Report EUR 13083 EN

Commission of the European Communities

nuclear science and technology
Mechanical behaviour of dissimilar metal welds

C. Escaravage
Novatome 10, rue Juliette Recamier F-69001 Lyon

Contract No RAP-090-F

Final report

This work was performed under the Commission of the European Communities for the Working Group 'Codes and standards', Activity Group 3: 'Materials within the fast reactor coordinating committee'

Directorate-General Science, Research and Development


EUR 13083 EN

Information Industries and Innovation L-2920 Luxembourg LEGAL NOTICE Neither the Commission of the European Communities nor any person acting on behalf of the Commission is responsible for the use which might be made of the following information Cataloguing data can be found at the end of this publication Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 1990 Printed in Belgium .Published by the COMMISSION OF THE EUROPEAN COMMUNITIES Directorate-General Telecommunications. Brussels · Luxembourg. 1990 ISBN 92-826-1895-1 Catalogue number: CD-NA-13083-EN-C © ECSC-EEC-EAEC.

This data set covered a wide range of testing parameters : temperature from 20 to 625°C. The type 304 steel has lower tensile properties than. the latter at temperatures above 550°C. material selection. this study concerned the evaluation of material data to be used in LMFBR design codes. Recommendations for future work conclude the report.FOREWORD AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY The Commission of the European Communities is assisted in its actions regarding fast breeder reactors by the Fast Reactor Coordinating Committee which has set up the Safety Working Group and the Working Group Codes and Standards (WGCS). frequency from 1 to 20. The present report is the revised final report of CEC Study Contract N° RA1-0091-F performed under WGCS/Activity Group 3 : Materials. As most AG3 work. the testing conditions chosen by the three partners differed considerably because they had been fixed independently and not harmonised prior to the tests. cast or product. frequency. construction and inspection of LMFBR components. L. . The data on these steels comprised some 550 data points from 14 casts. standards and regulations used in the EC member countries for the design. constant amplitude and random fatigue loading. Experimental procedures and statistical treatments used for the three sub-sets of data are first described and discussed.H. One of these is that partners of collaborative actions should agree on a common test matrix and experimental procedures prior to any testing. type AISI 316L (CEA tests) and type AISI 304 (INTERATOM tests). the two other steels and hence also lower HCF properties. Larsson II — I . The latter's mandate is to harmonize the codes. with and without mean stress etc. The main contractor was CEA (France) with UKAEA (UK) and INTERATOM (FRG) as participants. The report concerns the evaluation of high cycle fatigue properties of three austenitic stainless steels : type AISI 316 (UKAEA tests). several interesting conclusions can be drawn : . Although it is often difficult to single out the influence of each parameter due to the different testing conditions. However.The HCF properties of the three steels are consistent with the 0. the fatigue limit being larger than. specimen geometry.000 Hz. Results are presented in tables and graphs.Parameters which clearly have a significant effect on HCF behaviour are mean stress or R-ratio (less in the non endurance region than in the endurance region).2 % proof stress. specimen orientation.Other parameters have probably a weak or no effect but it is difficult to conclude due to insufficient data : environment. temperature. This created considerable difficulties when the results were pooled for the evaluations to be performed in the present study. .


Laboratory tests for reproducing service failures Creep tests Unexpected failure mechanisms proposed from observed microstructures 4. Fatigue life tests .3.2.2. 4. Nickel base type of welded joints 5 .3.1. Ferritic steel types Austenitic steel types Geometry of the welded joints Weld metals Welding procedures 2 2 3 4 5 6 3 . Main observations Unexpected failures 8 8 II 11 11 12 13 14 16 4 .2.C O N T E N T S Page 1 . 6 . 2.5.1. 6. Fatigue behaviour of dissimilar metal welded joints AND RESIDUAL LIFE EVALUATION 3. 4.1.2.EXAMINATIONS OF DISSIMILAR METAL WELDS AFTER ELEVATED TEMPERATURE SERVICE 3. Austenitic type of welded joints 4.2. 2.Initiation locations 5.3. Life evaluation : Extrapolation and acceleration of the failure mechanism Residual life assessment : Prediction methods V — . 2.INTRODUCTION TYPES OF JOINTS INVESTIGATED 2. 2.1.LONG DURATION TESTS AND LABORATORY EXAMINATIONS 4.MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DISSIMILAR METAL WELDED JOINTS WHEN CREEP IS NON SIGNIFICANT 5. Crack propagation Impact toughness 17 17 17 18 19 19 19 20 5.

CONCLUSIONS 7.2.1. 8 .1. Evaluation and improvement of dissimilar metal weld lives 7.2.1. Elevated temperature service Concluding recommendations 22 22 22 23 24 27 37 7.REFERENCES TABLES AND FIGURES VI .1.7 . Low temperatures service 7.

* On small tubes of the size of steam generating tubes if the dissimilar metal welds are located on each tube of the bundle before the collecting pipes. If necessary. The first one contains the welds joining the austenitic stainless steel vessels with the roof in carbon or low alloy steels. defect free welds rather than high strength welds are wished. As regards this type of dissimilar metal welds system and concerned by creep. fatigue behaviour of these joints shall be checked. Depending on the types of steels selected for the exchange tube and steam generator shell.1 . The second type can be found in sodium loops and water or steam pipes connected to the steam generator. During service. two types of dissimilar metal welds can be found. . * On large diameter steam pipes. they may reach high temperatures in the creep range. In this case. these dissimilar metal welds are used : * On large diameter sodium pipes (in this case the dissimilar metal welds can be far from the steam generator if part of the sodium loop or intermediate heat exchanger is made of a ferritic steel). It is possible to locate these welds in low temperature areas (kept below 200 °C) .INTRODUCTION In liquid metal fast breeder reactors. the related to the steam gained on generating experience conventional generating plants may be of interest. they are not likely to be highly loaded.

low alloy and alloy steels which are neither stainless (Cr < 13 %) nor austenitic whatever the microstructure obtained by heat treatements. emphasis is on cracking probably due to high temperature (> 500 °C) service and to cycles from service to lower temperature or to room temperature. low alloy steels with chromium content less than 2 % are no longer used because the effects of oxydation has been recognized to contribute to the failure of some dissimilar welds. In the examinations and tests with this second type of ferritic steels. 2. Besides. The failure mechanism is indeed a long term one. (*) The ferritic steel designation means carbon. However. 2 - . * laboratory testing programmes.FERRITIC ( ) STEEL TYPES * Table 1 shows the chemical analysis of the ferritic steels : * Low temperature types as 25 MN 4 or 16 MND 5 for which the weld defects have been studied. They have been submitted to : * post service operations. Comparison of the service behaviour of the different kinds of ferritic steels is very difficult.2 . * Creep resisting and oxydation resistant steel types which contain molybdenum and mainly chromium up to 9 %. the use of stabilized 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo Nb to prevent carbon migration does not seem to improve significantly life duration at elevated temperatures (62).1 .TÏPES OF JOINTS INVESTIGATED Dissimilar metal welds mentioned in this note are obtained with materials quoted in Tables 1 to 3.

and often existent in dissimilar metal welds of creep resisting steels (par. Two areas of dissimilar metal welds are concerned by hydrogen assisted cold cracking : * The martensitic border always present in dissimilar metal welds designed for low temperature service.The cold cracking tendency of low alloy steels 25 MN 4. comparison of the different types of steels from the point of view of cold cracking is not possible.5). rather with the fabrication methods than with the chemical composition. 2. Butt welding experience in laboratories and workshops o t the other r ferritic steels is not sufficient to draw a conclusion. Alloy 800 is a particular case for its thermal expansion coefficient which approaches that of ferritic steel (see following table.AUSTENITIC STEEL TYPES Their chemical analyses are given in Table 2. the geometry and hydrogen content of the welds. These points are mainly dependent on the welding procedure. Consequently. In addition. The risks of disbonding of the martensitic area and of cracking in the HAZ perpendicular to the weld line are dependent upon the residual stresses..) .2 . but the behaviour of dissimilar welds does not seem to be dependent on the kind of austenitic stainless steel. more attention should be paid to the cold cracking of the ferritic steels in comparison with the case of homogeneous welding of these steels. 20 M 5 M and 16 MND 5 during the welding of dissimilar metals must be taken into account. Reference 8 connects this risk with the segregations and as a consequence. So this risk is to be considered mainly for heavy forgings . 2. * The heat affected zone (HAZ) where temperature had risen above AC 1. whatever the ferritic steel and weld metal types (austenitic or nickel base alloy) .

are butt welded pipes. 21. MEAN THERMAL EXPANSION COEFFICIENT (20 °C . . Two sizes are concerned : * Steam pipes with thickness greater than 40 mm and diameters ranging from 140 to more than 350 mm. There are also some collecting pipes. which report examinations after several failures. For more fundamental characterization tests. the size of which lies btween the aformentioned ranges. butt welded plates were used (References 19.8 x 10" 6 °C _1 2.1 AUSTENITIC STEEL 18. 22. The problems due to weld defects and unexpected service failures can be found to the same extent on both sizes of pipes.The use of a 800 or 800 H alloy transition piece is a means to decrease the calculated stresses resulting from thermal cycling.5 x 10" 6 °C . 27). In the case of laboratory tests.GEOMETRY OF THE WELDED JOINTS The joints mentioned in the references.550 °C) FERRITIC STEEL 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo 14 χ 10~ 6 °C . 20). butt welded pipes were used for experiments reproducing the type of cracks observed after service failures (References 7 to 9.1 ALLOY 800 17 χ 10" 6 0 C _ 1 NICKEL BASE FILLER METALS 14. * Tubes of conventional plants of wall thicknesses between 8 and 20 mm and diameters ranging from 50 to 75 mm.3 . The weld between the 800 alloy and the ferritic steel brings about as many metallurgical problems as the weld between a ferritic steel and an austenitic one with a nickel base alloy as filler metal.

several authors mentioned that cracks described in Paragraph 3. The use of nickel base alloy as filler metal is no longer considered as the final solution for unexpected failures of dissimilar metal welds in cyclically shifted temperatures.2. are more numerous when the fusion line is perpendicular to the tube axis (Reference 35). Ferritic weld metal with niobum as carbide stabilizing element was also used for buttering layers on the ferritic steel side. 2. Paragraph 2.WELD METALS The use of ferritic weld metals (References 3. it appeared only in 1980 that this type of heterogeneous joints was also affected by service failures. However.5 . As the extensive use of the second type of filler metals began more recently (very often to repair dissimilar welds initially made with an austenitic stainless steel) and because service life of dissimilar metal welds using nickel base alloy weld metals is longer. 37 in Table 3 for instance) as filler metal for dissimilar welds did not last long. The chemical analyses are given in Table 3. * nickel base alloy. The two main types of weld metals presently used are : * austenitic stainless steels. an increase of service life in comparison with austenitic stainless steel has been observed : relative values of expansion coefficient provide a first explanation of these findings (Cf. in the HAZ of ferritic steels.2). . Other effects of a more metallurgical origin are supposed to also contribute to the longer service life of dissimilar metal welds made with nickel base alloy in pure creep conditions without temperature cycles.As regards the influence of the welded joint geometry.4 .

they can prevent weld defects. Welding procedures with two buttering layers made with automatic submerged arc welding with preheating and postheating are chosen to achieve this aim (Reference 84). A great experience has been accumulated experiments composition.WELDING PROCEDURES Welding procedures play a role in the behaviour of welded joints i. For dissimilar welds at elevated temperatures during operation (in heavy thickness). defect free welds are obtained with controlled welding procedures.5 . in this case. A welding procedure limiting the stress is also beneficial. the knowledge of the parameters likely to induce hot cracking cracking is quite limited.Besides failures due to thermal cyclic conditions analyzed in Paragraph 4. the fusion line should be smooth without variation in the thickness of the martensitic narrow border and any anomaly in the dilution zone should be avoided. * cold cracking in the ferrite base metal or in the narrow martensitic border. the currently used procedures are the shielded metal manual arc to clarify the influence over many years with systematic of each element of chemical . few failures were attributed to weld defects. Solutions to prevent this type of cracks are available in the case of austenitic stainless steels : mainly ferrite content control. For dissimilar metal welds in operation at low temperatures. a good fatigue behaviour is wished .e. In the case of dissimilar metal welds two kinds of cracking are to be feared : * hot cracking in the weld metal. particularly to hot cracking in the weld metal. The influence of some elements (Nb and Si) was pointed out but precise recommendations to prevent hot (as in the case of austenitic stainless steel) are not yet available. To prevent the second kind of cracking. As regards nickel base alloys.3. 2.

was also used. the thicker the weld. a procedure also without filler metal. Particular welding procedures have been used for dissimilar metal welds in conventional plants : * In Great Britain. But. These layers were intended to slow down transfers of chemical elements (mainly of carbon) during welding and afterwards in service. * In the United States. As regards the effect of postwelding heat treatment. Owing to the lack of programmed comparative tests. induction pressure welding. of course. flash butt weld procedures without filler metal : the procedure seems to be no longer used due to the numerous defects of lack of fusion type (Reference 22).3) some authors think that a stress relieving heat treatment has not to be applied or has to be as reduced in temperature and duration as possible for welding without cold cracking (Reference 4). In the case of creep resistant ferritic steel welded with a nickel base alloy. One or several buttering layers have been sometimes used with these procedures. welding procedures are not extensively documented. it is difficult to quantitatively evaluate the advantage in life duration obtained by buttering. welding conditions leading or not to a martensitic narrow border are not known. the buttering technique does not provide a full solution.3. In case of elevated temperature operating welds with smaller sizes and often made at the plant location. References show that this type of weld has a better life performance than dissimilar metal welds with austenitic steel . The examined bibliography only points out the angle between fusion line and tube axis as an acting parameter (Reference 35). taking into account analysis of the failure mechanisms (Paragraph 4. For the failures discussed in Paragraph 4. the more difficult it is to justify reduction or suppression of the treatment. In fact the stress relieving treatment has the same metallurgical effect on the weld microstructure than the elevated temperature hold time during creep in service.welding (SMAW) and the inert gaz tungsten arc welding (GTAW).

18. 43. This procedure also results in creep ruptures in the carbon depleted area although extrapolated 5 times to rupture at 540 °C seem to exceed 10 hours. the intergranular character of cracks and fracture surfaces confirms that creep is present : several authors have reported that typical creep cavities were observed. 16. Recently. 77.EXAMINATIONS OF DISSIMILAR METAL WELDS AFTER ELEVATED TEMPERATURE SERVICE 3. Samples were taken from : * failed welds examined. 13. 69. Moreover. * set up the thermal stresses necessary for the creep damage. 83) report examinations and observations on welds taken from plant after significant service time. * pieces chosen at random or in the vicinity of failed-welds (for comparative examinations).3) also occurs. 45. . 10. 47. 64. 74. heterogeneous welds made by friction have been tested in laboratory (thermal cycles and creep . Furthermore. 37. 82. 75. The influence of thermal cycling is more difficult to clear out.1 .MAIN OBSERVATIONS Number of papers (References 9. it is indicated that there is no dissimilar metal weld unexpected failure on plant components working with a maximum temperature of 400 to 475 °C. the first point to be noticed is that creep is involved in the failure mechanism. 70. In all cases. but that the type of failure described hereinafter (Paragraph 4. 3 .Reference 81). 15.as filler metal. Thus. 30. 35. the failures reported in the references are related to pieces cyclically heated with a maximum temperature higher than 500 °C. In the Reference 83. 52. It can : * initiate cracks by fatigue. no systematic comparison with nickel alloy dissimilar metal welds has been found.

In both cases, using a nickel base alloy as filler metal reduces the expansion coefficient gap, decreases the stress level and increases life as it has been statistically noted (Reference 37). The influence of the oxydation of the ferritic steel is noted in many reports, especially in the area in which the main crack has been initiated. It appears to be blocked by oxyde which can act as a stress concentrator in fatigue. It seems that the oxydation appearance is different in cyclically fatigued zones (oxyde notch) and in less cycled zones (stepped oxydation). The failure takes place normally in the ferritic steel zone between the fusion line and the non affected zone of the ferritic base metal. The different microstructures observed and their influence will be discussed later. The failure location can be explained : * By a fatigue mechanism with an oxydation effect because reinforced oxydation occurs there. * By a creep damage mechanism related to the microstructural evolution due to the diffusion transfer of elements between the weld metal and the base metal (Paragraph 4.3). On several points, many authors are in agreement : * the narrow martensitic border due to dilution near the fusion line on the weld metal side, * the increase of carbon in the weld metal beyond this narrow border, * the grain growth in part of the HAZ of the ferritic steel. Other points are still discussed as e.g. the exact origin of phases seen near the fusion line in the ferritic steel and the carbon depletion of the part of the HAZ nearer the fusion line. These points can be dependent on : * the weld metal used (austenitic stainless steel or a nickel base alloy), * the post weld heat treatment. They will be discussed later (Paragraph 4.3).

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3.2 - UNEXPECTED FAILURES The words "unexpected failures" are often applied to the failures described above. This can have several different meanings : * Rupture without plastic deformation detected during operation or visible after failure ; this type of rupture can occur by creep when the creep ductility, at least locally, is low. * Early failure by comparison with in relation to the design made the creep for the elevated of the less temperature service strength

resistant (i.e. the ferritic) steel ; the effects due to the expansion coefficient gap are taken into account only by simplified computation ; the stress concentration due to the creep strain rate gap is not considered ; no attempt to quantitatively check the discrepancy between calculated time to failure and service life to failure is reported in the referenced papers. The initiation of the cracks can be influenced by other factors which explain the scatter of observed service life : - fatigue enhanced by oxydation, - initial weld defect in weld metal or on the surface. Numerous are the expert reports mentioning possible initiation of the main crack leading to failure at weld defects, as : * lack of fusion, * lack of penetration, * undercut, * shrinkage groove, * cold cracks, * reheat cracks.


4 - LONG DURATION TESTS AND LABORATORY EXAMINATIONS 4 . 1 - LABORATORY TESTS FOR REPRODUCING SERVICE FAILURES Number of experimental devices were used for producing, in laboratory environment, cracks similar to those discussed in Paragraph 3.1. Further details are given in the References 7, 8, 15, 17, 31, 32, 46, 62, 69. In addition to constant load creep tests to be analysed in the following paragraph, other tests were developped i.e. : * temperature cycling, * temperature and pressure cycling (maximum temperature and maximum pressure in phase), * temperature and pressure cycling with bending, * temperature and pressure cycling, with, during high temperature hold time, a temperature gradient through the thickness of the tube, * temperature cycling of a prebent sample, (Reference 47) * various devices of temperature cycling with inhibited expansion or contraction. These tests are an attempt to reproduce some or all of the load components likely to be present in service and to accelerate material damage. Some of the tests (References 15,17) have led to failures and cracks

different from service ones (References 13-15). These cases are similar to short term creep tests where the cracks observed are not the typical ones found after unexpected difference : * The time spell applied to accelerated tests for obtaining quick results, is too short to produce the creep damage mechanisms of Paragraph 4.3. * Tests failed to reproduce an important load component occurring in the service failure process (probably during initiation). service failure. Two reasons can explain this

11 -

CREEP TESTS Creep in an important part of the damage observed in dissimilar metal welds. It is no longer sure that accelerated tests under complex loading reproduce all these features.2 000 h at 600 °C).135 MPa and 115 MPa respectively for the austenitic stainless steel welds and the nickel base alloy ones (References 21-22). experimental conditions chosen to accelerate the creep damage have resulted in ruptures in the ferritic steel far away from the HAZ or in the weld metal. With the progress of observation.2 . typical features of unexpected failure cracks have been precised.The sources of quick temperature cycling with bending favoured the second hypothesis : in addition to the bending stress. But the tests are short time ones (1 000 h . Creep tests resulting in rupture very near the fusion line (as in the case of service failure) have been obtained under the following conditions : 2 * With large section (20 χ 15 mm ) and accelerating the creep damage by increasing the test temperature above service temperatures (the stress being limited to 100 . examination after the tests of Reference 47. * in a region nearer to the fusion line as the stress is lower. In a first step. It was obvious to perform creep tests with cross welds sampling in dissimilar metal weldments. On the other hand. * By limiting the stress to 150 . different from the ones observed in service. The dissimilar metal cross weld creep tests have shown strain concentration : * in the ferritic base metal whatever the stress. 4.120 MPa) (Reference 19). there are also stresses due to the expansion coefficient gap and periodically restored by temperature cycling.12 . . indicate that the bending effect is more important than temperature cycling in order to simulate cracks observed after service.

This finding is explained if the strain concentration in the zone near to the fusion line occurs at a late stage of creep time. 13 . the region where the creep strain rate is the largest is located at 1 mm from the fusion line. (References 19. This grid has also shown that the strain concentration near to the fusion line does not occur from the beginning of creep but is set up step by step during creep hold time. in the ferritic heat affected zone. it will be discussed how much observations can explain the creep weakness of the fusion line nearest part of the ferritic steel HAZ. Ruptures and cracks very near the fusion line. have been obtained for dissimilar metal joints welded with both types of filler metals.This latter point has been obtained by painting a grid on the specimen surface. The region where unexpected failure cracks occur is nearer to the fusion line (less than 150 microns) and corresponds to the area where the creep strain rate gradient is the steepest. 21). It appears that the difference between the two curves occurs only when the dissimilar metal cross weld specimen goes into the tertiary creep. In the present paragraph. However.UNEXPECTED FAILURE MECHANISMS PROPOSED FROM OBSERVED MICROSTRUCTURES The prime importance of creep in the unexpected failure mechanisms is now confirmed by the observation of cross weld specimen creep strained to rupture under moderate stresses. 4. One can relate the creep elongation to the length of the ferritic steel part of the gauge length and compare the obtained curve to the creep curve of the base metal 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo. Indentation creep tests (Reference 56) have also shown that the zone near to the fusion line is weaker in creep strength.3 .

This picture is schematic . * The interface or the fusion line. from weld metal towards the ferritic steel. * The etching resistant zone (light etching zone) very hard and enriched in chromium and nickel by dilution : it is a martensitic zone acicular martensites) and has often a narrow border shape. * The boundaries of the grown grain area are also with carbides.1 .4. * The non affected ferritic base metal. the hardness peak becomes smooth. one can see : * The filler metal with dilution free chemical analysis. * In the true HAZ. welding conditions and post weld heat treatment for stress relieving can modify the dilution zone microstructure details (residual austenite between the martensite and the interface) and initiate the carbide precipitation. precipitation of carbides occurs in the martensite. * The tempered martensite is less hard . the grain of the austenite can grow before cooling. As carbides disappear.Austenitic type of welded joints After welding. (lath or 14 . Reference 47 proposes a mechanism of solution of the carbides of the grain boundaries near the fusion line because of the carbon enrichment of the weld metal. * The highly affected part of the ferritic steel HAZ with increased grain size and modified grain boundary orientations : the proportion of boundaries parallel and perpendicular to the fusion line (pavement like structure) is greater than in the random initial orientation. * The true HAZ with a hardness peak (1 mm from the fusion line).3. The observations of weldments after service or long term tests at elevated temperature show the following points : * A carbon peak appears in the weld metal.

Deeper and deeper progressive localisation of creep damage in the grown grain area at 1 or 2 grain diameters from the fusion line (< 150 micron) is the source of unexpected failures. the two mechanisms are competitive and slight changes in the welded joint microstructure produce one or the other type of cracks. Interface ( ) * cracks participate in this rupture (type I). More likely. The first reason for this localisation was thought to be the carbon depleted zone due to the carbon transfer towards the weld metal. Another explanation is proposed for a deeper localisation : the early initiation of creep cavities by intergranular carbides in the grown grain zone. carbides playing a role either mechanical or by carbon depletion of the matrix.20 micron) which follow the shape of weld seams. But this remark is not in agreement with the observation that the damaged zone is narrower as the stress is lower (Reference 22). but very locally. the formation of the carbon depleted zone has not yet been confirmed even after more recent investigations (Reference 4). The careful examination of the heat affected and. ( ) Interface cracks are attributed to multiaxial stresses which come from * creep strain compatibility in weld metal (near zero creep stain rate) and in the ferritic steel. It occurs at slightly shorter rupture times than the fracture in the grown grain area described above (type II) : stress for type I failure being 100 to 135 MPa. Though carbon transfer is thought to be true. Reference 21 points out fracture surfaces even nearer to the interface (10 micron . The width of this zone is increased above 100 microns by aging. zones 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo steel carbon depleted zone homogeneously welded or welded to 9 Cr steels have detected a grown grain (Reference 55). after post weld heat treatment at 725 °C. Therefore the carbon depletion hypothesis does not explain such a strong localisation of the damage : the carbon depleted zone would be larger than 150 micron. Figure 1 shows the ranges of temperatures and of times to rupture where type I and type II creep ruptures are observed. with some experimental difficulties. 15 - .

16 . are relatively different the (Reference 18) . are two competitive mechanisms for cracking.2 . some differences conditions. several indications show cracks boundaries.Nickel base type of welded joints Many aspects are similar with the case discussed above. creep cavities are associated with these carbides and promote that the propagation of rupture by growth and coalescence.4. but different features of the fusion line can also result in different types of rupture. with. However. In Reference 21.3. near the interface in the weld metal . Cavitation indications are rare. M-^Cg carbides lie nearly continuously on the interface . The results of the examinations of nickel base welded joints. It seems that the transverse creep tests have yet been of too short duration to observe rupture from interface carbides . on the weld metal carbides side. Transverse joint creep tests (References 19-21) give type II creep rupture : the initial crack appears close to the interface and seems to go away in the HAZ and to branch. In through the carbides and along grain Reference 43. high Ni and Cr contents and formed during welding giving a peak of carbon at must be pointed out : the reported observations are less coherent and some detailed aspects are more dependent on the local welding 20 micron or less from the interface. this zone is the martensitic zone pointed out by many metallographic examinations. Figure 2 shows the ranges of temperatures and times to rupture where type II ruptures are observed. two types of fusion line zone on the ferritic steel side are observed with the following features : * Type I : Narrow fusion line without clear indications of martensite. * Type II : A thicker fusion line with a hardness peak. after service cracking. The use of such results for extrapolation and dissimilar metal creep life prediction requires some cautions in the case of two mechanisms in competition. for a case of in service rupture. one grain from the interface.

it is shifted on the edge of the welded seam on the austenitic side when the other weld seam is ground and takes place in the austenitic base metal when all the welded seams are ground. a fatigue specimen with diametral extensometry.Initiation locations Fatigue tests on transverse specimens from dissimilar metal welded joints (References 71. several 5 points are to be noted for high number of cycles (N > 10 ) : * Flush grinding improves the life over 2 χ 10 exceeds 2. * A first improvement (60 %) is obtained by grinding the welded seam on the ferritic steel side. on the ferritic steel side .MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DISSIMILAR METAL WELDED JOINTS WHEN CREEP IS NON SIGNIFICANT 5.Fatigue life tests .1 . 73) show fatigue lives similar to ferritic base metal lives when Δε < 2 %. In Reference 72. such a specimen does not give a number of cycles to rupture different from that of the ferritic base metal. cycles by a factor which . fatigue initiation takes place at the welded seam edge.17 . In Reference 42. 72. a slightly smaller fatigue life as compared with ferritic base metal is observed : this reduction is thought to be due to heterogeneous strain arising in the fatigue specimen near the fusion line. is used with maximum strain in the heat affected zone .5 .1 .1. For very high strain ranges Δε > 2 %. fatigue tests were made on specimens taken from K-shaped and cruciform welded joints. A first series of fatigue tests were stress controlled . * In the as-welded state. with as welded or flush ground surface of the weld seam.FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF DISSIMILAR METAL WELDED JOINTS 5. but grinding of the welded seam on the austenitic steel side results in a second improvement of fatigue life (20 % ) .

5.1. the . * The martensitic border does not influence the crack path. * increases. in the completely ground condition. at least macroscopically.18 .2 . * Grinding suppresses the stress concentration coming from the geometry of the welded seam edge surface. The latter type of initiation is due to inclusions in the weld metal not detected by non destructive examinations. * Using a buttering improves the behaviour in the as-welded condition . the presence of inclusions is the dominating factor for the fatigue life.Crack propagation When the initiation occurs in the decarburized HAZ propagation can be observed in this area but : * The propagation rate is not greater than in the ferritic base metal. When fatigue tests are strain controlled as it is the case in the second type of tests reported in Reference 72 most of the initiations and of the ruptures take place in the weld metal. These results are interesting about the effects of the surface condition and of slag inclusions in weld metal .* When a buttered layer is used. in the austenitic weld metal is sometimes (Reference 71). by the presence of inclusions. Reference 7 shows that crack growth rates in the weld metal of dissimilar joints can be : * reduced by compressive residual stresses. but the effects are not specific to a dissimilar welded joint between a ferritic steel and an austenitic stainless steel. but also modifies the residual stress field near the surface. the initiations being located at slag inclusions. * A deviation of the crack observed. the initiation takes place in various areas in the as-welded condition (welded seam edge on both sides) and in the ground condition (austenitic base metal or weld metal).

two important points appear from the reported works : 1/ It is better to use an increased temperature because an increase of the stress results in other failure mechanisms : a curvature is observed in the isothermal logarithmic stress versus time plot . Tests are made at a given stress at the highest temperature to obtain short results.LIFE AND RESIDUAL LIFE EVALUATION 6. linear extrapolations to the service temperature seem to be possible.5. it is necessary to accelerate tests on cross weld specimens in comparison with service conditions. give greater impact values for weld metal containing more nickel (40 Ni 16 Cr weld metal can be compared with 24 Cr 20 Ni weld metal).30 and 60 h at 550 °C. 6 . the impact toughness drop increases with ferrite content. In this connection.5 micron. In this case. The impact toughness decreases much less in the weld metal with 70 % of nickel than in the weld metal with 23 % of chromium and 12 % of nickel. The Charpy tests (Reference 60) also show the effect of heat treatment of various duration (10.IMPACT TOUGHNESS The Charpy tests of Reference 68 on specimens taken from dissimilar metal welds. 600 °C and 650 °C). extrapolations on such a plot are doubtful. This effect is thought to be due to the thickness of the martensitic border which decreases the impact level when exceeding 7. The temperature must yet be moderately above the service temperature in order to as little as possible modify the metallurgical evolution.LIFE EVALUATION : EXTRAPOLATION AND ACCELERATION OF THE FAILURE MECHANISM To get creep results usable for the prediction of life time of dissimilar metal welds. 19 . as a consequence. then going down step by step near the service temperature with the longer tests.2 .1 . In the latter case.

-20 . Figures 3 and 4 show the same time to rupture.2/ Uncertainty bound to the necessary extrapolation in life assessment. the results of creep tests and the life durations observed after service or after more austenitic weld metal sophisticated laboratory tests. the available tests results are yet : * too short with a factor of about four in comparison with observed lifes. * size of Mo-C carbides. is greater in the case of nickel weld metal than in the case of austenitic weld metal.RESIDUAL LIFE ASSESSMENT : PREDICTION METHODS They are under development. the ferritic heat affected zone and the weld metal and the calculation of the related stresses by methods other than the simplified ones used for design. The stress analysis has been improved in the case of a weld metal and a base metal of different creep behaviours. The development of experimental or quasi experimental methods for total or residual life assessment has been undertaken. In the case of (Figure 3). taking into account the different creep laws of the base metal. But the problem is more complicated when the heat affected zone is expected to have also a particular behaviour. In the case of nickel base weld metal. but to our knowledge.2 . 6. The first efforts have studied (Reference 30) the carbon evolution : * width of the carburized zone. the domain of test results joins the domain of the observed service life. Indeed it is difficult to evaluate lives and residual lives. The latter measurement is relatively well correlated with the temperature and time conditions seen by the material. * at a temperature increased by 25 or 30 °C above the service temperatures. the relation of this measurement with the creep residual life was not tested. This is the counterpart of longer creep life but also the observation of two different competitive failure locations does increase the doubt about the validity of the extrapolations. temperature logarithmic diagram.

is a mixed method of calculation and of observation of damaged samples. * Secondary damage proportional to the number of cycles n/N : it is a fatigue damage. are used in relation with pure creep tests. As a counterpart. The PODIS method. The development of these methods will be long because it needs numerous quantitative examinations of out of service samples and specimens of isothermal or thermally cycled creep tests both interrupted and conducted to rupture. it can be noted that these methods can become non destructive with the parallel development of replica techniques.Then the observations tentatively used : related more directly to the creep damage were * maximum length of microcracks. The observations and tests on samples. (instead of two in current design * file of typical micrographies corresponding to known steps of the damage 21 . Its principle is to separate the damage in three parts evaluation) : * Primary damage proportional to the time at temperature : it is a creep damage in t/t_ (t_ being the rupture time under primary stresses). * proportion of cracked grain boundaries. medium time of tertiary creep). (medium time or end of secondary creep. These examinations are quite necessary to quantify the damage accumulation which is presently known only schematically. to determine the five coefficients needed to calculate the total damage. after damage accumulation. under development in the United States. * "Intrinsic" damage proportional to the number of cycles and to the temperature variation during the cycle : η χ ΔΤ.

the welding procedure is more difficult due to the hot cracking risk. But with nickel base weld metal. .1 . the hot cracking risk depends on the non ferritic base metal by the effect of the dilution on the non ferritic side of the weld. Nickel base weld metal is to be preferred for loaded joints from the impact toughness point of view.e.EVALUATION AND IMPROVEMENT OF DISSIMILAR METAL WELD LEVES 7. : . It is not possible to quantify toughness and to compare with the toughness of the base metal because the analysis of fracture mechanics tests in heterogeneous welds is difficult.free of hydrogen assisted cold cracks in the HAZ and in the martensitic border zone. In the case of dissimilar metal welds as well as in the case of homogeneous welds.Low températures service In this case. Furthermore. the fatigue life of dissimilar metal welds does not seem to be shorter than the life of the base metals to be joined.7 . In these conditions. 22 - . in particular at the edges of the welded seams. the improvement of dissimilar metal welds will result from the development. probably on its toughness.1 . The thickness of the martensitic border zone has an influence on the impact toughness of the weld and. fatigue life depends on surface finish. * With a martensitic border zone of regular and as small as possible thickness obtained by controlling the dilution of the weld metal and the base metal.1.CONCLUSIONS 7. qualification and control of the welding procedure to obtain safe welded joints : * Without defects i.free of hot cracks in the weld metal.

2 . either the interface between the ferritic base metal and the weld metal.e. The joints with a nickel base alloy as weld metal. (Paragraph 4.1) experience situation. For the second effect.7. welded joints of the more creep resistant ferritic steels should have a better behaviour.23 .2). * The difference in creep strain rates between the weld metal and the ferritic base metal. But both localised damage zones have been produced in the low stress creep tests and the corresponding mechanisms seem to be competitive with nickel base as well as with austenitic steel weld metal. or the heat affected zone near the fusion line at a distance of one or two grains. . (Paragraph 3. * The microstructure of the zone where the creep damage is localised i.Elevated temperature service To obtain for the dissimilar metal welds a life as long as that of the weaker of the base metals. Cross and weld service creep tests cyclic (Paragraph 4. But we have not yet found any systematic study of dissimilar metal welds of high creep resistant steel (like 9-12 % chromium steel) and the comparison with 2 1/4 Cr Mo metal welds is not possible. Three effects can lower the creep strength : * The additional strains and stresses due to the expansion coefficient gap between the weld metal and the ferritic base metal. The localisation of the creep damage has been observed but not completely explained by a metallurgical mechanism.1.1) confirm this point. Creep reduction factors seem to be applied to dissimilar metal welds. are in a better at least for the tests first effect. it is not enough to produce defect free welded joints when the creep damage mechanism is likely to operate.

no inclusion nor porosity (at least no large inclusion) in the weld deposit.control of dilution for the band or martensite. High stress tests are not convenient for extrapolation . The buttering technique improves the fatigue strength only if the buttered layers are as inclusion free as the filling of the weld. 2 For high or frequent cyclic loading care should be taken with the surface finishing of the weld seam. mechanisms must be accelerated by higher temperature. There are no clear reasons to consider separately the two types of fracture.Considering the results available. 7. * In the weld metal . 24 .hot cracking prevention specially when the weld metal is a nickel base alloy.cold cracking prevention.CONCLUDING RECOMMENDATIONS 1 For all service conditions considerable thought should be given to selection and qualification of welding procedures which is not as easy as in the homogeneous welded joint case for the following reasons : * On the ferritic steel side . .2 . the necessary extrapolations are more difficult in case of nickel base welds than in the case of austenitic ones. Flush grinding or machining result in fatigue strength improvement and failure locations shift from the weld reinforcement to the base metals. * On the austenitic steel side . for the evaluation of the reduction factors to be applied to dissimilar metal welds in time and temperature service conditions.

a weak creep strength zone cannot be avoided by current welding practices. 4 When brittle fracture must be considered. 6 Even in the case of nickel base weld metal. it can initiate early metallurgical degradation leading to weakened zones (fusion line and/or nearest HAZ) where creep damage will localise. 5 When creep strength is important. 8 After thermal cycling. the state of stress is complex due to the expansion coefficient gap but also to the accommodation of the different strain rates . in life prediction it can be useful to add an intrinsic cyclic damage variying with η χ ΔΤ to the current creep and fatigue damages due to the calculated stress and strain range. nickel base alloy is to be preferred as weld metal. reduction factors should be established to take into account the reduced creep strength of the dissimilar welded joint as compared to the ferritic steel (the weaker of the two base metals). 7 The post weld heat treatment must be limited to the minimum level required for welding procedure qualification (to prevent cold cracking) . for the higher impact strength and toughness of the welded joint.3 As good fatigue strength as in the base metals can be expected of dissimilar metal welds if they are free from defects mentioned in 1 and 2 above. the use of nickel base alloy should be preferred to austenitic steel as weld metal. 25 .

Tests to failure and tests stopped after noticeable damage accumulation are expected to provide complementary information. are expected to give improved dissimilar welded joints for creep due to the reduced gap in creep strain rates with the austenitic stainless steels.2 % yield stress of the austenitic base metal (120-150 MPa). First tests must be performed at temperatures higher than expected service temperatures. 10 Thermal cyclic creep fatigue tests are needed if intrinsic damage is used in life prediction to adjust the parameters involved. 26 . * experimentally define parameters used in life prediction. going down afterwards to temperatures closer to the latter. * explain more completely the mechanism responsible for creep weak zones by micrographie examination and analysis. in order to : * improve extrapolation methods. more creep resistant than the 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo one. 11 Ferritic steels. more specially in the nickel base weld metal case. Stresses are to be limited to the 0.9 Creep tests vinder moderate stress are needed. 12 Localised oxydation has not been quantitatively checked but can act in the failure mechanism. But this experimental evidence is not yet available.

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juin 1986. Nuclear Technology V. VIGNES Technologie des liaisons bimétalliques acier inoxydable austénitique ou alliage NiCrFe sur acier 20 M5 M ou 16 MND5 DVS 75 pl82 1975 83 84 35- . 81 K.G. joints made by 82 D. PETREQUIN Conséquences de migration du carbone dans les liaisons hétérogènes soudées. p.K. 327S-334S.A. LECLOU. A. Conference on welding of dissimilar metals Droitwich may 1969 F. 1981. FROST Service experience with some dissimilar metal welds in the process industry Conference on welding of dissimilar metals Droitwich may 1969 M. J. december 1986. FONDEVIOLE. WEISZ Effect of decarburization on structural and mechanical properties of ferritic steels. MURTY. TAVASSOLI. SUNDERESAN Thermal behaviour of austenitic-ferritic transition friction welding. A.D. P. 302. TAVASSOLI. Welding Research Sup.M.79 A. M. HADDRILL. Colloque de Métallurgie INSTIN. TOURON. nov. RUSSEL Cracking associated with dissimilar metal welds at the top ends of reformer tube. 80 A.P. 55 p. H. S.A.


T A B L E S AND F I G U R E S 37 .


1 .12) Í 0.89) 1. 42.65 (0.47) (0.54) (0.5) 0.19) (0.58) (0.25) 0.43-0.98) (0.20 72-83 3 11 1 Mo 0 .35 (0.09) (0.21 « 0.40 « 0. 20.02) (0.05) 62 4-47 < 0.60-0.27) (0.20) (0.5 (29) (0.25 « 0.22) < 0.10-0.12) 3-24 10-11.15 0. 35 39. 4 1 .11) (0.33) (0.43) (0.10) (0.6 (2.15 (C. 54 1 3 .0 0.04) (0.55 Í 0. 64.TABLE 1 FERRITIC STEELS INVOLVED I N D I S S I M I L A R METAL WELDED J O I N T S TYPICAL ANALYSIS ON PRODUCTS GRADE Mn < 0.3-0.23) (0.08) (1.9-2.62) (0.05) (0.12) (2. 22.40) (0. 36.30) (0.65-3.15-1.12) 0.27) (2.26) 2.78) (1.3-0.45-0.87) (0.44-0.12) (0.65 72 . 4 3 .15 12 12-15 4-37 « 0. 5 3 . 70 74-75 0 .6 (0. 45.25 « 0.21) (2.47) (0.20 < 1.02 « 0. 5 % Mo 0.40) < 0.90 « 1.13) 4 0.17) (0.90) (0.3-0.28) (0.80 « 0.50-0. 19. 5 Cr MoV 1 Cr 1/2 Mo 00 CT) (0.6 « 0.08) (0.13) (0. 59.34) (2. 44.88) (0.6 (0.50 0.8-1.066) (0.60 0.22) (0.08) (1.01 0.15) 4 à 9.3-0.5-1 (0.71) (0. 13 (0.30 Í Cr Ni Cu Nb 34 REFERENCES SA 516 25 M 4 M N 20 M 5 M 16 MND5 (13 MND5) 0 . 32. 8 7 . 37. 47.07) (2.5 (1.56) 0.25 « 0.06 (0.22 Si 0.35) (0.20 1. 56.6 (1.081) (0.25 71-83 83 « 0.50 « 0.25 0.14) (0.57 Í 0.04) (1.25) (0.39) (2.12) (0. 30.5 4.28) (0.0-1.6) 0.5 (0.0-6.16 4-47 34-35 SA 213 T i l 1 1/4 Cr 1 Mo 2 Cr Mo SA 213 T22 2 1/4 Cr 1 Mo (10 Cr Mo 9-10) 10 CD 9-10 10 Cr Mo Nb 9-10 SA 213 T21 3 Cr 1 1/2 Mo 3/4 V 3 Cr 1/2 Mo 3/4 V 1/2 SA 213 T5 25 NCD 7-5 (0.15-0.25 < 0.45) (1) 1.61) 0.15 (0.

16.30) « 1.1) 10.40) (1.75 (0.5) (15) (12. 47. 39.04-0.5 (0. 16. 42 29 .75 « 1 < 0.0 (0.5) < 0.5) (0. 32 .06) 0. 12. 16. 12.25) (0. 16.5) 2-3 (2.75 (0.10 (0.75 Í 0.8) Cr 18-20 18-20 18-21 (18) 17-20 17-19 17-20 (18) 17-20 (16.5) « 2 (1.04-0.09) < 0.67) 30-35 (71.60 (8.08 < 0.75 (0.04-0.15-0.00150. 35.32) 0.08 (0.56. 15.10 « 0. 64 29-47 11 (0.08 0.055) (0.08 (0.39 . 21.0 (1) (2.15-0.5) « 0.1) (0.06) 0. 41.04-0.7) (6) (1. 36. 75 7.04-0. 11. 18.5 (1) « 2 « 2 « 2 (1) « 2 (1.96) 0. 11.5 (0.60) (0.47) (17) 16-18 (16. 43.0 (0. 45. 11.1) MO Ti Nb B Al Fe 72 9-35-47 REFERENCES « 0.23) (13) 11-14 (13.TABLE 2 AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEELS INVOLVED IN DISSIMILAR METAL WELDED JOINTS TYPICAL ANALYSIS ON PRODUCTS GRADE 304 (Z6Cn 18-10) SA 213 TP 304 H SA 351 CF8 321 C « 0.03) Mn « 2 < 2 « 1. 40.5) Ni 8-11 8-11 8-11 (10) 9-13 11-13 9-13 (12) 9-13 (13.6) (0.5) ΐ 0. 15. 28 62 39.98) 19-23 (17.6 10C-1.5) 4C-0.10 (0.45 35 35.44) Í 1. 44.0 (0. 9.49) Si < 0. 22.10 (0.5) (10) (16.08) (0. 31.3) (1) (2. 10.8) 8C-1. 47.39) 0. 8.0060 34 5.6 4C-0. 37. 70 62 10.60 (0.75 S 2.10 0.06) 0. 52 -P» O SA 213 TP 321H Z6 CNT 18-12 SA 213 TP 347 347 SA 213 TP 347H X8 Cr Ni Nb 16-13 316 SA 213 TP 316H Esshete 1250 X 8 Cr Ni Mo Nb 16-13 800 H Sanicro 71 10.

46.06 < 2 0. 6.5 SFA SFA 5-4 16. 47 4.o Buttering Electrodes Electrodes Electrodes Electrodes < 0. C Μη Si Ρ S Cr Ni Mo Nb Ti re Cu STANDARD REFERENCES 121 Cr 2 LC (0.75 (0.5-3.024) < 0.5 J SFA SFA SFA 5-14 5-14 5-11 < 0.5 * Mo) 2 1/4 Ce Mo Nb-t 306L E 300L E 308 Ho FOK 3.5-2.75 SFA 5-4 10. 5.0« (0.5 (2.24) « 1 < 0.9 0.0 (21 2-3 < 0.5 0.5 ί ί 0.5) < 1.03 0.07) < 0. 13.75 0.66) (14.7) 0.29) 2-3 (0.l 182 E NI Cr Fe 3 Inconel λ E NI er r.1 0.06) *j 0.16) < 0. 70 21 (2.03 0.0t 0.1 (0.5 (2.911 (1.75 (0. 17 19.031 Electrodes Electrodes Electrodes TIO TIO ί ί 0.03 22-25 12-14 ί 0.03 10.03 0.11) < 1 (0. 13.03 0.04 (0.5-0 < 12 < 0.22) < 1.03 10.02 ι 5' ι 62 (49.03 19-21 16-21 16-21 (15.9 ί ί ί 0.03 0.05 < 0.030 ί < 0.1 0.65 4.5 12.9 0.04 ί < < 0.03 10.90 0.5 0.75 SFA SFA 5-4 5-9 0.Β El.07) < ί ί 0.053) ί ί 0.36) (0.5 3 0.75 0.90 $ 0.07) (0.5 0.5-4 (1.5 0.03 < 0.5) 112.et rod.25 < 0.4-0. 5. 16 17.07) (0.5 12-14 12-14 < 0. 20 71.61 < < < 0. 16 (0.9 0.5-9.0-2.971 < 0.9 ί 0.000) «ί 0. 44 13.015 0.5 (0.75 < < (1) RCC-M < < 0. 22 4.1) 25-26 117.03 17-20 14. 44.015 0. 6 16.04 0.5 SFA 5-11 (0.025 0.5-2.06 (0. 32 47.·) .025 ί ΐ 0.931 1-2.75 < 3 < 6 < 11 (9.025 0.90 (0.03 ί 0. 54 62 62 < ί 0.et rod. 7.12 è.5 ί 0.10 < 0.5 < 0. 21.75 SFA 5-9 4 10 < < 0.5-2. 45 4.5-2. 16.5) 2.75 Cn 16-13 (0.1 132 E NI Cr Fel Incon.14) (0.02 ι 61 ι 6Ί > 62 (70.97) 5-9 1-3 (1. 73 2-3 (0.7 « 3.5 2.75 (0. 40 43.65) (34.411 69.5 < 0.5 6XC-1 11) KO.04 0. 72 ί 0.02) < 0.31) (1.011) $ 0.75 RCC-M SFA SFA 5-4 5-4 72 62 71. 72. 30 5-4 4.75 0.3-7 < 0.5-16.75 0.et rod.5-13.04 0.03 ί ί 0. 73 5.TABLE 3 WELD METALS INVOLVED IN DISSIMILAR METAL WELDED JOINTS GRADE PROC.04 ί 0.75) < 0. 37 15.64) 2.03 0.04 ί 0.241 < 10 * 0. OB 0.141 ί 0.5-2.75 KO.05) < 0.5 1-2.75 < 0.5 9-11 9-12 (12.60 < < 0. 16. 2 Fox 50 Ni Nb NCF Cb Electrodes Electrodes Electrodes Electrodes Electrodes (0. 26.04 0. 5.50 0. 45 4.24 1 10. 15.24) ί < < 0.η TIO El.0-2.et rod.025 < ί 0.5 1.60) « 2 < ί ί 1. 26 41.5 309L E 309 ER 309 25 Cr 12 NI E 309 Cb 1« Cr « NI 1 Nb E 347 (1« Cr 12 Ni 1 Nb) E 310 316 Ι ­ Ε 31« E 16-1-2 Araex QT ( 17 Cr β NI 2 Mol Inconel 62/ER NI Cr 3 Ine™·! Cr 6 92/ER NI < 0.14) SFA 5-11 0.7-1 < 0.04 < 0.75 0.57) 11.5-11.75 SFA 5-4 19.64) 9-11 (9.5-3.02) < ί ί 0. 56.03 22-26 22-25 23-25 9.5 161 1. 37.5-2.015 0.B Elect rod·« SAWButtering El. 6 Electrodes Buttar Ing SAWButtering Kl.03 16-21 (19.5 Incori.5-2.02) < < < 0. 12.12 0.6 ί 0.006) ί ί 0. 6.04 (0. 64.5 0.20 0.15 0. 45.9) 12-14 (10) 11-14 7.5-2.5 (17) 16-22 14-17 13-17 (16.33) 13-17 13-17 110. 40 43. 6.

X \JLi_pÌTÌAAi2- €00 -f* ho Η· o ·· 55Ö-Λ0 1 •^iriftjL -fco Olirsi >ia.Λ ^errperätu/LSL 650 '¿L • -hyC)í2. OLi_prtu tkl 40' AtH /lo- FIGURE 1 DISSIMILAR METAL WELDS WITH STAINLESS STEEL AS FILLER METAL CREEP TESTS TO RUPTURE .


A T^pu^Q-WeX. o ·— · 6Ό0 *■ cxX> · · • · ·<4<6 ο • · · • · * · Φ ÖO *· o O . °(L. NAJSJ-C/ dypQ ρ ~fceJLl-g.o o Γ "o . o ε so Φ e«v>û5S. l 550 Ti οίε ih) /lo 3 X FIGURE 3 /o DISSIMILAR METAL WELDS WITH AUSTENITIC FILLER METALS . -Le £f-i _ /s ioJLOOLQ ¿OVy/ -{rr'tlhyL.

/θ7. o TÍIWA Γ (Λ) /ID' λok FIGURE 4 λ*1 DISSIMILAR METAL WELDS WITH NICKEL BASE FILLER METALS . i Piltra · · · • 4» Sboαϊ 0 · · • · 0 m · m · · · o 550.A ~Τοι* Ç5o Κην.ι„ o . ° C_ O ìk\ -k £i>-h"e_ úL< -/^.




A wide range of austenitic stainless steels and ferritic steels (carbon steels. geometries and welding procedures treated in the study. A further section is devoted to a review of test results on fatigue behaviour and impact toughness for dissimilar metal welded joints when creep is not significant. low allow steels and alloy steels) are covered. welding procedure.0 x 29. .. The report begins with a presentation of the materials. Finally. In LMFBRs such welds appear at the junction of the austenitic stainless steel vessel with the ferritic steel roof and in sodium and water or steam pipes. life prediction and testing of dissimilar metal welds. A set of recommendations concludes the report. — 21. in particular failed welds. Escara vage Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities 1990 — VI. 45 pp.European Communities — Commission EUR 13083 — Mechanical behaviour of dissimilar metal welds C. followed by a review of service experience from examinations of dissimilar metal welds after elevated temperature service. Results of laboratory tests performed for reproducing service failures are then discussed. tab.7 cm Nuclear science and technology series EN ISBN 92-826-1895-1 Catalogue number: CD-NA-13083-EN-C Price (excluding VAT) in Luxembourg: ECU 5 This report addresses the problems of dissimilar metal welds connecting an austenitic stainless steel component to a ferritic steel component. fig. They concern the material selection. the study encompasses more than 20 different weld metals (austenitic stainless steels and nickel base alloys). The latter are exposed to high temperatures in the creep range.. the problem of residual life assessment is addressed.


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