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The Online Math Open Winter Contest

January 4, 2013January 14, 2013


Acknowledgments
Contest Directors
Ray Li, James Tao, Victor Wang
Head Problem Writers
Evan Chen, Ray Li, Victor Wang
Additional Problem Contributors
James Tao, Anderson Wang, David Yang, Alex Zhu
Proofreaders and Test Solvers
Evan Chen, Calvin Deng, Mitchell Lee, James Tao, Anderson Wang, David Yang, Alex Zhu
Website Manager
Ray Li
L
A
T
E
X/Document Manager
Evan Chen
Contest Information
Format
The test will start Friday, January 4 and end Monday, January 14. You will have until 7pm EST on January
14 to submit your answers. The test consists of 50 short answer questions, each of which has a nonnegative
integer answer. The problem diculties range from those of AMC problems to those of Olympiad problems.
Problems are ordered in roughly increasing order of diculty.
Team Guidelines
Students may compete in teams of up to four people. Participating students must not have graduated from
high school. International students may participate. No student can be a part of more than one team. The
members of each team do not get individual accounts; they will all share the team account.
Each team will submit its nal answers through its team account. Though teams can save drafts for their
answers, the current interface does not allow for much exibility in communication between team members.
We recommend using Google Docs and Spreadsheets to discuss problems and compare answers, especially if
teammates cannot communicate in person. Teams may spend as much time as they like on the test before
the deadline.
Aids
Drawing aids such as graph paper, ruler, and compass are permitted. However, electronic drawing aids are
not allowed. This is includes (but is not limited to) Geogebra and graphing calculators. Published print
and electronic resources are not permitted. (This is a change from last years rules.)
Four-function calculators are permitted on the Online Math Open. That is, calculators which perform only
the four basic arithmetic operations (+-*/) may be used. Any other computational aids such as scientic
and graphing calculators, computer programs and applications such as Mathematica, and online databases
are prohibited. All problems on the Online Math Open are solvable without a calculator. Four-function
calculators are permitted only to help participants reduce computation errors.
Clarications
Clarications will be posted as they are answered. For the Fall 2012-2013 Contest, they will be posted at here.
If you have a question about a problem, please email OnlineMathOpenTeam@gmail.com with Clarication
in the subject. We have the right to deny clarication requests that we feel we cannot answer.
Scoring
Each problem will be worth one point. Ties will be broken based on the hardest problem that a team
answered correctly. Remaining ties will be broken by the second hardest problem solved, and so on. Problem
X is dened to be harder than Problem Y if and only if
(i) X was solved by less teams than Y , OR
(ii) X and Y were solved by the same number of teams and X appeared later in the test than Y .
Note: This is a change from prior tiebreaking systems. However, we will still order the
problems by approximate diculty.
Results
After the contest is over, we will release the answers to the problems within the next day. If you have a
protest about an answer, you may send an email to OnlineMathOpenTeam@gmail.com (Include Protest
in the subject). Solutions and results will be released in the following weeks.
January 2012 Winter OMO 2012-2013 Page 1
1. Let x be the answer to this problem. For what real number a is the answer to this problem also ax?
2. The number 123454321 is written on a blackboard. Evan walks by and erases some (but not all) of the
digits, and notices that the resulting number (when spaces are removed) is divisible by 9. What is the
fewest number of digits he could have erased?
3. Three lines m, n, and lie in a plane such that no two are parallel. Lines m and n meet at an acute
angle of 14

, and lines m and meet at an acute angle of 20

. Find, in degrees, the sum of all possible


acute angles formed by lines n and .
4. For how many ordered pairs of positive integers (a, b) with a, b < 1000 is it true that a times b is equal
to b
2
divided by a? For example, 3 times 9 is equal to 9
2
divided by 3.
Figure 1: xkcd 759
5. At the Mountain School, Micchell is assigned a submissiveness rating of 3.0 or 4.0 for each class he
takes. His college potential is then dened as the average of his submissiveness ratings over all classes
taken. After taking 40 classes, Micchell has a college potential of 3.975. Unfortunately, he needs a
college potential of at least 3.995 to get into the South Harmon Institute of Technology. Otherwise, he
becomes a rock. Assuming he receives a submissiveness rating of 4.0 in every class he takes from now
on, how many more classes does he need to take in order to get into the South Harmon Institute of
Technology?
6. Circle S
1
has radius 5. Circle S
2
has radius 7 and has its center lying on S
1
. Circle S
3
has an integer
radius and has its center lying on S
2
. If the center of S
1
lies on S
3
, how many possible values are there
for the radius of S
3
?
7. Jacobs analog clock has 12 equally spaced tick marks on the perimeter, but all the digits have been
erased, so he doesnt know which tick mark corresponds to which hour. Jacob takes an arbitrary tick
mark and measures clockwise to the hour hand and minute hand. He measures that the minute hand
is 300 degrees clockwise of the tick mark, and that the hour hand is 70 degrees clockwise of the same
tick mark. If it is currently morning, how many minutes past midnight is it?
8. How many ways are there to choose (not necessarily distinct) integers a, b, c from the set 1, 2, 3, 4
such that a
(b
c
)
is divisible by 4?
9. David has a collection of 40 rocks, 30 stones, 20 minerals and 10 gemstones. An operation consists of
removing three objects, no two of the same type. What is the maximum number of operations he can
possibly perform?
10. At certain store, a package of 3 apples and 12 oranges costs 5 dollars, and a package of 20 apples and
5 oranges costs 13 dollars. Given that apples and oranges can only be bought in these two packages,
what is the minimum nonzero amount of dollars that must be spent to have an equal number of apples
and oranges?
11. Let A, B, and C be distinct points on a line with AB = AC = 1. Square ABDE and equilateral
triangle ACF are drawn on the same side of line BC. What is the degree measure of the acute angle
formed by lines EC and BF?
January 2012 Winter OMO 2012-2013 Page 2
12. There are 25 ants on a number line; ve at each of the coordinates 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5. Each minute,
one ant moves from its current position to a position one unit away. What is the minimum number of
minutes that must pass before it is possible for no two ants to be on the same coordinate?
13. There are three ies of negligible size that start at the same position on a circular track with circum-
ference 1000 meters. They y clockwise at speeds of 2, 6, and k meters per second, respectively, where
k is some positive integer with 7 k 2013. Suppose that at some point in time, all three ies meet
at a location dierent from their starting point. How many possible values of k are there?
14. What is the smallest perfect square larger than 1 with a perfect square number of positive integer
factors?
15. A permutation a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
13
of the numbers from 1 to 13 is given such that a
i
> 5 for i = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5.
Determine the maximum possible value of
a
a1
+a
a2
+a
a3
+a
a4
+a
a5
.
16. Let S
1
and S
2
be two circles intersecting at A and B. Let C and D be points on S
1
and S
2
respectively
such that CD is tangent to both circles and A is closer to line CD than B. If BCA = 52

and
BDA = 32

, determine the degree measure of CBD.


17. Determine the number of ordered pairs of positive integers (x, y) with y < x 100 such that x
2
y
2
and x
3
y
3
are relatively prime. (Two numbers are relatively prime if they have no common factor
other than 1.)
18. Determine the absolute value of the sum
2013 sin 0

| +2013 sin 1

| + +2013 sin 359

|,
where x| denotes the greatest integer less than or equal to x.
(You may use the fact that sin n

is irrational for positive integers n not divisible by 30.)


19. A, B, C are points in the plane such that ABC = 90

. Circles with diameters BA and BC meet at


D. If BA = 20 and BC = 21, then the length of BD can be expressed in the form
m
n
where m and n
are relatively prime positive integers. What is m+n?
20. Let a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
2013
be a permutation of the numbers from 1 to 2013. Let A
n
=
a1+a2++an
n
for
n = 1, 2, . . . , 2013. If the smallest possible dierence between the largest and smallest values of
A
1
, A
2
, . . . , A
2013
is
m
n
, where m and n are relatively prime positive integers, nd m+n.
21. Dirock has a very neat rectangular backyard that can be represented as a 32 32 grid of unit squares.
The rows and columns are each numbered 1, 2, . . . , 32. Dirock is very fond of rocks, and places a rock
in every grid square whose row and column number are both divisible by 3. Dirock would like to build
a rectangular fence with vertices at the centers of grid squares and sides parallel to the sides of the
yard such that
a) The fence does not pass through any grid squares containing rocks;
b) The interior of the fence contains exactly 5 rocks.
In how many ways can this be done?
22. In triangle ABC, AB = 28, AC = 36, and BC = 32. Let D be the point on segment BC satisfying
BAD = DAC, and let E be the unique point such that DE | AB and AE is tangent to the
circumcircle of ABC. Find the length of AE.
January 2012 Winter OMO 2012-2013 Page 3
23. A set of 10 distinct integers is chosen. Let M be the number of nonempty subsets of S whose elements
have an even sum. What is the minimum possible value of M?
24. For a permutation of the integers from 1 to 10, dene
S() =
9

i=1
((i) (i + 1)) (4 +(i) +(i + 1)),
where (i) denotes the ith element of the permutation. Suppose that M is the maximum possible value
of S() over all permutations of the integers from 1 to 10. Determine the number of permutations
for which S() = M.
25. Positive integers x, y, z 100 satisfy
1099x + 901y + 1110z = 59800
109x + 991y + 101z = 44556
Compute 10000x + 100y +z.
26. In triangle ABC, F is on segment AB such that CF bisects ACB. Points D and E are on CF such
that lines AD, BE are perpendicular to CF. M is the midpoint of AB. If ME = 13, AD = 15, and
BE = 25, nd AC +CB.
27. Geodude wants to assign one of the integers 1, 2, 3, . . . , 11 to each lattice point (x, y, z) in a 3D Cartesian
coordinate system. In how many ways can Geodude do this if for every lattice parallelogram ABCD,
the positive dierence between the sum of the numbers assigned to A and C and the sum of the
numbers assigned to B and D must be a multiple of 11? (A lattice point is a point with all integer
coordinates. A lattice parallelogram is a parallelogram with all four vertices lying on lattice points.)
28. Let S be the set of all lattice points (x, y) in the plane satisfying [x[ + [y[ 10. Let P
1
, P
2
, . . . , P
2013
be a sequence of 2013 (not necessarily distinct) points such that for every point Q in S, there exists
at least one index i such that 1 i k and P
i
= Q. Suppose that the minimum possible value of
[P
1
P
2
[ + [P
2
P
3
[ + + [P
2012
P
2013
[ can be expressed in the form a + b

c, where a, b, c are positive


integers and c is not divisible by the square of any prime. Find a + b + c. (A lattice point is a point
with all integer coordinates.)
29. Let (n) denote the number of positive integers less than or equal to n that are relatively prime to n,
and let d(n) denotes the number of positive integer divisors of n. For example, (6) = 2 and d(6) = 4.
Find the sum of all odd integers n 5000 such that n [ (n)d(n).
30. Pairwise distinct points P
1
, P
2
, . . . , P
16
lie on the perimeter of a square with side length 4 centered at
O such that [P
i
P
i+1
[ = 1 for i = 1, 2, . . . , 16. (We take P
17
to be the point P
1
.) We construct points
Q
1
, Q
2
, . . . , Q
16
as follows: for each i, a fair coin is ipped. If it lands heads, we dene Q
i
to be P
i
;
otherwise, we dene Q
i
to be the reection of P
i
over O. (So, it is possible for some of the Q
i
to
coincide.) Let D be the length of the vector

OQ
1
+

OQ
2
+ +

OQ
16
. Compute the expected value
of D
2
.
31. Beyond the Point of No Return is a large lake containing 2013 islands arranged at the vertices of a
regular 2013-gon. Adjacent islands are joined with exactly two bridges. Christine starts on one of the
islands with the intention of burning all the bridges. Each minute, if the island she is on has at least
one bridge still joined to it, she randomly selects one such bridge, crosses it, and immediately burns it.
Otherwise, she stops.
If the probability Christine burns all the bridges before she stops can be written as
m
n
for relatively
prime positive integers m and n, nd the remainder when m+n is divided by 1000.
January 2012 Winter OMO 2012-2013 Page 4
32. In ABC with incenter I, AB = 61, AC = 51, and BC = 71. The circumcircles of triangles AIB
and AIC meet line BC at points D (D ,= B) and E (E ,= C), respectively. Determine the length of
segment DE.
33. Let n be a positive integer. E. Chen and E. Chen play a game on the n
2
points of an n n lattice
grid. They alternately mark points on the grid such that no player marks a point that is on or inside
a non-degenerate triangle formed by three marked points. Each point can be marked only once. The
game ends when no player can make a move, and the last player to make a move wins. Determine the
number of values of n between 1 and 2013 (inclusive) for which the rst player can guarantee a win,
regardless of the moves that the second player makes.
34. For positive integers n, let s(n) denote the sum of the squares of the positive integers less than or equal
to n that are relatively prime to n. Find the greatest integer less than or equal to

n|2013
s(n)
n
2
,
where the summation runs over all positive integers n dividing 2013.
35. The rows and columns of a 7 7 grid are each numbered 1, 2, . . . , 7. In how many ways can one choose
8 cells of this grid such that for every two chosen cells X and Y , either the positive dierence of their
row numbers is at least 3, or the positive dierence of their column numbers is at least 3?
36. Let ABCD be a nondegenerate isosceles trapezoid with integer side lengths such that BC | AD and
AB = BC = CD. Given that the distance between the incenters of triangles ABD and ACD is 8!,
determine the number of possible values of the length of AD.
37. Let M be a positive integer. At a party with 120 people, 30 wear red hats, 40 wear blue hats, and
50 wear green hats. Before the party begins, M pairs of people are friends. (Friendship is mutual.)
Suppose also that no two friends wear the same colored hat to the party.
During the party, X and Y can become friends if and only if the following two conditions hold:
a) There exists a person Z such that X and Y are both friends with Z. (The friendship(s) between
Z, X and Z, Y could have been formed during the party.)
b) X and Y are not wearing the same colored hat.
Suppose the party lasts long enough so that all possible friendships are formed. Let M
1
be the largest
value of M such that regardless of which M pairs of people are friends before the party, there will
always be at least one pair of people X and Y with dierent colored hats who are not friends after the
party. Let M
2
be the largest value of M such that regardless of which M pairs of people are friends
before the party, every pair of people X and Y with dierent colored hats are friends after the party.
Find M
1
+M
2
.
38. Triangle ABC has sides AB = 25, BC = 30, and CA = 20. Let P, Q be the points on segments
AB, AC, respectively, such that AP = 5 and AQ = 4. Suppose lines BQ and CP intersect at R and
the circumcircles of BPR and CQR intersect at a second point S ,= R. If SA can be expressed
in the form
m

n
for positive integers m, n, where n is not divisible by the square of any prime, nd
m+n.
39. Find the number of 8-digit base-6 positive integers (a
1
a
2
a
3
a
4
a
5
a
6
a
7
a
8
)
6
(with leading zeros permitted)
such that (a
1
a
2
. . . a
8
)
6
[ (a
i+1
a
i+2
. . . a
i+8
)
6
for i = 1, 2, . . . , 7, where indices are taken modulo 8 (so
a
9
= a
1
, a
10
= a
2
, and so on).
January 2012 Winter OMO 2012-2013 Page 5
40. Let ABC be a triangle with AB = 13, BC = 14, and AC = 15. Let M be the midpoint of BC and
let be the circle passing through A and tangent to BC at M. Let intersect AB and AC at D and
E, respectively, and let N be the midpoint of DE. Suppose line MN intersects lines AB and AC at
P and O, respectively. If the ratio MN : NO : OP can be written in the form a : b : c with a, b, c
positive integers satisfying gcd(a, b, c) = 1, nd a +b +c.
41. While there do not exist pairwise distinct real numbers a, b, c satisfying a
2
+b
2
+c
2
= ab+bc+ca, there
do exist complex numbers with that property. Let a, b, c be complex numbers such that a
2
+b
2
+c
2
=
ab+bc+ca and [a+b+c[ = 7. Suppose that [ab[ = 2

3, [a[ = 3

3, and [b[
2
+[c[
2
=
m
n
for relatively
prime positive integers m and n. Find m+n.
42. Find the remainder when
100

i=0
(1 i
2
+i
4
)
is divided by 101.
43. In a tennis tournament, each competitor plays against every other competitor, and there are no draws.
Call a group of four tennis players ordered if there is a clear winner and a clear loser (i.e., one person
who beat the other three, and one person who lost to the other three.) Find the smallest integer n for
which any tennis tournament with n people has a group of four tennis players that is ordered.
44. Suppose tetrahedron PABC has volume 420 and satises AB = 13, BC = 14, and CA = 15. The
minimum possible surface area of PABC can be written as m+n

k, where m, n, k are positive integers


and k is not divisible by the square of any prime. Compute m+n +k.
45. Let N denote the number of ordered 2011-tuples of positive integers (a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
2011
) with 1
a
1
, a
2
, . . . , a
2011
2011
2
such that there exists a polynomial f of degree 4019 satisfying the following
three properties:
f(n) is an integer for every integer n;
2011
2
[ f(i) a
i
for i = 1, 2, . . . , 2011;
2011
2
[ f(n + 2011) f(n) for every integer n.
Find the remainder when N is divided by 1000.
46. Let ABC be a triangle with B C = 30

. Let D be the point where the A-excircle touches BC, O


the circumcenter of triangle ABC, and X, Y the intersections of the altitude from A with the incircle
with X in between A and Y . Suppose A, O and D are collinear. If the ratio
AO
AX
can be expressed in
the form
a+b

c
d
for positive integers a, b, c, d with gcd(a, b, d) = 1 and c not divisible by the square of
any prime, nd a +b +c +d.
47. Let f(x, y) be a function from ordered pairs of positive integers to real numbers such that
f(1, x) = f(x, 1) =
1
x
and f(x + 1, y + 1)f(x, y) f(x, y + 1)f(x + 1, y) = 1
for all ordered pairs of positive integers (x, y). If f(100, 100) =
m
n
for two relatively prime positive
integers m, n, compute m+n.
48. is a complex number such that
2013
= 1 and
m
,= 1 for m = 1, 2, . . . , 2012. Find the number of
ordered pairs of integers (a, b) with 1 a, b 2013 such that
(1 + + +
a
)(1 + + +
b
)
3
is the root of some polynomial with integer coecients and leading coecient 1. (Such complex
numbers are called algebraic integers.)
January 2012 Winter OMO 2012-2013 Page 6
49. In ABC, CA = 1960

2, CB = 6720, and C = 45

. Let K, L, M lie on BC, CA, and AB such that


AK BC, BL CA, and AM = BM. Let N, O, P lie on KL, BA, and BL such that AN = KN,
BO = CO, and A lies on NP. If H is the orthocenter of MOP, compute HK
2
.
50. Let S denote the set of words W = w
1
w
2
. . . w
n
of any length n 0 (including the empty string
), with each letter w
i
from the set x, y, z. Call two words U, V similar if we can insert a string
s xyz, yzx, zxy of three consecutive letters somewhere in U (possibly at one of the ends) to obtain
V or somewhere in V (again, possibly at one of the ends) to obtain U, and say a word W is trivial
if for some nonnegative integer m, there exists a sequence W
0
, W
1
, . . . , W
m
such that W
0
= is the
empty string, W
m
= W, and W
i
, W
i+1
are similar for i = 0, 1, . . . , m1. Given that for two relatively
prime positive integers p, q we have
p
q
=

n0
f(n)

225
8192

n
,
where f(n) denotes the number of trivial words in S of length 3n (in particular, f(0) = 1), nd p+q.