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EUROPE IN AGE OF ABSOLUTE MONARCHS - absolutism - Textbook definition: When a ruler has complete authority over the government

and the lives of the people Whats so new about this? Degree of power Depth & scope of powers claimed - Hallmarks of absolutism: Divine right claims The king is king because God - hallmark 2: Control over financial machinery King controls the money No longer has to ask nobles for money Raise $ through Taxes, customs duties (tariffs), & other financial schemes System of tax collectors whose job is to go around and collect money made him king - hallmark 3: Massive bureaucracies True civil servants Paid by state, represented the king Men owed their wealth & position to employment Thus usually loyal & grateful to king I answer to God alone Attempts to control all in realm Religious groups, nobles, local govts. Through favors or suppression A heavy-handed approach to creating unity - hallmark 4: Standing armies The medieval system abandoned Feudal obligation of 40 days service thrown out Why standing (full time) armies were needed? The benefits of standing armies? The burden of standing armies?

Louis XIV- Background Grandfather Henry IV enacted the Edict of Nantes Cardinal Richelieu helped Louis dad establish control of France Louis became king at 4 years old when his father died Louis grew hate the nobility, because of the riots that tore France apart during his childhood

- Ltat, eest moi I am the state Louis view was that he and the state were one in the same He became the most powerful ruler in French history -Louis attacks the Nobility Louis excluded the nobility from the French councils He increased the power of government agents called intendants The intendants collected taxes - Louis is devoted to making France an Economic Power Jean Baptiste Colbert became Louis minister of finance He wanted to make France self-sufficient Colbert developed the theory of mercantilism: Wanted to export (send goods over seas) more than you import (bring goods in from over seas) French Military Campaigns Louis spent his $ on military campaigns to expand French boundaries These wars almost bankrupted the country Countries learned to join together to defeat France - War of Spanish Succession The Spanish king left his throne to Louis XIV grandson in 1700 Europe was outraged & worried about the two biggest powers being united by blood This war lasted 13 years & France lost Louis lost 3 out of 4 sons His grandson will become king of Spain Louis died in 1715 - Louis Legacy When Louis died in 1715, people cheered! Mixed legacy: Positive: France ranked above all other European nations in art & literature. Also considered the military leader of Europe Negative: Constant warfare & the construction of the Palace of Versailles put France into staggering debt. Plus the poor were burdened by high taxes - The Thirty Years War Causes Ferdinand II - Holy Roman Emperor (Catholic) forced some Protestant churches to close in Bohemia. Protestants revolted against Ferdinands policy. Ferdinand sent troops to punish the protestors. German Protestant princes sent troops to help the protestors.

Phase 1 Ferdinands army (Catholics) constantly defeat the Protestants. They destroy many German villages. Phase 2 France helps the Protestant nations defeat the Hapsburgs (Ferdinands family) army. Peace of Westphalia France takes German territory German princes are independent of the Holy Roman Empire

PETER THE GREAT Peter I crowned czar. Became known as Peter the Great for his efforts to transform Russia into a modern state. Neglected to appoint a patriarch of russian ortho church, then abolished patriarchs office altogether; instituted holy synod (high priests) and the head was peter himself. Russian church was now the czars church. 1682, Peter became czar while a child; sister ruled in his place Age 17, removed sister from throne, took power for himself Tall, strong man Had strong personality, boundless energy One of first acts, stormed Azov, Black Sea port held by Turks Attack disaster, but inspired Peter to build navy Labored side-by-side with thousands of carpenters Built hundreds of ships New navy took up Azov campaign Turks surrendered - Westernization Peter realized country needed to modernize to catch up with rest of Europe Wanted westernization; to bring elements of Western culture to Russia 1697, journeyed to western Europe to see what Russia needed to modernize - New Skills Peter traveled in disguise, was sometimes recognized anyway Learned hands-on skills, especially shipbuilding Recruited European experts to bring skills to Russia - Rebellion Trip cut short by rebellion of streltsy, military corps with political influence Thought streltsy wanted sister on throne; had members tortured, executed Disbanded streltsy, organized more modern army Peter also founded a new city :Early 1700s, fought Sweden to acquire warm-water port Other ports choked by ice much of year Port farther south on Baltic Sea to keep Russia open to western trade all year, connect Russia to west

:On land won from Sweden, Peter built new capital, St. Petersburg Russias government moved to new city Featured Western-style architecture ( Peter encouraged men to shave off their beards, encouraging people to adopt European styles of dress, building a new capital with Western-style architecture). - Peter the Great Comes to Power Peter the Great becomes czar in 1696, begins to reform Russia Russia Contrasts with Europe Cut off geographically from Europe Culturally isolated, little contact with western Europe Religious differences widen gap - Peter Rules Absolutely Visits the West-In 1697, Peter visits western Europe to learn European ways Goal of westernizationusing western Europe as a model for change Peters Reforms Brings Orthodox Church under state control Reduces power of great landowners Modernizes army by having European officers train soldiers - Westernizing Russia Introduces potatoes Starts Russias first newspaper Raises womens status Adopts Western fashion Advances education - Establishing St. Petersburg Peter wants a seaport that will make travel to West easier. Fights Sweden to win port on Baltic Sea In 1703, begins building new capital called St. Petersburg. Building city takes many years, many serfs die in process. By the time of Peters death, Russia is force to be reckoned with in Europe