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INTRODUCTION
The cost of leaky joints in industry today is staggering. Out-of-pocket costs run into billions of dollars annually in lost production, waste of energy, loss of product and, most recently, impact on the environment. These problems are increasing, not decreasing. It behooves all of us to consolidate our knowledge and experience to solve or at least minimize these problems. This publication is being produced because we, as gasket manufacturers and suppliers, are constantly called upon to solve sealing problems after the fact. Too often we find insufficient time and attention has been given to: . proper design of flanged joint . installation procedures and . selection of the optimum gasket material required to solve a particular sealing problem. We will endeavor to outline in this publication those areas we believe to be essential in a properly designed, installed and m"aintainedgasketed joint. We believe most people involved with the design, installation, and maintenance of gasketed joints realize that no such thing as "zero" leakage can be achieved. Whether or not a joint is "tight" depends on the sophistication of the methods used to measure leakage. In certain applications the degree of leakage may be perfectly acceptable if one drop of water per minute is noted at the gasketed joint. Other requirements are that no bubbles would be observed if the gasketed joint was subjected to an air or gas test underwater and a still more stringent inspection would require passing a mass spectrometer test. The rigidity of the test method would be determined by: . the hazard of the material being confined . loss of critical materials in a process flow . impact on the environment should a particular fluid escape into the atmosphere . danger of fire or of personal injury All of these factors dictate proper attention must be given to: . design of flange joints or closures . proper selection of gasket type proper gasket material . proper installation procedures Care in these areas will ensure that the best technology goes into the total package and will minimize operating costs, pollution of the environment and hazards to employees and the general public.

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SECTION I

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DESIGN . By heat, such as in the case of sealing a bell and .

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spigot joint on cast iron pipe by means of molten lead. Note, however, that after the molten lead is poured, it is tamped into place using a tamping tool and a hammer. Gasket lip expansion. This is a phenomenon that would occur due to edge swelling when the gasket would be affected by confined fluid, as in the case of elastomeric compounds affected by the confined fluids, such as solvents, causing the gasket material to swell and increase the interaction of the gasket against the flange faces. Generally, gaskets are called upon to effect a seal across the faces of contact with the flanges. Permeation of the media through the body of the gasket is also a possibility depending on material, confined media, and acceptable leakage rate.

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EFFECTING A SEAL

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3.2. with nonmetallic filler Corrugated metal.25 0 200 400 1 (a. d) 2.2* Grooved metal 1 (a. Reprinted with permission of ASME "-" 4 . b. design seating stress y (psi) 0 Sketches and notes Use facing sketch Use column - - - 0.-. c.75 3. c.50 3.50 26000 18000 21800 26000 6 I Ring joint *The surface of a gasket having a lap should be against the smooth surface of the facing and not against the nubbin.5 6.75 3. d) 4.25 4.1 GASKET MATERIALS AND CONTACT FACINGS "-" Gasket Factors (m) for Operating Conditions and Minimum Design Seating Stress (y) NOTE: This table gives a list of many commonly used gasket materials and contact facings with suggested design values of m and y that have generally proved satisfactory in actual service when using effective gasket seating width b given in Table UA-49.50 6.6500 3700 4500 Spiral-wound metal.00 10000 2900 3700 4500 5500 J.50 3. Metallic.-. The design values and other details given in this table are suggested only and are not mandatory..50 3. 2.50 6. b) Soft Aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6% chrome Stainless steels Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass .50 2.25 .50 1. b. d) 2.3 Solid flat metal -.00 4.75 3. 5 1.50 3. c. 1b.75 3.25 3.75 4. b.II 1 (a.25 3.75 3.4.00 3.-. double jacketed with nonmetallic filler r} II 1 (a. c.25 1a.00 1.50 5.75 3.00 I Corruga1ed metal Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6% chrome Stainless steels 3. Below 75 Shore Durometer 75 or higher Shore Durometer Elastomers with cotton fabric insertion Gasket factor m 0 Min. 1d*..75 3.TABLE UA-49. b.. Refer to Table UA-49.50_- Vegetable fiber 1100 --3.25 5500 \< \..2 Gasket material Self-Energizing types 0 Rings.75 5.--. d) Softaluminum Flat metal jacketed with nonmetallic filler Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel 4-6% chrome Stainless steels Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6% chrome Stainless steels Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6°/ chrome Stainless steels Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6% chrome Stainless steels 3.. 1 (a.00 6500 7600 5500 6500 7600 8000 9000 9000 5500 6500 7600 9000 10100 8800 13000 18000 21800 ( . 3.00 6.75 Carbon Stainless or Monel 2. Elastomer other gasket types considered as self-sealing Elastomerswithout fabric. 1c*.

c.... *Where serrations do not exceed 1/64 in..~".v. T. aba b = boowhen bo b = ~ 114in.'E~~r". sketches 1b and 1d shall be used.N w ..."-.>?.' 3 1/64" Nubbin: .~~..»///0J0~~.%\'//////////// . I <l Gasket t Face '-' NOTE: The gasket factors listed only apply to flanged joints in which the gasket is contained entirely within the inner edges of the bolt holes./. b Column I I Column II ..~ 2 ""v w+N 4 w +3N 8 w...~ //«0 2 N 4 3N 8 3N 8 7N 16 . Location of Gasket Load Reaction HG G--.' I '" '"".. depth and 1/32 in."c> .~ ~ " '..'" w<.~ 1 -/(// ---:1 w<...:':"l~f... 1c ~~~ N 1d* .>. ~2 .. Reprinted with permission of ASME 5 ...c/ _fII.' S'.. width spacing. " ~~ ~ ~ ~ .>. (W : N max) w . ~ r: N 2 N 2 S'.. "~'. ~ 5* ..I--hG--1 °F~'C~O~!~~ --~ b 1--! HG G ---1-.. T.i8S 2 1/64" Nubbin !~..hG I ---I..'-' 1a TABLE UA~49.:c...' N' 1b* - Facing Sketch Basic Gasket Seating Width..N -LNj. (w : N ma1 w.--/'M ~ ~ I-N-i ~ N 4 3N 8 6 w 8 Effective Gasket Seating Width. when bo > 114 in..~""'" ~ /"r---I "-'" 4* 1.J~/"l""l" ~~ ~ .2 EFFECTIVE GASKET WIDTH ~~~~ggerated '/."'. .'E1J~"'..>.+://.

-...'. . >-. SEE NOTE 2 32 ...L". Spiral wound . I . This usually necessitates a bolt area to gaskel area greater than a ratio of 2: 1.) '\ ----------'. If this is not possible.250 - Solid metal washer type gaskets require extremely high seating stresses to seal..--"-'" Hollow metal y . FINISHES CONT.... Note @ .Refer to page 23 for more details on flange surface finishes for spiral wound gaskets.... it is preferred to use a profiled or serrated gasket to achieve the necessal seating load on the gasket.-') "'...AARH 63-80 Solid metal 63 '-" '-. Flange Surface Gasket Cross-Section Finish /.. Note <D ' 125 . Metaljacketed gaskets (cant.TABLE 3 - GASKET SEATING SURFACE GasketDescription \".

LAMONS METAL CLAD AND SOLID METAL HEAT EXCHANGER GASKETS J INFORMATION NEEDED TO FILL AN ORDER: 1. 2. Outside diameter. Thickness 6. or type of construction 5. holes -cp -St v ~ J 20 . Shape per Standard Shapes Index 4. Materials (metal or metal and filler) 7. Inside Diameter 3. Lamons style per catalog. Distance from centerline of gasket to centerline of ribs 9. Radii Ct " --<t Ct Examples: Qty. Rib size 8.

STANDARD SHAPE INDEX '-" 08CJOO§@8 8 0e90 @§~@j R C-1 C-2 D-1 D-2 E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4 F-1 F-2 F-3 G-1 G-2 G-3 G-4 @8S~EB ~@8 G-5 G-6 G-7 G-8 G-9 H-1 H-2 H-3 '-" §@@e@9~E9 e @@C§j@@~~ H-4 H-5 H-6 H-7 H-8 H-9 H-10 H-11 H-12 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 @@@~-@@§EB 1-8 1-9 1-10 1-11 J-1 J-2 J-3 J-4 '"""'" @~E9C9 ~@~@ ~ ~ H ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 21 .LAMONS HEAT EXCHANGER GASKETS .

...... Sequential Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 Rotational Order 1 2 9 10 5 6 13 14 3 4 11 12 7 8 15 16 27 ...BOLT TORQUE SEQUENCE 8-Bolts '"'" 12-Bolts Sequencial Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 Rotational Order 1 5 3 7 2 6 4 8 Sequential Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 '-' Rotational Order 1 5 9 3 7 11 2 6 10 4 8 12 16-Bolts 9 12 11 10 ..

As a consequence. As a con28 . in most cases the design of the flange is based upon the allowable bolt stress of the particular material at design temperature and at the design or operating pressure. will require a higher initial stress on the stud to successfully pass the hydrostatic test. strenuous and is a very dangerous practice. the hydrostatic test pressure that the flange joint must pass is one and a half times the design pressure. Use high tensile bolts or studs for hydrostatic tests following the procedures outlined above for gasket installation. In addition. tensioning devices. As a consequence. the following procedures should be followed. Section VIII of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code. This introduces additional problems. the same bolt material will have an allowable stress at ambient conditions as specified. retorque the bolts to 100% of the allowable stress for the particular grade material. These allowable stresses are based on the particular material and their strength at operating temperature. striking wrenches and pieces of pipe on the end of the wrench is becoming less and less a standard practice. TORQUE VALUES Probably the only true measurement of bolt stress is by bolt or stud elongation. specifically recognizes the problem of initial bolt stresses. Appendix S. bolts may be stressed to whatever level is required to satisfactorily pass the test. As a consequence it may be necessary to use high tensile bolts or studs in order to achieve a satisfactory test. Once this occurs. relievethe bolts to approximately 50 percent of the prestress required. any joint that is designed in strict accordance with the ASME Pressure Vessel Code and is subjected to hydrostatic tests in excess of the design pressure. When this is required. the stresses required in bolts sufficient to satisfactorily pass the test may exceed the yield point of the bolt material. As each bolt is replaced. Appendix S of Section 8 of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code speaks in great length on this problem and. The newer techniques are much more reliable. or drilling the studs and inserting heaters to preheat the stud to a specific temperature that will ultimately create the proper tension on the bolt.) ~ . however. states. Replace the bolts or studs one at a time with the proper grade bolt for operating conditions. torque it to the value of the other bolts.20-Bolts 13 16 3 4 15 sequence the trend in industry today is the use of torque wrenches. in essence. It is time-consuming. in most cases. (See Page 32) ~ . this would be an extremely costly and impractical approach to determine the true measure of bolt stress. hydraulic wrenches. The use of manpower to tighten the bolts. After a successful hydrostatic test has been achieved. In practice. I 14 2 Rotational 1 13 5 17 9 3 15 7 19 11 9 Order 2 14 6 18 10 4 16 8 20 12 Sequential Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 17-18 19-20 24-Bolts 12 4 3 11 10 2 Rotational 1 9 17 5 13 21 3 11 19 7 15 23 Order 2 10 18 6 14 22 4 12 20 8 16 24 Sequential Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 17-18 19-20 21-22 23-24 NOTE: Allowable bolt stresses. In cases where low yield bolt material is being used. no additional stressing of the bolt will alleviate the problem of leakage. a flange designer will determine his required bolting for a 600 psi application at a given operating temperature specifically in accordance with allowable stresses for the bolt material at the operating temperature. that in order to pass hydrostatic tests. After all the bolts have been replaced. . However. For example. by sledgehammers. (Once again it is imperative that a proper lubricant be used on the bolts when replacement is being made.

B Pressure Dim. (A) t ID of Gasket Surface on Cover Dim. TX 77001 Fax (713) 547-9502 31 Width (Short Side) Shape (check one): Oval c=::J c=::J Obround Other c=::J (Drawing Required) '-' .. (D) i BoilerOpening Dim.. (C) OD of Gasket Surface on Boiler Dim.LAMONS GASKET COMPANY . PO. Box 947 Houston. A Dim. C Dim. D Temperature Service (Typically Steam) Lamons Gasket Co. (B) t t '-" 1 r Boiler Please provide the following information: Length (Long Side) Dim. Application Information Sheet For Oval or Obround Manways Boiler Manway Cover 1 ~ OD of Gasket Surface on goyer Dim...

Steel A A A U B B A U B A A U A B B A A A A A A A A B B U A B A U B A U U B A A A B U B B U A B A A A A U U U A U A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A U A A A U A A A A A A A A U A A A A A A A A A U U U A U A A A A A A A A A B B B U U U U t:.S. A A A A B A A A B B U B A A B U B U B B B B A B U U A B B B A A A A U U U B A B B A U A B A A B B B B B U U B B A B B A B B B A A A B B B B A A B U B U B B B A B U U A B A U B A A A U U U A B B B A U A A A A U U A A U A A A U A A B A A A A A U A A B B B A A U U A A U A A A A A A U A A B A U A A A A U U U A U U A A A B A A A A U U A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A U A A A B A A A U U A A B A A A A A A U A A A A B A A A A U U U A U U A A A B A A A A U U B A B A A A A A A A A A A A U A A U A B U A U U B A B A A A A U A A U A A A U U U U U A A A A A U B A U B U B B A A U A B A B A A A A U U A A A A U U U A U U B U A A A A A U U B U A B A A A A U U U B U U U U A U A '-" "-' 35 .Alloy Hastel. Aluminum Sulphate Ammonia (Anhydrous) Ammonium Chloride Ammonium Hydroxide Ammonium Nitrate Ammonium Phosphate Ammonium Sulphate Amyl Acetate Aniline Barium Chloride Beer Benzene Benzol Borax Boric Acid Bromine Butyl Alcohol Calcium Carbonate Calcium Chloride Calcium Hydroxide Calcium Hypochlorite Carbolic Acid Carbon Tetrachloride Chlorine-Dry Chlorine-Wet Chromic Acid Citric Acid Copper Chloride Copper Sulphate Creosote (Coal Tar) Crude Oil Ether Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Chloride Ferric Chloride Ferric Sulphate Formaldehyde Formic Acid Fuel Oil Fuel Oil (Acid) Furfural Gasoline Glue Glycerin Hydrobromic Acid Hydrochloric Acid Room Temp.S. B A A B A A A A A A A A A A U A B A U U A U B A B A A A U B A A A B A A A A U U U C U U C A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A U A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B A 8 A A A B B B A B A A A B A B A A A A B U B A A B B B U B B B A U U A B B U B A A A U U U A B B B A B A B B A B B B B B U U B B A B. S. Aluminum Fluoride Room Temp. Acetic Anhydride Room Temp.Inconel Monel Nickel 304 316 410 nurn 20 Copper loy 600 400 200 S.Unsatisfactory Media Acetic Acid Room Temp. S.Good Resistance B .'-" CHEMICAL A . 150°F Hydrocyanic Acid Hydrofluoric Acid Hydrofluosilicic Acid Hvdroqen Peroxide Hydrogen Sulphide Kerosene Lactic Acid Linseed Oil RESISTANCE CHART - GASKET METALS Alurni.Moderate Resistance U . Acetone Aluminum Chloride Room Temp.S.

Unsatisfactory Media Lye (Caustic) Manganese Carbonate Manganese Chloride Mangnesium Carbonate MaQnesiumChloride Magnesium Hydroxide Magnesium Nitrate Magnesium Sulphate Methylene Chloride Mercuric Chloride Mercury Muriatic Acid Nitric Acid-Diluted Nitric Acid-Concentrated Nitrous Acid Nitrous Oxide Oleic Acid Oxalic Acid Petroleum Oils-Crude Phosphoric Acid Picric Acid Potassium Bromide Potassium Carbonate Potassium Chloride Potassium Cvanide Potassium Hydroxide Potassium Sulphate Sea Water Sewage Silver Nitrate Soaps Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium Bisulphate Sodium Bromide Sodium Carbonate Sodium Chloride Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Hyperchlorite Sodium Nitrate Sodium Peroxide Sodium Phosphate Sodium Silicate Sodium Sulphate Sodium Sulphide Soy Bean Oil Steam Stearic Acid Stannic Chloride Sulphur Chloride Sulphur Dioxide-Dry Sulphuric Acid-<10%-Cold Sulphuric Acid-<10%-Hot Sulphuric Acid10-50%-Cold RESISTANCE CHART - GASKET METALS (CONT. A A A A B B A U U U U B A A U U B B B '--' Sulphuric Acid10-50%-Hot Sulphuric Acid-Fuming Sulphurous Acid Sulphur-Molten Tannic Acid Tartaric Acid Vinegar Zinc Chloride Zinc Sulphate '--' 36 .5.Alloy Hastel.CHEMICAL A .5.5. B A A U A A U U A U A A A B A B A A A A U A A A A A U A A A B A A U U U U U U A A U A U A '-'" Steel A B A B A B U A U U U B B U A U A B B A A B A B B U A B U B A A A U A B B.B A A A U A A A A A A A B A B B B U A A C A U U U A B B B A A A B A B A B A A A B A B A B A B B B A U A U A B B B A U A U A B A A B B B A A A B A B A B A B B B A B B A U A U B B A U U B A B A A A A A B A A A A A A A B A B A B B B A B A A A B B B A B B B B A A A A A A B A A A A A A U A B A A A A U B U A U U U B A A A A A B B A A A B B B B A A A A A A B B B A B A A A B A A A A A B B B A U A U A B B B A A A A B A A A B A A A A A A A A B B B A U A U A B B B A U A A A B B U A A A A A A A A B A B A U B B U U B U A U B U U U U A B A B B B U B A U A A A A A A A A U U U U U A A B B A A A A A A A A A B A U U U U A B B A B B B U U U U B B A B B U U U U U B B A B B U U A U A A A A U A 316 5.Good Resistance B .) Alurni.Inconel Monel Nickel 304 nurn 20 Copper loy 600 400 200 5. U A B A A A A A B B B A A A A A U B B B B B B A A A A A A A A A A A B A B A A A U A A A A A B B B A A A A A A A A B B B A U U U A U U U U U U U A U U U U U A U A A B B A U U U A U U U U U A A U U U U A A A U A U U U A B A B B A A A A A U A U A A A A A B B A B A A A B B .Moderate Resistance U . A A A A A A A A U U A U A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A U A B U U U A B A A A A U A 410 5.

316 8. For unusual concentrations.8. 347 8.pressures temperatures. Coal Tar Paints Petroleum Prestone (Antifreeze) Nitro Benzine Oxygen Silicate of Soda Sulphuric Acid (Dilute) '-' Propylene Glycol Pyranol A13B3B Skydrol 500B Skydrol 7000 Abs.8. 309 8.8. Alloy 20 Aluminum Brass Copper Hastelloy B & C@ Inconel 600@ Incolloy 800@ Monel@ Nickel Phosphor Bronze Tantalum Titanium Note: Maximum temperature ratings are based upon hot air constant temperatures. 310 8. Suitable for use with: Acetone Alcohol Animal Fats & Oils Benzene (Benzol) Benzine (Gasoline) Bunker Oil Butane Butyl Acetate Carbon Dioxide Carbon Tetrachloride Cresol Dibutyl Phthalate DOP (Dioctyl Phthalate) Dry Cleaning Fluid Ether Ethyl Acetate Ethylene Glycol Formaldehyde Freon Fuel Oil Gas Illuminating Gasoline Greases Hydrogen Hydrogen Sulphide Inerteen 70-30 Inks Kerosene Lacquers and Thinners Lubricating Oil Methyl Chloride (Refrigerant) Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) Methyl Isobutyl Detone (MIBK) Naphtha.8. 4308.8.8.GLYCERIN BINDER protein bonded sheet that is suitable for the or fiber sheet is a tough. 501 8. 4108. Petroleum Naphtha.8.8. 321 8. Soap Sperry Oil Sulphur Dioxide Super VM&P Naphtha Toluol Transformer Oil Trichloroethylene Tricresyl Phosphate Triethylene Glycol (Neutral Grade) Turpentine Varnish Vegetable Oil Water Wood Alcohol Xylol Not suitable for use with: Acids (Inorganic) Alkalies Hydrochloric Acid Nitric Acid (Dilute) 37 . pliable and compressible services listed below to a maximum temperature limit of 2500 F. "-'" CHEMICAL RESISTANCE VEGETABLE FIBER SHEET Vegetable CHART GLUE.8. The presence of contaminating fluids and cyclic conditions may drastically affect the maximum temperature range. further investigation is indicated.METALS SUGGESTED MAXIMUM SERVICE TEMPERATURES TYPE IN AIR SERVICE OF 1000 1400 2000 2100 1400 1500 1700 1300 1500 1200 1500 800 500 500 2000 2000 1f~00 1500 1400 500 3000 2000 CONTINUOUS °C 538 760 1095 1150 760 815 925 705 815 649 815 427 260 260 1095 1095 871 815 760 260 1649 1095 '-' Carbon 8teel 304 8.

88 3.12 26.50 5.75 4.38 5.50 6.62 9.00 19.75 25.88 28.31 1.50 9.00 20.62 23.75 14. 400.62 0.38 Nominal Flat No.88 3.38 2.00 24.88 4.75 12.75 Class 900 2.38 9.00 16.of Hole BoltCircle Pipe Gasket Ring 10 Holes Diameter Diameter Size 00 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 0.88 3.25 3.12 17.38 7.06 1.91 2. AND 900 Gasket 00 NominalPipe Size 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 -.62 Class 400 2..00 7.62 0.50 22.25 3.12 V 38 .75 11.25 17.62 8.62 15.75 21.25 1.12 3.50 00 13.25 23.12 19.75 10.12 14.00 18.00 1..00 Class 600 2.50 J 00 3.75 0.88 12.66 1./ Gasket 10 0.62 1.38 14.00 6.50 19.21 GASKETDIMENSIONS FOR ASME/ANSI 816.91 2.75 3.50 3.00 14.25 22.of Hole BoltCircle Holes Diameter Diameter 8 12 12 12 16 16 20 20 0.38 5.12 2.62 .62 2.06 1.88 6.12 4.62 0.50 4.88 6.62 10.75 20.50 33.75 30..50 8.50 30.12 3.38 2.00 7.00 27.63 5.00 23.62 6.00 Class 300 2. CLASSES 300.88 5.00 21.00 29.25 2.00 8. 600.75 5.66 1.75 12.50 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 8.12 9.00 21.50 25.50 9.38 7.88 2.12 27.88 3.75 12.38 8.25 21.88 9.00 7.38 11. 8.75 0.5 CLASS 150 PIPE FLANGES AND FLANGED FullFaceGasket Nominal Flat Gasket Ring Pipe Size 10 00 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 0.62 3.62 0.25 FITTINGS FullFaceGasket No.50 10.00 7.88 3.62 25.12 1.25 3.12 23. 0 0 13.12 5.5 PIPE FLANGES AND FLANGED FITTINGS.75 0.12 16.84 1.62 10.38 2.12 1.12 5.50 5.25 18.25 1.56 6.50 6.88 5.50 4.25 16.38 22.31 1.88 2.00 FLAT RING GASKET DIMENSIONS FOR ASME/ANSI 816.56 6.88 6.75 0.88 1.SOFT SHEET GASKET SIZES PER ASME 816.00 24..62 0.00 4.84 1.00 18.38 4.25 24.88 4.00 6.00 16.88 31.75 0.50 2.12 8.00 3.75 14.13 17.50 19.50 12.88 0.25 4.75 4.62 20.50 7.38 16.00 4.00 8.12 21.50 32.50 25.50 3.00 11.75 4.12 2.50 3.62 2.50 6.62 2.00 7.50 16.00 19..38 25.38 5.00 20.12 5.75 11.00 1.12 2.00 18.75 14.75 3.

25 57.75 53.21 (CONT.50 48.00 52.12 54.81 38.19 Class 300 30.00 38.25 40.50 34.12 37..00 56.00 52. CLASSES 150.00 46.26 54.50 43.00 58.75 32.56 32.31 44.88 33.25 65.50 67.50 39.88 Class 150 28.31 40.44 53.00 Class 150 26.38* 46.00 48.50 67.38 31.00 50.00 34.12 45.12 52..75 GENERAL NOTE: Dimensions are in inches.00 63.75 65.00 44.75 66.63 32.88 60.50 44.38 37.00 36.00 30.25 54.88 35.00 42.44 55.31 42.25 44.47 SERIES B (OR API 605) LARGE DIAMETER STEEL FLANGES.00 39.12 Class 400 29.75 60.75 62.88 37..62 41.75 63. 300.00 50.88 57..25 47.00 60.25 58 60 GENERALNOTE: Dimensions are in inches.88 45.. 39 .88 40.88 53.88 37. FLAT RING GASKET DIMENSIONS FOR ASME B16.62 56.25 41.50 32.00 46.75 57.75 61.50 50.00 34.88 35.88 48.00 54.19 67. * Dimension as suggested by Lamons.47 SERIES A (OR MSS-SP-44) LARGE DIAMETER STEEL FLANGES.88 34.25 56..38 48.75 61.00 39.00 30.00 40.00 32. 300.75 64.) '-' FLAT RING GASKET DIMENSIONS FOR ASME B16.26 59.25 58. * Dimension as suggested by Lamons.00 56.50 56.00 36.44 57.25 51.56 34.50 48.12 43.00 38.00 30.12 32.00 60.75 39.00 28.SOFT SHEET GASKET SIZES PER ASME 816.12 49.62 58.00 50.50 Class 300 27.50 52.50 45.62 36.50 54. 150.75 34.12 41. CLASSES 75. 400 AND 600 00 Nominal Pipe Size 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 .25 34.75 Class 400 27.00 40.88 41.00 58. 400.25 52.00 48..88 29. "'""NOTE: (1) NPS 22 for reference only.25 39.88 38.25 43.50 65.00 41.25 49.88 60.75 45.56 30.00 42.12 47.75 35.00 Class 75 27.25 43.50 58.00 32.69 36.50 50. Gasket 10 26.00 42.00 54.00 50.26 44.31 46.12 36.00 41.00 61.50 41. AND 600 00 Nominal Pipe Size 22 (1) 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 10 22.19 64.00 44..62 62.25 Class 600 28.00 52.62 59.00 50. Size not listed in ASME 816.25 Class 600 30.88 31.75 48.00 26.25 45.38 32.00 38.47.25 42.00 55.88 55.25 63.25* 62.62 44.88 62..50 33.44 51.75 35.00 59.50 43.00 28.75 37.

85 All All 0 . aq.85 86 .. All All All All All All All All All All All All 140 90 All All All All All All All All All All Room Room All All All All All -.J 40 I . Citric acid Formic acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrofluosilicic acid Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen sulfide-water Lactic acid Monochloracetic acid Nitric acid Nitric acid Nitric acid Oleic acid Oxalic acid Phosphoric acid Stearic acid Sulfur dioxide Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfurous acid Tartaric acid Ammonium hydroxide Monoethanolamine Sodium hydroxide Alum Aluminum chloride Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium bisulfate Ammonium sulfate Ammonium thiocyanate Arsenic trichloride Calcium chlorate Calcium hypochlorite Copper sulfate Cupric chloride Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulfate Manganous sulfate Nickel chloride Nickel sulfate Phosphorous trichloride Sodium chloride Sodium chlorite Sodium hypochlorite Stannic chloride Sulfur monochloride Zinc ammonium chloride Zinc chloride Zinc sulfate Concentration Per Cent All All All All All 0 .GRAFOIL@ CHEMICAL SERVICE RECOMMENDATION CHART Fluid Temp.10 All All All All All All All All All All All 0-4 0 .10 All All All All 0 . up to of All All All All All 200 All All All All All All All All All 185 140 100 All All All All All All 338 300 160 Not Rec.70 71 .95 Over 95 All All All All All All All All All All 0 .63 All 0 .25 All All All All All "-' ALKALIES SALTSOLUTIONS -.20 Over 20 All All 0 .. soln.90 91 ....20 All All All All 0 .J Chemical Reagent ACIDS Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Arsenic Acid Boric acid Carbonic Acid Chromium trioxide.10 10 .

sym.".GRAFOIL@ CHEMICAL SERVICE CHART (CONT.60 All All All 60 All All All All All All All - RECOMMENDATION '-" HALOGENS. WATER Chemical Reagent Air Bromine Bromine water Chlorine-dry Chlorine dioxide Chlorine water Fluorine Iodine Steam Water "Dowtherm" (all types) Petroleum-oil based "Therminol" (all types) "Ucon:' (all types) Acetone Amyl alcohol Aniline Aniline hydrochloride . 'Au reomyci n" HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS .) Fluid Temp. '-" Benzene Benzene hexachloride Benzyl sulfonic acid Butyl alcohol Butyl "Cellosolve" Carbon tetrachloride "Cellosolve" solvent Chloral hydrate "Chlorethylbenzene" Chloroform "Deoxidine" Dichloropropionic acid Diethanolamine Dioxane Ethyl alcohol Ethyl chloride Ethylene chlorohydrin Ethylene dibromide Ethylene dichloride Ethyl mercaptan-water Fatty acids Folic acid Refrigerants 11 and 12 Gasoline Glycerine Isopropyl acetate Isopropyl alcohol Isopropyl ether Kerosene Mannitol Methyl alcohol Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorbenzene Monovinyl acetate Octyl alcohol Paradichlorbenzene Paraldehyde Tetrachlorothane.AIR. Up to OF 850 Room Room All 158 Room 300 Room 1200 All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All 140 338 All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All Concentration Per Cent All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All 0 .100 All All All All 0 -8 All All Saturated All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All 41 I . Trichlorethylene Xylene 90 .

Up to of All All Room All All 140 All Room All 140 All All All 140 All All 200 Not Rec.018 .07 MPa) @ 12 psi (.H.03 MPa) @ 8 psi (.) Fluid Temp. J .H.0% 99. (chloride) All Nickel plating solns.5% 40% 20% <5% <0.solutions Amino acid plus hydrochloric and sulfuric acids Ammonium persulfate plus Over 20 sulfuric acid All Anodizing solutions All Butyl acrylate plus acrylic acid 30 Calcium chloride 10 plus calcium chlorate All Chlorinated ethyl alcohols All Chrome plating solutions Cresylic acid plus sulfuric acid Electropolishing solutions (sulfuric All plus phosphoric acids) Over 20 Hydrochloric acid All sat. -- -- .of * The fluid temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere may considerably exceed the indicated temperature without oxidation of the GRAFOIL@ providing that the bulk temperature of the GRAFOIL@ gasket is below these temperatures or that the fluid being handled does not come into direct contact with the graphite. with chlorine All Nickel plating solns.5 ml/hr 900 psi .052 .03 nitric acid TYPICAL TYPICAL MATERIAL PROPERTIES GRAFOIL@ SHEET PROPERTIES 70 Ib/fP 100 ppm 50 ppm 95.GRAFOIL@ CHEMICAL SERVICE RECOMMENDATION CHART MIXTURES (CONT.08 MPa) TYPICAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES TYPICAL THERMAL PROPERTIES 42 Functional/TemperatureRange -400 to 5400oF Neutral or Reducing Atmosphere -400 to 850oF* Oxidizing Atmosphere Standard Grades -400 to 975°F* Oxidation Resistant Grades GT"'J and GT'M K Thermal Conductivity Along Length & Width 960BTU-in/ft2. (sulfate) 15 Nitric acid plus 5 hydrofluoric acid All "Parkerizing" solution All Rayon spin bath 25 Sodium hypochlorite plus sodium hydroxide 96 Sulfuric acid plus . EXAMPLE: a metal spiralwound gasket with a GRAFOIL@ filler material.oF Through Thickness 36BTU-in/ft2. Chemical Reagent Concentration Per Cent J All Acidified starch .157 '-' Density Leachable Chloride Content-Maximum Industrial Grades Premium (Nuclear) Grades Carbon Content-Minimum Industrial Grades Premium (Nuclear) Grades Compressibility (ASTM F-36) Recovery(ASTMF-36) Creep Relaxation (ASTM F-38) Sealability (ASTM F-37) TensileStrength Along Length & Width Coefficient of Friction Against Steel @ 4 psi (.

18 268.80 43.1 1104.66 40.05 29.0 137.64 73.3 1053.2 1328.93 63.1 131.3 101.01 64.12 700.35 310.69 159.30 874.18 546.69 754.848 53.178 1.484 39.669 8.6 117.65 62.97 247.7 1503.7854 .00 567.46 93.862 63.87 583.11 968.57 21.23 92.59 32.45 29.22 52.424 9.37 55.69 49.78 1003.9817 1.38 22.48 151.0981 .7 1401.05 330.9 108.10 16.662 76.31 15.20 588.0 1156.13 384.73 47.37 44.588 78.27 17.07669 .396 67.7 1452.647 22.92 156.71 179.96 88.8 1119.16 23.09 38.18 654.4 1393.13 14.7 18.43 11 0.3 134.748 2.6902 .98 170.97 66.8 103.617 65.97 55.6 V4 5/.89 92.3 1186.945 3.426 60.939 6.1963 .14 779.90 70.679 31.25 83.29 137.82 85.70 515.35 637.30 48.52 25.784 37.5 100.16 56.94 254.35 13.319 4.64 730.65 12.767 1.1 1477.5 120.4 124.6 115.48 306.CIRCUMFERENCES AND AREAS OF CIRCLES Cire.79 632.96 99.83 660.18 76.4 1233.546 3.36 350.10 80.80 272.40 53.405 2.94 643.07 71.56 98.4 135.36 66.9 V8 3/.00076 .17 12.7 122.767 2.885 95.07 220.85 83.34 24.8 1369.23 41.6 1225.5 131.92 90.13 145.82 217.9 119.4 115.31 785.1-1 279.04 73.9 130.55 45.81 283.068 7.91 37.58 43.1 122.64 84.283 6.08 49.1963 .35 99.5 107.9 101.0 135.6 3/8 7/.3 1511.854 8.94 57.91 26.04908 .8 129.2 118.246 8.17 98.890 6.7854 .200 69.03 406.20 153.13 25.98 44.178 45.62 42.484 1.1 109.6013 .4 106.186 15.88 881.3 1336.30 861.6 V2 9/16 5/8 11/.0 126.61 64.21 207.41 31.76 56.67 93.73 797.98 706.54 375.21 74.62 103.70 525.21 85.44 51.06 934.01 261.2 1082.35 551.66 188.566 13.59 213.6 1426.4 104.65 Diam.27 291.47 420.93 536.06 204.46 258.9 1194.99 975.69 38.70 237.534 3.75 89.69 452.06 93.4 113.08 60.25 907.92 15.33 233.76 45.88 140.088 56.83 298.4 137.0 113.86 466.65 358.132 61.10 338.60 10.2 1291.41 42.4 102.39 75.044 11.60 948.6 3f4 13/.26 61.9 1248.32 79.86 72.364 14.1503 .71 91.946 9.6 104.77 34.95 24.45 250.79 76.4 126.88 28.80 32.515 82.033 15.83 Diam.52 36.65 51.28 371 . 53.55 429.98 33.2 107.81 21.99 11.30 37.28 '-' Diam.46 82.9 1410.69 724.34 35.45 816.39 848.84 363.43 62.88 17.274 29.00 75. 25.80 996.85 120.04 541.3 112.29 165.84 30.5890 . .320 11 .83 63.56 23.29 59.51 791.10 485.06 326.99 773.99 97.5184 .67 182.7 1097.2 1304.95 599.73 438.540 86.54 67.29 70.55 34.4 1089.1 133.66 29.87 495.92 914.82 74.49 16.12 36.:.03 84.90 22.63 20.282 42.13 167.21 96.402 101.1 102.6 126.3 108.6 1164.1 1240.38 97.14 78.159 2.33 46.7 1256.57 76.664 90.745 58.06 18.1 111.46 117.5 1149.80 610.24 19.80 148. 17 V8 V4 3/8 '/2 5/8 3f4 \18 18 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/a 3/4 \la 19 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \/8 20 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \la 21 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \18 Area 226.141 3. 1132 1/16 Cire.5 1272.37 604.26 572.7 124.73 135.2 136.6 1486.8 105.4 117.61 75.67 130.8 118.7 120.01227 .44 276.374 1.690 23.30 443.71 683.55 577.63 31.1 1049.70 16.11 58.74 194.1 120.108 28.5 122.43 73.539 80.72 58.3 1280.36 77.6 135.12 47.759 74.72 185.23 30.77 23.0 124.629 21.720 18.76 760.1 129.38 11.11 69.00 86.1 1171.8 127.72 69.57 87.105 5.1 100.295 8.02 31.47 71.7 1010.05 367.53 89.48 162.590 88.7 102.24 94.9 1435.24 810.927 4.8 116.904 16.86 766.0 115. 35 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 7/8 36 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3f4 \18 37 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \la 38 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/a 3/4 \la 39 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 7/8 40 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \Is 41 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \la 42 Vs V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \Is 43 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 7/8 Cire.25 346.51 47.79 868.9 1217.141 3.122 38.73 201 .03 95.35 88.8 1017.48 49.07 82.497 5.2 127.227 1.761 3.49 410.82 380.95 35.47 60.84 989.86 823.0 117.8 114.6 128.6 1264.183 34.51 58.4 128.9 121.2485 .1 1494.05 51.2 1126.430 4.97 490.37 33.621 10.471 35.665 19.4417 . .0 1377.20 32.98 230.54 649.52 287.8 1024.9 134.35 223.09 27.18 65.16 342.71 510.10 91 .18 127.173 48.02 20.75 78.2 105.84 19.43 476.60 96.25 Diam.265 51.74 505.68 82.68 71.97 415.13 108.70 27.45 18.32 90.49 354.42 20.3 121.52 14.2 1209.82 393.58 65.6 1360.762 92. 109.4 1111.3 123.967 27.46 388.3097 .635 20.464 30.793 12.22 63.068 7.62 53.73 36.71 80.42 95.78 176.58 265.40 64.8 125.5 1202.63 471.61 736.2 1418.79 500.61 901.0 104.3 110.491 7.073 2.13 433.54 78.2 1312.552 2.86 61.19 132.78 98.032 9.7 133.75 67.456 55.78 87.7 113.69 60.9940 1.39 475.20 21.43 84.9 112.3 130.79 65.14 89.61 742.15 67.21 10.03 294.3 1288.52 666.6 137.29 695.94 46.05 40.639 9.11 461.2 1320.90 48.21 829.7 1179.675 7.83 52.97 804.16 318.0 106.817 10.02761 .3712 .75 621.8 107.5 1060.1 1141.19 54.5 133.81 96.39 210.16 45.87 50. 26 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 7/8 27 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \/a 28 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 \18 29 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 \la 30 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/a 3/4 7/a 31 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \18 32 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \/8 33 V8 V4 3/S V2 5/8 3f4 \Is 34 Va V4 3/a V2 5/S 3f4 7/8 Cire.90 982.461 7.06 334.86 712.7 111.74 100.31 26.33 57.9 1075.19 43.516 84.871 41.7 1067.71 125.50 143.2 1385.64 95.0 128.75 113.9 132.16 34.49 689.411 5.82 197.1104 .82 941.87 173.27 28.2 116.01 42.963 2.90 59.60 86.01 447.74 Area .54 556.718 44.4 1344.6 106.0 1039.49 91.9 110.87 39.86 106.5 1352.96 77.41 888.27 39.79 54.22 671.26 615.356 2.01 Area 50.76 718.00 424.6 118.5 129.00 894.7 109.2 114.58 54.5 111.25 481.3926 .60 402.3 1443.57 593. 81.3 132.61 921 .033 97.9 123.850 25.32 68.69 191 .10 240.00306 .26 50.44 40.52 243.029 70.205 99.97 842.78 12.6 1469.89 81.707 Diam.976 4.26 626.32 928.54 56.8 Area 962.2 125.6 1134.47 27.712 5.04 62.27 122.663 47.7 131.919 33.882 72.24 314.2 1460.85 94.5 Area 530.83 855.84 41.95 13.20 397.74 14.758 24.50 80.64 302.41 955.93 79.9 1032. 8 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \18 9 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 7/8 10 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/a 3/4 7/a 11 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \la 12 V8 V4 3/8 V2 0/8 3f4 7/8 13 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \Is 14 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/a 3f4 \la 15 V8 V4 3/S V2 5/a 3f4 \/a 16 Vs V4 3fs V2 5/S 3f4 \18 Cire.09 322.50 69.57 835.6 \la 15/'6 1 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 \18 2 Va V4 3/a V2 5/8 3f4 \18 '-' 3 V8 V4 3/8 V2' 5/a 3f4 \18 4 V8 V4 3/S V2 5/a 3f4 7/a 5 V8 V4 3fa V2 5/8 3/4 22 Va V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \la 23 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 7/a 24 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 \la 6 V8 V4 3fa V2 5/8 3/4 7/S 7 Va V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \Is \Is 25 Vs V4 3/a V2 5/a 3f4 \18 '-' 43 .800 17.48 38.95 677.908 5.570 1.76 562.2 103.64 748.8 136.17 87.25 72.3 119.72 520.39 86.00 115.

0 256.6 150.3 207.8 312.1 4001.9 1953.0 2485.2 3486.5 151.2 4067.9 198.9 1828.0 159.9 238.0 2258.2 193.0 3793.0 2002.8 5607.5 217.7 173.8 2052.0 4839.8 2032.7 2886.7 250.8 3903.5 140.8 147.5 177.4 1837.4 3862.3 1905.6 1590.7 6397.4 181.2 1608.1 248.9 2083.8 7341.7 261.1 206.2 4043.1 195.7 210.4 221.2 171.0 214.5 2922.7 184.0 5410.4 232.1 281.9 185.9 176.4 192.3 4596.1 2507.6 298.2 224.2 3875.1 292.4 2540.6 170.8 2874.7 151.4 288.0 307.5 6647.5 2910.5 175.1 177.9 4717.3 2419.8 7427.5 3104.2 180.8 2722.6 193.4 6792.0 3031.7 3369.0 278.8 290.3 163.11 6256.7 144.9 5741.2 3129.1 1993.1 5674.3 3821.8 169.5 153.1 252.8 202.3 1716.9 4344.2 2851.5 230.5 7238.2 3725.0 2653.0 2862.5 262.5 5707.1 173.7 4901.6 6082.0 1572.7 7736.3 3331.0 4185.9 163.2 6326.5 219.9 165.3 185.7 3067.2 200.8 3685.3 2113.7 5574.2 300.3 218.6 243.0 192.9 207.9 156.4 3931.9 141.9 7466.7 283.3 4329.0 225.1 4417.5 7163.0 2279.2 160.9 260.2 4142.6 179.2 191.2 5153.8 2022.0 1689.4 6186.1 274.3 307.9 196.3 7932.5 186.4 168.2 3043.9 3889.7 188.1 208.4 244.2 1564.3 263.6 3538.7 4171.1 3460.6 225.9 174.0 2452.2 2430.0 289.8 3267.1 3254.9 2815.6 7775.1 164.2 3092.5 226.2 2973.2 267.1 (CONT.8 5842.1 155.8 171.9 143.8 180.3 Area 2206.7 7853.3 2630.2 2365.2 2803.1 6116.7 230.6 3.4 310.5 2757.0 3565.4 3166.2 204.1 230.3 205.5 204.4 201.4 3280.2 6503.0 5508.7 7972.8 204.5 7620.9 242.8 215.) Area 3959.8 Diam.7 7013.6 221.1 1617.6 148.7 162.5 215.3 4809.8 3305.4 2664.6 3807.1 6902.8 1546.8 2780.8 4315.4 1934.8 2343.5 1876.3 229.2 1707.7 Diam.3 141.6 1963.1 3473.7 1734.0 2496.3 4071 .7 3848.0 311.8 297.4 226.9 2745.1 Area 1520.3 3631.5 228.5 273.9 1847.2 7504.9 218.5 142. 44 Va % 3/B '/2 5/a 3/4 7/B 45 Va % 3/B 112 5/a 3f4 7/B 46 VB % 3/B V2 5/a 3/4 7/B 47 Va V4 3/B 112 5/a 3f4 7/B 48 VB % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/B 49 VB % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/B 50 Va V4 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 'l'a 51 VB % 3/B '/2 5/B 3f4 7/B 52 Va % 3/B 112 5/8 3/4 'l'8 Cire.0 2463.4 3191.0 5184.4 5775.2 5345.8 224.1 2518.4 255.5 162.0 5089.5 1555.2 149.1 153.7 1800.3 4271.0 212.9 211.0 245.1 4029.0 139.0 7200.9 7581.9 154.2 178.8 1652.2 289.5 2982.7 164.9 282.9 3179.8 264.9 AND AREAS Diam.6 232.4 234.4 2195.4 199.5 302.5 2970.6 146.2 145.3 209.6 159.5 208.1 197.5 1529.8 226.8 3552.0 1914.2 156.6 4099.4 2839.0 296.6 4932.6 265.1 259.5 1818.5 2269.5 240.8 191.4 3780. 166.5 5058.3 198. 138.7 2562.4 1599.6 269.3 270.6 6468.5 2123.2 256.5 295.1 215.1 7658.3 1983.0 181.3 3408.9 1866.9 1643.7 305.0 3834.5 155.0 170.6 4686.1 3987.1 1885.8 189.1 151.6 309.2 311.8 182.3 296.0 1781.7 3605.2 6047.6 7814.1 1698.4 4403.6 280.4 3671.8 308.6 203.4 277.8 167.4 6866.7 4214.7 195.2 2529.1 1943.5 206.7 6976.5 306.0 4128.5 2551.1 184.8 200.6 192.6 6575.9 231.6 2290.8 2062..3 174.1 219.6 6683.3 281.8 2690.4 3055.6 157.9 1680.5 5121.0 1625.5 284.3 3499.7 7389.2 138.6 214.0 3618.8 222.7 155.1 285.7 199.8 6720.5 4359.1 2154.7 1895.0 179.4 4566.3 2710.1 142.2 147.4 7542.0 5808.8 2311.3 196.1 241.1 2585.5 4242.0 6756.J 44 .8 4447.6 287.4 150.9 249.7 153.5 291.9 4995.5 3318.8 301.2 245.9 271.7 175.0 2093.0 161.0 146.0 2185.8 279.6 234.1 1537.3 3512.5 4156.CIRCUMFERENCES Diam.4 188.6 3645.3 4300.8 178.9 5641.3 176.3 252.6 5443.3 241.5 197.6 4536.5 4085.2 3752.6 2227.4 2958.1 6432.6 2397.0 .7 186.8 4114. 71 VB % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/a 72 Va % 3/a V2 5/a 3f4 7/B 73 VB V4 3/B V2 5/a 3f4 7/a 74 VB V4 3/B V2 5fs 3f4 'l'B 75 V4 V2 3f4 76 V4 112 3/4 77 % V2 3f4 78 % V2 3/4 79 % V2 3/4 80 % V2 3f4 81 V4 112 3/4 82 V4 112 3f4 83 '/4 V2 3f4 Cire.7 217.2 3421 .4 1856.3 165.9 1744.7 1924.6 168.8 7697.0 6829.5 173.2 158.2 3698.7 239.0 7893.3 285. 232.1 175.7 272.9 2574.1 186.3 1790.8 257.5 3382.7 206.9 1670.8 253.8 275.8 6539.9 205.1 4015.4 6361.9 187.0 3343.6 3006.4 3591.7 208.6 5876.9 209.7 197.7 6151.2 182.1 2768.0 2474.6 182.3 183.6 236.2 169.8 233.3 274.2 3434.8 286.8 1661.8 2386.9 3204.8 3766.6 172.9 2072.2 2300.8 158.5 2792.6 258.3 4476.2 7275.9 1634.0 203.7 177.1 144.1 314.0 199.0 148.4 2322.9 194.9 6939.2 202.0 3144.9 4506.1 162.6 Area OF CIRCLES Diam.0 234.5 3242.1 237. 263.6 5978.2 213.3 2687.4 2946.3 292.4 2733.4 210.5 2248.4 214.4 203.2 233.0 157.0 300.2 '-' / .0 223.3 187.9 227.9 3080.7 142.3 259.1 1753.9 4257.8 4388.4 1762.0 2375.9 183.2 235.2 167.4 190.6 247.9 2676.6 2994.9 6013.5 251.5 3525.9 220.1 1809.0 2237.4 2934.4 170.2 2103.7 2608.4 2596.1 228.3 4199.4 4666.4 248.7 228.8 160.9 293..3 152.9 7313.5 144.1 140.7 219.6 2898.0 221 .0 3658.7 316.5 5944.5 2354.2 222.5 5910.5 195.6 161.1 4378.4 179.8 235.9 145.142.2 622.9 2012.9 216.5 184.8 4870.0 5313.4 223.8 246.1 4228.8 149.8 5216. 84 % V2 3/4 85 % V2 3f4 86 % V2 3f4 87 % '/2 3/4 88 % V2 3/4 89 V4 V2 3/4 90 V4 V2 3/4 91 V4 112 3/4 92 % '/2 3/4 93 V4 112 3/4 94 % 112 3/4 95 % V2 3f4 96 V4 V2 3f4 97 V4 V2 3/4 98 % '/2 3/4 99 V4 V2 3/4 100 % V2 3f4 Cire.9 304.3 314.4 237.4 139.6 201.3 154.8 140.1 3447.4 3395.7 4778.8 2042.4 159.0 201.4 146.2 3578.8 3117.2 7125.7 3739.6 181.9 229.6 5378.1 6291.9 3229.9 315. 194.7 4963.8 5248.8 5281.4 157.4 2408.1 188.7 3712.4 148.3 4747. Cire.3 303.1 2441.2 211.3 231.3 143.1 2332.6 2827.5 1725.4 299.9 152.0 2619.7 2642.5 6611.8 3356.2 5476.5 1973.6 3917.1 270.9 7088.3 220.4 3216.6 254.3 3945.8 1581.8 193.8 213.5 313.4 212.7 2133.0 190.5 166.1 217. 223.0 168.6 212.6 276.2 278.1 3292. 62 Va % 3/a V2 5/B 3/4 'l'a 63 VB % 3/B 112 5/a 3f4 'l'8 64 Va % 3/B V2 5fs 3/4 7/B 65 1Ia % 3/B '/2 5/B 3/4 7/B 66 Va V4 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/B 67 1IB % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/B 68 Va % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 'l'B 69 Va V4 3/B 112 5fs 3/4 7/B 70 V8 V4 3/B 112 5/8 3/4 'l'a Cire.1 226.1 2216.2 189.6 139.0 267.0 210.4 255.7 2175.8 268.0 150.3 227.1 5026.1 303.6 190.3 161.9 2144.7 294.2 53 1IB % 3/B V2 5/a 3f4 7/a 54 Va % 3/a V2 5/8 3f4 7/8 55 1Ia V4 3/8 VL 5/B 3f4 7/B 56 Va % 3/B 112 5/B 3/4 'l'B 57 VB V4 3/B 112 5fs 3f4 7/B 58 Va % 3/B V2 5/B 3f4 7/B 59 Va V4 3/B V2 5/B 3f4 7/a 60 1IB % 3/B 112 5/B 3f4 7/B 61 Va % 3/B 112 5/8 3f4 'l'a 3019.8 7050.8 4286.3 216.4 2164.5 164.4 - Area 5541.0 172.7 166.3 4626.7 1772.3 172.