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Jeromy Shald

3/8/07 P-4

Mr. Hoovestol

Cultural Geog.

Geography Research Paper Essay

Penguins in Antarctica

The Emperor Penguin is the biggest penguin in the species. The Emperor

Penguin is the only one that breeds during the winter and can live up to 40 years

old but usually lives until around 20. The Emperor Penguin is closely related to

the Royal Penguin and the King Penguin but is much larger. The Emperor

Penguin has one of the harshest lives in the world because of their ability to

survive intense cold. The males and females each have their own distinct call and

are similar to the King and the Chinstrap Penguin. Emperor Penguins have a thick

layer of down to keep them warm in the extreme cold. The Huddles can have

thousands of Penguins all in the same huddle. The Penguins are very social and

look different from each other in different social groups. They do many things

such as feeding and searching for food together. They live near the ocean and can

dive up to 200 meters in the water. There are approximately 150,000—200,000

Emperor Penguins in the wild today. The temperature is 58 degrees below 0.

Antarctica used to be a dense forest. Penguins live on the driest windiest, coldest

planet on earth. The emperor penguin makes his home in the sea but leaves at the
same time each year to embark on a journey. He will walk with hundreds and

thousands of other penguins. It is march and is the mating season for them. There

breeding ground can be up to 70 miles away. Sometimes they will march for

weeks. Many of the Penguins die. They have been migrating for over thousands

of years. The penguins live in a dense Iceland covered with flat snow and small

jagged hills cut with ice. When the Penguins get tired of walking they will slide

on there bellies and a use them as a raft on the ice. After a while the whether gets

colder and starts to decrease. Soon the Penguins will find other groups going in

the same direction and merge up with them. The Penguins all head to the same

spot every year where they will breed. They penguins mate with one partner every

year. The male penguins will then try to find their mates. As winter starts the

penguins huddle up in groups to keep warm. Many of the days will have no night

at all and some will be dark all day long. Soon the Penguins give birth to the egg.

Some of the eggs die because of the one second exposure to the bellow zero

temperature. The mother and the father then practice giving the egg back and

forth to each other. The mother will then go find food while the father keeps the

egg warm underneath a patch of skin on his belly. He will do this deed with no

food for two months. The mother exhausted leaves to find food in the barren

wasteland. The father by time the mother returns will have had no food for more

than 125 days through temperatures of negative 80 degrees with winds that can

reach up to 100 miles per hour all for the Penguin chick. The penguin group will

move around so as to keep warm and to not freeze. The penguins will switch

places with other penguins in the group from the inside to the outside to keep
themselves warm. At the same time the mothers march 70 miles to where they

started to get food at the ocean. The female penguins will try to find an opening in

the ice so they can eat. When the Penguins find and opening they will eat their fill

of fish and krill. The males at the same time while watching their young will

slowly die. Some of the older Penguins will die because they can not take it. The

females return back to the mating grounds around July. It is dark for days on end

during this time. The chick will start to hatch and crack. The fathers have not

eaten in over 4 month and are starving. There chick is starving too but will die if

the females do not arrive in time. The male secretes a milk substance out of his

thought to feed the chicks for one day. The chicks and the male’s life depend on

when the females arrive. Finally the females arrive and are greeted by the males

and chicks. The females give off a unique sound so that they can find them and

the male will respond telling where there mate is in the thousands of penguins.

The males and the females exchange chicks and the fathers head off to find food

the same as the mothers did. The fathers will then walk 70 miles back to the sea

with less than half there body weight on them. The chicks will then be fed by their

mothers and will grow. The chicks will learn how to walk and will explore the

area. It is much warmer at this time of the year making it possible for them to not

freeze. Many of the mother’s chicks will die in the cold and she will sometimes

than try to steal another ones chick. The mother and child will bond for weeks.

The chicks have soft coats of fur that will eventually grow into blubber and fat.

The fathers and mothers constantly switch off between getting food and watching

the young. The young will grow stronger while the ice starts to melt. The
penguins will now return to the sea to swim. They will learn to swim and start a

new life. The penguins will then live in the sea for 4 years and then will return to

mate and start again.