synchronous motors Field discharging

Protections by bimetallic switch by PLC

by Earth Fault Relay by Overcurrent Relays Cooling



A. The Power circuit contains (depending of the synchronous machine type): 1. Excitation transformer The excitation transformer can be fed from the synchronous machine terminals or from another power supply. The excitation transformer equipment can be fitted with protection devices and/or switching devices. 2. Full wave thyristor rectifier bridge (1 or more); The rectifier equipment includes the following: - Rectifier firing circuits; - High speed over-current fuses to protect the thyristors in the event of short-circuit; - Transient voltage surge protection on the rectifier (resistor-capacitance circuit); - Cooling equipment (if applicable); - Optional: disconnecting switches on the input and output of the rectifiers;

3. Field discharge circuit. The field discharge circuit includes the following: - Static breaker for field discharging and crowbar for dc voltage surge protection; - Field discharge resistor connected across the field to de-energize the generator as fast as possible. - Optional: DC circuit breaker one-pole or two-poles with field discharge contact. 4. Field flashing circuit. The field discharge circuit can be feed from the power plant battery or from an AC auxiliary power supply. The circuit consists in: - Transformer and rectifier (AC power supply type field flash circuit); - DC contactor; - Blocking diode; - Field flashing current limiting resistor; 5. Synchronous motor starting circuit. - Starting resistor; - Short circuiting contactor for the starting resistor; - Synchronism sensing device;

STATIC EXCITATION EQUIPMENT SRATN B. The Control circuits are divided in:


- Internal power supply circuits - Regulating circuits (inside PLC): set points circuits; control loops and limitation circuits in AUTOMATIC mode: AVR/APFC/kVAR; control loop and limitation circuits in MANUAL mode - Measurement circuits - Thyristors firing pulses generation circuits - Protection circuits for the rectifier and control devices (by protection relays and PLC) Internal power supplies circuits The supply of the PLC and the other control devices is made with the constant voltage: +24V. This voltage is obtained from 230VAC (auxiliary power supply) and from 110 (220) Vdc (battery supply), using switch mode power supplies. The switch mode power supplies output are connected in parallel separated through diodes (common cathode). Regulating circuits (inside PLC) set points circuits Set point value in the AUTOMATIC or MANUAL mode is computed inside the PLC. Every regulator has a register in the PLC that represents the set point value. The range of the set point is between a minimum and a maximum value. These values can be set from the PLCs operating panel (HMI). The variation speed of the set point between minimum and maximum value, on the increase or decrease command, can be set from the PLCs operating panel (HMI). control loops and limiting functions in AUTOMATIC mode - control of the machine voltage regulator (AVR with load/ cross current correction of the voltage set point) - control of the machine reactive power Q regulator - control of the machine power angle (factor) (cos ) regulator - time limitation of the maximum field current - field current limitation is activated when field current is higher than a threshold value (usually 1.15Iex rated) . PLC begins to compute the diagram (I2t) and when the time exceeds the calculated time, the regulator output is modified so that the field current will be lowered to the rated value. The threshold current value, the ceiling current definite time and the time break after a forcing can be set as parameters. - instantaneous limitation of the maximum field current (for synchronous generators) - field current limitation is activated when the generator is connected to the grid and the generator voltage in lower than the grid voltage in case of a near short-circuit (at generator terminals or generator transformer).



- time limitation of the maximum stator current - stator current limitation is activated when the stator current is higher than a threshold value (between 0.8 ... 1.5Is rated). PLC begins to compute the diagram (I2t) and when the time exceeds the calculated time, the regulator output is modified trying to lower down the stator current below the rated value. The threshold current value, the ceiling current definite time and the time break after a forcing can be set as parameters. - limitation of the reactive power (only in AVR mode) - the reactive power value can be compute with the following formula: QM - Qm Q* = QM - P -------------- , Pn Qm = the reactive power value at rated active power; QM - the reactive power value at active power = 0.

These values can be set from HMI for both leading and lagging working. If the reactive power is higher (in lagging working) or lower (in leading working) than Q* value, the PLC modifies the regulator output, so that the reactive power to change to the Q* value. - voltage matching (for synchronous generators) in order to start the synchronization and the paralleling process the excitation system can performed the voltage matching between the generator and line voltages. - V/HZ limiter (for synchronous generators) to cause the regulated voltage to decrease in proportion with the ferquency reduction, if frequency falls below a predetermined value. control loop and limiting in MANUAL mode - control of the field current - excitation current regulator tracking and switching between functioning (control) modes (AUTO-MANUAL) The tracking between the 2 control modes is made thus: - if the equipment functioning mode is MANUAL, in the AUTOmatic regulator (AVR, Q, cos ) set point register is written all time the feedback motor voltage value (Q or cos ). This value is the set point for the AUTOC regulator that is not in function. When the switching command is received from MANUAL to AUTO mode, it is done with a special care for the AUTO regulator output to be the same with MANUAL set point register. - if the equipment functioning mode is AUTO mode, in the MANUAL set point register is written all time the feedback field current. The switch to MANUAL mode can be done any time without any cautions.



At switching command, the HMI displays the selected mode and enables or disables the corresponding control loops of the chosen mode. If the excitation equipment is ON, a fault in the feedbacks measurement circuit (U, Is or cos ) doesn't allow the equipment to function in the AUTOMATIC control mode. The control mode will be switched to MANUAL mode or the switch to AUTO mode will not be allowed

Measurement circuits In order to obtain the feed-back for UM, IM, Q, P, f, the equipment receives from the machine the following signals: -3x100 (110) Vac - UM (star or V connection diagram); -3x5(1) Aac - IM (star or V connection diagram); The excitation system has processor based devices that adjust and compute the electric feedback measures needed for the control loops of the AVR and FCR.

Thyristors firing pulses generation circuits Usually the excitation equipment has 2 thyristor firing pulses generating devices. The equipment automatically switches on the channel 2 if channel 1 is in fault. The thyristors firing pulses are generated to be synchronous with the power supply voltage. The firing pulses are moving in accordance with the command voltage U . The thyristor firing pulse generating devices are equipped with a processor that supervises thyristors firing pulses (their presence), the synchronization voltages and the presence of the power supply.

Protections circuits The PLC receives signals from different devices that supervise the high speed fuses, the fans, the rectifier and transformer temperature, the field discharging circuit and the field flashing circuit, etc. Machine protections a. Stator overvoltage b. Excitation overvoltage (59F) c. Excitation overcurrent (overexcitation 40) d. Loss of field excitation current (40) Synchronous motor protections e. Elapsing synchronism time (stall time) f. Asynchronous working protection (pull out) g. Restarting protection h. AVR feedback measurement loss protection with switching on the MANUAL control mode (field current regulator)



- Local commands (increase, decrease, functioning modes selections, test functions) and Local signalizations are performed using a HMI key-pad or touch screen operating panel and/or push buttons and pilot lights. On the HMI there are also displayed the fault log, the parameters set, the electric measurements. HMI screens example

- The discrete input and output signals for remote control are isolated by control relays. - On the Excitation System the following Internal Tests can be performed with equipment switched off. - Static Breaker Test (indicates if static breaker is healthy) - Rectifier Test (indicates weather the rectifier bridges and the thyristors firing pulse generation boards are healthy). - Communication facilities: Ports: RS232/ RS485, RJ45 Communication protocols: ModbusRTU, Profibus, Ethernet TCP/IP, DF1.



The equipment is usually manufactured as a metal cabinet with front and back doors. The colour, dimmensions and protection degree are depending of the custommer requirements. OVERALL DIMENSIONS The overall dimensions depend on the rated field current of the synchronous machine and the requested custom design. For standard types, the dimensions (L x l x H) are: - for current up to 50Amps 800x800x(1700 2300)mm - for current over 50Amps with 100% redundancy in rectifying bridges 2400x800x2100mm ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS operating temperature range: -100C...+400C storage temperature range: -250C...+550C maximum relative humidity: 80% (at 300C) maximum altitude: 1000m above sea level (over 1000m, the current decreases by 0,5% at each extra 100m) PROTECTION DEGREE The protection degree is: IP20 IP54 ELECTRIC and ELECTRONIC DEVICES The control circuits are developed using the resources of the PLC's (Micrologix made by Allen Bradley or 313C made by Siemens) The thyristor bridge is designed and built at our company using Semikron thyristors. Inside the equipment it can be found several PCB's designed and planted at our plant facilities. Also it can be found electric devices as transducers, different protection relays, synchronization relay, relays, switch breakers, circuit breakers made by Phoenix Contact, Deif, ABB, Schneider Electrique, Aeton, Siemens, Microelettrica Scientifica, Bender, etc. The HMI can be a key-button or/and touchscreen type, a color, grayscale, or monochrome display, available in 315 in. size.




QUALITY ASSURANCE Static excitation equipment operates in compliance with "SR EN ISO 9001:2001" quality management system, concerning the design, development, production, installation and servicing. The company is also certified for SR EN ISO 14001:2005 environmental management system and OHSAS 18001:2004 occupational health and safety management system. SERVICE consulting for application definition; custom solution design; technical assistance at mounting and commissioning; service within and post guarantee; customer personnel training; OPTIONALS stand-by equipment, as presented in the functional description; firing circuit, as presented in the functional description; exciter transformer, powered from generator terminals; rotor earth fault relay; stand-by rectifying bridges; AC and DC disconnecting switches for each rectifying bridge (in additional cubicle); Current balancing coils for two rectifier bridges power circuit; Communication circuit optical fiber for SCADA compatibility.




FUNCTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE EXCITATION SYSTEM - SRATN Resolution for measures acquisition 14bits Regulation accuracy <0,5% Smooth switching between control modes (up to 5% of the field current of the switching time) Switching between the control modes is done both with the equipment turned on and 4. off Ceiling field current min 1,4*INex (depending of the voltage 5. rate of the excitation transformer) Ceiling field current definite time 0 30s 6. 2 Field current threshold for I t curve 0,81,2*INex 7. computing Time break between forcings 0999s 8. Ceiling stator current 2 9. 0 30s 10. Ceiling stator current definite time 0,81,5*Istator 11. Stator current threshold for I2t curve computing 0999s 12. Time break between forcings 13. Minimum setpoint limit as needed 14. Maximum setpoint limit as needed 15 20 ms 15. Response time at disturbances 16. Machine overdraft on a sudden drop in its stator terminals voltage 17. Local and remote command of setpoint changing As desired 18. Setpoint variation speed between minimum and maximum value 19. Asynchronous starting of the motor; with hunging synchronicity, adjustable final level of sliding. 20. Soft generator voltage building-up with adjustable final level and variation speed Communication Ports: 21. Communication Functions RS232, RS485, RJ45, etc Communication Protocols: ModBus RTU DF1 Ethernet TCP/IP ProfiBus MPI 22. The HMI saves at least 100 events of excitation equipment with date and time 1. 2. 3.




INTERNAL FAULT SIGNALS MESSAGES DISPLAYED ON THE HMI 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Power supply missing or synchronisation voltages missing Thyristors firing fault High speed fuse fault Static breaker fault or overtemperature on the field discharge resistor Thyristors over temperature Fans power supply fault Measuring circuit fault Auxiliary power supply missing Excitation transformer overcurrent Fault on the AUTOMATIC control channel and switch on the MANUAL control channel

ELECTRIC MEASURES DISPLAYED 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Field current Field voltage Stator voltage Stator current Power factor Active power Reactive power MINIMUM DIGITAL INPUTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Main Circuit Breaker position START command local or remote STOP command local or remote EMERGENCY STOP command from machine protections INCREASE SETPOINT local or remote DECREASE SETPOINT local or remote



5. Limitation functions activated OPTIONAL for SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR MCB SWITCH ON command MCB SWITCH OFF command (MCB motor circuit breaker)




Excitation equipments for synchronous generators - export

Someshwara - India - 3 pcs. Ranganatha - India 3 pcs. Ambuthirtha - India 2 pcs. Middle Kollab - India 2 pcs. Varahi - India 2 pcs. Gezende - Turkey - 1pc. Somanamaradi - India - 1pc. Kang Krachan - Thailand - 1pc. Tana Kenya 2 pcs. 2 pcs. Motz France 2 pcs. Nam La - Vietnam - 3 pcs. Om Power - India - 2 pcs. Song Giang - Vietnam - 2 pcs. SRAT-N 13A/48V SRAT-N 11A/23V SRAT-N 17A/36V SRAT-N 862A/85V SRAT-N 862A/85V SRAT-N 883A/110V SRAT-N 16.8A/39V SRAT-N 1000A/ 186V SRAT-N 17A/31V SRAT-N 20A/40V SRAT-N 16A/30V SRAT-N 15A/30V SRAT-N 15A/30V SRAT-N 871A/93V 2004 2005 2005 2006 2007 2008 2008 2009 2009 2010 2011 2011 2011