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Acknowledgments

Contest Directors

Ray Li, James Tao, Victor Wang

Head Problem Writers

Evan Chen, Ray Li, Victor Wang

Additional Problem Contributors

James Tao, Anderson Wang, David Yang, Alex Zhu

Proofreaders and Test Solvers

Evan Chen, Calvin Deng, Mitchell Lee, James Tao, Anderson Wang, David Yang, Alex Zhu

Website Manager

Ray Li

L

A

T

E

X/Document Manager

Evan Chen

Contest Information

Format

The test will start Friday, January 4 and end Monday, January 14. You will have until 7pm EST on January

14 to submit your answers. The test consists of 50 short answer questions, each of which has a nonnegative

integer answer. The problem diculties range from those of AMC problems to those of Olympiad problems.

Problems are ordered in roughly increasing order of diculty.

Team Guidelines

Students may compete in teams of up to four people. Participating students must not have graduated from

high school. International students may participate. No student can be a part of more than one team. The

members of each team do not get individual accounts; they will all share the team account.

Each team will submit its nal answers through its team account. Though teams can save drafts for their

answers, the current interface does not allow for much exibility in communication between team members.

We recommend using Google Docs and Spreadsheets to discuss problems and compare answers, especially if

teammates cannot communicate in person. Teams may spend as much time as they like on the test before

the deadline.

Aids

Drawing aids such as graph paper, ruler, and compass are permitted. However, electronic drawing aids are

not allowed. This is includes (but is not limited to) Geogebra and graphing calculators. Published print

and electronic resources are not permitted. (This is a change from last years rules.)

Four-function calculators are permitted on the Online Math Open. That is, calculators which perform only

the four basic arithmetic operations (+-*/) may be used. Any other computational aids such as scientic

and graphing calculators, computer programs and applications such as Mathematica, and online databases

are prohibited. All problems on the Online Math Open are solvable without a calculator. Four-function

calculators are permitted only to help participants reduce computation errors.

Clarications

Clarications will be posted as they are answered. For the Fall 2012-2013 Contest, they will be posted at here.

If you have a question about a problem, please email OnlineMathOpenTeam@gmail.com with Clarication

in the subject. We have the right to deny clarication requests that we feel we cannot answer.

Scoring

Each problem will be worth one point. Ties will be broken based on the hardest problem that a team

answered correctly. Remaining ties will be broken by the second hardest problem solved, and so on. Problem

X is dened to be harder than Problem Y if and only if

(i) X was solved by less teams than Y , OR

(ii) X and Y were solved by the same number of teams and X appeared later in the test than Y .

Note: This is a change from prior tiebreaking systems. However, we will still order the

problems by approximate diculty.

Results

After the contest is over, we will release the answers to the problems within the next day. If you have a

protest about an answer, you may send an email to OnlineMathOpenTeam@gmail.com (Include Protest

in the subject). Solutions and results will be released in the following weeks.

January 2012 Winter OMO 2012-2013 Page 1

1. Let x be the answer to this problem. For what real number a is the answer to this problem also ax?

2. The number 123454321 is written on a blackboard. Evan walks by and erases some (but not all) of the

digits, and notices that the resulting number (when spaces are removed) is divisible by 9. What is the

fewest number of digits he could have erased?

3. Three lines m, n, and lie in a plane such that no two are parallel. Lines m and n meet at an acute

angle of 14

acute angles formed by lines n and .

4. For how many ordered pairs of positive integers (a, b) with a, b < 1000 is it true that a times b is equal

to b

2

divided by a? For example, 3 times 9 is equal to 9

2

divided by 3.

Figure 1: xkcd 759

5. At the Mountain School, Micchell is assigned a submissiveness rating of 3.0 or 4.0 for each class he

takes. His college potential is then dened as the average of his submissiveness ratings over all classes

taken. After taking 40 classes, Micchell has a college potential of 3.975. Unfortunately, he needs a

college potential of at least 3.995 to get into the South Harmon Institute of Technology. Otherwise, he

becomes a rock. Assuming he receives a submissiveness rating of 4.0 in every class he takes from now

on, how many more classes does he need to take in order to get into the South Harmon Institute of

Technology?

6. Circle S

1

has radius 5. Circle S

2

has radius 7 and has its center lying on S

1

. Circle S

3

has an integer

radius and has its center lying on S

2

. If the center of S

1

lies on S

3

, how many possible values are there

for the radius of S

3

?

7. Jacobs analog clock has 12 equally spaced tick marks on the perimeter, but all the digits have been

erased, so he doesnt know which tick mark corresponds to which hour. Jacob takes an arbitrary tick

mark and measures clockwise to the hour hand and minute hand. He measures that the minute hand

is 300 degrees clockwise of the tick mark, and that the hour hand is 70 degrees clockwise of the same

tick mark. If it is currently morning, how many minutes past midnight is it?

8. How many ways are there to choose (not necessarily distinct) integers a, b, c from the set 1, 2, 3, 4

such that a

(b

c

)

is divisible by 4?

9. David has a collection of 40 rocks, 30 stones, 20 minerals and 10 gemstones. An operation consists of

removing three objects, no two of the same type. What is the maximum number of operations he can

possibly perform?

10. At certain store, a package of 3 apples and 12 oranges costs 5 dollars, and a package of 20 apples and

5 oranges costs 13 dollars. Given that apples and oranges can only be bought in these two packages,

what is the minimum nonzero amount of dollars that must be spent to have an equal number of apples

and oranges?

11. Let A, B, and C be distinct points on a line with AB = AC = 1. Square ABDE and equilateral

triangle ACF are drawn on the same side of line BC. What is the degree measure of the acute angle

formed by lines EC and BF?

January 2012 Winter OMO 2012-2013 Page 2

12. There are 25 ants on a number line; ve at each of the coordinates 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Each minute,

one ant moves from its current position to a position one unit away. What is the minimum number of

minutes that must pass before it is possible for no two ants to be on the same coordinate?

13. There are three ies of negligible size that start at the same position on a circular track with circum-

ference 1000 meters. They y clockwise at speeds of 2, 6, and k meters per second, respectively, where

k is some positive integer with 7 k 2013. Suppose that at some point in time, all three ies meet

at a location dierent from their starting point. How many possible values of k are there?

14. What is the smallest perfect square larger than 1 with a perfect square number of positive integer

factors?

15. A permutation a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

13

of the numbers from 1 to 13 is given such that a

i

> 5 for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.

Determine the maximum possible value of

a

a1

+a

a2

+a

a3

+a

a4

+a

a5

.

16. Let S

1

and S

2

be two circles intersecting at A and B. Let C and D be points on S

1

and S

2

respectively

such that CD is tangent to both circles and A is closer to line CD than B. If BCA = 52

and

BDA = 32

17. Determine the number of ordered pairs of positive integers (x, y) with y < x 100 such that x

2

y

2

and x

3

y

3

are relatively prime. (Two numbers are relatively prime if they have no common factor

other than 1.)

18. Determine the absolute value of the sum

2013 sin 0

| +2013 sin 1

|,

where x| denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x.

(You may use the fact that sin n

19. A, B, C are points in the plane such that ABC = 90

D. If BA = 20 and BC = 21, then the length of BD can be expressed in the form

m

n

where m and n

are relatively prime positive integers. What is m+n?

20. Let a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

2013

be a permutation of the numbers from 1 to 2013. Let A

n

=

a1+a2++an

n

for

n = 1, 2, . . . , 2013. If the smallest possible dierence between the largest and smallest values of

A

1

, A

2

, . . . , A

2013

is

m

n

, where m and n are relatively prime positive integers, nd m+n.

21. Dirock has a very neat rectangular backyard that can be represented as a 32 32 grid of unit squares.

The rows and columns are each numbered 1, 2, . . . , 32. Dirock is very fond of rocks, and places a rock

in every grid square whose row and column number are both divisible by 3. Dirock would like to build

a rectangular fence with vertices at the centers of grid squares and sides parallel to the sides of the

yard such that

a) The fence does not pass through any grid squares containing rocks;

b) The interior of the fence contains exactly 5 rocks.

In how many ways can this be done?

22. In triangle ABC, AB = 28, AC = 36, and BC = 32. Let D be the point on segment BC satisfying

BAD = DAC, and let E be the unique point such that DE | AB and AE is tangent to the

circumcircle of ABC. Find the length of AE.

January 2012 Winter OMO 2012-2013 Page 3

23. A set of 10 distinct integers is chosen. Let M be the number of nonempty subsets of S whose elements

have an even sum. What is the minimum possible value of M?

24. For a permutation of the integers from 1 to 10, dene

S() =

9

i=1

((i) (i + 1)) (4 +(i) +(i + 1)),

where (i) denotes the ith element of the permutation. Suppose that M is the maximum possible value

of S() over all permutations of the integers from 1 to 10. Determine the number of permutations

for which S() = M.

25. Positive integers x, y, z 100 satisfy

1099x + 901y + 1110z = 59800

109x + 991y + 101z = 44556

Compute 10000x + 100y +z.

26. In triangle ABC, F is on segment AB such that CF bisects ACB. Points D and E are on CF such

that lines AD, BE are perpendicular to CF. M is the midpoint of AB. If ME = 13, AD = 15, and

BE = 25, nd AC +CB.

27. Geodude wants to assign one of the integers 1, 2, 3, . . . , 11 to each lattice point (x, y, z) in a 3D Cartesian

coordinate system. In how many ways can Geodude do this if for every lattice parallelogram ABCD,

the positive dierence between the sum of the numbers assigned to A and C and the sum of the

numbers assigned to B and D must be a multiple of 11? (A lattice point is a point with all integer

coordinates. A lattice parallelogram is a parallelogram with all four vertices lying on lattice points.)

28. Let S be the set of all lattice points (x, y) in the plane satisfying [x[ + [y[ 10. Let P

1

, P

2

, . . . , P

2013

be a sequence of 2013 (not necessarily distinct) points such that for every point Q in S, there exists

at least one index i such that 1 i k and P

i

= Q. Suppose that the minimum possible value of

[P

1

P

2

[ + [P

2

P

3

[ + + [P

2012

P

2013

[ can be expressed in the form a + b

integers and c is not divisible by the square of any prime. Find a + b + c. (A lattice point is a point

with all integer coordinates.)

29. Let (n) denote the number of positive integers less than or equal to n that are relatively prime to n,

and let d(n) denotes the number of positive integer divisors of n. For example, (6) = 2 and d(6) = 4.

Find the sum of all odd integers n 5000 such that n [ (n)d(n).

30. Pairwise distinct points P

1

, P

2

, . . . , P

16

lie on the perimeter of a square with side length 4 centered at

O such that [P

i

P

i+1

[ = 1 for i = 1, 2, . . . , 16. (We take P

17

to be the point P

1

.) We construct points

Q

1

, Q

2

, . . . , Q

16

as follows: for each i, a fair coin is ipped. If it lands heads, we dene Q

i

to be P

i

;

otherwise, we dene Q

i

to be the reection of P

i

over O. (So, it is possible for some of the Q

i

to

coincide.) Let D be the length of the vector

OQ

1

+

OQ

2

+ +

OQ

16

. Compute the expected value

of D

2

.

31. Beyond the Point of No Return is a large lake containing 2013 islands arranged at the vertices of a

regular 2013-gon. Adjacent islands are joined with exactly two bridges. Christine starts on one of the

islands with the intention of burning all the bridges. Each minute, if the island she is on has at least

one bridge still joined to it, she randomly selects one such bridge, crosses it, and immediately burns it.

Otherwise, she stops.

If the probability Christine burns all the bridges before she stops can be written as

m

n

for relatively

prime positive integers m and n, nd the remainder when m+n is divided by 1000.

January 2012 Winter OMO 2012-2013 Page 4

32. In ABC with incenter I, AB = 61, AC = 51, and BC = 71. The circumcircles of triangles AIB

and AIC meet line BC at points D (D ,= B) and E (E ,= C), respectively. Determine the length of

segment DE.

33. Let n be a positive integer. E. Chen and E. Chen play a game on the n

2

points of an n n lattice

grid. They alternately mark points on the grid such that no player marks a point that is on or inside

a non-degenerate triangle formed by three marked points. Each point can be marked only once. The

game ends when no player can make a move, and the last player to make a move wins. Determine the

number of values of n between 1 and 2013 (inclusive) for which the rst player can guarantee a win,

regardless of the moves that the second player makes.

34. For positive integers n, let s(n) denote the sum of the squares of the positive integers less than or equal

to n that are relatively prime to n. Find the greatest integer less than or equal to

n|2013

s(n)

n

2

,

where the summation runs over all positive integers n dividing 2013.

35. The rows and columns of a 7 7 grid are each numbered 1, 2, . . . , 7. In how many ways can one choose

8 cells of this grid such that for every two chosen cells X and Y , either the positive dierence of their

row numbers is at least 3, or the positive dierence of their column numbers is at least 3?

36. Let ABCD be a nondegenerate isosceles trapezoid with integer side lengths such that BC | AD and

AB = BC = CD. Given that the distance between the incenters of triangles ABD and ACD is 8!,

determine the number of possible values of the length of AD.

37. Let M be a positive integer. At a party with 120 people, 30 wear red hats, 40 wear blue hats, and

50 wear green hats. Before the party begins, M pairs of people are friends. (Friendship is mutual.)

Suppose also that no two friends wear the same colored hat to the party.

During the party, X and Y can become friends if and only if the following two conditions hold:

a) There exists a person Z such that X and Y are both friends with Z. (The friendship(s) between

Z, X and Z, Y could have been formed during the party.)

b) X and Y are not wearing the same colored hat.

Suppose the party lasts long enough so that all possible friendships are formed. Let M

1

be the largest

value of M such that regardless of which M pairs of people are friends before the party, there will

always be at least one pair of people X and Y with dierent colored hats who are not friends after the

party. Let M

2

be the largest value of M such that regardless of which M pairs of people are friends

before the party, every pair of people X and Y with dierent colored hats are friends after the party.

Find M

1

+M

2

.

38. Triangle ABC has sides AB = 25, BC = 30, and CA = 20. Let P, Q be the points on segments

AB, AC, respectively, such that AP = 5 and AQ = 4. Suppose lines BQ and CP intersect at R and

the circumcircles of BPR and CQR intersect at a second point S ,= R. If SA can be expressed

in the form

m

n

for positive integers m, n, where n is not divisible by the square of any prime, nd

m+n.

39. Find the number of 8-digit base-6 positive integers (a

1

a

2

a

3

a

4

a

5

a

6

a

7

a

8

)

6

(with leading zeros permitted)

such that (a

1

a

2

. . . a

8

)

6

[ (a

i+1

a

i+2

. . . a

i+8

)

6

for i = 1, 2, . . . , 7, where indices are taken modulo 8 (so

a

9

= a

1

, a

10

= a

2

, and so on).

January 2012 Winter OMO 2012-2013 Page 5

40. Let ABC be a triangle with AB = 13, BC = 14, and AC = 15. Let M be the midpoint of BC and

let be the circle passing through A and tangent to BC at M. Let intersect AB and AC at D and

E, respectively, and let N be the midpoint of DE. Suppose line MN intersects lines AB and AC at

P and O, respectively. If the ratio MN : NO : OP can be written in the form a : b : c with a, b, c

positive integers satisfying gcd(a, b, c) = 1, nd a +b +c.

41. While there do not exist pairwise distinct real numbers a, b, c satisfying a

2

+b

2

+c

2

= ab+bc+ca, there

do exist complex numbers with that property. Let a, b, c be complex numbers such that a

2

+b

2

+c

2

=

ab+bc+ca and [a+b+c[ = 7. Suppose that [ab[ = 2

3, [a[ = 3

3, and [b[

2

+[c[

2

=

m

n

for relatively

prime positive integers m and n. Find m+n.

42. Find the remainder when

100

i=0

(1 i

2

+i

4

)

is divided by 101.

43. In a tennis tournament, each competitor plays against every other competitor, and there are no draws.

Call a group of four tennis players ordered if there is a clear winner and a clear loser (i.e., one person

who beat the other three, and one person who lost to the other three.) Find the smallest integer n for

which any tennis tournament with n people has a group of four tennis players that is ordered.

44. Suppose tetrahedron PABC has volume 420 and satises AB = 13, BC = 14, and CA = 15. The

minimum possible surface area of PABC can be written as m+n

and k is not divisible by the square of any prime. Compute m+n +k.

45. Let N denote the number of ordered 2011-tuples of positive integers (a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

2011

) with 1

a

1

, a

2

, . . . , a

2011

2011

2

such that there exists a polynomial f of degree 4019 satisfying the following

three properties:

f(n) is an integer for every integer n;

2011

2

[ f(i) a

i

for i = 1, 2, . . . , 2011;

2011

2

[ f(n + 2011) f(n) for every integer n.

Find the remainder when N is divided by 1000.

46. Let ABC be a triangle with B C = 30

the circumcenter of triangle ABC, and X, Y the intersections of the altitude from A with the incircle

with X in between A and Y . Suppose A, O and D are collinear. If the ratio

AO

AX

can be expressed in

the form

a+b

c

d

for positive integers a, b, c, d with gcd(a, b, d) = 1 and c not divisible by the square of

any prime, nd a +b +c +d.

47. Let f(x, y) be a function from ordered pairs of positive integers to real numbers such that

f(1, x) = f(x, 1) =

1

x

and f(x + 1, y + 1)f(x, y) f(x, y + 1)f(x + 1, y) = 1

for all ordered pairs of positive integers (x, y). If f(100, 100) =

m

n

for two relatively prime positive

integers m, n, compute m+n.

48. is a complex number such that

2013

= 1 and

m

,= 1 for m = 1, 2, . . . , 2012. Find the number of

ordered pairs of integers (a, b) with 1 a, b 2013 such that

(1 + + +

a

)(1 + + +

b

)

3

is the root of some polynomial with integer coecients and leading coecient 1. (Such complex

numbers are called algebraic integers.)

January 2012 Winter OMO 2012-2013 Page 6

49. In ABC, CA = 1960

2, CB = 6720, and C = 45

AK BC, BL CA, and AM = BM. Let N, O, P lie on KL, BA, and BL such that AN = KN,

BO = CO, and A lies on NP. If H is the orthocenter of MOP, compute HK

2

.

50. Let S denote the set of words W = w

1

w

2

. . . w

n

of any length n 0 (including the empty string

), with each letter w

i

from the set x, y, z. Call two words U, V similar if we can insert a string

s xyz, yzx, zxy of three consecutive letters somewhere in U (possibly at one of the ends) to obtain

V or somewhere in V (again, possibly at one of the ends) to obtain U, and say a word W is trivial

if for some nonnegative integer m, there exists a sequence W

0

, W

1

, . . . , W

m

such that W

0

= is the

empty string, W

m

= W, and W

i

, W

i+1

are similar for i = 0, 1, . . . , m1. Given that for two relatively

prime positive integers p, q we have

p

q

=

n0

f(n)

225

8192

n

,

where f(n) denotes the number of trivial words in S of length 3n (in particular, f(0) = 1), nd p+q.

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