You are on page 1of 18

1) lpg tanks construction material used2 ( INVAR: 36% nickel steel or 9% nickel steel- higher temp.

) 2) what all certificate to be carried according to annex 6 ( IAPP and sup plements: particulars of ship, control of emissions from ship* ozone depleting s ubs * NOx *SOx * volatile organic compound)+ EIAPP 3) under which clause in ISM sms is there (part A: clause 1.4, part A is IMPLEMENTATION and part B is certification and verification) 4) Actions taken during boiler uptake fire? (Boiler uptake fire is becaus e of wet soot deposited during low steaming and also during uptake fire do not c arry out soot blow reduce the load and stop the engine , cover the m/e t/c with the canvas so that no air is supplied). 5) Needle vv lift. (1.4mm for 250 bar lifting pressure)

6) Boiler corrosion how it happens and how to prevent. (Acidic corrosionCO2, O2, OIL, CHLORIDES, BICARBONATES and pitting corrosion: scales such as calc ium and magnesium salts.) 7) accumulation pressure test in boiler ( accumulation pr should not mor e than 10 percent of working pr. when boiler is firing on full load for boiler). 8) how to reduce maintenance in exhaust vv (good quality fuel usage , vit adjustment, avoid running engine on low load, check fuel injection system, good scavenging, maintaining cooling water temp, check rotation of exhaust v/v) 9) refrigeration gases how its classified according to environment hazard (ozone depletion potential- max R11, for R22 is 0.05 and global warming potenti al- max is R11 .and R22 is 0.365) 10) Contactors maintenance on starter what is the material of contactor (1. Check for loose, missing, broken contactors, 2. Cleaning and checking contact s urfaces for improper wear or discoloration 3. Remove oxides from faces using fin e files, main contacts are high conductivity copper coz they ll not heat up due to lower resistance, arcing contacts are made of sintered silver tungsten or oth er materials which don t weld at high temps) 11) s) Crane jib is cracked how u r going to weld. (arrest crack and weld plate

12) Junior engineer boxed back the purifier after cleaning then its found vi brating probable causes. ( bowl may not be cleaned properly, lock ring not tight ening properly, bowled assembled with wrong parts, gear can be in damaged condit ion, bowl springs not fitted correctly, top bearing springs damaged, discs not p roperly assembled or tightened, some external tool left inside .) 13) insulation of motor is found to be 0.5 mega ohms what we can do to brin g back the insulation (dry the motor by heating lamp and then test insulation n put fast drying varnish, check visually for any wires broken) SAE 20 means it ll have a viscosity of 20cst at 100 C and SAE 15W40 means viscos ity of 40cst at 100 C and 15cst at 0 C. 14) Mooring arrangement on crude oil tanker. ( headlines, breast lines-athw art ship movt, spring lines- longitudinal movt., cable for towing) 15) LSA equipment in life boat. (6 hand flares> 15000 cd and 1 min, 4 rocket s>30,000cd and 40secs, 2 buoyant smoke signals>3mins,anti-sea sickness tablets,

tpa, portable fire extinguisher, search light, a manual pump, efficient radar de flector, food ration, fresh water, tool kit) 16) What is power factor? (Power factor is the ratio of true power to the ap parent power. i.e. watt/volt amp.) 17) residual magnetism (residual magnetism is the property in which certain amount of excitation remains back in the conductor even after removal of the mag nets) 18) Reverse power trip location and drawing. (In the A.C.B. pg 58- mc.

19) container capacity- how much load a container can carry (32tonnes for 40 ft container) 20) ds) 21) How container is placed on tank top with drawing. Pg 121- ship cons ree IOPP supplement ( pg 22- gautam sen)

22) hyper mist system maintenance (Areas-a/e, m/e, incinerator, boiler, puri fier,IGG , blow through with air, pump operation, if correct solenoid is functio ning after manually activating the system from each area) 23) Anchor not coming up, reasons? (windlass oil level low, anchor stuck, sl ipping of clutch, high oil temp cut-out, power failure, pump or motor not functi oning, actuating valves prob. ) 24) About co2 sys, all values temp and test pr etc. (pipes-15years h.p.sec-18 0bar, m.p.sec-80bar, l.p.sec-6bar, spring loaded safety v/v in main pipe-180bar, bottle-228bar, seal bursting disc-63 C, storage temp. <55 C) 25) AE inlet vv big or exhaust vv big and y? (a/e inlet valves are bigger, n o back pressure in t/c free flow, better scavenging exhaust gas expelled easily, and exhaust v/v is smaller due to less power required to open .) 26) What and why material of sounding bob. (brass- non sparking, softer than steel) 27) min. thickness of feeler gauge (0.05mm or 0.01mm)

28) causes of pump wear ring being worn (strainer faulty, bearing damage, ca vitations, high temp. water, unbalanced impellar) 29) SCR system, ammonia slip, catalyst? (selective catalyst reaction- exhau st is mixed with ammonia and passed through a catalytic reactor, hence reduction in NOx. And soot in exhaust. Temp.-290-450 C. FINAL PRODUCTS WATER AND NITROGEN PG 78-80 POUNDERS) ASTM means American society for testing of materials, it develops standard for m aterials, product, systems used in construction, manufacturing and transportatio n. SAE is society of automotive engineers; it gives the viscosity of oil based on a classification involving 2 temperatures 30) if the dip stick breaks in co2 bottle then what will happen? (if co2 bo ttle dip stick is broken, once the liquid level reaches below the broken siphon tube , co2 will freeze as latent heat is absorbed from the remainder CO2.Earlier with intact tube , co2 changed from liquid to gas at end of hose outside but no w it turns to gas inside , reducing the discharge rate)

31) composition of lpg, lng and cng (lpg-propane, butane, lng-metane, cng-me thane) 32) Maintenance on QCV? (try out once every 3 months, drain air bottle, che ck hand operation, spring condition, check piston) 33) If life boat falls suddenly while lowering then how will u troubleshoot ? (falls broken, falls releasing mechanism operated accidently, centrifugal brea k check) 34) manhole door elliptical...why?( manhole door elliptical: longitudinal pr essure = pd/4t or circumferential pressure=pd/2t where p=pressure, d=diameter, t=thickness...so circumferential pressure is more) 35) Advantages and disadvantages of flare? (Flare advantage: prevents water to come to the deck, more space for deck machinery, avoids anchor from striking at bottom and improves buoyancy fwd. disadv.-more flare means parametric rollin g ..when waves freq is half of rolling freq and same as pitching freq) 36) 37) meggar operation? (pg-399, b.l.thareja vol1) Hydrometer working and diagram? (pg-145- d.t.hall)

38) Economiser if the area of heat transfer is 1000 sq m what all will come under it and draw the construction of fins (surface area of fins and tubes) 39) Why 3 injectors are used in modern 2 stroke engines (There will be bett er turbulence since three fuel injectors at an angle and the scavenge air enters at an angle so there will be better turbulence, there will be more proper heat dissipation in piston and cylinder head) 40) Why steam is grey in color and not transparent? (water content in soot release) 41) How does MGPS works? (2purpose: Cu kills sea growth and Al stops corros ion, the system is based on electrolytic reaction and dc supplied to anode) 42) What is Muntz metal, monel metal, white metal compositions and which is more electrochemically active of them? (monel- copper-38 n nickel-60,al and man ganese-2, white metal- tin-88, antimony-7.5, copper-4,lead-0.35, muntz metal-cop per-60, zinc-40 ) 43) A compressor was overhauled and bumping clearance was found to be norma l inspite of that piston strikes the head. Give reasons? (in unloaded condition: Bottom end bearing wear down of lower half will cause this--maybe 44) What is dealuminification where is it observed and why? (form of corros ion in which amount of aluminium decreases in an alloy pumps, valves coz Al is com paratively more reactive) 45) Function of motor on governor (remote operation of speed setting knob-by adjusting spring pressure) 46) How to prevent Dezincification? (put soft iron anodes)

47) How will you make camshaft float while adjusting its position? (hydraul ic pressure) 48) Limitations of ODME (difficulty in analyzing- bad weather, muddy water, discharge capacity increases in bad weather as speed is measured when the ship i

s not moving as much) 49) COFFIN PLATE (attaches sole piece in stern frame with keel plate in aft and attaches keel plate with stem in fwd) 50) INTERNATIONAL SHORT VOYAGE (in which a ship doesn t exceed 200 nm distanc e from nearest land and total voyage should not exceed 600 nm) 51) DESUPERHEATED STEAM. WHY AFTER SUPERHEATING WE ARE USING DESUPERHEATER D esuperheating, sometimes called attemperation or steam conditioning, is the redu ction of gas temperature. Its most common application is the reduction of temper ature in a steam line through the direct contact and evaporation of water. Most Desuperheaters incorporate the venturi design which uses the velocity of the ste am to atomize the cooling water. In addition, Ejector Atomizing Desuperheaters, Attemperator Desuperheaters, Surface Absorption Desuperheaters and Mechanical At omizing Desuperheater designs are available. In most types, water pressure requi rements are the same as the steam line pressure 52) COP OF REFERIGERATION. (A refrigerator is a device for removing heat at a cold temp so heat absorbed in the evaporator fi(in),the cop is also called adv antage and is defined as C.O.P. In a refrigeration cycle, the ratio of the heat energy extracted by the heat engine at the low temperature to the work supplied to operate the cycle; when used as a heating device, it is the ratio of the heat delivered in the high-temperature coils to the work supplied) 53) 50) WHEN REMOVING LOWERHALF MAIN BRG.IT IS STUCK WHAT WILL YOU DO? (sanyal 2

54) SOOT BLOWING DIFFERNT METHOD AND ARRANGEMENTS,THE ULTRASONIC TYPE HOW IS IT WORKING? CHEMICAL TYPE, WHAT TYPE OF CHEMICAL? (sodium chloride, magnesium o xide, cupric chloride, zinc oxide, copper oxide) 55) DRY DOCK STRENTUBE CHECKS? (liner, seals, bearing condition)

56) Where do you find underslung bearing in Man B&W main engine (camshaft be aring) 57) Refrigerant properties? (pg-335 mc. G: the heat of vaporization of the refrigerant should be high, the specific heat of the refrigerant should be low . the specific volume of the refrigerant should be low to minimize the work requ ired per kg of refrigerant circulated, since evaporation and condenser temperatu res are? xed by the temperatures of the surroundings - selection is based on ope rating pressures in the evaporator and the condenser selection is based on the s uitability of the pressure-temperature relationship of the refrigerant other fac tors include chemical stability toxicity cost environmental friendliness does no t result in very low pressures in the evaporator (air leakage) does not result i n very high pressures in the condenser (refrigerant leakage) OR condensing press ure should be moderate. b) But the pressure should be preferably above the atmos pheric pressure so as to prevent air from entering the system in the event of le ak. c.) Low freezing point d.)Volume of refrigerant gas need to be pumped per to n of refrigerating effect should be low. d.) it should have high thermodynamic e fficiency. Thermodynamic efficiency is the ratio between heat abstracted by the refrigerating machinery and the heat equivalent of the power supplied the compre ssors e.) it should not be flammable or explosive. f.) it should not be toxic. g .) the tendency of a refrigerant to leak should be low, and the detection of lea k should be easy. h.) for good heat transfer viscosity should be low, thermal co nductivity high. i.) it is preferred that there should not be a chemical reactio n between the refrigerant and the lub oil. j.) cheaper in cost. k.) non corrosiv e, non flammable, chemically stable, non explosive, miscibility with oil, ozne d epletion potential, high critical temperature.

58) What is lean mixture in dual fuel combustion engine? (lean burn means th e mixture of air and gas in the cylinder has more air than needed for complete c ombustion, reducing peak temp- less NOx, eff inc bcoz of higher compression rati o and optimsed injection timing. 60) What s the time period to discard a chain and renew with new one in B&W t ell the percentage elongation max allowed in 1 inch chain link? (max allowable l imit of elongation is 1.2% , chains should be removed once in 8 yrs or 50,000 ho urs) 61) Thrust pad removal? Diagram of front view along with retainer and top c over fitting screws? How do you remove pads? Where do you fix the tool? (reed s vo l. 8 pg 242) 62) Exhaust gas of all units high cause? (bad quality fuel, faulty fuel syst em, poor scavenging) 63) What is the purpose of lead screw and tool feeder? (lead screw for THRE ADING and tool feeder for TURNING) 64) IS INERT GAS REQUIRED ON PRODUCT TANKERS? IF IT IS NOT PRESENT WHAT ARE THE OTHER ARRANGEMENT PROVIDED IN THE PRODUCT TANKERS? (Nitrogen purging) 65) IS CHEMICAL TANKERS AND PRODUCT CARRIERS CAN CARRY DIFFERENT GRADES OF CARGO, IF CARRIED WAT R THE PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN? WHAT ARE ARRANGEMENTS PROVI DED ON THE SUCH TANKERS? (crude tankers: different pumping arrangements for all the tanks and for chemical tankers every tank have different pumps, all tanks ha ve different insulations) 66) AS A 2ND ENGR. WHAT ARE THE PREPAREDNES FOR ISM SURVEY ONBOARD? (IMO SYM BOLS, D.P.A, SMS, DRILLS, TRAINING, CRITICAL EQUIPMENTS, CONTIGENCY PLANS, SAFET Y EQUIPMENTS, P.M.S., NAVIGATIONAL EQ, BUNKERING PROCEDURES, POLLUTION PREVENTIO N PROCEDURES ) 67) BALLAST WATER MANAGEMENT? (pg-117, gautam sen)

68) WHAT ARE CRITICAL EQUIPMENTS? (sudden operational failure of which may r esult in hazardous situation) 69) LONG STROKE AND SUPER LONG STROKE ENGINES CONSTRUCTION DIFF. AND ADVANT AGES OF SUPERLONG OVER LONG STROKE. (super long adv is more time for scavenging and more air so more eff, less speed) 70) WHAT IS CCAI NUMBER? (calculated carbon aromaticity index, 800-860 refer saif tole motor pg-13) 71) SHORE SUPPLY 50 TO 60 Hz AND 60 TO 50 hz? (freq convertor)

72) SHIP 'S LOAD TO INDUCTIVE LOAD, HOW TO IMPROVE POWER FACTOR? (put capaci tor bank) 73) VALENCE BAND? (Is the highest range of electron energies in which electr ons are normally present at absolute zero temp.) 74) DROOP SETTINGS AND ITS USES? (pg-265 sanyal)

75) how ll u rectify ovality of crankpin n how ll u run engine on this condi tion ( we will use oil stone to get the crank pin in the circular shape as far a s possible. as with oval crank pin the oil film will not be proper and bearing t

hough undersized will run hot. Lube pressure will be less. Then afterwards we us e undersized bearing, if the engine has thick shell bearings same procedure with shims have to be put in, the oil pressure should never fall below 3.5 bars unde r full load condition.) 76) DEWATERING system (provide draining and or pumping facility to pump out water from spaces which are located fwd of foremost cargo hold in case of detect ion inflow into corresponding spaces. Solas chapter 12 regulation 13.1. The sys task is to operate and supervise the operation of drainage sys by control and po sition indication of relevant butterfly valves in corresponding spaces. Spaces c an be connected to educator for drainage and tanks r drained by ship water balla st system. Water level detector in hold at 0.5 mts and another on height not les s than 15% or not more than 2mts) 77) SPCV IN SULZER (spcv is stagnation pressure control valve used to suppre ss the after injection on RTA engines. If the SPCV is removed, the fuel pump is directly connected to the high pressure pipe allowing stagnation pressure to dro p to a level where cavitations can occur.) 78) Why AE NOX is less (time is very less for producing NOx as reaction time is less) 79) As per solas define high speed craft, bulk carrier (high speed craft is a craft capable of a maximum speed in meters per second equal to or exceeding 3. 7XV*0.1667 where V is volumetric displacement corresponding to the design waterl ine and BULK CARRIER means a ship which is constructed generally with single dec k, top-side tanks and hopper side tanks in cargo spaces, and is intended primar ily to carry dry cargo in bulk and includes such types as ore carriers and combi nation carriers) 80) angle of loll (angle of loll: If ship is initially unstable-negative GM, the ship will heel till the B comes under G, then GM is 0.so now the ship is in clined and in a kind of neutral equilibrium. now if the ship is further heeled, the ship rolls about this point .this is because on further heeling beyond loll angle, GZ becomes positive) 81) The m/e t/c lub is supplied by m/e lo p/p, during sudden lub p/p failure how t/c is protected. (POST LUBRICATION TANK and lubrication system. During nor mal engine operation the post lubrication system is continuously filled by lube oil via a small bypass line from the m/e l.o. system that also supplies the t/c. Excessive ...l.o. is unpressurised supplied back to the m/e l.o. circuit by mea ns of a free o'flow.In case of a shutdown or blackout of the m/e where the l.o. supply from the m/e to the t/c is interrupted, the l.o. flows down from the from the post lubrication tk by gravity, ensuring the lubrication and cooling of the two plain bearings during running out of the rotor for up to 20 mins. The m/e s hould be stopped within this time!! This system features 2 separate oil inlet pi pes and 2 running down pipes with different levels from the post lubrication tk to the brgs. This ensures that in case of standstill of m/e and shut off l.o. su pply that the turbine side brg is longer lubricated and cooled than the blower s ide brg. This tk is @ atmospheric pressure.) 82) What is no volt coil? (No Volt coil is used in trip ckt . this is energi zed by one phase and if there is any dip in the voltage then this coil is insuff iciently energised and hence the breaker trips. OR no volt coil can also be used in starter, when handle is on ON position motor gets supply and entire starting resistance is series with armature and field. The current thru no volt coil ene rgize it when handle is moved to run position, the no volt coil holds the handle by attracting the soft iron piece on the handle. Hence the no volt coil is also known as hold on coil. The no volt coil is designed in such a way that it holds the handle in run position only when sufficient current is flowing for which mo

tor can run safely. If there is loss of load current drawn by motor decreases du e to which it loses its required magnetism and release the handle. Under spring load it comes back to off position, protecting the motor from over speeding. Sim ilarly if there is any voltage decrease then also no volt coil releases the hand le. And in D.O.L. pg-70 mc.g ) 83) Skin effect (tendency of ac current to distribute itself within a conduc tor with the current densities being largest near the surface. Causes the effect ive resistance of the conductor to increase at higher frequencies where the skin depth is smaller thus reducing effective cross section of the conductor) 84) why we use soft iron core in transformer (hysteresis loss reduces due to less residual magnetism) 85) how will u check the O2 bottle supplied by the shore in large numbers if they are full or not (bottles are checked by radio isotopes or by weighing them ...since u mention large numbers then radios isotopes s the best method...its si milar to a laser gun used in checking temperatures) 86) What is bastard file? ( bastard file is a rough file. bastard is the deg ree of roughness generally files are rough, bastard, smooth and super smooth) 87) under which condition would u change the stuffing box spring (stuffing b ox spring should/can be changed 1) when from tell tale hole of individual unit o f stuffing box lot of oil is coming and lube oil loss is there, u don t have seali ng ring, scrapper ring, or lamellas....so for time being u can change the spring . 2)when u completely overhaul stuffing box 3) when spring elongation is exceede d as per manual.....usually checked by hanging it from a fixed point and applyin g fixed amount of force at the other end . new length -original length gives the elongation, check with manual for limits.....discard, replace with new one ) 88) What does the markings on the valve 5K-50 mean? (5k- 50 means a valve de signed for 5 kg pressure and pcd is 50 mm) 89) Why water drained from air bottle is milky white in color? (due to emuls ion of water and oily) As per marpol annex II what is water performance test? ( pg275-276, annex 2, Pro cedure- fill cargo tank with water to a depth necessary to carry out normal end of unloading procedure. cargo tank pumped and stripped with associated piping in accordance with ships approved manual. Collect water remaining in cargo tank & piping in calibrated container for measurement. Residue should be collected from - cargo tank suction and its vicinity, any entrapped area in cargo tank bottom, low point drain of cargo pump, all low point drain in piping upto manifold valv e. Total quantity collected above determines stripping quantity for cargo tank. If more than one tank is using pum p and piping then all drained and distributed amongst the tank if mentioned in a pproved manual. Condition of testing- trim (minimum) by stern and list <1 to faci litate proper drainage at suction point. and during test back pressure maintaine d at minimum 1 bar at cargo tank unloading manifold 90) What is gusset plate, stealer plate, docking bracket, swash bulk head n thr purpose. (pg-21/47 ship cons, stealer plate: a single wide plate which repla ces two narrow plates in adjacent strakes of a ship plating/ the girth of the sh ip decreased toward the ends and so the width of the plates is also decresed in these parts. To save making the plates too narrow at the ends of the ship, it is usual to run a number of pairs of adjacent strakes into one. ) 91) what is d difference between pipe thread and bolt thread (pipe thread is bsp, less deep, lesser pitch and bolt thread is metric

92) WAT IS AFRAMAX TANKER.EXACT DIFINITION. ( Aframax are ships with dwt b/w 80000 and 120000 and breadth over 32 mts. And the word afra means "average frei ght rate assessment" 93) If chief officer says that cow machine is not working how will 2/e go ab out to convince him that it is working satisfactorily? ( There is an indicator o n top of the cow machine which will show its operation. you can show him that OR you can do top wash. when u stand on the top of the tank i.e deck..the oils hit s the inside top of the tank during top wash so when u stand on the deck u can f eel it and make him convince that its all working fine) 94) To which part of the ship is the pintle attached and how is it attached? is it fixed or is it floating with the rudder stock? ( pintle brg,refer reeds-p age86.. pintle has a tapered face which matches the tapered surface of rudder ar m and then bolted. Pintle rotates along with the rudder) 95) what are the safeties on air bottle (relief valve, bursting disc, pressu re cut-out switch, low pr. Alarm) 96) Cylinder lubrication, TBN how much it should be (HFO-70, LSFO-30-40)

97) What all checks to be made on liner before giving it for survey (ovality , wear, surface condition, polishing, glazing, cracks) 98) What causes ovality of liner (crosshead guideshoe and guide clearance)

99) What is propeller law (a series of relationship for an installed power t ransmission system which refers to shaft power, engine speed and mean effective pressure. These relationships place particle limits on engine designer. An engin e under test and coupled to a dynamometer will operate according to the propelle r law.) 100) What do we infer from Admiralty coefficient (reed s naval arch-127) 101) what are liner ribs and why they are in segments and use (provided at uppe r parts of liner to withstand combustion pressure and strengthening, in segments for freedom of coolant to flow) 102) how piezo electric crystal looks (tetragonal crystals) 103) what is the special construction of pedestal bearing on free end of rotor in auxiliary engine (margin for expansion) 104) What is fitted bolt? How is it fitted? Where is it used? (Fitted bolts are used to connect rudder stock with rudder. This is a closely fitted bolt. The ho les are initially drilled to undersize and are reamed in the assembling place be fore the bolts are tightened in place. Accuracy is required in the machining. Th ese bolts could be of two types one having ...a slight taper of about 1:100 on d iameter and the other having a large taper of about 1:15 on diameter. However, t he holes in either case are reamed in final place. Sometimes an oversized bolt i s stretched hydraulically reducing the bolt diameter. When tightened down and th e hydraulic pressure is released the final exact fit in the bolt hole is achieve d, like a pilgrim nut on coupling shafts. These bolts find place in engine / boi ler mountings, coupling shafts etc. and form a rigid fixture. On main engine mou nting these are situated aft of the engine in the way of thrust block. 105) interference bolt and fitted bolt are they same? What i have heard is fi tted bolt dia and hole dia are the same. They are fitted by hammering. Interfere nce bolt dia is slightly bigger than the hole dia and these bolts are fitted by

hydraulic stretching and later bolted and the hydraulic pressure released. A waste gate arrangement is a valve in turbocharger that regulate amount of exh aust gases in the turbine side of tc diverting some of the exhaust gases directl y in exhaust piping this will regulate the speed of tc and thus the compression ratio on the compressor side of tc. this is sometimes required in winter season as the air is cold thereby dense and less compression is needed as tc are design ed on normal temp so this arrangement is sometimes there for winter season. 106) What is VIT and super VIT. (Before the Super VIT was introduced variable i njection timing was obtained by means of a special profile on the fuel pump plun ger. Hence there was a fixed relationship between the injection timing and the f uel index. Thus it was not possible to adjust the fuel index of the individual p umps without also altering the injection timing. For this reason the Super VIT w as introduced, where it is possible to adjust the fuel index and the injection t iming independently In VIT beginning of injection could be controlled, but end o f injection was fixed, due to profile of plunger n thus amount of fuel injected could not be changed with varying angle of injection at beginning. Thus MAN came up with super VIT where beginning n end both could be controlled by raising or lowering barrel in relation to plunger. Sulzer system when introduced vit way ba ck in 80's it could control both beginning n end. Thus super VIT is for MAN B&W engines only 107) What is a float free arrangement? (Float Free Arrangement is required on E mergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) and life rafts. This allows t he unit to float free and operate automatically if the vessel sinks. Units may s till be able to be launched / released manually. Float-free launching is the met hod of launching a life raft whereby it is automatically released from a sinking ship and is ready for use. Float-free arrangements may either be an HRU or some other means. Whatever type it is, if your vessel capsizes too quickly for you t o release the life raft manually the float-free arrangement may be your only cha nce of survival. A hydrostatic release unit used in a float free arrangement mus t have a Coast Guard approval number starting with 160.062. A float free link ma y be used with a Buoyant Apparatus or a Life Float and must be certified to meet 46 CFR, subpart 160.073 108) wat is nitriding? (Nitriding is a heat treating process that alloys nitrog en onto the surface of a metal to create a case hardened surface. Three methods are there for nitriding 1. gas nitriding 2. salt bath nitriding. 3. plasma nitri ding.) Nitriding is a surface-hardening heat treatment that introduces nitrogen into the surface of steel at a temperature range (500 to 550C or 930 to 1020F), wh ile it is in the ferrite condition. Thus, nitriding is similar to carburizing in that surface composition is altered, but different in that nitrogen is added in to ferrite instead of austenite. Because nitriding does not involve heating into the austenite phase field and a subsequent quench to form martensite, nitriding can be accomplished with a minim um of distortion and with excellent dimensional control. 109) explain how survey of rudder is done? how is the load of the rudder is tr ansmitted to the ships hull? discuss about the stationary and moving cones? (pg 88 ship construction, wt of rudder acts down thru stock. This is supported by ru dder carrier bearing. From stock load is transferred to pilgrim nut then to till er then to distance piece, then to upper cone, then to base cone which is fixed to steering gear flat. upper cone is moveable &amp; lower cone is fixed as it is attached to steering flat rudder survey a. Visual examination of the rudder pla ting for cracks and distortion. Air plugs and drain plugs are to be opened in th e presence of the class surveyor, repair superintendent and chief officer. Water draining out indicates a breached rudder and the breach to be located by air pr essure testing and applying soap repairs to be planned. Check the rudder drop i n the steering gear compartment (trammel gauge). Check the pintle clearances, ju

mping bar clearance and the palm coupling bolts tightness to be checked. Check t he rudder stock for corrosion, erosion and any damage. The inspection plates in the way of the upper, the lower pintle to be cut open, and the pintle nuts check ed for proper securing. Later the plates to be welded and tested. Hydraulic test the rudder for a static head of about 2.45m of sea water. After draining and re oiling the internals, plug the drain and check the effectiveness by a vacuum ch eck and cement the plug. The rudder stock gland packing has to be checked and 110) what is the similarity and difference between a m/e governor and flywheel ( gov maintains speed of engine, flywheel controls cyclic fluctuation of engine rpm, flywheel works on virtue of inertia alone, govnr uses inertia to actuate f uel linkage to counter change in rpm) 111) What is a thermal boiler? Water and steam are typically used as heat carri ers in process heating systems. But at high temperatures, water and steam requir es a corresponding high operating pressure. In industrial heating systems this high temperature level is often a great advan tage in order to get a high output of the process. Thus establishing this with w ater and steam, you must deal with systems and components of high pressure. This means large dimensions, weights, more safety issues and thus extra costs. In thermal oil boilers (thermal oil heaters), a special oil-based thermal fluid is used as the heat carrier, instead of water or steam. This oil operates at atm ospheric pressure up to 300C. Comparing to water and steam, it would require a co rresponding pressure of 85 bar to obtain this temperature. This system is used i n ships which carry cargo like bitumin n coaltar). 112) What is a double stage evaporator boiler (turbine and auxiliary use) 113) Draw the diagram(side-view) of an axial vibration damper for a MAN B and W engine (sanyal 157-158, leaf springs and oil chambers) 114) Describe the items of a RO plant that require frequent overhaul and mainte nance. How is sterilization carried out in it? (semi permeable membrane, acid ad dition, chlorination, u.v.sterlizers) 115) What is a torsion meter? (it is a device to determine the torque or torsi on in a shaft usually by measuring the twist in a calibrated length of shaft. ) 116) how will you avoid oil leaking from stern tube to sea( i think answer is b y reducing the head of oil, by adding high viscosity oil, biodegradable oil) 117) How high pressure pipes are manufactured? (seamless pipes ) 118) The classification societies accept a diminution of the chain thickness up to 11%. ( open joining shackle) 119) how can we get a plate ions just 8 mm thick plate ( is how to cut? doesn t want and passing thru rollers to ) from lets say 16 mm thick two plate of equal dimens is cutting from its thickness but then the question laser cutting : it could be done by heating the plate reduce thickness and then cutting it into two equal

120) What are persistent oils? What are its effects on marine environment? (per sistent oils generally contain a large proportion of heavy fractions or boiling materials. Don t dissipate rapidly) 121) What is differential switch in crane? What are the safety features in cra ne other than limit switches? (braking, override controls, hydraulic oil high te mp. alarm and trip, hydraulic oil tank low level alarm)

122)

Principle of wake (reed s naval arch pg 137)

123) wat is depressor? ( stablizing motion such as roll and pitch imparted to m arine vsl during s.w, stablizing rolling and pitching it is hydrodynamically gen erated forces applied to the s.w to the vsl, it cancells roll movement and pitch pair of depressor port and stbd, it is fixed on stern of ship)

SAFETY AND NAVAL ARCH 1...Oil tanker means a ship constructed or adapted primarily to carry oil in bulk in its cargo spaces and includes combination carriers, any "NI.S tanker" as defined in Annex II of the present Convention and any gas carrier as defined in regulation 3.20 of chapter II-1 of SOLAS 74 2...Bulk carrier means a ship which is constructed generally with single deck, top-side tanks and hopper side tanks in cargo spaces, and is intended primarily to carry dry cargo in bulk, and includes such types as ore carriers and combin ation carriers. 3... The maximum spacing of detectors shall be in accordance with the table below: Type Max floor area Max dist apart from centre Max dist away from bulkheads heat 37m2 9mt 4.5m smoke 74m2 11mt 5.5m 4...Deadweight is the difference in tonnes between the displacement of a ship in water of a specific gravity of 1.025 at the load waterline corresponding to the assigned summer freeboard and the lightweight of the ship. 5... Lightweight is the displacement of a ship in tonnes without cargo, fuel, lubricating oil, ballast water, freshwater and feedwater in tanks, consumable stores, and passengers and crew and their effects. 6....Gross register tonnage (GRT) represents the total internal volume of a ves sel, where a register ton is equal to a volume of 100 cubic feet (2.83 m), which volume, if filled with fresh water, would weigh around 2,800 kg or 2.8 tonnes. Calculation of GRT is complex; a ship's hold can, for instance, be assessed f or bulk grain (accounting for all the air space in the hold) or for bales (omit ting the spaces into which bulk, but not baled cargo would spill). Gross regist er tonnage was replaced by gross tonnage in 1994 under the Tonnage Measurement c onvention of 1969, and is no longer widely used term in the industry.[1][2] 7....Net register tonnage (NRT) is the volume of cargo the vessel can carry; i. e., the gross register tonnage less the volume of spaces that will not hold car go (e.g., engine compartment, helm station, crew spaces, etc., again with diffe

rences depending on which port or country is doing the calculations). It repre sents the volume of the ship available for transporting freight or passengers. It was replaced by net tonnage in 1994, under the Tonnage Measurement convention of 1969

8.....lifebaot lowering speed 36m/min as it is giving in many books....but i re ad somewhere now it is 60m/min... and i just saw in some notes it should be acc ording to formula....S= 0.4 + 0.02H ...where S= speed and h= height of lifeboat davits from waterline.. 9.....solas chap2-1,Regulation 3-4 Emergency towing arrangements on tankers Emergency towing arrangements shall be fitted at both ends on board every tanker of not less than 20,000 tonnes deadweight, constructed on or after 1 January 1996. For tankers constructed before 1 January 1996, such an arrangement shall be fitted at the first scheduled dry-docking after 1 January 1996 but not later than 1 January 1999. The design and construction of the towing arrangements shall be approved by the Administration, based on the guidelines developed by the Organization. 10....for fwd ETA we check the chaffing chain, strong point , roller ,fairlead e tc... 11....Testing of foam is done every year after 3rd year , test sample is taken and send to lab it inculdes the PH , viscosity, foam ratio, and density.. 12.... Factor safety is ratio of Ultimate tensile strength to the working load a nd value is 5. for crane SWL is around 15 tonne and if load is more than that o f SWL , overload protection will protect the crane. 13.....Fixed high-expansion foam fire-extinguishing systems in machinery spaces* Any required fixed high-expansion foam system in machinery spaces shall be capable of rapidly discharging through fixed discharge outlets a quantity of foam sufficient to fill the greatest space to be protected at a rate of at least 1 m in depth per minute. The quantity of foam-forming liquid available shall be sufficient to produce a volume of foam equal to five times the volume of the largest space to be protected. The expansion ratio of the foam shall not exceed 1,000 to 1. 14....Fixed low-expansion foam fire-extinguishing systems in machinery spaces{ Where in any machinery space a fixed low-expansion foam fireextinguishing system is fitted in addition to the requirements of regulation 7, such system shall be capable of discharging through fixed discharge outlets in not more than 5 min a quantity of foam sufficient to cover to a depth of 150 mm the largest single area over which oil fuel is liable to spread. The system shall be capable of generating foam suitable for extinguishing oil fires. Means shall be provided for effective distribution of the foam through a permanent system of piping and control valves or cocks to suitable discharge outlets, and for the foam to be effectively directed by fixed sprayers on other main fire hazards in the protected space. The expansion ratio of the foam shall not exceed 12 to 1. 15......Annex 6, Regulation 12 Ozone-depleting substances Ozone depleting substances (ODSs) are those substances which deplete the ozone layer and are widely used in refrigerators, airconditioners, fire extinguishers

, in dry cleaning, as solvents for cleaning, electronic equipment and as agricu ltural fumigants. Ozone depleting substances controlled by Montreal Protocol include: Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Halon CCl4(Carbon tetrachloride) 16....What are Greenhouse Gases? Answer: Many greenhouse gases occur naturally, such as water vapor, carbon dioxi de, methane, nitrous oxide, and ozone. Others such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) result exclusively from human industrial processes. Human Activities and Greenhouse Gases Human activities also add significantly to the level of naturally occurring gree nhouse gases: Carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere by the burning of solid waste, wo od and wood products, and fossil fuels (oil, natural gas, and coal). Nitrous oxide emissions occur during various agricultural and industrial process es, and when solid waste or fossil fuels are burned. Methane is emitted when organic waste decomposes, whether in landfills or in con nection with livestock farming. Methane emissions also occur during the producti on and transport of fossil fuels.

The Properties of Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse gases vary in their ability to absorb and hold heat in the atmospher e, a phenomenon known as the "greenhouse effect." HFCs and PFCs are the most he at-absorbent, but there are also wide differences between naturally occurring g ases. For example, nitrous oxide absorbs 270 times more heat per molecule than carbon dioxide, and methane absorbs 21 times more heat per molecule than carbon dioxide. The Consequences of Global Warming As the concentration of greenhouse gases grows, more heat is trapped in the atm osphere and less escapes back into space. This increase in trapped heat changes the climate and alters weather patterns, which may hasten species extinction, influence the length of seasons, cause coastal flooding, and lead to more frequ ent and severe storms. 17..... General Characteristics of VOC Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) are organic chemicals that easily vaporize at normal conditions and enter into the atmosphere. They are organic as they conta in carbon atoms in their molecular structure. VOC are numerous, varied and ubiqu itous. VOC are present in the atmosphere as a result of human activities, bioge nic emissions from certain vegetation species, the exhausts of motor vehicles a nd ships, evaporation of hydrocarbon fuel, solvent usage, industrial processes, oil storage and distribution, food manufacture, and many other sources. VOC m ay include a very wide range of individual substances, such as hydrocarbons (eg methane, ethane, benzene, toluene, etc.), oxidized hydrocarbons (or fuel oxyge nates, such as methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE)) and by-product organic compounds from chlorination in water treatment (such as chloroform). VOC emissions from the fuel/petroleum industry sources occur during extraction of oil at the platform, tanker transportation of oil, loading and discharging a

t terminals, oil processing at refineries, tanking at filling stations and leak age from pipelines as well as oil spills. The VOC given off through vaporizatio n of crude oil and refined products are a mixture of light-end hydrocarbon comp onents such as methane, ethane, propane and several other gases. Methane, being lighter than air, will be emitted to the atmosphere and contribute to the gree nhouse effect. All the other components generally referred to as non-methane VO C (NMVOC), being heavier than air, will react on warm days with nitrogen oxide s (NOX) in the air and form the ground level ozone commonly known as smog. The ground level ozone has a detrimental effect on human health, vegetation and bui ldings. Some NMVOC are quite harmful, including benzene, toluene and xylene, wh ich may cause leukemia. VOC emissions from ships can be due to incomplete combustion processes and incl ude crankcase, exhaust and evaporation emissions. Crankcase emissions refer to hydrocarbons escaping from the cylinder during compression in an internal combu stion engine and exhaust emissions are due solely to incomplete combustion. Eva porative emissions are the evaporation of hydrocarbon fuel releasing gaseous VO C into the atmosphere. Tankers emit VOC during cargo loading and crude oil washing operations as well as during sea voyages. The amount of VOC emissions depends on many factors incl uding the properties of the cargo oil, the degree of mixing and temperature var iations during the sea voyage. These operational discharges can be effectively controlled and minimized to a large extent. With new technology, the NMVOC emit ted during tanker loading and transport operations can be recovered and returne d to the cargo tanks. To control this emission, there are four criteria that impact the extent and ra te of evolution of gaseous non-methane VOC from crude oils and its subsequent r elease to the atmosphere. These are: The The The The volatility or vapor pressure of the crude oil temperature of the liquid and gas phases of the crude oil tank pressure setting or control of the vapor phase within the cargo tank size or volume of the vapor phase within the cargo tank

18... Fire Extinguishers The capacity of required powder / CO2 or portable fluid extinguishers shall be not more than 23kg or 13.5 litre and not less than 5kg or 9 litre. Other extingu ishers shall be at least as portable as the 13.5 litre fluid extinguisher and s hall have a fire-extinguishing capability at least equivalent to that of a 9 lit re fluid extinguisher. A portable foam applicator unit shall consist of an air-foam nozzle of an induct or type capable of being connected to the fire main by a fire hose, together wit h a portable tank containing at least 20 l of foam-making liquid and one spare t ank. The nozzle shall be capable of producing effective foam suitable for exting uishing an oil fire, at the rate of at least 1.5 m3/min. There shall be at least two portable foam extinguishers or equivalent in eachfir in g space in eachboile r room and in eachspace in whicha part of the oil fuel i nstallation is situated. There shall be not less than one approved foam-type ext inguisher of at least 135 l capacity or equivalent in eachboile r room. These ex tinguishers shall be provided with hoses on reels suitable for reaching any part of the boiler room. In the case of domestic boilers of less than 175 kW in carg o ships the Administration may consider relaxing the requirements of this paragr aph.

19.... INERT GAS REQUIREMENTS( SOLAS CH2-II, REG 62) maintaining the atmosphere in any part of any cargo tank with an oxygen content not exceeding 8% by volume The system shall be capable of delivering inert gas to the cargo tanks at a rate of at least 125% of the maximum rate of discharge capacity of the ship expresse d as a volume. The system shall be capable of delivering inert gas with an oxygen content of no t more than 5% by volum Flue gas isolating valves shall be fitted in the inert gas supply mains between the boiler uptakes and the flue gas scrubber. These valves shall be provided wit h indicators to show whether they are open or shut, and precautions shall be tak en to maintain them gastight and keep the seatings clear of soot. Arrangements shall be made to ensure that boiler soot blowers cannot be operated when the corresponding flue gas valve is open. At least two blowers shall be fitted which together shall be capable of deliveri ng to the cargo tanks at least the volume of gas required At least two nonreturn devices, one of which shall be a water seal, shall be fit ted in the inert gas supply main, in order to prevent the return of hydrocarbon vapour to the machinery space uptakes or to any gas-safe spaces under all normal conditions of trim, list and motion of the ship. Provision shall be made to ensure that the water seal is protected against freez ing, in such a way that the integrity of seal is not impaired by overheating. Means shall be provided for continuously indicating the temperature and pressure of the inert gas at the discharge side of the gas blowers, whenever the gas blo wers are operating. For inert gas systems of both the flue, gas type and the inert gas generator typ e, audible and visual alarms shall be provided to indicate: 1 low water pressure or low water flow rate to the flue gas scrubber 2 high water level in the flue gas scrubber 3 high gas temperature 4 failure of the inert gas blowers 5 oxygen content in excess of 8% by volume 6 failure of the power supply to the automatic control system for the gas regulating valve 7 low water level in the water seal .8high gas pressure For inert gas systems of the inert gas generator type, additional audible and vi sual alarms shall be provided to indicate: .1 insufficient fuel oil supply; .2 failure of the power supply to the generator; .3 failure of the power supply to the automatic control system for the generator . Automatic shutdown of the inert gas blowers and gas regulating valveshall be arr anged on predetermined limits being reached 20.... Steering gear{ Regulation 29, SOLAS CH-2-I) every ship of 10,000 gross tonnage and upwards, the alternative power supply sha ll have a capacity for at least 30 min of continuous operation In every tanker, chemical tanker or gas carrier of 10,000 gross tonnageand upwar ds and in every other ship of 70,000 gross tonnage and upwards, themain steering gear shall comprise two or more identical power units Short circuit protection and an overload alarm shall be provided for suchcircuit s and motors,Where a three-phase supply is used an alarm shall be provided that will indicate failure of any one of the upply phases.

21.... Intact & Damage Stability of Ships A ship is always acted upon by several forces from factors such as seawater, wi nd, internal mass weight, free surface effect etc. Thus, it is of utmost import ance for a vessel to always remain stable and afloat in all conditions. A ship is seaworthy if it fulfills two important stability criteria- Intact and Damage stability. Requirements for Intact and Damage Stability of the Ship Intact stability( marpol annex 1, reg 27) For a cargo vessel, the intact stability requirements are followsInitial GM or metacentric height should not be less then 150 mm. Righting lever GZ should be at least 0.2 m and angle of heel ? = 30. Maximum righting lever should occur at heel >30 preferably but not less than 25. The Area of the GZ curve should be at least: a) 0.055 m radian up to ? = 30 b) 0.090 m radian up to ? = 40 c) 0.03 m radian between 30 and 4 0 or between 30 and angle of down flooding. The angle of down flooding is an angle at which deck immersion takes place with subsequent water ingress.

Damage Stability Damage stability of a ship is its capacity to resist damage situations caused b y flooding due to the water overflows into bilges while ship stability is all a bout ship s performance on still water and waves. Centre of gravity and centre of b uoyancy of ship is the main factors taken into account in ship stability. Damage stability and its after effects Considering the stability of a ship during its damaged condition is very much n ecessary. The loss of stability is often seen due to the flooding caused by cer tain reasons. The water accumulation in hulls normally reduces the centre of gr avity increasing the maetacentric height. What actually happens during the floo d is that, water overflows into bilges making the ship erect and stationary. Lo ss of stability also occurs when an empty tank is holed and is filled with wate r causing to the loss of buoyancy of ship. A damage stability criterion varies from ship to ship and the requirement for t he same is given in SOLAS chapter II-1. It may be single compartment flooding, multi compartment flooding, engine room flooding etc. Under all the criteria as applicable, vessel margin line should not be submerge d after the damage. Margin line is an imaginary line drawn 75mm below the free board deck. Intact and damage stability are very important factors that govern the overall s tability of the ship. 22.... Capacity of fire pumps 1 pumps in passenger ships, not less than 2/3rd of the quantity required to be d ealt with by the bilge pumps when employed for bilge pumping; and 2 pumps in cargo ships, other than any emergency pump, not lessthan 4/3rd of the quantity 3. cargo ship need the total required capacity of the fire pumps exceed 180 m3/h r

4. Each of the required fire pumps shall have a capacity not less than 80% of th e total required capacity divided by the minimum number of required fire pumps but in any cas e not less than 25 m3/hr and each such pump shall in any event be capable of delivering at l east the two required jets of water. Ships shall be provided with independently driven fire pumps as follows: .1 Passenger ships of 4,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards at least 3 .2 Passenger ships of less than 4,000 gross tonnage and cargo ships of 1,000 tons gross tonnage and upwards at least 2 .3 Cargo ships of less than 1,000 tons gross tonnage to the satisfaction of the Administration Emergency fire pump The capacity of the pump shall not be less than 40% of the total capacity of th e fire pumps required by this regulation and in any case not less than 25 m3/h. Diameter of, and pressure in, the fire mains 1. in the case of cargo ships the diameter need only be sufficient for the disch arge of 140 m3/h. Passenger ships: 1 4,000 gross tonnage and upwards 0.31 N/mm2 2..1,000 gross tonnage and upwards but under 4,000 gross tonnage 0.27 N/ mm2 3..Under 1,000 gross tonnage To the satisfaction of the Administration Cargo ships: 1 6,000 gross tonnage and upwards 0.27 N/mm2 2 1,000 gross tonnage and upwardsbut under 6,000 gross tonnage 0.25 N/mm 2 3 Under 1,000 gross tonnage To the satisfaction of the Administration Fire hoses- usually made of canvas outer jacket and rubber/synthetic lined 1 In passenger ships there shall be at least one fire hose for each of the hydrant s required by and these hoses shall be used only for the purposes of extinguishing fires or testing the fireextinguishing apparatus at fire drills and surveys. 2 In cargo ships of 1,000 gross tonnage and upwards the number of fire hoses to b e provided shall be one for each 30 m length of the ship and one spare but in no cas e less than five in all. This number does not include any hoses required in any engine or boil er room. The Administration may increase the number of hoses required so as to ensure th at hoses in Sufficient number are available and accessible at all times, having regard to the type of ship and the nature of trade in which the ship is employed.

23..... different alarms onboard signals The main alarms that are installed in the ship to give audio-visual warnings are as follows: 1) General Alarm: The general alarm on the ship is recognized by 7 short r inging of bell followed by a long ring or 7 short blasts on the ship s horn follo wed by one long blast. The general alarm is sounded to make aware the crew on b oard that an emergency has occurred. 2) Fire Alarm: A fire alarm is sounded as continuous ringing of ship s electr ical bell or continuous sounding of ship s horn. 3) Man Overboard Alarm: When a man falls overboard, the ship internal alar m bell sounds 3 long rings and ship whistle will blow 3 long blasts to notify t he crew on board and the other ships in nearby vicinity. 4) Navigational Alarm: In the navigation bridge, most of the navigational equipments and navigation lights are fitted with failure alarm. If any of these malfunctions, an alarm will be sounded in an alarm panel displaying which syst em is malfunctioning. 5) Machinery space Alarm: The machinery in the engine room has various saf ety devices and alarms fitted for safe operation. If any one of these malfuncti ons, a common engine room alarm is operated and the problem can be seen in the engine control room control panel which will display the alarm. 6) Machinery Space CO2 Alarm: The machinery space is fitted with CO2 fixed with fire extinguishing system whose audible and visual alarm is entirely diff erent from machinery space alarm and other alarm for easy reorganization. 7) Cargo Space CO2 Alarm: The cargo spaces of the ship are also fitted with fixed fire fighting system which has a different alarm when operated. 8) Abandon Ship Alarm: When the emergency situation on board ship goes out of hands and ship is no longer safe for crew on board ship. The master of the ship can give a verbal Abandon ship order, but this alarm is never given in shi p s bell or whistle. The general alarm is sounded and every body comes to the eme rgency muster station where the master or his substitute (chief Officer) gives a verbal order to abandon ship. 9) Ship Security Alarm System: Most of the ocean going vessels are fitted w ith security alert alarm system, which is a silent alarm system sounded in a pi rate attack emergency. This signal is connected with different coastal authorit ies all over the world via a global satellite system to inform about the piracy . Different Alarm signals of the vessel are clearly described in the muster list along with the action to be carried out so that all the crew member can perform there duties within no time in actual emergency.