There is a tradition in Tibetan folklore of beyul -- secret or hidden lands, usually described as valleys.
The tradition of the Himalayan Buddhist Elders -- the Nyingmapa -- says that Guru Rinpoche empowered 108 of these havens, places where there was peace and prosperity, and spiritual progress was facilitated. This article deals mainly with Pemako, Shambhala (or, Shambala) and Shangri-la. There are many more -- real, legendary, mythological, and imaginary.
Lotus-land or Pemako is somewhere on the border of East Tibet and Assam in northeast India. Terma or hidden teachings describing the way to Pemako were revealed by Rigdzin Jetsun Nyingpo (15851656) and also by Rigdzin Dudu1 Dorje (1615-1672.)
Pemako neyig revealed in 1959 to Khamtrul Jamyang Dondrup Rinpoche.
Nov. 23/04, SF Gate review of The Heart of the World: A Journey to the Last Secret Place by Ian Baker; introduction by the Dalai Lama: For nearly 2,000 years, the notion of an earthly paradise hidden among the peaks of Asia has captivated the human imagination. In the fourth or fifth century C.E., a Chinese poet named Tao Qian wrote of a peach blossom path that a fisherman follows to a secret tunnel. On the other side of the passage lies a lavish spiritual oasis, the first hint of James Hilton's "Shangri-La." Fifteen centuries after Tao Qian, British explorers combed the canyons of southern Tibet for just such a beyul, a "hidden land" of bliss and nectar that, as described in ancient Buddhist texts, lay in a sacred range called Pemako. Enlivening their search was a geographical oddity. Deep in that remote region of Tibet, the mighty Tsangpo River, which flows onto the Indian subcontinent as the Brahmaputra, churns around a great bend. The river then disappears from sight, lost in an inaccessible canyon flanked by sheer cliffs. This "Five Mile Gap" had never been explored and was believed to boast the highest waterfall in Asia -- the "Hidden Falls of the Brahmaputra." Behind those cascades, Tibetan texts claimed, lay the door to Yangsang, the ultimate hidden land of immortality, reachable only by those with purified hearts and minds. Ian Baker, a Kathmandu-based writer, explorer and Tantric scholar (and a close colleague and confidant during many of my own Himalayan adventures), first learned of beyuls in 1977, while
studying Buddhist scroll painting in Nepal. But Pemako. They quickly became an obsession. long-concealed texts that." With a degree of conviction almost unimaginable in this age of attention deficit disorder. if not in spirit -. subsisting on dried meats and grains. Each cliff. snakes and wild animals. "which recognizes parallel dimensions and multiple universes. assured Baker that it would take more than a good compass. The Dalai Lama. but lie beyond the range of our ordinary senses.
. according to Buddhist tradition. The two men (along with local porters and Mr. in one of several audiences. and in subsequent audiences with high Buddhist lamas. accompanied sometimes by the cerebral Storm and often by his rakish friend and fellow scholar-explorer Hamid Sardar. Gunn. solitary retreats in remote Himalayan caves." the Dalai Lama explained. He continued to live and study in Kathmandu. Guided by Chatral Rinpoche -. wrote of the "perpetual rain. Baker separated from Fisher's luckless group. learning the Tibetan language and poring over terma. cave and waterway is part of her body. His Holiness said. It is the earthly representation of a Tibetan goddess named Dorje Pagmo. hornets. Only after mastering their innermost depths. could Buddhist practitioners gain entrance to these hidden realms. Pemako itself was far from "the Promised Land of Tibetan prophecy" that British explorer Frank Kingdon Ward had sought in 1924. would make half a dozen expeditions through her anatomy. as their plaintive Chinese guide Geng Quanru called himself) spent weeks thrashing through the Pemako jungles. flies and leeches. Baker began his do-or-die search for Yangsang." none of which spared Baker and Storm. Baker made his first trip into the Tsangpo area in April 1993 as a member -. like weathered treasure maps. Beyuls do exist on earth. Along with a fellow expedition member named Ken Storm Jr. a botanist who loved Pemako. attempting to access the still-hidden corners of the Tsangpo. True to the warnings of sages and explorers.Baker began a series of long. "It's a bit like quantum physics.a Gandalf-like lama who had gained some knowledge of Pemako's secrets -. Baker.of Rick Fisher's expedition to raft the merciless waters of the gorge. swamps and leeches. Between 1993 and 1998.. provide clues to the whereabouts of the hidden lands. Even Kingdon Ward. is more than its rocks. Baker was assured.in body. giant stinging nettles and myriads of biting and blood-sucking ticks. he refined his understanding of how one might reach them.
Baker seeks that key -. (Local hunters. literal key -. "We [were] journeying without real permission. With dry good humor. . Porters abandoned them. Baker's twin goals would have humbled Indiana Jones: to locate the legendary waterfall and win entrance into the mythical realm we know as Shangri-La. 8.) But what of Yangsang? What of Shangri-La? One of the book's many delights -." True believers. What we would find there was even more uncertain. had known how to reach the falls all along. Baker. as far as governments and maps were concerned. at times. Chinese bureaucrats attempted to thwart their plans. the micro-organisms veiled from sight. Tibetans. Sardar wakes up screaming. and all its hidden depths were concealed only by my limited awareness and the mechanisms of mind itself. with a tiger leech affixed to the roof of his mouth). the rain. Baker reminds us." Baker concedes. with his command of the local language and respect for Buddhist ritual. more the obsession of a Captain Ahab than an enlightened seeker. The Hidden Falls of Dorje Pagmo.and "The Heart of the World" is among the most complex.on the lichen.is to follow Baker's inner journey as he tries to balance his Buddhist aspirations with an admittedly materialistic desire to find the key into Yangsang. It's now a matter of record that he succeeded at one of these quests. "to a place that did not exist. were "discovered" by his National Geographicsponsored team on Nov. Baker acknowledges his half-mad desire to persevere. Storm and Sardar never abandoned their respect for the goddess whose body they had entered. "and where I could not go I could only yield and be entered . Torrential rains. not surprisingly. At one point." Baker writes at one point. driven equally by brilliance and hubris. clouds of tiny gnats and voracious leeches drove them to despair (at one point. As a character in his own narration. as Baker renamed them. a desire that seems. All Pemako seemed to coalesce into the square foot of rock directly before me. all entered through the pulsations and cuts in my scratched and torn hands. to win their trust.A chronicle of their hardships would fill this entire section. the vegetal growth. . The waterfall they sought could easily be a mere chimera.an actual. 1998. It took Baker. view waterfalls as an interface between the physical
. compelling and satisfying adventure books I have ever read -.covered face of a sacred cliff: "The mist. ." He faces similar frustrations in the gorge itself. Baker quickly emerges as a sort of modern avatar of Sir Richard Francis Burton.
which the mind reflects as an implacable mirror. It's a forgivable excess. is one of the most extraordinary tales of adventure and discovery ever told. Baker's narration becomes a bit esoteric.the worlds of body and spirit. From harrowing encounters with tribal poisoning cults to a descent into the roaring "throat" of a Buddhist goddess. A century from now. pure joy and an inevitable sense of anticlimax -. and -. we find our own inner doors opening along the journey.95
Shambhala or Shambala
.an exploration into the heart of Tibetan Buddhism. it's the search for a hidden waterfall that eluded explorers for more than a century. And "some doors cannot be opened. is the ultimate goal of all seekers." though not easy to absorb.lest we have any doubt about the ethereal nature and symbolic meaning of waterfalls -. By the book's end. The conflicting emotions sparked by their historic discovery -. This world is a display of interlaced phenomenon. To grasp this realization. Baker concedes. Baker has written one for the ages. which views the animistic spirits of sacred geography as metaphors for the nature of mind. "The Heart of the World. exhilaration and exhaustion.and ethereal universes -. and no separations. and each is dependent on the other. Penguin Press. On the prosaic level. A fearless adventurer in both body and spirit. But it is also -. Both journeys are fascinating. "until they open in us first.perhaps primarily -. Ian Baker's The Heart of the World.can be reconciled only within the context of Tibetan Buddhism and its doctrine of nonduality. " he allows. There are no opposites. Baker and his companions have journeyed into the purgatorial Tsangpo Gorge half a dozen times. overcoming every obstacle to find their grail.he makes the above observation for innumerable perspectives. Like his fellow explorers. "The Heart of the World" will still ignite the imagination of anyone who loves to explore and seeks the deeper meaning of his explorations.pride and humility." On occasion. Baker's quest is an unforgettable saga. 511pps US $27.
nagas. he appeared as the deity called Kalchakra and transmitted a complete cosmological system. bodhisattvas. He also transmitted the teaching to all inhabitants of his
. ruler of the land of Shambala and requested Buddha Sakyamuni to teach concerning the nature of time. On his return to Shambala. Under the auspices of the 16th Karmapa and the sponsorship of his devoted followers. has an overview of this approach to Buddhism. The Hindu Puranas say that at the end of Kali Yuga. in this article the spelling without the "h" designates the place. or beyul. for it is said the Buddha prophesized that those who receive the Kalachakra empowerment would take rebirth in its mandala.
The name means Basis of Joy and may derive from a very ancient oral tradition. and yakshas along with human disciples. dakas and dakinis. in the Himalayas. enlightened and accomplished beings preserve ancient knowledge and guide the progress of humankind. the king constructed a three-dimensional model of the mandala of Kalachakra. the Kalki avatar (horse-headed form of Vishnu) will be born in the best of the brahmin families of Shambala in order to annihilate the evil-doers of earth. He promotes it in the cause of World Peace. and absorbed himself in that practice. gods. Shambhala Centre of Nelson. Here.
See Shambhala: The Way of the Sacred Warrior. The Tantra relates how the bodhisattva Vajrapani manifested as Suchandra. There. British Columbia. England. until the initiations given with some regularity by HH the 14th Dalai Lama. Shambala is described as hidden in the interior of the planet.Shambhala was the name chosen by Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche for his institution. Shambo is one of Shiva's epithets. The Kalachakra Tantra (Wheel of Time Tradition) belongs to the highest class of Buddhist tantras and. to avoid confusion. Since Shambala is actually the name of a fabulous land. Details of the realm of Shambala are described in the Kalchakra legend in which a Hidden Kingdom somewhere in the Himalayas exists ruled by a king in concert with a wisdom-holder. before an assembly of innumerable buddhas. On the fullmoon day of the third month.) The Buddhist teachings that he considered to be suitable for Western students incorporate the Tibetan Karma Kagyu tradition along with other elements. at the stupa of Dhanyakataka in South India. he was the first Tibetan lama to receive a Western university education (at Oxford. it was relatively unknown in the West.
~ King Pundarika'sVimalaprabha (Flawless Light) commentary on the Kalachakra Tantra. it is said. the book was translated into Tibetan and that year. was known as Rab-byung (pron.
The technology of Shambala is highly advanced. twelve yojanas across (just like the town.
In the Bon tradition. the teachings were preserved but remained hidden from the rest of the world until 1. four hundred hastas across. In the center of it is Kalapa. corresponding to Shambhala is a heavenly abode called Olmo Lungrung with a form based on the square instead of the circle. HH 14th Dalai Lama responds to A. the capital of the kingdom of Agharta. For hundreds
. In the midst of the Park is the great Kalachakra Mandala built by King Suchandra that has the gods and goddesses made out of the five jewels. It is square. In 1026/27. eight-petaled lotus where each region is enclosed by a boundary of mountains. Since then. The Kalachakra Tantra did not make its way to Tibet until the 10th century when. The windows of the palace function as powerful lenses that serve as telescopes high-powered enough for studying life on other worlds. while visiting Shambala with some merchants listened to the Kalachakra teachings. Red Hare year.) To its east is Lesser Manasa Lake. It is in the form of an eight-ringed. pron. De-jung. coral.kingdom. also twelve yojanas across. The city is surrounded by shimmering crystalline mountains.000 years had passed. Berzin's questions on the nature of Shambala
Shambala is said to be somewhere north of Kashmir. including a system of astrology that is used to guide decisions. South of Kalapa is Sandalwood Park. and the king's palace is composed of gold.) It is considered the start of the Tibetan sexagenary system where we are currently in the 17th cycle. Indian pandita Chilupa. He wrote them down from memory upon his return. of the same extent. and to the west is White Lotus Lake. diamonds and other precious gems. rabjung.) as given in the tantra. bde byung. There. along with the corresponding cosmological view which informs all branches of knowledge. Tibetans have been familiar with the description of Shambala (Tib.
the mists will lift to reveal the icy mountains of Shambala. Tibetans back at the encampment showed no surprise at the major's account. The belief in the existence of Shambala has been reinforced by reports of unusual occurrences in the Himalayan region where it is thought to be. It looked as if he had been endowed with the elasticity of a ball. As those reigns are accomplished. but simply explained that he had seen one of the guards of the sacred land. and also predictions for the future. or because they have been destroyed in the attempt. lightly clad man with long hair who. swift long-distance travel on foot. and rebounded each time his feet touched the ground. In the early 1900s The Statesman carried a report by a British army officer of a very tall. and also the ability to materialize and disappear at will. when he noticed the major. reported seeing a man moving with extraordinary speed: "I could clearly see his perfectly calm impassive face and wide-open eyes with their gaze fixed on some invisible distant object situated somewhere high up in space. and the accompanying ideology of materialism will spread over the whole earth." Shambala supposedly can be perceived only by those sufficiently pure both in mind and karmic resolution. There are texts listing the Shambala rulers along with corresponding events in the outside world. The decline of Buddhism in Tibet. It is also held that the reason we do not hear from anyone who has successfully found it is either because they do not want to return.
. the rise of materialism everywhere. proceeding by leaps. He seemed to lift himself from the ground.
The prophecy of Shambala states that there will be 32 kings who will each reign for 100 years. and events of the tumultuous 20th century can be discerned in those predictions. conditions outside the Kingdom will deteriorate. The man did not run. This advancement is not limited to the mere material. for the inhabitants have been able to develop powers of clairvoyance. Alexandra David-Neel. leaped down a vertical slope and disappeared. Men become more warlike in their pursuit of power for its own sake. the inhabitants have been using aircraft and subways. When the materialists are united under a single evil king and think there is nothing left to conquer. His steps had the regularity of a pendulum.of years. the French adventurer who spent 14 years in Tibet.
. Rudrachakrin (Iron Wheel Master) or. the evil king and his followers will be destroyed. The secrets of Shambala are well guarded. a Himalayan explorer. . the last ruler of Shambala will "re-establish righteousness upon the earth. [syce: groom." He later added. As it is said. Tishya.Barbarians will attack Shambala with a huge army equipped with terrible weapons. and the minds of those who live at the end of the age of strife shall be awakened. In a last great battle. he may have been a spy for the Soviets. 1928: "I remembered how during our crossing of the Karkaroum Pass. He was also an ethnographer. according to another tradition.' "
Tangkas of some of the Shambala kings
Nicholas Roerich (1874-1947) was the set-designer for Diaghilev's Ballets Russes. How and why do you people take interest in it? Only in some places. . and shall be as pellucid as crystal. Our caravan people called our attention to this . . He promoted the notion that he was an incarnation of the Fifth Dalai Lama. Kalki. and Jupiter aligns with Mars . . and that in them lives a wonderful tribe which abhors the sins of the Earth?' And again when we approached Khotan the hooves of our horses sounded hollow as though we rode above caves or hollows. my sais." with the lyrics [by Rado and Ragni]. the age of Truth will return. "When the moon is in the seventh house. and the planet Jupiter are in one mansion. can you discern the resplendent rays of Shambala [the aurora borealis ?]. asked me. . . Then the 32nd king of Shambala. now they have gone inside. ca. they have found a subterranean passage to that subterranean kingdom. "Great Shambala is far beyond the ocean. The 1969 musical Hair includes a song. He wrote."
. 'When the sun and the moon." This seems a reference to Hindu prophecy: According to the Vishnu Purana. . master of horse] the Ladaki. Probably you ask out of curiosity. . "Age of Aquarius. in the far North. . and besides being a disciple of Helena Blavatsky." ’ He also reported that a lama had said "You Westerners know nothing about Shambala -. will lead his mighty forces with their supra-mundane weapons against the invaders. .you wish to know nothing. . founder of Theosophy. because of seven moles on his neck. "Long ago people lived there. 'Do you know why there is such a peculiar upland up here? Do you know that in the subterranean caves here many treasures are hidden. and you pronounce this sacred word in vain.
to meet the seven stars and under the sign of the three stars'). . Three Dog Night had a hit song with BW Stevenson's On the Road to Shambala: "How does your light shine in the halls of Shambala?" Shambala is also the name of a West African language. It appears that all heights are already marked and all valleys and rivers explored. uncalled. made him politically significant ." Roerich's belief in the existence of Shambala " .Roerich said that he had been told that some high lamas had visited Shamballah. .
Dzogchen master. FDR's Secretary of Agriculture and later Vice-President ('I have thought of the New Country going forth. 2001 review in The Observer of Meyer and Brysac's Tournament of Shadows: The Great Game and the Race for Empire in Asia. 7.
Hidden Lands of India
In India. . . secret passageway. Only a few of them reach the holy place and only if their karma is ready. ________________________________________________________________
In 1973. He says that the kingdom of Agharta could be reached from India by flying northwards for seven days. claimed healing powers for his paintings. . References are found in Valmiki's Ramayana and also in The
. Perhaps you have even seen people dying from these gases when they come near them. the secret land is known as Gyanganj or as Siddhashram. where he propagated the idea of Shambala. has revealed numerous teachings and prophesies concerning Shambala. How does it happen that Shambala on Earth is still undiscovered by travelers? On maps you may see so many routes of expeditions. So please don't tell me of only the heavenly Shamballah because I know that a real one exists on Earth . . let a man try to reach Shambala without a call! You have heard about the poisonous streams which encircle the uplands. Some of them disappear forever. Roerich brought the bewilderments of the later Great Game to America. diddled the taxman and corresponded in mystic codes with Henry Wallace. . Many people try to reach Shambala. . .
~ Jan.so. . . . HH Orgyen Kusum Lingpa (Treasure-revealer of the Three Kayas. "I've heard of the Buryat Lama and how he was taken through a narrow. . because incarnated from the legendary kings of Shambala were supposed to be the Panchen Lamas crucial to the international rivalries swirling around Lhasa. people have not found all things –." Lama: "But as yet . Tibet.) titular abbot of Thubten Chokhor Ling Monastery in Golok.
or a place out of Arthurian legend.com)
This place is in Arunachal Pradesh (north eastern India. "Spirit Worlds. Yogananda also knew Vishudhananda. Guru Nanak (17th century). Here it is believed that all species of animal live in perfect harmony. That guru was connected with Gyanganj. the Bengali guru. He described him as still alive in the Badrinath region of the Himalayas. and also claims that he saw him revive a dead bird. Swami Vishudhananda. (mid-20th century) Paramahansa Yogananda wrote about meeting the guru of his guru's guru (his great-grandguru) named Mahavatar Babaji. Gyanganj is generally described as a plateau in Tibet lying north of Kailash.
. in A Search for Secret India also reported that same siddhi of Vishudhananda's. His own teacher.) the principal of the Government College of Sanskrit in Benares. The pool is one of those that the birds seem to maintain by picking out any dead leaves or other things that might sully the water. and it can only by raised by one who knows how to do Surya Vigyan. The crystal spring spills down the rocks and collects in and around a small hill. Also known as Akash Ganga. and despite his great age he retained the appearance of a young man. where he witnessed his ability to manifest various perfumes on demand." LifePositive. who established Sikkism. from Rohing. Gyanganj.Mahabharata. (Parveen Chopra. A bow-shaped drawbridge links it to our world. Paul Brunton. Like Plato's Atlantis. In Autobiography of a Yogi. referred to Sach Khand.) The practice of that knowledge enabled him to manifest various objects and to transform one thing into another by manipulating the sun's rays.) 120 km. it is described as surrounded by a moat filled with crystalline water. its focus is the small hill where the holy river is viewed as emerging from the topknot of Lord Shiva. and described a meeting with him in Calcutta. who wrote Siddhabhoomi about those mysterious places. had told him of the time he spent in Gyanganj studying Surya Vigyan (solar science. as was the guru of Gopinath Kaviraj (died 1976.
Shangri-La is the name of the earthly paradise in the 1933 novel.'' Perhaps they mean. the paradise has been brought to Earth. James Hilton that is variously described as a spy story or a pacifist fantasy. free of corrupting influences from the outside world. In 1937. 2002's Bangkok Post.'' he said. American director Frank Capra made a film of Lost Horizon starring Ronald Coleman and Jane Wyatt." Taiwan anthropology professor Cheng Chin-teh said. Hilton described a rich. 22. Lost Horizon by British author. "It has been brought low. or is it? Controversy rages over renaming of county as China 'cashes in' " is the heading for David Chang's article in Aug. "Everything in Zhongdian matches descriptions in Hilton's book. In March 2002. ''Shangri-La is no longer a distant imaginary haven. "This seems to be the real thing . Of course there are many people who do back China's creation of a Shangri-la county. "Hilton based his book on the writings by Joseph Lock... a US botanist who lived in Naxi near Zhongdian for 27 years until he was kicked out by the Chinese Communists in 1949. Shangri-La." and people lived for hundreds of years. who have accused China of riding roughshod on the dream of paradise by commercialising the name "Shangri-la''. "I fully support China's renaming Zhongdian because James Hilton was inspired by Zhongdian. officials in southwestern China renamed the impoverished county of Zhongdian lying in the Yunnan mountains near the Tibetan frontier. in part: The [March 18/02] announcement aroused interest among travel agencies but triggered protest from scholars in Asia.
PBS: Michael Wood's In Search of Shangri-la
China Daily gushed."
Cash is the old Chinese word for the small traditional coins that could be strung. Cheng has visited Zhongdian five times and led 30 Taiwan travellers on a Shangri-la tour to Zhongdian last month. which says. isolated Tibetan valley governed by an ancient high lama where life was easy "with free love and flush toilets.
Lost Horizon tells how Britain sends a diplomat -.taking a 45-minute flight from Yunnan's capital city. Since then. Hilton cannot be consulted: he died in 1954.to evacuate 90 Europeans. Cornway and the other Europeans become homesick and flee Shangri-la. hot springs.Robert Cornway -.as the holiest of the eight Holy Mountains they worship. He launched a campaign to "officially'' confirm the book was based on Zhongdian and to persuade the State Council to rename Zhongdian as Shangri-la County.. and a 100-year-old Catholic church built by European missionaries.740-metre Kawaboge Peak -. to Naxi and riding a bus for four hours to Zhongdian.
. The local Tibetans are still very poor. After reaching civilisation. many Chinese and foreign tour groups have visited Zhongdian -. a fiftyish musician and scholar in Naxi translated the novel from English into Chinese. Despite its opening to tourists. yet.000 metres. Tibetans and lama monasteries. who are trapped in war-torn China. Zhongdian's scenery and ecology has reportedly not suffered much damage from tourism .Zhongdian is indeed a paradise on earth. Zhongdian people know about Lost Horizon because Xuan Ke. Zhongdian County did rename itself Shangri-la County in 1997.6. blue lakes. Kunming. After living in Shangri-la for some time. Cornway realises he has abandoned something dear to him and returns to Shangri-la. At an altitude of 3. Zhongdian has a Birang Valley. it boasts snow-capped mountains. from a fictitious place called Baskul to the coastal metropolis of Shanghai.. Tibetans regard the highest peak of Zhongdian's Meilixue Mountains -. matching the Blue Moon Valley in Lost Horizon. But Cornway is able to get only four Europeans into a plane. waterfalls. an approximate link to the story in Lost Horizon about a French priest who led Shangri-la as its high lama. which flies them to Shangri-la instead of Shanghai. The pyramid-shaped peak has never been scaled by men. and received the State Council's approval for this on March 18 this year. He later finds out the plane has been sent by Shangri-la's high lama to kidnap him so that Cornway would take over the leadership of Shangri-la.
Oct.'' Even before the State Council approved the name-change. using Shangri-la hotels and buying books whose covers bear the magic word.'' says Li Xu..'' he added.) the tiny territory of Sikkim. Yunnan was already capitalising on the name. "Zhongdian got the central government's attention because Xuan Ke (the musician) invited reporters . 14/04. They have waged the self-promotion campaign for several years. two regions in China which consider themselves to be the true Shangri-la are unhappy that the State Council gave the name to Zhongdian.The word "Shangri-la'' has brought huge profits to the Himalayan region. Observers say Zhongdian's declaration that it is the "true'' Shangri-la is unlikely to produce a challenge from other nations. a fairy tale. even though they fear China's move will hurt their tourism. Rediff. saying it is made [from] a formula left by French missionaries. Places billed as resembling the fictitious setting of Lost Horizon include both Pokhra and Darjeeling in Nepal [sic]. a researcher at China's Yunnan Research Institute for Social Sciences. Tens of thousands of tourists visit the Himalayas each year taking Shangri-la tours. "I don't think it's appropriate because we all know Shangri-la refers to utopia. after having bought the trademark from a cigarette factory in China's Shannxi Province. Mustang (a Tibetan kingdom under Nepalese rule. There are suspicions that China may also claim "Shangri-la'' as a trademark and bar others from putting the word on their goods as a brand name. and Bhutan as well as Hunza in Pakistan. "China to exploit lure of 'Shangri-la' " Three southwest Chinese regions have vowed to end their 'chaotic' battles and work jointly to exploit the worldwide lure
. Another Yunnan factory produces a Shangri-la brand cigarette. who wrote stories and made Zhongdian well-known. A Yunnan distillery has been turning out a wine called Shangri-la Tibetan Drink. "Apart from foreign countries. Even inside China. some scholars have questioned the wisdom of the Chinese move.. None outside China claim to "be'' Shangri-la.
. After consultations. each claiming that the real Shangri-la was in its territory.of Shangri-la. Xinhua quoted industry experts as saying. Tibet Autonomous Region put forward a proposal that the three regions optimise all Shangri-la tourism resources and promote them as one. Sichuan." Wang Huichen. is Beyul. In 2001. government representatives of Sichuan and Yunnan provinces and Tibet Autonomous Region signed a declaration of cooperation. In order to develop their local economies. Two meetings of coordination about the establishment of China Shangri-la Ecological Tourism Zone were convened in 2002 and 2003. The word Shangri-la became world-famous after British writer James Hilton published his book Lost Horizon in 1933. enchanting wonderland. but without substantial progress. They agreed to end the 'chaotic' battles among themselves and construct a broad-based Shangri-la eco-tourism zone. Yunnan and Tibet had all played the Shangri-La card. Xinhua news agency reported. "Cooperation of the three regions in tourism would help reduce cost of the tourism industry. ______________________________________________________________ beyul: The Tibetan name for Nepal. whose capital is in the pleasant and prosperous Kathmandu valley. said. deputy governor of Sichuan province. enlarge the tourist market and improve the efficiency of tourism development. the state media reported on Thursday. or an ideal. Shangrila is said to be the popular Tibetan word for 'sun and moon in the heart'.