Security Engineering Services

Introduction to Explosive Recognition
Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention

Security Engineering Services

The use of metal detectors and visual searches of persons and carried bags at schools and public buildings has been aimed at reducing the introduction of weapons into these buildings. The success of these efforts have forced the conversion to explosives which are not readily detected by metal detectors or visual searches. These explosives can be set off by a number of different devices from a simple fuse to timed electronic detonators, cell phones or suicide switches.

Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention


Security Engineering Services

• The purpose of this introductory course is to provide a general overview of the components of Homemade Explosive( HME) or Improvised Explosive Devices (IED). • An overview of GST offerings that include training modules for the Modular IED Training, IED Training and Explosive Recognition Training aids will be presented. The training modules and aids can be customized to your organization requirements.

Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention


Security Engineering Services Course Content • Detonators • Commercial Explosives • Powders and Binary Explosive • Military Explosives • IED / HME • Best Practices • GST Training Kits • Security Checkpoint Services Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 4 .

• The net explosive charge in detonators is usually no more than a few grams Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 5 .Security Engineering Services Detonators • The term detonator and blasting cap are interchangeable. Detonator is a term used by the commercial manufacturers and blasting cap is a term used by the military.

• Non Electric Detonator is designed to detonated from the spit of flame provided by a safety fuse of other flame producing device. Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 6 .Security Engineering Services Detonators • Electric Detonators consist of a small cylindrical shell containing a high explosive that is initiated when an electric current is sent to thru a bridge wire initiating the initiating charge and sympathetically detonating the base charge.

• The Explosive Recognition Training aid contains both the simulated electric and non-electric detonators. plastic shock tube and detonating cords Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 7 . motion.Security Engineering Services Detonators • The Modular IED Training aid contains simulated electric detonators used in IEDs and are activated by light. timer or remotely.

the light sensor closes the circuit and bomb explodes.Security Engineering Services Modular IED Training Kit Light Activated Detonator Assembly This detonator assembly could be used in a package or briefcase bomb. Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 8 . When the package is opened or scanned by x-ray. This detonator assembly is sensitive to x-ray radiation but not to shock or motion.

Any movement or tilting of the package would cause the mercury to close the circuit and the bomb would explode.Security Engineering Services Modular IED Training Kit Tilt Motion Activated Detonator Assembly This detonator assembly could be used in a package or briefcase bomb. The package would be placed in an area and activated by the arming switch. Arming Switch Mercury Switch Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 9 .

Security Engineering Services Modular IED Training Kit Suicide Vest Detonator Assembly This detonator assembly could be used by a suicide bomber. Toggle Switch Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 10 . A micro toggle switch activated by the bomber will detonate an explosive charge.

The battery is interchangeable with other types of batteries. Interchangeable Battery Pager or Cell Phone Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 11 . The package can be placed in an area and detonated at a later time by calling the pager or cell phone from anywhere in the country.Security Engineering Services Modular IED Training Kit Remote Activated Detonator Assembly This remote detonator assembly can be used in a package bomb.

Security Engineering Services Commercial Explosives • There are various mixtures and trade names are available in the commercial blasting industry • Waste Gels (Slurries). Emulsions and the term Dynamite have all been used to categorize commercial explosives. Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 12 .

Dynamites vary in their explosive content. strength and sensitivity Dynamite usually will be found in sticks or cylinder form and wrapped in buff. Ammonia and Semi Gelatin • • Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 13 .Security Engineering Services Dynamite • Dynamite is one of the most widely used high explosives in blasting operations. white or colored waxed paper. Their diameters and lengths also vary with manufactures The ATF list three different Dynamites: Straight.

Gelatin Dynamite is soluble in water and varies from a thick liquid to a tough rubbery gelatinous substance. Inhalation of the fumes will cause severe headaches. These are designed for wet blasting operations’ Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention • • 14 . It is less sensitive to shock and contains mostly ammonium nitrate. It is sensitive to shock and friction Ammonia Dynamite has a pungent sweet odor because of the slight NG content.Security Engineering Services Dynamite • Straight Dynamite has a sweet pungent odor because of the Nitroglycerin (NG) content.

Security Engineering Services Dynamite • • The Explosive Recognition Training aid contains a simulated samples of three types of Dynamite. Any of the detonator assemblies could be used with this simulant package. Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 15 . The Modular IED Training aid contains a simulated dynamite stick. One stick has a well for the detonator.

Security Engineering Services Water Gels / Emulsions / Powers • Water Gel is an explosive that contains a substantial amount of water. Emulsions are explosive material that contain substantial amounts of oxidizers dissolved in water droplets surrounded by a fuel that is incapable of blending or mixing. It is considered a blasting agent. • • Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 16 . Powders – black powder (saltpeter – potassium nitrate) formula was used as early as the 10 century by the Chinese. oxidizers and fuel plus a cross linking agent.

Security Engineering Services Binary Explosives • Binary. or two components. explosives are blasting explosives that are formed by mixing two commercially manufactured prepackaged chemical ingredients (oxidizer and flammable liquids) which individually are not classified as explosives but which are mixed for a detonable mixture • The Explosive Recognition Training aid contains simulated samples of binary explosive. water gels. emulsions and powders for hands-on training. Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 17 .

Security Engineering Services Military Explosives • The principle difference between military explosives and commercial explosives are that military explosive materials are designed for longer storage and contain no NG • The velocities of military explosives are generally greater than their commercial counterparts Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 18 .

Used alone or as part of a composite explosive. Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 19 . • RDX is one of the most powerful explosive. bursting or demolition charge. • Amatol is a mixture of molten ammonium nitrate and TNT.Security Engineering Services Military Explosives • TNT is the most common military explosive. • PETN (Pentoerythrite Tetranitrate) is more sensitive to shock or fiction than TNT. is used widely as a booster.

This simulant can be molded into various shapes and used with any of the detonator assemblies. Detonator Well Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 20 . Below is sample of C-4 simulant from the Modular IED Training kit.Security Engineering Services Military Explosives C-4 is a mixture of RDX and plasticizing oil.

in the case Semtex H both RDX and PETN are combined with the binder and plasticizer.Security Engineering Services Military Explosives All known Semtex variations will contain PETN. . Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 21 . Detonator Wells These are 2 different sized blocks of Semtex simulant in the Modular IED Training kit. Each has a well for the detonators and can be used with any of the detonator assemblies.

Security Engineering Services Improvised Explosive Devices • The war on terror and most recently the increased news coverage of bombings has made the use of the term Improvised Explosive Device (IED) a daily part of Law Enforcement’s vocabulary • An IED simply stated is a homemade explosive (HME). concealed to prevent its being detected and designed to detonate at a predetermine time to kill or destroy property. • The IED Training kit is designed to increase awareness of security personnel to IEDs made from normal items used on a daily basis Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 22 .

Security Engineering Services Improvised Explosive Devices IED Components • • Power Supply Detonator • • Explosive Main Charge Sensor (switches/times) Both the Modular IED Training and Explosive Reognition Training kits have samples of IED components Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 23 .

detonator. The sandwich is a block of plastic explosive.Security Engineering Services Improvised Explosive Devices Lunch box Homemade Explosive (HME) This lunch box looks like ones you see everyday. The Pringles and thermos contains plastic explosive. the soda can is filled with smokeless powder and has a fuse that can be light to detonate the powder. battery and switch in a plastic bag and wrapped in aluminum foil. a can of soda and a small container of Pringles. a detonator. Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 24 . a small thermos. This quantity of explosive would cause a large amount of damage or injuries. However. battery and suicide switch. It contains a sandwich.

Security Engineering Services Improvised Explosive Devices Shoe Bomb Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 25 .

Security Engineering Services Best Practices • Do not ignore the obvious • Be aware of any curious odors • Do not move or open any suspect package • Do not change environment around the suspect package. leave them that way • Do not transmit a radio within 25 feet of any suspected package Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 26 . Example . if light were on/off.

The simulants resemble the manufactured explosive (color.Security Engineering Services GST Training Aids • Modular IED Training aid was designed to provide hands-on training to the checkpoint security personnel. IED Training aid was designed to provide operational training for security personnel. Explosive Recognition Training aid was designed to provide a general overview of explosives. All of the IED assemblies contain x-ray explosive simulants to provide training on visual analysis of the x-ray image. The kit contains visual and tactile simulants of manufactured and homemade explosives. The kit contains x-ray. consistency & appearance). visual and tactical simulated explosives that are concealed in normal items we use daily • • Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 27 .

mass transit systems. Transportation Security Laboratory. SES’s Research and Development center supports the Transportation Security Laboratory and is kept abreast on the latest techniques used by terrorist in concealing HME. government buildings and public gathers. sport venues. professional contacts and knowledge can assist in negating your organization’s risk to HME attacks. Our scientist and engineers are the leading industry experts because of our background in supporting the DHS programs in Aviation Security for over fifteen years. GST is a prime contractor at the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).Security Engineering Services GST Security Checkpoint Services Security Engineering Services (SES) was formed to provide security consultant services in the detection of Home Made Explosive (HME) and Improvised Explosive Devices (IED) in response to the real and gathering threats at schools. amusement parks. Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 28 . SES resources.

The following services offered can reduce your organization risk to HME threats: Awareness Threat & Vulnerability Analysis Training Checkpoint / Mailroom Explosive Recognition Training Detection Checkpoint Security Design Equipment Needs Analysis Prevention Threat & countermeasures determination System Audits  Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 29 . amusement parks and others areas of risk. public buildings.Security Engineering Services GST Security Checkpoint Services GST has developed services targeted to the checkpoint at the workplace. courthouse. sport venues.

PA 19067 Office Phone: 215-579-8200 Email: ozzieg@gstpa.Security Engineering Services GST Security Checkpoint Services For more information on our products and services please contact: Ozzie Gerald Checkpoint Security Sales Manager 109 Floral Vale Blvd Awareness ~ Training ~ Detection ~ Prevention 30 .

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