n ....

~[K\~u ~&WOO[;)@@[K

.

~

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Subject
Introduction Section I . Design WhyGaskets Are Used
,

Page
, , , , ,.., , ,..,... , ,

2
.

,

,...,

,

3
3

, ,
,

,
"

, ,
, ,

... ..",
, ,

..., ,
,

... ... '
,

... ,

, .., ..,
, ,..,

,..,..

,...,..,..3
,..,...

Effecting
Gasket

a Seal
Seating

Table 1 - Gasket Materials and Contact Facings Table 2 - EffectiveGasket Width ,..., Table 3 - Gasket Seating Surface Finishes Forces Acting on a Gasketed Joint Bolt Load Formulas , Notation Symbols and Definitions Table 4 - MaximumSg Values ,
, ,

,..,

3 4 5
6-7

'

:
, ...,...
' ,'

8
,...
'

,..,

,
'

,

"..,

Example Sample Gasket Calculation - Steam Service Section II. Selection , "

" , ,..,
'...,

.." ,.., , ,.., ,

8 9 9 10 11

Selecting. ProperGasketMaterial the Non-Metallic GasketMaterials
, ,

, "

,..,

,..,

11 11
13
,

'-"

MetallicGasket Materials Metal Gaskets ,.., , Solid Metal Gaskets , MetalJacketed Gaskets Metal Clad and Solid Metal Heat Exchanger Gaskets
,

,...,...,... ,.., ",..,
,

, ,..."
",

,..,

15
15 17 20 21 22

Heat Exchanger Gaskets - Standard Shape Index Spiral Wound Gaskets , ,

,
" , ,..,.., , ,

SizingSpiralWoundGaskets
Flange Surface Finishes. , Available Spiral Seal Styles ,
,

,

,

22
23

,
, , , ,

,...'
,

Section III . Installation Installation and Maintenance Tips Gasket Installation Procedures
Bolt Torque Sequence.
,

,

,

,

,..

23 26

,

"

'",..,..,..,26

,...
, ...,..,..,
, ,

,..
,..,..,
,..,..,...~ , ,

'

,
,

,...
,

,..,26 27

TorqueValues

28
,.29

Trouble Shooting Leaking Joints
Manway Problems? . Manway Application Information Other Problem Areas

,

,

,..,

,..,

,..,

Sheet ,

, ,...,...,

,... ,

,.. , ,.., , ,

,..,

,...,..,..,.30 , 31 ...;.."" , 32

Section

IV - Appendix

,

33
33 "... 35 37 37
,.. ,..,

ASME Section VIII, Div. I - Design Consideration for Bolted Flange Connections Chemical Resistance Chart - Gasket Metals Maximum Service Temperatures - Gasket Metals Chemical Resistance Chart - Vegetable Fiber Sheet

SoftSheetGasketDimensions

,..,

,

,..,..

,

',

38
40

Chemical Resistance Chart - Grafoil@ Circumferences and Areas of Circles Torque Required to Produce Bolt Stress Bolting Materials - Stress Table 1 Bolting Data for Standard Flanges

"

41
, " 45 46 47

~

INTRODUCTION
The cost of leaky joints in industry today is staggering. Out-of-pocket costs run into billions of dollars annually in lost production, waste of energy, loss of product and, most recently, impact on the environment. These problems are increasing, not decreasing. It behooves all of us to consolidate our knowledge and experience to solve or at least minimize these problems. This publication is being produced because we, as gasket manufacturers and suppliers, are constantly called upon to solve sealing problems after the fact. Too often we find insufficient time and attention has been given to: . proper design of flanged joint . installation procedures and . selection of the optimum gasket material required to solve a particular sealing problem. We will endeavor to outline in this publication those areas we believe to be essential in a properly designed, installed and m"aintainedgasketed joint. We believe most people involved with the design, installation, and maintenance of gasketed joints realize that no such thing as "zero" leakage can be achieved. Whether or not a joint is "tight" depends on the sophistication of the methods used to measure leakage. In certain applications the degree of leakage may be perfectly acceptable if one drop of water per minute is noted at the gasketed joint. Other requirements are that no bubbles would be observed if the gasketed joint was subjected to an air or gas test underwater and a still more stringent inspection would require passing a mass spectrometer test. The rigidity of the test method would be determined by: . the hazard of the material being confined . loss of critical materials in a process flow . impact on the environment should a particular fluid escape into the atmosphere . danger of fire or of personal injury All of these factors dictate proper attention must be given to: . design of flange joints or closures . proper selection of gasket type proper gasket material . proper installation procedures Care in these areas will ensure that the best technology goes into the total package and will minimize operating costs, pollution of the environment and hazards to employees and the general public.

J

v

.

J

2

SECTION I
WHY GASKETS ARE USED '--"
Gaskets are used to create a static seal between two stationary members of a mechanical assembly and to maintain that seal under operating conditions which may vary dependent upon changes in pressures and temperatures. If it were possible to have perfectly mated flanges and if it were possible to maintain an intimate contact of these perfectly mated flanges throughout the extremes of operating conditions, a gasket would not be required. This is virtually an impossibility either because of the size of the vessel and/or the flanges the difficulty in maintaining such extremely smooth flange finishes during handling and assembly . corrosion and erosion of the flange surfaces during operations. As a consequence, relatively inexpensive gaskets are used to provide the sealing element in these mechanical assemblies. In most cases, the gasket provides a seal by external forces flowing the gasket material into the imperfections between the mating surfaces. It follows then that in a properly designed gasket closure, three major considerations must be taken into account in order for a satisfactory seal to be achieved. . Sufficient force must be available to initially seat the gasket. Stating this another way, adequate means must be provided to flow the gasket into the imperfections in the gasket seating surfaces. Sufficient forces must be available to maintain a residualstress on the gasket under operating conditions to ensure that the gasket will be in intimate contact with the gasket seating surfaces to prevent blow-by or leakage. The selection of the gasket material must be such that it will withstand the pressures exerted against the gasket, satisfactorily resist the entire temperature range to which the closure will be exposed and withstand corrosive attack of the confined medium.

-

DESIGN . By heat, such as in the case of sealing a bell and .

. .

spigot joint on cast iron pipe by means of molten lead. Note, however, that after the molten lead is poured, it is tamped into place using a tamping tool and a hammer. Gasket lip expansion. This is a phenomenon that would occur due to edge swelling when the gasket would be affected by confined fluid, as in the case of elastomeric compounds affected by the confined fluids, such as solvents, causing the gasket material to swell and increase the interaction of the gasket against the flange faces. Generally, gaskets are called upon to effect a seal across the faces of contact with the flanges. Permeation of the media through the body of the gasket is also a possibility depending on material, confined media, and acceptable leakage rate.

. .

\...-

EFFECTING A SEAL
A seal is affected by compressing the gasket material and causing it to flow into the imperfections on the gasket seating surfaces so that intimate contact is made between the gasket and the gasket seating surfaces preventing the escape of the confined fluid. Basically there are four different methods that may be used either singly or incombination to achieve this unbroken barrier. Compression (Figure 1). This is by far the most common method of effecting a seal on a flange joint and the compression force is normally applied by bolting. Attrition (Figure 2). Attrition is a combination of a dragging action combined with compression such as in a spark plug gasket where the spark plug is turned down on a gasket that is both compressed and screwed into the flange. GASKET SEATING There are two major factors to be considered with regard to gasket seating. The first is the gasket material itself. 'The ASME Unfired Pressure Vessel Code Section VIII, Division 1 defines minimum design seating stresses for a variety of gasket materials. These design seating stresses range from zero psi for so-called self-sealing gasket types such as low durometer elastomers and O-rings to 26,000 psi to properly seat solid flat metal gaskets. Between these two extremes there are a multitude of materials available to the designer enabling him to make a selection based upon the specific operating conditions under investigation. Table No.1 indicates the more popular types of gaskets covered by ASME Unfired Pressure Vessel Code. (can't on page 6)

.

.

'-'
3

3.2. with nonmetallic filler Corrugated metal.25 0 200 400 1 (a. d) 2.2* Grooved metal 1 (a. Reprinted with permission of ASME "-" 4 . b. design seating stress y (psi) 0 Sketches and notes Use facing sketch Use column - - - 0.-. c.75 3. c.50 3.50 26000 18000 21800 26000 6 I Ring joint *The surface of a gasket having a lap should be against the smooth surface of the facing and not against the nubbin.5 6.75 3. d) 4.25 4.1 GASKET MATERIALS AND CONTACT FACINGS "-" Gasket Factors (m) for Operating Conditions and Minimum Design Seating Stress (y) NOTE: This table gives a list of many commonly used gasket materials and contact facings with suggested design values of m and y that have generally proved satisfactory in actual service when using effective gasket seating width b given in Table UA-49.50 6.6500 3700 4500 Spiral-wound metal.00 10000 2900 3700 4500 5500 J.50 3. Metallic.-. The design values and other details given in this table are suggested only and are not mandatory..50 3. 2.50 6. b) Soft Aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6% chrome Stainless steels Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass .50 2.25 .50 1. b. d) 2.3 Solid flat metal -.00 4.75 3. 5 1.50 3. c. 1b.75 3.25 3.75 4. b.II 1 (a.25 3.75 3.4.00 3.-. double jacketed with nonmetallic filler r} II 1 (a. c.25 1a.00 1.50 5.75 3.00 I Corruga1ed metal Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6% chrome Stainless steels 3. Below 75 Shore Durometer 75 or higher Shore Durometer Elastomers with cotton fabric insertion Gasket factor m 0 Min. 1d*..75 3.TABLE UA-49. b.. Refer to Table UA-49.50_- Vegetable fiber 1100 --3.25 5500 \< \..2 Gasket material Self-Energizing types 0 Rings.75 5.--. d) Softaluminum Flat metal jacketed with nonmetallic filler Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel 4-6% chrome Stainless steels Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6% chrome Stainless steels Soft aluminum Soft copper or brass Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6°/ chrome Stainless steels Iron or soft steel Monel or 4-6% chrome Stainless steels 3.. 1 (a.00 6500 7600 5500 6500 7600 8000 9000 9000 5500 6500 7600 9000 10100 8800 13000 18000 21800 ( . 3.00 6.75 Carbon Stainless or Monel 2. Elastomer other gasket types considered as self-sealing Elastomerswithout fabric. 1c*.

c.... *Where serrations do not exceed 1/64 in..~".v. T. aba b = boowhen bo b = ~ 114in.'E~~r". sketches 1b and 1d shall be used.N w ..."-.>?.' 3 1/64" Nubbin: .~~..»///0J0~~.%\'//////////// . I <l Gasket t Face '-' NOTE: The gasket factors listed only apply to flanged joints in which the gasket is contained entirely within the inner edges of the bolt holes./. b Column I I Column II ..~ 2 ""v w+N 4 w +3N 8 w...~ //«0 2 N 4 3N 8 3N 8 7N 16 . Location of Gasket Load Reaction HG G--.' I '" '"".. depth and 1/32 in."c> .~ ~ " '..'" w<.~ 1 -/(// ---:1 w<...:':"l~f... 1c ~~~ N 1d* .>. ~2 .. Reprinted with permission of ASME 5 ...c/ _fII.' S'.. width spacing. " ~~ ~ ~ ~ .>. (W : N max) w . ~ r: N 2 N 2 S'.. "~'. ~ 5* ..I--hG--1 °F~'C~O~!~~ --~ b 1--! HG G ---1-.. T.i8S 2 1/64" Nubbin !~..hG I ---I..'-' 1a TABLE UA~49.:c...' N' 1b* - Facing Sketch Basic Gasket Seating Width..N -LNj. (w : N ma1 w.--/'M ~ ~ I-N-i ~ N 4 3N 8 6 w 8 Effective Gasket Seating Width. when bo > 114 in..~""'" ~ /"r---I "-'" 4* 1.J~/"l""l" ~~ ~ .2 EFFECTIVE GASKET WIDTH ~~~~ggerated '/."'. .'E1J~"'..>.+://.

it is necessary to have a relatively rough gasket seating surface for elastomeric and PTFE gaskets on the order of magnitude of 500 microinches. extremely high unit loads are required to flow the gasket into imperfections on the gasket seating surfaces. Spiral-wound gaskets.':'}:::'i:::iiiii:i:ii ~ \\ 6 ~ .J Corrugated metal Corrugated metal with soft filler ~ ~ \~ 63 125 Metal jacketed gaskets ~ \ \. For example a totally enclosed facing such as tongue and groove will permit the use of a much smoother gasket seating surface than can be tolerated with a raised face.. The reason for the difference is that with non-metallic gaskets such as rubber.The characteristicsof the type of gasket being used dictate the proper flange surface finish that must be taken into consideration by the flange designer and there is no such thing as a single optimum gasket surfacefinish for all types of gaskets." 63-80 NOTE: This table gives a list of suggested surface finishes that have generally proven satisfactory in actual service. they are based upon the best cross-section of successful design experience currently available. do require some surface roughness to prevent excessive radial slippage of the gasketunder compression.The problem of the proper finish for gasket seating surface is further complicated by the type of the flange design. As a general rule. there must be sufficient roughness on the gasket seating surfaces to bite into the gasket thereby preventing excessive extrusion and increasing resistance to gasket blowout. ~ TABLE 3 GASKET SEATING SURFACE FINISHES Flange Surface Finish ".(con't from page 3) The second major factor to take into consideration must be the surface finish of the gasket seating surface. Solid metal gaskets normally require a surface finish not rougher than 63 microinches. Table3 includes recommendationsfor normal finishes for the various types of gaskets. however. \ ~. They are suggested only and not mandatory. This requires that the gasket seating surfaces be as smooth as possible to ensure an effective seal. In the case of solid metal gaskets.AARH 250-500 Gasket Descrigtion Flat Non-Metallic Flat - Metallic' SEE NOTE 1 \ ~ 63 -. Semi-metallic gaskets such as spiralwound fall between these two general types. which have become extremely popular in the last fifteen to twenty years. ~ \ 'i:ii.

-...'. . >-. SEE NOTE 2 32 ...L". Spiral wound . I . This usually necessitates a bolt area to gaskel area greater than a ratio of 2: 1.) '\ ----------'. If this is not possible.250 - Solid metal washer type gaskets require extremely high seating stresses to seal..--"-'" Hollow metal y . FINISHES CONT.... Note @ .Refer to page 23 for more details on flange surface finishes for spiral wound gaskets.... it is preferred to use a profiled or serrated gasket to achieve the necessal seating load on the gasket.-') "'...AARH 63-80 Solid metal 63 '-" '-. Flange Surface Gasket Cross-Section Finish /.. Note <D ' 125 . Metaljacketed gaskets (cant.TABLE 3 - GASKET SEATING SURFACE GasketDescription \".

It must be sufficient to initially seat the gasket and flow the gasket into the imperfections on the = Wm2 Sa Am = Am1 if Am1 . . From a practical standpoint. expanding or contracting the metals. See Figure 1. etc. and the more assurance the designer has of obtaining a tight joint. to contain the hydrostatic end force and. MEDIUM: The liquid or gas against which the gasket is to seal. It must be sufficient to maintain a residual load on the gasket/flange interface.. The effect of certain confined fluids may become increasingly degrading as temperature rises and attack upon organic gasket materials is substantially greater than at the ambient temperatures (about 75°F). As a rule. the more critical becomes the selection of the proper gasket..often be rejected because failure occurred due to a poorly cleaned flange face. the type of bolt material. Sg(max)- \ . . under the most severe operating conditions. ..(ID)2] = 4 Spiral Wound -J Gaskets Ail Other Types of -J Gaskets v 8 . The larger the number used for "m.. The hydrostatic end force. but if complied with will help eliminate gasket blowout or failure. ASME defines this bolt load as: Wm1= ~G2P 4 + 2b1TGmP Each of these factors require consideration before an effective gasket material is finally chosen. GENERAL CONDITIONS: The type of flange. residual gasket load must be "X" times internal pressure if a tight joint is to be maintained. ~Sa ~ [(aD . Division 1 defines the initial bolt load required to seat a gasket sufficiently as: Wm2 = 1TbGy . the flange surfaces.s:There are three principal forces acting on any gasketed joint. the effective pressure resulting from the bolt loading. Actually the "m" value is the ratio of residual unit stress (bolt load minus hydrostatic end force) on gasket (psi) to internal pressure of the system. to maintain a residual compression load on the gasketthat is sufficient to assure a tight joint. TEMPERATURE: Temperaturecreates thermo-mechanical effects.(ID)2] AbSa Sg(max) -. The initial compression force applied to a joint must serve several purposes. Am2 . However..125)2 . These details require careful attention. '-" BOLT LOAD FORMULAS* The ASME Unfired Pressure Vessel Code. in addition." the more conservative the flange design would be. OR Am = Am2 if Am2 Bolts are then selected so that the actual bolt area Ab is equal to or greater than Am Ab = (Number of Bolts) x (Minimum Cross-Sectional Area of Bolt in Square Inches) Ab ~ Am The maximum unit load Sg(max) n th~ gasket bearing o surface is equal to the total maximum bolt load in pounds divided by the actual sealing area of the gasket in square inches. There are other shock forces that may be created due to sudden changes in temperature and pressure. . Am1 . tending to blow the gasket out of the joint and/or to bypass the gasket under operating conditions. gasKet seating surfaces regardless of operating conditions. Le. that tends to separate flanges wh~mthe system is pressurized. THE INTERNAL PRESSURE: These are the forces continually try.I! [(OD)2 . or improper bolting-up practice. . They are: Bolt load and/or other means of applying the initial compressive load that flows the gasket material into surface imperfections to form a seal. Creep relaxation is another factor that may come into the picture. . The required operating bolt load must be at least sufficient. ing to unseal a gasketed joint by exerting pressure against the gasket (blowout pressure) and against the flanges holding the gasket in place (hydrostatic end force). Internal pressure acting on the portion of the gasket exposed to internal pressure.FORCES ACTING ON A GASKETED JOINT BOLT LOAD HYDROSTATIC END FORCE GASKET INTERNAL OR BLOW OUT PRESSURE Forces acting on a gasket joint (Figure 1) . Section VIII. THE FLANGE LOAD: The total force compressing the gasket to create a seal. the proper gasket may . This unknown quantity "X" is what is known as the "m" factor in the ASME unfired pressure vessel code and will vary depending upon the type of gasket being used. the spacing and tightness of the bolts. Figure 1 indicates the three primary forces acting upon a gasketed joint which we will consider for this discussion. affecting the gasket material by promoting "creep relaxation" which is a permanent strain or relaxation quality of many soft materials under stress. Initial compression force must be great enough to compensate for the total hydrostatic end force that would be present during operating conditions. then the minimum required bolt area Am is determined: A Am2 - Wm1 m1 . '-' After WM1and Wm2are calculated. the higher the temperature.0.

Section VIII. bolt load for operating conditions. P Sa Sb Sg design pressure. Table 1. = width. used to determine the basic gasket seating width bo. pounds per square inch. the symbols and definitions below are those given in Appendix II of the 1977 ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. = Actual unit load at the gasket bearing surface.NOTATION SYMBOLS AND DEFINITIONS '-' Except as noted. Wm2 = minimum required bolt load for gasket seating. pounds. minimum design seating stress. Table 2. new design factors are anticipated to appear in upcoming revisions of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. pounds per square inch. . 9 . (Lamons is a sponsor of PVRC research). G = outside diameter of gasket contact face less 2b. Table 2 = basic gasket seating width. b bo G = effective gasket or joint-contact-surface seating width. PSI Table 1 pounds per square inch. square inches. based upon the possible contact width of the gasket. y = gasket or joint-contact-surface unit seating load. = allowable bolt stress at ambient temperature. inches. N Am = total required cross-sectional area of bolts.. required for the operating conditions. Table 2. pounds per square inch. Thus. '-" *The Pressure Vessel Research Council (PVRC) has developed a program to better identify loads based on gasket "sealability". = Ab = actual total cross-sectional area of bolts at root of thread or section of least diameter under stress. pounds per square inch.. Wm1 = required pounds. Am1 = total cross-sectional area of bolts at root of thread or section of least diameter under stress. Am2 = total cross-sectional area of bolts at root of thread or section of least diameter under stress. = allowable bolt stress at operating temperature. m When bo . in inches. Table 2. inches.. = diameter at location of gasket load reaction. % in. inches. G = mean diameter of gasket contact face. taken as the greater of Am1or Am2' square inches. inches. = gasket factor. required for gasket seating. When bo > % in.

000 PSI (See Note at bottom of Stress Table 1. Page 4 m=3 y = 10. Page 32. J '-" 10 .175" thick spiral wound gasket is . the gaskets should have an I.472 sq. "Sizing Spiral Wound Gaskets Confined on 1. Bolt Material .steam Flange details - = 302. however. = 0.500" b = 0. Allowable Stress @500°F . Page 5 N = 1/2" = 0.S. Minimum required bolt at design conditions is 302.472 = 349.000 2. it is selected as the filler material.14 x 22.160 Ibs. Since a positive stop is designed into the flange. 316 S.005" (See page 23).440 Ibs. The flange material.378 = 453. Bolt load @ Test Condition: 30.250" x 3.D. 1. '\. according to Stress Table 1. and 0.14 x 22. From the above analysis.900 psi Design temperature . and "Note".5" x 10.D.000 x 17.785 x (22. It is apparent adequate bolting is available. Wm1 = 11 4 G2P + 2bnGmP Wm1 (Design) = 0. page 8 Ab = 24 x 0. Available load for gasket seating is 524. The 1/8" groove depth is within this range. Wm1 (Test) J EXAMPLE CONDITIONS: A designer wants a gasket recommendation for a special application sealing steam at 600 psi and 500°F.S.585 .043 Ibs. Since the facing is groove to flat face.160 Ibs.785 x (22.444 + 63.250" x 3.250" G = 22. Wm2 = nbGy = 3.625 Ibs.250" x 22.5")2 x 600 PSI + 2 x 0. From Table 1.14 x 0.130" :t .SAMPLE GASKET APPLICATION PROBLEM For assistance with a particular gasket problem contact Lamons Sales Department. PSI(see Stress Table Analysis The pressure-temperature conditions indicate a metallic type gasket should be used. From Table 2. Minimum required bolt loading for gasket seating (Wm2) is 176. The conditions appear to be suitable for a spiral wound gasket.ASTM A193 .-2115/16" LD.0. Bolt Load @ Design Condition: 20.0.0. From formula on page 8. Therefore.250" b0 = 0.5" x 3 x 600 PSI = 238.728 = 17.600 psi Test pressure .". or a technical representative./Grafoil@ 22" 10 x 23" 00 x 0.500°F Process material .20.175" Thick *The optimum compressed thickness for a .ASTM A312 Type 316 S.11/8" 8 thds. to prevent leakage under hydrotest it is decided to tighten bolting to 30.029 Ibs.5" 3.440 Ibs. From page 22.S.S. it appears our original assumption is correct and the recommendation would be: SpiraSeal Type W Gasket .175"*. Note: required bolt load at test conditions is 453.625 Ibs. i.000 x 17. Since Grafoil@is also compatible with the environment (see page 40)..5" x 3 x 900 PSI = 357. Any forces in excess of the force required to compress the gasket will be transmitted to the flange faces and gasket crushing cannot occur. -Av- 231/16"a.043 Ibs. the logical choice for the metal in the gasket is 316 S.029 Ibs.160 Ibs. Page 45. CONDITIONS: Design pressure . Allowable bolt stress @Ambient Temperature.e.B7 Flange Material.000 PSI. Page 45 is only 20. the gasket thickness must be .24 . From Table on Page 42 and definition of Ab. and available bolt load at test conditions is 524. in.666 + 95.472 = 524. of 23". and available load at design conditions is 349. no additional precautions are necessary. groove to flat. is compatible with the steam environment @500°F.316 S.5")2 x 900 PSI + 2 x 0.000 PSI = 176. Appendix S. of 22" and an 0. Page 27.000 1 Appendices Page 45. ~ 1/6'~ :+ Details of Flange Bolting .

CR (CIU. It is not suitable for use in oils. . ozone. NON-METALLIC GASKET MATERIALS NATURAL ~ RUBBER Natural rubber has good resistance to mild acids and alkalies. oils. mechanical factors are important in the design of the joint but the primary selection of a gasket material is influenced by three factors. It has good resistance to commercial oils and fuels. The temperature range would be between -65°F to 500°F.OROPRENE) (NEOPRENE) Chloroprene is a synthetic rubber that is suitable for use against moderate acids. As a consequence. EPDM (ETHYLENE MONOMER PROPYLENE). BUNA-N RUBBER (NITRILE. Its normal temperature range would be between -50°F and 275°F. ketones or steam. of course. sunlight. It is not suitable for use against amines. It is poor in strong oxidizing agents. aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. the corrosive characteristics of the fluid or gas to be contained. They are not.SECTION II . It would have the chemical resistance of PTFE. It has poor resistance to oils and solvents and is not recommended for use with ozone. gaskets will be separated into two broad categories. non-metallic and metallic gaskets. In general. They are unaffected by sunlight and ozone. . '-'" 11 . fats. Its temperature limitations are approximately -65°F to 250°F. esters. For example. the temperature of the fluid or gas to be contained. SILICONES Silicone rubbers have good resistance to hot air. . it is often necessary to "field-test" materials for resistance to corrosion under normal operating conditions to determine if the material selected will have the required resistance to corrosion. It also has good resistance to caustics and salts but only fair acid resistance. It is not good in ozone. Itstemperature range is very limited and is suitable only for use from -70°F to 200°F. greases and most hydrocarbons. however. It is possible to overcome limitations partially by several methods such as including the use of reinforcing inserts. SBR (STYRENE-BUTADIENE) SBR is a synthetic rubber that has excellent abrasion resistance and has good resistance to weak organic acids. Some of these would include Concentration of the corrosive agent. the heat resistance of graphite. Obviously. (Full strength solutions are not necessarily more corrosive than those of dilute proportions and. This synthetic material has good resistance to strong acids. Charts included in the appendix indicate some very general recommendations for non-metallic and metallic materials against various corrosive media. Its temperature range would be from approximately -60°F to 250°F. NBR) Buna-N is a synthetic rubber that has good resistance to oils and solvents. moderate chemicals and ketones. It is suitable over a temperature range of approximately -60°F to 250°F. varying the construction or density. Its temperature range would be between . salts and chlorine solutions. oils and commercial fuels such as diesel and kerosene. It resists weathering.70°F and 350°F. Of the two types. It is very poor against strong oxidizing acids. strong acids. It is not good in aromatics or chlorinated hydrocarbons and has poor resistance against chromic acid and nitric acid. TYPES OF GASKETS For the purposes of this bulletin. aromatic and chlorinated hydrocarbons.) The purity of a corrosive agent. suitable for use against steam. alcohols. FLUOROCARBON (VITON) Fluorocarbon elastomer has good resistance to oils. solvents or aromatic hydrocarbons. chlorinated hydrocarbons. dissolved oxygen in otherwise pure water may cause rapid oxidation of steam generation equipment at high temperatures. the pressure of the fluid or gas to be contained. the strength of steel. . aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. salts and chlorine solutions. CIILOROSULFONATED POLYETHELENE (HYPALON) This material has good acid. The temperature of the corrosive agent. ketones and esters. or by designing the joint itself to overcome some of the limitations. Its normal temperature range would be between -15°F and 450°F. combining it with other materials. general application data and temperature limitations. fuel. higher temperatures of corrosive agents will accelerate corrosive attack. This discussion will cover the various types of non-metallic materials. alkali and salt resistance. alkalies. the reverse is also true. petroleum oils and gasolines over a wide range of temperature. . chlorinated solvents. Obviously there is no known gasket material that has all these characteristics and each material has certain limitations that restrict its use. It should be pointed out that these charts are general recommendations and there are many additional factors that can influence the corrosion resistance of a particular material at operating conditions. require a zero seating stress such as soft rubber and be inexpensive. non-metallic gaskets are by far the most widely used.SELECTION '-" SELECTING THE PROPER GASKET MATERIAL The optimum gasket material would have the following characteristics. aliphatic and aromatic hydro- carbons and strong acids. alkalies and salt solutions. . .

Milled envelopes are more expensive than slit type since considerably more material is lost in machining. Grafoil has outstanding resistance to corrosion against a wide variety of acids. of 24". Its use against strong oxidizing agents at elevated temperatures should be investigated very carefully. the filler dimensions. In addition to being used as a gasket. PTFEgaskets can be supplied in a variety of forms either as virgin material or reprocessed material and also with a variety of filler material such as glass. Milled envelopes are machined from cylinder stock.0. as well as the I. There are three basic designs of envelopes: Sli t Type J Slit envelopes are sliced from cylinders and split from the outside diameter to within approximately 1/16" of the inside diameter. nests within the bolts.) and irregularly shaped envelopes are formed from tape and heat sealed to produce a continuous jacket construction. Corrugated metal inserts .0. PTFEis highly resistantto chemicals.GRAFOIL@ This is an all graphite material containing no resins or inorganic fillers. organic compounds.0. milled or formed tape types. filler materials assureoptimumperformance any to on specific application."carbon.0. Formed Tape Type PLASTICS Of all the plastics. Grafoil makes an excellent packing material and is also used as a filler material in spiral-wound gaskets. and heat transfer fluids.P. alkalies and salt solutions. Large diameter (over 12" N. Fillerssuch as corrugated metaland rubber sheets are available.excellent creep resistance.high deformability and choice of a variety of ~ The more popular fillers for envelope gaskets are: Rubber sheet Compressed non-asbestos . normally rests within the bolt hole circle and the 1. . They can be slit. It is available with or without a metal insertion. The principal advantage in adding fillers to PTFEis to inhibit cold flow or creep relaxation. Sandwich constructionscombining some of the above On vacuum applications. It has a very low surface energy and does not adhere to the flanges.0. but does sublimate at temperatures over 6000°F. Available in sizes up to a maximum 0. of pipe.D. The jacket is machined from the 0. to within approximately 1/32" its 1. . solvents.0. Ceramic material is also used as a filler material in spiral-wound gaskets. even at high temperatures. fits flush with pipe bore and its 0. etc. molybdenum disulfite. is approximately equal to the nominal 1. It is satisfactory for service up to approximately 2000°F. Clearance is required between the 1. of 24".S. PTFE(polytetrafluoroethylene)has emerged as the most common plastic gasket material PTFE's outstanding properties include resistance to temperature extremes from -140°F to 450°F (for virgin material). It does not melt.0. '-" Milled Type CERAMIC FIBER Ceramic fiber is available in sheet or blanket form and makes an excellent gasket material for hot air duct work with low pressures and light flanges.0. Filler Materials ~ PTFE ENVELOPE GASKETS Envelope gaskets utilizing PTFEjacket have become popular for use in severely corrosive services because of their low minimum seating stresses. The bearing surface is determined by 12 .0. Available in sizes to a maximum 0.0. of the filler and the envelope lO. caustics and acids except free fluorine and alkali metals.The jacket's 1. The Gasket 0.0. and in adhesive-back tape form for pipe gaskets over 24 inches in diameter. double envelopes are frequently used where two jackets are overlapped to protect the 0.

in conjunction with an elastomeric binder. 13 . *Temperature limits of gasketing materials are not absolute figures. Concentrated acids and most alkalies have little or no action on iron and steel gaskets which are used regularly for such services.. alone or coupled with chemical pollution. FIBER SHEET VEGETABLE Vegetable fiber sheet is a tough pliable gasket material manufactured by paper making techniques utilizing plant fibers and a glue-glycerine impregnation.. 321 STAINLESS STEEL An 18-10Chromium-Nickelsteel with a Titanium addition. Subject to a lesser degree of stress corrosion cracking and also to intergranular corrosion than Type 304. 304 STAINLESS STEEL An 18-8(Chromium18-20%.. Recommended workingtemperatureof 14000-1500°F. Is subject to stress corrosion. and has a Brinell hardness of around 130. CARBON STEEL Commercial quality sheet steel with an upper temperature limit of approximately1OOO°F. Brinell hardness is about 140..and in some instances to 1700°F. Has the highest creep strength at elevated temperatures of any conventionalstainless type. A high rate of failure may be expected in hot water service if the material is highly stressed. Nickel 8-10%) Stainless with a maximum recommendedworking temperature of 1400°F. METALLIC GASKET MATERIALS . Subject to stress corrosion cracking and to intergranular corrosion at temperatures between 800°F. Its maximum temperature limit is 250° F. causes steel to fail quickly... Most manufacturers of non-asbestos sheet materials use synthetic fibers.'-" COMPRESSED NON-ASBESTOS SHEETING Early efforts to replace asbestos resulted in the introduction and testing of compressed non-asbestosproducts in the 1970's. The elastomeric binder makes up a larger percentage of this sheet and thereby becomes a more important consideration when deterNote: On page 8.03% . Brinell hardness is about 150..Brinell hardnessis approximately160. DuPontCo.The cork-fiber sheet has the same maximum temperature limitation as the vegetable fiber sheet. 502/501 4-6% Chromium and 1/2 Molybdenumalloyedfor mild corrosive resistance and elevated service.particularly if conditions are oxidizing. Brinell hardness is about 140 316 STAINLESS STEEL An 18-12 Chromium-Nickel steel with approximately 2 % of Molybdenum added to the straight 18-8 alloy which increases its strength at elevated temperatures and results in somewhat improved corrosion resistance. Not suitable for handling crude acids or aqueoussolutionsof salts in the neutral or acid range. Used for applications requiring good resistance to scaling at elevated temperatures. gases and a wide variety of solvents. Not suitable for extended service within the carbide precipitation range '-" of 800° to 1650°F. This value is arrived at by multiplying operating pressure times operating temperature. to 1300°F.03% Recommended maximumworkingtemperatureof 1400°F F. of 250 250 500 mining applications. etc. Becomes extremely hard when welded. Brinell hardness is around 155. Many of these products have seen extensiveuse since that period howeverthere havebeen enough problems to warrant careful consideration in choosing a replacement material for compressed asbestos.!.. to 1500°F. May be used where dampness. Is not recommended for use where severe corrosion is encountered but is still very useful for some chemical applications. Brinell hardness is approximately 160. This low carbon content tends to reduce the precipitation of carbides along grain boundaries. Same excellent corrosion resistance as Type 304. If severe corrosion is anticipated.000 40. It is widely used for sealing petroleum products. Maximum working temperature is 1200°F. Not as subject to intergranularcorrosion as is Type304..320°F. At least 80% of applications for non-corrosive services can use Type304 Stainless in the temperature range of . a better grade of stainless steel would probably be a better choice. In addition.Excellent corrosion resistance to a wide variety of chemicals.. and in some instances 1600°F. A "Rule of Thumb" guide for the selection of gasket materials has evolved over the years. the term "pressure temperature conditions" was used indicating that these values are used to help determine the types of material and construction to be used in a gasket. flange design and application peculiarities may influence the temperature limit of a material to a greater or fesser degree.000 75.when corrosive conditions are severe. 347 STAINLESS STEEL An 18-10 Chromium-Nickel steel with the addition of Columbium. in presence of certain media for prolonged periods of time. @ Kevlar is a registered trademark of E. Type321 stainless has the same characteristics as Type 347. 410 STAINLESS STEEL A 12% Chromium steel with a maximum temperature range of 1200°F.If a more compressible material is required. Lesssubject to intergranular corrosion than Type304. MATERIAL Rubber VegetableFiber Solid Fluorocarbon MAXIMUMP xT 15. Brinell hardness is approximately 120. Carbon content held at a maximum of . 304L STAINLESS STEEL Carbon content maintained at a maximum of . Materials within any category may vary depending upon a manufacturer's processing techniques. a combination cork-fiber sheet is available.000 MAXIMUM* TEMPERATURE OF MATERIALS. like Kevlar@. Recommendedmaximum working temperature of 1400° F. Brinell hardness is approximately 160. grades and types of raw materials used. to 1O00°F. The recommended working temperature is 1400° to 1500°F. 316-L STAINLESS STEEL Continous maxiumum temperature range of 1400°1500° F.

INCOLOY 800@ 32. Its excellent corrosion resistance and workability makes it ideal for double jacketed gaskets. sulphuric and phosphoric acids and reducing salt solutions. Recommended maximum continuous working temperature of 5000 F. Corrosion resistance makes it useful in caustic alkalies and where resistance in structural applications to corrosion is a prime consideration. 1% Tin and trace amounts of Arsenic. Good resistance to hydrochloric acid and sulphuric acid. Brinell hardness is approximately 230. Resistant to elevated temperatures. 20% Chromium. and potassium cyanide.5% Nickel. PHOSPHOR BRONZE 90-95% Copper. holds up extremely well against salt and brackish waters. Limited to low temperature steam applications. and small amounts of Manganese and Iron.7-5. BRASS Yellow brass 268 has 66% Copper and 34% Zinc. and should not be used with these media. and carburization. and small amounts of Molybdenum and Copper. and 4-6% Iron. HASTELLOY C-276@ 16-18%Molybdenum. it finds its greatest application in areas where high temperatures and pressures combined with high velocity and destructive turbulence would rapidly deteriorate many less resistant alloys. Maximum temperature range of 2000° F. 21% Chromium. COPPER Nearly pure copper with trace amounts of silver added to increase its working temperature. Resistant to hot. 62% Nickel. '-" ALLOY 20 45% Iron. Recommended maximum temperature of 1600° F. ALUMINUM Alloy 1100is commercially pure (99% minimum). Frequently used to overcome the problem of stress corrosion. Recommended maximum working temperature of 500° F. Brinell hardness is about 150. 15% Chromiumand 7% Iron.5-7% Iron. it is widely used for hydrofluoric acid service. Is a nickelbase alloy containing 77% Nickel. Maximum temperature range of 1400°-1500°F. mercury. 28% Zinc. 30% Nickel. varying concentrations as well as boiling nitric acid up to 70% concentration. and is some instances 2150°F. v CUPRO NICKEL Contains 69% Copper.3% Tungsten. ammonia. Excellent high temperature strength. For solid gaskets. 3. Subject to stress corrosion cracking when exposed to fluorosilic acid. but is not suitable for such materials as acetic acid. Brinell hardness is about 215. and salt. MONEL@ Maximum temperature range of 1500° F. INCONEL 600@ Recommendedworking temperatures of 2000°F. 4. Ideal for carrying corrosive cooling waters at relatively high temperatures. Useful for high temperature strength. Also resists the corrosive effects of wet hydrogen chlorine gas. Most alkaline solutions have little if any effect upon it. Maximum recommended temperature limit of 500° F. 46% Iron. Maximum recommended temperature limit of 500° F. Excellent corrosion resistance even at high temperatures. Maximum temperature range of 500° F. Maximum continuous service temperature of 800° F. Excellent resistance to most acids and alkalies. Offers excellent to good corrosion resistance in most environments. concentrated hydrochloric acid. Brinell hardness is about 150. 13-17.ADMIRALTY Arsenical Admiralty 443 has 71% Copper. but not suitable for acetylene. and even higher under controlled conditions. Brinell hardness is about 160. Brinell hardness is about 64. mercuric chloride and mercury.5%Chromium. Contains 67% Nickel and 30% Copper. and trace amounts of phosphorus. Maximum temperature range of 2000° F. Known as the "Best solution" to chloride ion attack.Developed specifically for applications requiring resistance to corrosion by sulphuric acid. ammonia. Brinell hardness is about 210. except strong oxidizing acids. 5-10% Tin. Note Maximum temperature ratings are based upon hot air constant temperatures. The Brinell hardness is approximately 35. Does not have the allaround excellent resistance of Monel. oxidation.Very good in handling corrosives. Brinell hardness is about 120. HASTELLOY B@ 26-30% Molybdenum.Brinell hardness is 58. TITANIUM Maximum temperature range of 2000° F. and water containing sulfides. Has excellent mechanical properties at the cryogenic temperature range. High corrosive resistance. High resistanceto cold nitric acid of 14 J . Outstanding in oxidizing environments. 24% Nickel.Brinell hardness is about 70. Brinell hardness is about 110. The presence of contaminating fluids and cyclic conditions may drastically affect the maximum temperature range. Excellent cold working capacity. Brinell hardness is about 80. Resistant to nitric acid in a wide range of temperatures and concentrations. Excellent corrosion resistance. acetylene. Brinell hardness is approximately 65. NICKEL 200@ Recommended maximum working temperature is 14000 F. With PTFE (Polytetrafluoroethylene). Excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking. chromic acid. Designed to handle high stresses. and the balance is Nickel. stronger alloys like 5052 and 3003 are used.

ammonia fittings. The hardness of gasket metal must be less than the hardness of the flanges to prevent damage to the gasket seating surface of the flange. This allows each to perform individually to their optimum. Size limitation is normally restricted to the sheet size. They can be used when compressibility is not required to compensate for flange surface finish. They must be sealed by the flow of the gasket metal into the imperfections on the gasket seating surfaces of the flange. solid metal gaskets that require very smooth. '-"" Profile type gaskets offer the desirable qualities of plain washer types and the added advantage of a reduced contact area provided by the V-shaped surface. different thicknesses and different heats of the same material will vary in hardness. and light cross section gaskets that are self-sealing and require minimum clamping forces for effective sealing. It flange conditions require a profile type gasket. radial gouges or scores would be almost impossible to seal using solid metal gaskets. heat exchangers. but flange protection is required as well. ~ Rockwell "B" 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 40 30 20 10 Brinell 3000 Kg. however. The simultaneous action of high compressibilityfacing material on the outside of the grooved metal in combination with limited penetration of the tips of the solid metal core enhance the interactionof the two materials. . warpage or misalignment and where sufficient clamping force is available to seat the particular metal selected.MATERIAL HARDNESS CONVERSION SCALE Brinell hardness figures are approximate guides only. Larger gaskets can be fabricated by welding. hydraulic presses. . In all cases. It is used when a solid metal gasket is required because of pressure or temperature or because of the highly corrosive effect of the fluid to be contained and also when bolting is not sufficient to seat a flat washer. NOTE: Without exception all of the solid metal gaskets require a very fine surface finish on the flanges. METAL GASKETS Metallic gaskets are available in many forms including. the profile gasket may be supplied with either a single-jacketed or a double-jacketed shield. Most materials ordered by Lamons are specified "dead soft". tongue-and-groove joints. PROFILE GASKETS . Load 241 210 183 163 146 134 122 108 95 89 83 75 67 62 57 KAMMPROFILE KAMMPROTM The design features of the grooves in combination with the special properties of the facing materials result in optimal performance and consistency. SOLID METAL GASKETS PLAIN FLAT METAL GASKETS A PROFILE GASKET WITH A METAL JACKET "'" Flat metal gaskets are best suited for applications such as valve bonnets. Under no circumstances should the surface finish exceed 125 microinches. Lamons manufacturesKammpro in a wide range of metals and alloys to exact specifications. 15 . This requires heavy compressive forces.careful attention must be given to machining details of the flanges and sizing of the gaskets. In addition. Flat metal gaskets are relatively inexpensive to produce and can be made of virtually any material that is available in sheet form. however. combinations with soft fillers such as doublejacketed and spiral-wound that can tolerate greater surface roughness and will seat with lesser compressive forces. This will provide protection for the flanges and will minimize damage to the flange faces due to the profile surface. A flange with a flange surface roughness of 63 microinches or smoother is desired. plain surface finishes and high clamping forces in order to seal.

The dimensions are standardized and require specially grooved flanges. Extremely smooth surface finishes of 63 microinches or smoother are required when using this type of gasket.J In addition to the commonly used. The cross section of the gasket is such that internal pressure acting against the ring forces it against the containing surface making a self-energized seal.ROUND CROSS SECTION. complete drawings and material specifications must be supplied. They are fabricated from wire formed to size and welded. RX ring gaskets are similar is shape to the standard octagonal ring joint gasket but their cross section is designed to take advantage of the contained fluid pressure in effecting a seal. Monel@. In ordering lens gaskets. there are specialty items available that. Dimensions for ring joint gaskets and grooves are covered in ASME B16. Bridgeman gaskets are frequently silver plated or lead plated to provide a softer surface and minimize the force required to flow the gasket metal into the flange surface. Internal pressure forces the gasket material to expand when the pressure forces tend to separate the flanges. These . only the oval cross section can be used in the old type round bottom groove. This makes an ideal gasket for low pressures. The newer flat bottom groove design will accept either the oval or the octagonal cross section. The hardness of the ring should always be less than the hardness of the flanges. copper. can provide a very effective seal.000 psi. DELTA GASKET API RING JOINT GASKETS API ring joint gaskets come in two basic types. However. The weld is then polished to the exact wire diameter. The sealing surfaces on the ring joint grooves must be smoothly finished to 63 microinches and be free of objectionable ridges. These gaskets seal by a line contact which provides an initial high seating stress at low bolt loads. '-' BRIDGEMAN GASKET BX AND RX RING GASKETS The Bridgeman gasket is a pressure activated gasket for use on pressure vessel heads and valve bonnets for pressures of 1500 psi and above. They can only be used in API 6BX flanges. The more common materials used for this type of gasket would be aluminum.20. They seal by an initial line contact or a wedging action as the compressive forces are applied. They are both made to API 6A.. A lens type gasket is a line contact seal for use in high pressure piping systems and in pressure vessel heads. ickel. These gaskets will seat with a small bolt load since the contact area is very small and gasket seating pressures are very high. in specific applications.J Round cross section solid metal gaskets are used on specifically designed flanges grooved or othewise faced to accurately locate the gasket during assembly. and 300 n series stainless steels. The lens cross section is a spherical gasket surface and requires special machining on the flanges. SOLID METAL GASKETS LENS TYPE GASKET "-. and ASME/ANSI B16.5. 16 -. above-listed gaskets. Normally the gasket material should be softer than the flange. A delta gasket is a pressure actuated gasket used primarily on pressure vessels and valve bonnets at very high pressures in excess of 5000 psi. These basic shapes are used in pressures up to 5. an oval cross section and an octagonal cross section. tool or chatter marks. The octagonal cross section has a higher sealing efficiency than the oval and would be the 'preferred gasket. complete drawings and material specifications must be supplied. As with the lens gasket. API6A. MISCELLANEOUS METAL GASKETS The BX ring gasket differs from the standard oval or octagonal shape in that it is square in cross section and tapers in each corner. soft iron or steel.

321. As a consequence the entire inner lap must be under compression. would be provided by the outer lap. V-seals are similar t8 the Q~§eale}(cept fcJr tAefa81 that they are essEHltiailyFnael1lAe §§ffiI39neht8 Wl1iehmakes the cost df the. This particular type of gasket is very versatile and can be used in a myriad of applications. 316. For large quantity applications.The standard filler is normally sufficientfor applications up to 900°F.ih~IVifJuai ~a§~etfather high: flley al§§ require verY flhe sldftae8tIAI§h@§ nd specially §e= a commercially. Always install double jacketed the nubbin. that there is little advantage to this particular design. when applicable. C-seals and V-seals. the C~seal can be a relatively low cost gasket. Monel@. For small quahtity appllcati. C-seals are self-energized gaskets requiring specific attention be paid to the design of the grooves to contain the gasket. Other softfillers are availablefor higher temperaturesor special applications including Grafoil~ Standard metals used to make jacketed gaskets. this particular gasket style is very popular.) """ Double-jacketed gaskets are probably the most commonly used style of gasket in heat exchanger applications. there is virtually no limit to the size. shape or configuration in which these gaskets can be made. and smooth surface finishes are a must. Note: Double-jacketed gaskets are sometimes used with a very-light coating of gasket cement or lubricant which will assist in flowing the metal portion of the gasket into the tool marks on the flange seating surface. the various brasses. the cost can be rather high because of initial t§§IIA~ fequirements. providing a secondary seal. Experience has indicated. The hollow metal O-rings are available vented for high pressure applications and pressure filled for high temperature applications. This nubbin is normally 1/64" high by 1/8"'wide.. They can be obtained with various platings in order to enhance their sealing abilities and to meet specific applications requirements. effecting the seal. Lamons jacketed gaskets are normally supplied with a non-asbestoshigh temperaturefiller.. They are available in virtually any material that is commercially availablein 26-gauge sheet.Inconel@and stainless steel types 304.ens. signee] gfbo\!es ta effectiVely seal. Obviouslythe choice of the metal used for the jacketed part of the gasket would depend upon the corrosive conditions being encountered. regardless of the type. All these specialty items do reqLilre initial consultation witH the manufacturer in order to determine the practicability and the economics involved. Since the size and shape are not a problem and since most materials can be obtained 17 .. It must be remembered that the primary seal against leakage. Frequently the outer lap is not under compression and does not aid in the sealing of the gasket.. A double-jacketed corrugated gasket still relies on the primary seal on the inner lap. They are also extensivelyused in standard flanges where the service is not critical and at temperatures beyond which a soft gasket such as rubber can be used.'-" miscellaneous gaskets would include hollow metal 0rings.502. using a double-jacketed gasket. In some cases nubbins are provided on heat exchanger designs to provide an intermediate seal. so-called because their cross section is essentially the same as the letters C & V. is the metal inner lap where the gasket is thickest before being compressed and densest when compressed. gasket with smooth side toward DOUBLE-JACKETED CORRUGATED GASKETS DOUBLE-JACKETED GASKET The double-jacketed corrugated gasket is an improvement on a plain jacketed gasket in that the corrugations on the gasket will provide an additional labyrinth seal. 347. C-seals can be used either for vacuum applications or for high pressure applications. are aluminum. METAL JACKETED GASKETS CONSTRUCTION GASKETS OF JACKETED . This particular section flows. copper. however.410.soft steel. (Cont. On most heat exchanger applications the outer lap is also under compression. The primary seal is still dependent on the inner lap of the gasket abing the brute work and the secondary seal. nickel.. It also provides the advantage of reducing the contact area of the gasket. enhancing its compressive characteristics.. Since most doublejacketed gaskets are custom made. The intermediate part of a double-jacketed gasket does very little to effect the sealing capability of the gasket.

SINGLE-J ACKETED OVERLAP When using a gasket compound or lubricant it is important to remember to use only a very light coating. two shells are used in the fabrication of the gasket. Excessive amounts of lubricant or compound may cause total gasket failure if the joint is exposed to high temperature and/or pressure.m. adding greater stability to the gasket._". The doublejacketed construction is preferred over the French or single-jacketed construction.0. This type of gasket can also be used with the jacket on the external edge of the gasket when the application requires the outer edge of the gasket to be exposed to fluid pressure. Its construction consists of two French type shields welded together with a Cerafeltfiller materialon either side of the metal.thed gasket with none of the soft filler exposed.lJMS:tAd ...They are made by encasing a soft filler on one face. of the gasket. double-shelled gasket is similar to the double-jacketed gasket except that instead of using a shell and a washer. however.0. The construction will withstand higher compressive loads. Double-shell gaskets are normally restricted to use in high pressure applications.aa:1I't~. The most widely used French type gaskets are fabricated using a copper sheath. other materials are available.. as shown in the sketches.t~~ J4d\ii)g~R2. since it provides a totally shea. for wider applications. The double-jacketed. both edges and a portion of the other face with a metal.tions in excess of 1/4". Its temperature limitations depend upon the type of metal and filler used in construction.. This type of gasket is used when total enclosure of the soft filler material is required and when the flange width makes it impractical to use a double-jacketed gasket. In the single-jacketed overlap construction the maximum flange width is approximately 1/4".and three-piece constructions. a double-jacketed gasket or doublejacketed corrugated gasket is normally recommended. v Single-jacketed gaskets are normally used for relatively narrow applications similar to the French type. v . to act as a shield. Iit¥Js~~l SINGLEJACKETED GASKET This particulartype of gasketis normally used with very light flanges on duct work handling hot gases. This type of gasket is widely used in air tool applications and engine applications where space is limited.JJ. rolled on the 1. FRENCH TYPE GASKETS DOUBLE-JACKETED DOUBLE-SHELL GASKET v French type gaskets are available in a one-piece jacketed construction for narrow radial widths not exceeding 1/4" and in two..0. Most single-jacketed gaskets are supplied with copper as the jacketing material. Metal thickness is normally 26 gauge. gasket seating surfaces are narrow and relatively low compressive forces are available for seating the gasket. and the 0. The majority of applications for single-jacketed gaskets are normally 1/4" or less in radial width. where practical. MODIFIED FRENCH TYPE illttboo. For applica. It has the advantage of a double lap at both the 1. 18 .

= Recess 0.'~!S~ At temperatures in excess of the range of 900°F to 10000 F where the standard soft filler is normally not recommended. Because of the corrugations and thin metal thicknesses (. style 360. high temperature applications.030".. il1@ bJ~pertemperature limit would be determined by the metal BeihgU§et30 tYpeof this gasket. makes an excellent heat exchanger gasket for high pressure. + 1116" .0. and thickness of material. is manufactured with flexible graphite sheet. in addition. This type of gasket niakes an excellent product for both standard flange gaskets and heat exchanger type gaskets where there is low bolt load or high availablegasket stresses.0.DOUBLE-JACKETED CORRUGATED GASKET WITH A CORRUGATED METAL FILLER CORRUGATED AND CORRUGATED INLAID GASKETS STYLE ~ eaD10JJ.$.'/16" + 0 3/32" Other methods of enhancing a seal include cementing non-asbestosor fiberglass cord to the corrugated faces or the use of a gasket compound.D.0 I.D. Corrugated gaskets can be fabricated in a wide variety of shapes with almost no size limitation. = + 1/16" Gasket 0. relatively light bolt forces are required to flow the gasket materials at the points of contact with the flange.0. If gasket is to be full face. 1/16" GASKETS UNCONFINED ON O.010" to .032"and flexible graphite thickness in . ONLY - GASKETS CONFINED Gasket 1. Groove 1.015 thick layers of Grafoil@ tape applied to each face..031").D.. The corrugations proviae resilier1t8. Lamons corrugated gaskets. instead of tape. Also availablewith anti-stick graphite. -1/16" ON O. STANDARD TOLERANCES Up to Gasket6" Diameter 6" to 60" 60" and Above 1- + 1132" . AND I.D.015"to . = Up to a maximum of the bolt hole circle diameter minus one bolt hole diameter unless gasket is to be full face.0 + 3132" - + 0 __-"'D.0.0. Required bolt loads are substantially less tHan the solia metal types such as flat metal.would be the outer lap 6f metal and some degree of labyrinth sealing can be achieved with the corrugations.0. Gasket 1. similar to the 360G... As in the case of double-jacketed metal gaskets and double-jacketedcorrugated metal §askets. Gasket 1. This construction has all the advantages of the doublejacketed corrugated metal gasket and. AND LD.0. Groove 0. a ..0.D. = Bore + minimum 1/8" Gasket 0. .0. adhered to both gasket faces. Available in metal thicknesses of .0. then the following must be specified: (a) Bolt hole circle diameter (b) Bolt hole diameter (c) Number of bolt holes (d) Desired gasket 0. 0 19 . A superior sealing surface can be created using . The CMG. tHe primary seal would be the inner lap 5f metal. %2" + 0 . = Bore + minimum 1/8" Gasket 0. The temperature range for this type of gasket depends on the media to be sealed and the selection of the metal and/or facing materials. the sec8RtJarysea! . style 360G. GASKETS CONFINED = ON O..SIZING METAL JACKETED GASKETS- The following sizings and tolerances are not mandatory but are suggested values based upon experience. a double-jacketed corrugated metal gasket with a corrugated metal filler is frequently used. depth. On flange width less than 1/2" please consult Lamons engineering department. the amount of which depends on their ~itth. since the filler is normally the same material as the gasket itself.015" to . profile 5F §errateai faBricated of the same material. depending upon metal selected. are economical for use on relatively low pressure applications that require low bolt loads for gasket seating.

LAMONS METAL CLAD AND SOLID METAL HEAT EXCHANGER GASKETS J INFORMATION NEEDED TO FILL AN ORDER: 1. 2. Outside diameter. Thickness 6. or type of construction 5. holes -cp -St v ~ J 20 . Shape per Standard Shapes Index 4. Materials (metal or metal and filler) 7. Inside Diameter 3. Lamons style per catalog. Distance from centerline of gasket to centerline of ribs 9. Radii Ct " --<t Ct Examples: Qty. Rib size 8.

STANDARD SHAPE INDEX '-" 08CJOO§@8 8 0e90 @§~@j R C-1 C-2 D-1 D-2 E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4 F-1 F-2 F-3 G-1 G-2 G-3 G-4 @8S~EB ~@8 G-5 G-6 G-7 G-8 G-9 H-1 H-2 H-3 '-" §@@e@9~E9 e @@C§j@@~~ H-4 H-5 H-6 H-7 H-8 H-9 H-10 H-11 H-12 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 @@@~-@@§EB 1-8 1-9 1-10 1-11 J-1 J-2 J-3 J-4 '"""'" @~E9C9 ~@~@ ~ ~ H ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 21 .LAMONS HEAT EXCHANGER GASKETS .

0. AND O. AND O. Spiralwound gaskets can be fabricated of any metal which is available in thin strip and which can be welded. Spiral-wound gaskets can also be manufactured with variable densities. relatively low density gaskets for vacuum service up to extremely high density gaskets having a seating stress of approximately 30. teflon fillers c. they are a relatively low cost. = Seating Surface 1.D. tooling costs are very nominal.D. Thin fillers and high pressure loads are used for high pressure applications. + Minimum 1/4" Gasketa.~ Small Tongue and Groove Joint ~ Spiral-wound gaskets have become extremely popular due to the wide variety of available styles and sizes.D. v ~ J~jnt i Large Tongue an. They are more resilient than any other type of metallic gasket with the exception of pressure sealing metal gaskets and. = Groove I. eter of Bolt - Minimum1/4" - = Bolt Circle Diameter Diam- VARIABLE DENSITY Spiral-wound gaskets are manufactured by alternately winding strips of metal and soft fillers on the outer edge of winding mandrels that determine the inside dimensions of the wound component. therefore.e.1/16" GASKET UNCONFINED I. i. 1" or larger flange width. In the winding process.D. Varying the pressure during the winding operation and/or the thickness of the soft filler..000 psi.-1/16" GASKET CONFINED ON O. Gasket I. ONLY Gasket I.D.000 psi... When special sizes are required.d Groove " . +1/16" Gasket a.D. less than 1" I.D. If it protrudes beyond a raised face or into a flange bore.D. = SeatingSurfacea. the density of the gasket can be controlled over a wide range. the alternating plies are maintained under pressure.D. = Groove a.D. 22 STANDARD TOLERANCES (STYLE W) 1.000 for most other sizes and materials v .I GASKET CONFINED ON I. .000 on special Gaskets with: a. mechanical damage and leakage may occur. variations of pressure and vibration.010 -.D. as a consequence.D. +3/64 Gasket Diameter Up to 1" 1" to 24" 24" to 36" 36" to 60" I 0.D. This type gasket can be used in all pressures from vacuum to the standard 2500 psi flange ratings.D.SPIRAL-WOUND GASKETS SIZING SPIRAL WOUND GASKETS Spiral-wound gaskets must be sized to ensure the spiral-wound component is seated between flat surfaces.015 -. They can be used over the complete temperature range from cryogenic to approximately 2000°F. Gasket I. This of course would account for the higher bolt loads that have to be applied to the gasket in high pressure applications.0.D. = Bore + Minimum 1/4" GasketaD. Centering Guide aD. Thickness + . low winding pressure and thick soft fillers are used for low pressure applications. +0 -'/32 +0 -'/32 +0 -'/16 -0 + '/32 -0 +3/64 -0 + '/'6 -0 +0 -'/'6 60" and above I +3/32 -0 +0 _3/32 Thickness + . The softer gaskets would require a seating stress in the range of 5. ~~ ~ Large Male and 'female Joint un:n? Raised Face Flange .0. b. can compensate for flange movement that may occur due to temperature gradients. As a general rule. they can be used against virtually any corrosive m~dium dependent upon the choice of the metal and filler. greater than 26" I.D. In addition to all these advantages of the spiral-wound gasket. = Recess a.

100". but can be supplied in other metals when required by operating conditions.0901.56 0.055" .69 19. Note: The inner-ring thickness shall be 0.50 3.131 inches.080" . of the sealing component and the flange bore is minimized.nch.. the Ins.85 4..0. While they can be used against most commercially availableflange surface finishes.285" 160" 1114" .56 0. * Width * Thickness .0625"..10 8.25 14. acts as an antiblowout device.81 1.2001. LAMONS' STYLE WRI FLANGE SURFACE FINISH Use of spiral-wound gaskets gives the designer and the usera wider tolerancefor flangessurfacefinishesthan other metallic gaskets. The inner rings are normally supplied in the same material as the spiral-wound component.1801.19 6.75 17. the flanges would normally be in contact with the inner ring and hence erosion and corrosion of the flange surface between the 1.mmum for production purposes 'Innerrings are required for Class 900.".125". The inner ring serves several functions.75 22. It provides radial support for the gasket on the 1.69 11. ASME 816.1I produce inner-ring widths of 0. 2) % % 1 1'1.75 9.135" .90 5..125' 40" 3/4" .00 23.. Refer to table below for dimensions of inner ring ID. Forsizes NPS 1 1/4 through NPS 3.e Cia.125/. and acts as a compression gauge to prevent the spiral-wound component from being crushed.81 1.075/..06 1.50 3.250" 160" 1114" . 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 4.25 15.04 5.10 8.50 AVAILABLE SPIRAL SEAL STYLES 2'1.50 1. Class 900 flanges NPS 1/2 through NPS 2 1/2 (use Class 1500).06 2.56 0. male and female flange facings and groove to flat flange facings.19 5.10 7. 31 2500 11-31 ~ for Spiral-Wound Flange Size INPS) 300 0. of the flange bore. or Class 2500 flanges NPS 14 and larger 'The inner-ring inside diameters shown for NPS 1 1/4 through NPS 2 1/2 in Classes 1500 and 2500 w.25 19. Standard Inner-Ring Inside Gaskets P.04 505 6.50 gOO (1.'s for flanges up to 24-inch diameter and 2500 PSI.05 12.10 4. a pract. provides radial support for the spiralwound component.69 11.19 8. NPS 24 gaskets. 150 0:56 0.de-d.75 9.31 1.75 Diameters (Inches) 1500 12. gasket properly in the flange joint. . LAMONS' STYLE W 16 18 20 24 15.50 12. The followingchart indicates the size range that can normally be fabricated in the various thicknesses along withthe recommended compressed thickness of each and the maximum flange width. .03 .25 23.25 14.19 4.05 6. and .12 .75 19.nch: for larger sozes the Inside-diameter tolerance IS I 0. NPS 12 through NPS 24 gaskets: and Class 2500.06 2.50 10.10 10. to help prevent the occurrence of buckling or imploding.05 12.06 1.63 2. LAMONS' STYLE WR LAMONS' STYLE WR-RJ ..0.D.50 1.81 1.80 7.10 10. After the gasket is compressed.81 1. .69 11.50 12.200" .50 13.75 15.s I 0. Style WR gaskets consist of a spiral"wound sealing component with a solid metal outer guide ring.25 23.35 17.56 12.175" 75" 1" .250"..50 1..175".75 17. These gaskets are used on plain flat face flanges and on raised face flanges.06 inch See ASME 816. experience has indicated that the appropriate flange surface finishes used with spiral-wound gaskets are as follows: 125 to 250 AARH Optimum 500 AARH Maximum Style WRI is identical to style WR with the addition of an inner ring.0501.75 9.75 2.69 23.85 4.75 18. Normally the outer guide rings are furnished in mild steel.0.50 16.19 5.100" 12" Vz" .0.220" *These limitationsare intended as a general guide only. LIMITATIONS OF SIZE AND THICKNESS Maximum Recommended Gasket Maximum Flange Compressed Thickness I.80 7.62 3..62 3..69 19.56 12.ameter tolerance. .56 0."-'" AVAILABLE SIZES AND THICKNESSES Lamons spiral-wound gaskets are available in thicknesses of .69 23.10 3.Materialsof construction and flange width of gasket can drastically affect the limitations listed.06 1.20 calls for the use of inner rings with PTFE filled spiral wound gaskets "There are no Class 400 flanges NPS 1/2 through NPS 3 (use Class 6001.75 Style W is a spiral-woundsealing component only that is normally used on tongue and groove joints.06 1.90 5.75 219 2.75 400 (1) 600 0.35 17.25 19.100" .50 3.. is normally sized slightly larger than the 1.50 10. The outer guide ring serves to center the This style gasket is identical to a Style WR in construction features but is specially sized to be used as a replacement gasket for flanges machined to accept oval 23 .81 1... 1% 2 0.05 6.75 2.63 2.10 3.cal m.06 1.63 Lamons spiral-wound gaskets are available in a vari- ety of styles to suit the particular flange facing being utilized on the flanges.285".31 1.04 5.0625" 9' 3jg" .10 13.50 13. minimizing turbulence in process flow.19 8.19 4.75 15..19 2. Class 1500. Its 1.20 for minimum pipe wall fhicknesses that are suitable for use with standard inner rings. NPS 4 through NPS 12 gaskets.62 3.10 4.19 6.63 0.75 16.19 2.112 .10 13.

and oval shapes and are used for standard manhole cover plates. diamond. " J LAMONS' STYLE L Style H gaskets are for use on boiler handhole and tubecap assemblies. The Lamons Gasket Company has tooling available for manufacturing most of the standard handhole and tubecap sizes of the various boiler manufacturers. In new construction.) These are also available in special sizes and shapes.that is as acompression limiting and acentering device. The double-jacketed partition strips are normally slightly thinner than the spiralwound component in order to minimize the bolt loading required to properly seat the gasket. The spirally wound ring is normally supplied in the same metal as the metal inthe gasket. Lamons spiral-wound gaskets are available with a guide made entirely of spiral metal windings. for proper centering of the spiral-wound component on the gasket seating surface.J LAMONS' STYLE WP OR WRP When a guide ring is required that is too narrow for practical fabrication of solid metal guide rings. NOTE: When spiral-wound hand hole and manhole gaskets with a straight side are required it is necessary that some curvature be given to the flat or straight side to prevent buckling of the gasket. This is due to the fact that spiral-wound gaskets are wrapped under tension and therefore tend to buckle inward when the gaskets are removed from the winding mandrel.0. the ratio of the long 10 to the short 10 should not exceed 3 to 1. As a rule of thumb. These are intended to be used as replacement parts and are considered a maintenance item. including a sketch or blueprint or a sample cover on which the gasket is to be used. The sealing component is located between the 1. sized so as to fit over diametrically opposite bolts. raised face flanges should be utilized. oval and pear shapes. rectangular.or octagonal ring joint gaskets. tack welded or silver soldered to the spiral-wound component.) When special gaskets are required. where spiral-wound gaskets are intended to be used.ameter and 1500 psi. obround. The Style L is considerably more difficult to produce than the Style WR and therefore more expensive. it is recommended that a Style WR gasket be used in lieU of a Style L gasket because of the obvious advantages of the outer solid metal gauge ring. LAMONS' STYLE H These gaskets are similar to Style Wand Style WR with the addition of pass partitions for use with shell and tube heat exchangers. They are available in round. GASKETS WITH WOUND GAUGE RINGS These gaskets are available in round. Whenever possible.ofthe groove machined in the flange and the flange bore. Referto Lamon SpiraSealCatalog for dimensions of Style WR-RJ gaskets for flanges up to 24-inch d. (Refer to our SpiraSealCatalog. '-. These spiral metal windings serve the same basic purpose as the solid metal ring. Partitions are normally supplied with a double-jacketed construction of the same material as the spiral-wound component. obround. This type of wound guide ring is normally limited to a V4" radialwidth or less. it is necessary to submit complete information. square. LAMONS' STYLE MW AND MWC The Lamons Style L gasket is available for raised face and flat face applications where it is not practical to supply an outer gauge ring. The spiral-wound components of Style L are identical to those of Style Wand in addition have a wire loop welded to the outer periphery of the gasket. dimensional drawings or sample cover plates should be provided in order to assure proper fit. J 24 . (Referto Lamons SpiraSealCatalog for standard available shapes and sizes. The partition strips can be soft soldered. To order special gaskets.

acid detecting paint if desired. WR-AB Spiral wounds that inwardly buckle are a concern in the industry and Lamons has introduced a spiral wound that addresses this historical concern. Thickness of the PTFE inner ring is .020" thick PTFE. This gasket combines the corrosion and oxidation resistance of mica with the excellent sealability of flexible graphite. WRI-HTG For applications requiring a spiral wound when oxidation may occur. When selecting PTFE for your filler material the use of an inner ring is recommended (style WRI-LC). This gasket can be ordered for any ASME/ANSI B16. Lamons has a new style spiral called "WR-AB" that does not require an inner ring. There are many additional advantageous design features to this product to reduce inward buckling. The Kammpro "Kammpro" inner ring metal can be ordered with or without PTFE coating and then faced with either . WRI HF GASKETS This gasket was developed for H. The soft filler materials commonly used are graphite and PTFE. This special inner ring design is our "Kammpro" profile style LP-1. It consists of a Monel and PTFE spiral wound gasket with a carbon steel centering ring and a PTFE inner ring. The mica along with the metal winding serves as a barrier between oxidizing process conditions and the external air and the graphite. Inner ring I. The "WRI-LP" allows the spiral winding to be PTFE-Coated constructed with the required metal and soft filler specified by the user.150 ::1:. graphite or other materials.D. Graphite or PTFE Facing 25 . ""-' WR-LC The need for a low compressive load spiral wound gasket in 150# and 300# class ASME/ANSI B16. usually at higher temperatures. STYLE.F.acid applications. Lamons has developed the "WRI-HTG".F.) regarding flange bore sizes for which this gasket may '-'" STYLE. The design of our gasket allows it to be compressed with less bolt load to seat compared to the conventional type spirals.STYLE.'sare the same as standard metal inner rings unless otherwise requested. The carbon steel outer ring can be coated with special H. The uniqueness of the "kammpro" design allows numerous choices on its construction.005 normally.D. (Contact Lamon's Technical Department or may not be appropriate. The traditional method to reduce inward buckling is to order an inner ring and that is still the best practice today. The PTFE inner ring reduces corrosion to the flanges between the bore of the pipe and the I.47 series A or B flange or for special applications WRI-LP Winding '-" A Spiralwound gasket with a conventional outer guide ring with a special inner ring design. of the spiral wound sealing element.5 and ASME B16.5 pipe flange applications resulted in the development of the "WR-LC" spiral wound.

Technically. With Raised face and flat face installation. Use only new studs or bolts. or some other adhesive compatible with the process fluids. This may require several retorquings as torquing of one stud causes relaxation in adjacent studs. nuts and washers. J *For specific gasket types and application assistance contact Lamons Technical Department J . This can contribute heavily to a leaky joint.) Then. 12. loosely install the stud bolts on the lower half of the flange. Identify the proper bolting sequence and number bolts accordingly. All studs should be retorqued using a rotational pattern of retorquing to the final value of torque until no further rotation of the nuts can be achieved. Radial tool marks on a gasket seating surfaces are virtually impossible to seal regardless of the type of gasket used. Make sure they are of good quality and appropriate for the application. Install the remaining bolts and nuts and bring all to a hand-tight or snug condition. to account for bolt and gasket relaxation. Then. improper gasket installation procedures. 9. increasing the torque to the final torque value. when used as a bolt and nut lubricant.value required following the recommended bolt torque sequence. Repeat Step 8. See charts for recommended bolting sequences. 5. Loosely install stud bolts. before loss of lubricant (or bolt seizing). the gasket has the ability the overcome these occurrances. 4. Retorque all studs. Insert the gasket between the flange facing to allow the bolts to center the gasket on the assembly. An anti seize compound. and the gasket is only one of several components that make up the joint. gasket cement. Each bolt should be numbered so that bolt torque sequences can be easily followed. Success has also been reported with heat exchangers. the gasket is expected to compensate for deficiencies in flange connection design. Failure to follow proper bolt torque sequences can result in cocking flanges. scratches. Repeat Step g. 11. Continue torquing until equilibrium has been achieved. every attempt should be made to minimize these. but only when careful attention has been given to all of the aspects of gasket selection. install all bolts and nuts to a hand-tight or snug condition.RECOMMENDED GASKET INSTALLATION PROCEDURES INSTALLATION AND MAINTENANCE TIPS FOR ALL GASKETS All too often we hear "the gasket leaks. (If the joint is vertical. increasing the torque to approximately 60% of the final torque required. Lubricate all thread contact areas and nut facings. 8. when bolting is retightened during initial heat up. regardless of the amount of subsequent torquing. 7. In many cases. J 6. Inspect the gasket. 3. and any flange movement that may occur due to thermal and pressure changes. including installation procedures. Our experience in investigating leaky joints over the years has indicated that the most common cause of leaky joints is the use of improper gasket installation procedures. and 11. 10. with certain gasket types* and flange facings. it is the joint that leaks. will facilitate subsequent disassembly. 9. Verify that the material is as specified and visually inspect the gasket for any obvious defects or damage. center the gasket midway into the recess or groove. it may be necessary to use a minimum amount of cup grease. 10. to keep the gasket in position 26 until the flanges are tightened. or pitting by corrosion." However. cracks. In a recessed or grooved installation. Torque the bolts up to a maximum of 30% of the final torque. etc. Inspect the gasket seating surfaces. Bolts should be torqued in a proper bolting sequence. Look for tool marks. Torque the Bolts. GASKET INSTALLATION PROCEDURES (AND BOLT TORQUING) 1. Therefore. It is important that the correct gasket has been chosen for the bolted flange connection. they cannot be brought back to parallel. Some flange joints should be retightened just before being put in operation. 2.SECTION III . that is not entirely true. The importance of proper lubrication cannot be overstated! A proper lubricant will provide a low coefficient of friction for more consistent achieved bolt stress. in a minimum of four stages as specified in Steps 8. Often times. vibration.

...... Sequential Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 Rotational Order 1 2 9 10 5 6 13 14 3 4 11 12 7 8 15 16 27 ...BOLT TORQUE SEQUENCE 8-Bolts '"'" 12-Bolts Sequencial Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 Rotational Order 1 5 3 7 2 6 4 8 Sequential Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 '-' Rotational Order 1 5 9 3 7 11 2 6 10 4 8 12 16-Bolts 9 12 11 10 ..

As a consequence. As a con28 . in most cases the design of the flange is based upon the allowable bolt stress of the particular material at design temperature and at the design or operating pressure. will require a higher initial stress on the stud to successfully pass the hydrostatic test. strenuous and is a very dangerous practice. the hydrostatic test pressure that the flange joint must pass is one and a half times the design pressure. Use high tensile bolts or studs for hydrostatic tests following the procedures outlined above for gasket installation. In addition. tensioning devices. As a consequence. the following procedures should be followed. Section VIII of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code. This introduces additional problems. the same bolt material will have an allowable stress at ambient conditions as specified. retorque the bolts to 100% of the allowable stress for the particular grade material. These allowable stresses are based on the particular material and their strength at operating temperature. striking wrenches and pieces of pipe on the end of the wrench is becoming less and less a standard practice. TORQUE VALUES Probably the only true measurement of bolt stress is by bolt or stud elongation. specifically recognizes the problem of initial bolt stresses. Appendix S. bolts may be stressed to whatever level is required to satisfactorily pass the test. As a consequence it may be necessary to use high tensile bolts or studs in order to achieve a satisfactory test. Once this occurs. relievethe bolts to approximately 50 percent of the prestress required. any joint that is designed in strict accordance with the ASME Pressure Vessel Code and is subjected to hydrostatic tests in excess of the design pressure. When this is required. the stresses required in bolts sufficient to satisfactorily pass the test may exceed the yield point of the bolt material. As each bolt is replaced. Appendix S of Section 8 of the ASME Pressure Vessel Code speaks in great length on this problem and. The newer techniques are much more reliable. or drilling the studs and inserting heaters to preheat the stud to a specific temperature that will ultimately create the proper tension on the bolt.) ~ . however. states. Replace the bolts or studs one at a time with the proper grade bolt for operating conditions. torque it to the value of the other bolts.20-Bolts 13 16 3 4 15 sequence the trend in industry today is the use of torque wrenches. in essence. It is time-consuming. in most cases. (See Page 32) ~ . this would be an extremely costly and impractical approach to determine the true measure of bolt stress. hydraulic wrenches. The use of manpower to tighten the bolts. After a successful hydrostatic test has been achieved. In practice. I 14 2 Rotational 1 13 5 17 9 3 15 7 19 11 9 Order 2 14 6 18 10 4 16 8 20 12 Sequential Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 17-18 19-20 24-Bolts 12 4 3 11 10 2 Rotational 1 9 17 5 13 21 3 11 19 7 15 23 Order 2 10 18 6 14 22 4 12 20 8 16 24 Sequential Order 1-2 3-4 5-6 7-8 9-10 11-12 13-14 15-16 17-18 19-20 21-22 23-24 NOTE: Allowable bolt stresses. In cases where low yield bolt material is being used. no additional stressing of the bolt will alleviate the problem of leakage. a flange designer will determine his required bolting for a 600 psi application at a given operating temperature specifically in accordance with allowable stresses for the bolt material at the operating temperature. that in order to pass hydrostatic tests. After all the bolts have been replaced. . However. For example. by sledgehammers. (Once again it is imperative that a proper lubricant be used on the bolts when replacement is being made.

provide means to prevent crushing the gasket by use of a stop ring or re-design of flanges. Gasket substantially thinner on 0.. Indicative of excessive "flange rotation" or bending. Review gasket dimensions to insure gaskets are proper size. Select thicker gasket material. Select gasket material with lower seating stress. material with better cold flow properties..0. ~--- . Provide additional bolts if possible to obtain better load distribution. If flanges are warped. ~ select replacement material with better load carrying capacity ~--~ ---n_....n. Provide reinforcing rings for flanges to better distribute bolt load. than 1. Indicative of "flange bridging" between bolts or warped flanges. --- Gasket mechanically damaged due to overhang of raised face or flange bore... Alter gasket dimensions to move gasket reaction closer to bolts to minimize bending movement. Gasket unevenly compressed around circumference '-' ----------------- Gasket thickness varies periodically around circumference.0. ~ ------------- -- -_u ~---~------------ Observation -~ ~ ~ ~ Possible Remedies n_- Gasket badly corroded Gasket extruded excessively Select replacement ------ material with improved corrosion resistance. Select softer gasket material to lower required seating stresses. more Gasket grossly crushed Select replacement material with better load carrying capacity. Reduce gasket area to lower seating stresses._no. Select softer gasket material. Make certain proper sequential bolt up procedures are followed..e.. Improper bolting up procedures followed. Reduce gasket area to allow higher unit seating load. 29 . Select replacement dense. n___. No apparent gasket compression achieved. Make certain gaskets are properly centered in joint.. Provide stiffness to flange by means of back-up rings. re-machine or use softer gasket material. -.TROUBLE SHOOTING LEAKING JOINTS '-' One of the best available tools to aid in determining the cause of leakage is a careful examination of the gasket in use when leakage occurred.-------------------------------------------------- i.

. "-" LAMONS STYLE MWI Style MWI manway gaskets consist of a winding with a solid metal inner ring to position the winding and help avoid mechanical damage. A Lamons technical representative could help with sizing of the inner ring and the sf3in~1 WiHaing. Essentially. Normally. NOTES: ~ 30 . these assemblies have a couple of bolts to secure the gasket during installation and provide some degree of initial seating load.MANWAY PROBLEMS? If installationand service problems are experienced with spiral wound gaskets in manways. It is possible to "bridge" the clearances in many boiler applications utilizing an integral solid metal ring along the inside circumference of the spiral windings. there is often a large amount of clearance between the manway cover and the opening in the boiler. The thickness of the solid metal ring allows for adequate compression and helps to avoid crushing of the gasket. Our experience indicates that. If a spiral wound gasket falls into the clearances between a manway cover and boiler opening. A spiral wound gasket must be installed in such a manner that the winding is compressed across its entire face without interruption. in this type of manways. Lamons style MWI. Lamons has the answer In a typical oval or obround manway cover assembly. a "pinching" effect may occur. causing mechanical damage to the gasket. the cover sets inside of the boiler and internal pressure is relied upon to create the sealing force. The following page is an information sheet that would help us to assist you. the inner ring helps to position the gasket on the manway cover.

B Pressure Dim. (A) t ID of Gasket Surface on Cover Dim. TX 77001 Fax (713) 547-9502 31 Width (Short Side) Shape (check one): Oval c=::J c=::J Obround Other c=::J (Drawing Required) '-' .. (D) i BoilerOpening Dim.. (C) OD of Gasket Surface on Boiler Dim.LAMONS GASKET COMPANY . PO. Box 947 Houston. A Dim. C Dim. D Temperature Service (Typically Steam) Lamons Gasket Co. (B) t t '-" 1 r Boiler Please provide the following information: Length (Long Side) Dim. Application Information Sheet For Oval or Obround Manways Boiler Manway Cover 1 ~ OD of Gasket Surface on goyer Dim...

more leeway is possible . If using jacketed or spiral wound gaskets . 3.030". J Note .can overstress.deviation should not exceed 0. BOLT .deviation should not exceed 0. TAPERED SPACER Flanges cocked GASKET.OTHER PROBLEM JOINT MUST COMPENSATE FOR WIDE TEMPERATURE VARIATIONS: Solution: Consider use of sleeve around bolts to increaseeffectivebolt length: AREAS Or consider use of conical spring washers in place of sleeve to eliminate torque losses over wide temperature ranges. WASHER SLEEVE GASKET FLANGE FLANGE - GASKET WASHER FLANGE NUT WASHER NUT - FLANGES BADLY COCKED OR SEPARATED TOO FAR: Solution: Do not try to correct problem with flange bolts . SPACER GASKET FLANGES OUT OF PARALLEL: Flanges too far apart n\ I GASKET ~ '-=f~: WAVY SURFACE FINISH Total allowable out of parallel: ~1 + ~2 = 0. BOLT . If using solid metal gaskets .005". ~~ v j 32 1 .Deviation on right is less critical than deviation on left since bolt tightening will tend to bring flanges parallel due to flange bending.015". 2. '-' Flanges badly mis-aligned GASKET ~ ! ~ Note: 1. Do use spacers to correct problem with gasket on each side. lASKET . If using rubber.015" .perhaps total of 0.

a high temperature. the safety factor against leakage under test conditions in general need not be as great as under operating conditions. Any increase in bolt load due to this thermal effect. such as a very large diameter. superposed on the load already existing. flange deflection. This prestress should not be confused with initial bolt stress. On the other hand. is sufficient to correct the condition. In either case. that is not so excessive that yielding of the bolts and/or flanges can produce relaxation that also can result in leakage. with consequent relaxation. viz. This can happen when there is an appreciable differential in temperature between the flanges and the bolts.Le. whatever the reason. A decrease in bolt stress can also occur in service at elevated temperatures. Such an analysis is one that considers the changes in bolt elongation. Such yielding can also occur when there is very little margin between initial bolt stress and yield strength. In addition to the difficulties created by yielding of the bolts as described above. When this results in leakage under service conditions. on the one hand. One of the most important of these is the prof . The yield strength of mild carbon steel. even though the bolts may not yield. retightening of the bolts may be necessary. The maximum allowable stress values for bolting given in the various tables of Subsection C are design values to be used in determining the minimum amount of bolting required under the rules. in some cases. the possibility of similar difficulties arising from yielding of the flange or gasket material. a distinction must be kept carefully in mind between the design value and the bolt stress that might actually exist or that might be needed for conditions other than the design pressure.. above any that may be due to internal pressure. because of slow creep or relaxation of the gasket. In any event.. can produce a leaking 33 . If it is not. particularly in the case of the "softer" gasket materials. Even if no damage is evident. it may indicatethat an initial bolt stress still higher than 11/2 times the design value is needed. or perhaps several repeated at long intervals. and may occur in the tightening operation to the extent of damage or even breakage. further bolt strain develops during the test. whereas any pronounced decrease due to such effects can result in such a loss of bolt load as to be a direct cause of leakage. can cause yielding of the bolt material. it is advisable when designing a joint for high-temperature service to give attention to the relaxation properties of the materials -involved. provided it includes necessary and appropriate provision to insure against excessive flange distortion and gross crushing of the gasket. The initial tightening of the bolts is a prestressing operation. but it must not be forgotten that the effects of repeated retightening can be cumulative and may ultimately make the joint unserviceable. severe temperature gradients. or when the bolt material has a different coefficient of thermal expansion than the flange material. The considerations presented in the following discussion will be important only when some unusual feature exists. and sometimes a single such operation. must be developed in the tightening operation. portioningof the bolting. An increase in bolt stress. and certain of the nonferrous bolting materials can easily be exceeded with ordinary wrench effort in the smaller bolt sizes. a high design pressure. and so on. starting from the prestressed condition. However. To avoid chronic difficulties of this nature.. "-" and size of the bolts. if a stress-strain analysis of the joint is made. and it is the intent of this Division of Section VIII that such a practice is permissible. The first important consideration is the need for the joint to be tight in the hydrostatic test. it is evident that an initial bolt stress higher than the design value may and. and on the other hand. An initial bolt stress of some magnitude greater than the design value therefore must be provided. and the amount of bolt stress developed must be within proper limits. and gasket load that take place with the application of internal pressure. this is an oversimplification.but there are certain practical matters to be taken into consideration in order to obtain a serviceable design. any additional load generated when internal pressure is applied can produce further yielding with possible leakage. excessive initial bolt stress can present a problem in the form of yielding in the bolting itself. The test pressureis usually 11/2 times the design pressure. that it is adequate to provide against all conditions that tend to produce a leaking joint. This is especially likely with bolts of small diameter and with bolt materials having a relatively low yield strength. may cause the flange to yield. This may be the cause of leakage in the hydrostatic test.. should also be considered.. Any resulting excessive deflection of the flange.. determiningthe number It is possible for the bolt stress to decrease after initial tightening.SECTION IV "-" - APPENDIX APPENDIX S ASME SECTION VIII DIVISION I PRESSURE VESSELS DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR BOLTED FLANGE CONNECTIONS The primary purpose of the rules for bolted flange connections in Parts A and B of Appendix II is to insure safety. Excessive bolt stress. under like circumstances or from other causes. to insure. S1'used in the design of Part B flanges..especially for temperatures where creep isthe controlling factor in design. because. and on this basis it may be thought that 50 percent extra bolt stress above the design value will be sufficient. However. which tends to part the joint and thereby to decompress the gasket enough to allow leakage. an unusual gasket arrangement. accompanied by permanent set.. in which case it may suffice merely to retighten the bolts. or perhaps even under normal operation. however. In the great majority of designs the practice that has been used in the past should be adequate. as a result of creep in the bolt and/or flange or gasket material. to follow the design rules in Appendix II and tighten the bolts sufficiently to withstand the test pressure without leakage.. on the one hand. might occur in service during startup or other transient conditions. it is common practice to retighten the bolts. annealed austenitic stainless steel. In the other direction..

unless the gasket has a stop ring or the flange face detail is arranged to provide the equivalent.At elevated temperatures. resort may be had to such methods as preheating the bolt. and that the lower values should be used in order to avoid yielding in the flanges. but if not. especially if effective thread lubricants are employed. and is not needed at the design pressure and temperature. With some of these methods. and is more or less localized. control of the bolt stress is possible by means inherent in the procedure. The probable bolt stress developed manually. Most joints are tightened manually by ordinary wrenching. or using hydraulically powered bolt tensioners. Yielding is far more significant if it occurs first in the ring.the margin against flange yielding is not as great. The design values for flange materials may be as high as five-eighths or two-thirds of the yield strength. size and material that will prevent gross crushing of the gasket. irregular permanent distortion of the flange due to uneven bolt load around the circumference of the joint can warp the flange face and its gasket contact surface out of a true plane. even without excessive boltstress. In this connection. For example. simple wrenching without Verification of the actual bolt stress meets all practical needs. Even if a "plastic hinge" should develop. and it is advantageous to have designs that require no more than this. Some pitfalls must be avoided. J J Reprinted with permission from ASME. Without such means of controlling the compression of the gasket. is: S = 45. however. it will be impossible to develop the desired stress in very large bolts by ordinary hand wrenching. the ring portion of the flange takes up the portion of the load the hub and shell refuse to carry. it is apparent that the bolt stress can vary over a considerable range above the design stress value. must be employed.joint when other effects are superposed. can be overloaded. Section VIIi. consideration must be given to the selection of gasket type. J 34 . It is too conservative to assume that local yielding isfollowed immediately by overall yielding of the entire flange.when using standard wrenches. Ordinarily. Any higher bolt stress existing before creep occurs in operation will have already served its purpose of seating the gasket and holding the hydrostatic test pressure. all at atmospheric temperature. Another very important item in bolting design is the question whether the necessary bolt stress is actually realized. but in all cases the bolt stress can be regulated within reasonable tolerances by measuring the bolt elongation with suitable extensometer equipment.Reprinted from ASME Unfired Pressure Vessel Code. From the foregoing. On the other hand. but the limitation in the rules on the combined hub and ring stresses provides a safeguard. The full initial bolt load is imposed entirely on the gasket. Impact wrenches may prove serviceable. Div.000 y'd where S is the bolt stress and d is the nominal diameter of the bolt. and measured control of the stress is employed only when there is some special or important reason for doing so. if any. The design stress values for bolting in Subsection C have been set at a conservative value to provide a factor against yieJding. It can also damage the flange by making it more difficult to effect a tight joint thereafter. The gasket. Theoretically. the highest stress in a flange is usually the bending stress in the hub or shell. However. and what special means of tightening. It can be seen that smaller bolts will have excessive stress unless judgment is exercised in pulling up on them. too. the design stress values are governed by the creep rate and stress-rupture strength. it should be noted that a dual set of stresses is given for some of the materials in Table UHA-23.

Steel A A A U B B A U B A A U A B B A A A A A A A A B B U A B A U B A U U B A A A B U B B U A B A A A A U U U A U A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A U A A A U A A A A A A A A U A A A A A A A A A U U U A U A A A A A A A A A B B B U U U U t:.S. A A A A B A A A B B U B A A B U B U B B B B A B U U A B B B A A A A U U U B A B B A U A B A A B B B B B U U B B A B B A B B B A A A B B B B A A B U B U B B B A B U U A B A U B A A A U U U A B B B A U A A A A U U A A U A A A U A A B A A A A A U A A B B B A A U U A A U A A A A A A U A A B A U A A A A U U U A U U A A A B A A A A U U A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A U A A A B A A A U U A A B A A A A A A U A A A A B A A A A U U U A U U A A A B A A A A U U B A B A A A A A A A A A A A U A A U A B U A U U B A B A A A A U A A U A A A U U U U U A A A A A U B A U B U B B A A U A B A B A A A A U U A A A A U U U A U U B U A A A A A U U B U A B A A A A U U U B U U U U A U A '-" "-' 35 .Alloy Hastel. Aluminum Sulphate Ammonia (Anhydrous) Ammonium Chloride Ammonium Hydroxide Ammonium Nitrate Ammonium Phosphate Ammonium Sulphate Amyl Acetate Aniline Barium Chloride Beer Benzene Benzol Borax Boric Acid Bromine Butyl Alcohol Calcium Carbonate Calcium Chloride Calcium Hydroxide Calcium Hypochlorite Carbolic Acid Carbon Tetrachloride Chlorine-Dry Chlorine-Wet Chromic Acid Citric Acid Copper Chloride Copper Sulphate Creosote (Coal Tar) Crude Oil Ether Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Chloride Ferric Chloride Ferric Sulphate Formaldehyde Formic Acid Fuel Oil Fuel Oil (Acid) Furfural Gasoline Glue Glycerin Hydrobromic Acid Hydrochloric Acid Room Temp.S. B A A B A A A A A A A A A A U A B A U U A U B A B A A A U B A A A B A A A A U U U C U U C A A A B A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A U A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B A 8 A A A B B B A B A A A B A B A A A A B U B A A B B B U B B B A U U A B B U B A A A U U U A B B B A B A B B A B B B B B U U B B A B. S. Aluminum Fluoride Room Temp. Acetic Anhydride Room Temp.Inconel Monel Nickel 304 316 410 nurn 20 Copper loy 600 400 200 S.Unsatisfactory Media Acetic Acid Room Temp. S.Good Resistance B .'-" CHEMICAL A . 150°F Hydrocyanic Acid Hydrofluoric Acid Hydrofluosilicic Acid Hvdroqen Peroxide Hydrogen Sulphide Kerosene Lactic Acid Linseed Oil RESISTANCE CHART - GASKET METALS Alurni.Moderate Resistance U . Acetone Aluminum Chloride Room Temp.S.

Unsatisfactory Media Lye (Caustic) Manganese Carbonate Manganese Chloride Mangnesium Carbonate MaQnesiumChloride Magnesium Hydroxide Magnesium Nitrate Magnesium Sulphate Methylene Chloride Mercuric Chloride Mercury Muriatic Acid Nitric Acid-Diluted Nitric Acid-Concentrated Nitrous Acid Nitrous Oxide Oleic Acid Oxalic Acid Petroleum Oils-Crude Phosphoric Acid Picric Acid Potassium Bromide Potassium Carbonate Potassium Chloride Potassium Cvanide Potassium Hydroxide Potassium Sulphate Sea Water Sewage Silver Nitrate Soaps Sodium Bicarbonate Sodium Bisulphate Sodium Bromide Sodium Carbonate Sodium Chloride Sodium Hydroxide Sodium Hyperchlorite Sodium Nitrate Sodium Peroxide Sodium Phosphate Sodium Silicate Sodium Sulphate Sodium Sulphide Soy Bean Oil Steam Stearic Acid Stannic Chloride Sulphur Chloride Sulphur Dioxide-Dry Sulphuric Acid-<10%-Cold Sulphuric Acid-<10%-Hot Sulphuric Acid10-50%-Cold RESISTANCE CHART - GASKET METALS (CONT. A A A A B B A U U U U B A A U U B B B '--' Sulphuric Acid10-50%-Hot Sulphuric Acid-Fuming Sulphurous Acid Sulphur-Molten Tannic Acid Tartaric Acid Vinegar Zinc Chloride Zinc Sulphate '--' 36 .5.Alloy Hastel.CHEMICAL A .5.5. B A A U A A U U A U A A A B A B A A A A U A A A A A U A A A B A A U U U U U U A A U A U A '-'" Steel A B A B A B U A U U U B B U A U A B B A A B A B B U A B U B A A A U A B B.B A A A U A A A A A A A B A B B B U A A C A U U U A B B B A A A B A B A B A A A B A B A B A B B B A U A U A B B B A U A U A B A A B B B A A A B A B A B A B B B A B B A U A U B B A U U B A B A A A A A B A A A A A A A B A B A B B B A B A A A B B B A B B B B A A A A A A B A A A A A A U A B A A A A U B U A U U U B A A A A A B B A A A B B B B A A A A A A B B B A B A A A B A A A A A B B B A U A U A B B B A A A A B A A A B A A A A A A A A B B B A U A U A B B B A U A A A B B U A A A A A A A A B A B A U B B U U B U A U B U U U U A B A B B B U B A U A A A A A A A A U U U U U A A B B A A A A A A A A A B A U U U U A B B A B B B U U U U B B A B B U U U U U B B A B B U U A U A A A A U A 316 5.Good Resistance B .) Alurni.Inconel Monel Nickel 304 nurn 20 Copper loy 600 400 200 5. U A B A A A A A B B B A A A A A U B B B B B B A A A A A A A A A A A B A B A A A U A A A A A B B B A A A A A A A A B B B A U U U A U U U U U U U A U U U U U A U A A B B A U U U A U U U U U A A U U U U A A A U A U U U A B A B B A A A A A U A U A A A A A B B A B A A A B B .Moderate Resistance U . A A A A A A A A U U A U A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A U A B U U U A B A A A A U A 410 5.

316 8. For unusual concentrations.8. 347 8.pressures temperatures. Coal Tar Paints Petroleum Prestone (Antifreeze) Nitro Benzine Oxygen Silicate of Soda Sulphuric Acid (Dilute) '-' Propylene Glycol Pyranol A13B3B Skydrol 500B Skydrol 7000 Abs.8. 309 8.8. Alloy 20 Aluminum Brass Copper Hastelloy B & C@ Inconel 600@ Incolloy 800@ Monel@ Nickel Phosphor Bronze Tantalum Titanium Note: Maximum temperature ratings are based upon hot air constant temperatures. 310 8. Suitable for use with: Acetone Alcohol Animal Fats & Oils Benzene (Benzol) Benzine (Gasoline) Bunker Oil Butane Butyl Acetate Carbon Dioxide Carbon Tetrachloride Cresol Dibutyl Phthalate DOP (Dioctyl Phthalate) Dry Cleaning Fluid Ether Ethyl Acetate Ethylene Glycol Formaldehyde Freon Fuel Oil Gas Illuminating Gasoline Greases Hydrogen Hydrogen Sulphide Inerteen 70-30 Inks Kerosene Lacquers and Thinners Lubricating Oil Methyl Chloride (Refrigerant) Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK) Methyl Isobutyl Detone (MIBK) Naphtha.8. 4308.8.8.GLYCERIN BINDER protein bonded sheet that is suitable for the or fiber sheet is a tough. 501 8. 4108. Petroleum Naphtha.8.8. 321 8. Soap Sperry Oil Sulphur Dioxide Super VM&P Naphtha Toluol Transformer Oil Trichloroethylene Tricresyl Phosphate Triethylene Glycol (Neutral Grade) Turpentine Varnish Vegetable Oil Water Wood Alcohol Xylol Not suitable for use with: Acids (Inorganic) Alkalies Hydrochloric Acid Nitric Acid (Dilute) 37 . pliable and compressible services listed below to a maximum temperature limit of 2500 F. "-'" CHEMICAL RESISTANCE VEGETABLE FIBER SHEET Vegetable CHART GLUE.8. The presence of contaminating fluids and cyclic conditions may drastically affect the maximum temperature range. further investigation is indicated.METALS SUGGESTED MAXIMUM SERVICE TEMPERATURES TYPE IN AIR SERVICE OF 1000 1400 2000 2100 1400 1500 1700 1300 1500 1200 1500 800 500 500 2000 2000 1f~00 1500 1400 500 3000 2000 CONTINUOUS °C 538 760 1095 1150 760 815 925 705 815 649 815 427 260 260 1095 1095 871 815 760 260 1649 1095 '-' Carbon 8teel 304 8.

88 3.12 26.50 5.75 4.38 5.50 6.62 9.00 19.75 25.88 28.31 1.50 9.00 20.62 23.75 14. 400.62 0.38 Nominal Flat No.88 3.38 2.00 24.88 4.75 12.75 Class 900 2.38 9.00 16.of Hole BoltCircle Pipe Gasket Ring 10 Holes Diameter Diameter Size 00 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 0.88 3.25 3.12 17.38 7.06 1.91 2. AND 900 Gasket 00 NominalPipe Size 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 21/2 3 31/2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 -.62 Class 400 2..00 7.62 0.50 22.25 3.12 V 38 .75 11.25 17.62 8.62 15.75 21.25 1.12 3.50 00 13.25 23.12 19.75 10.12 14.00 18.00 1..00 Class 600 2.50 J 00 3.75 0.88 12.66 1./ Gasket 10 0.62 1.38 14.00 6.50 19.21 GASKETDIMENSIONS FOR ASME/ANSI 816.91 2.75 3.50 3.00 14.25 22.of Hole BoltCircle Holes Diameter Diameter 8 12 12 12 16 16 20 20 0.38 5.12 2.62 .62 2.06 1.88 6.12 4.62 0.50 4.88 6.62 10.75 20.50 33.75 30..50 8.50 30.12 3.38 2.00 7.00 27.63 5.00 23.62 6.00 Class 300 2. CLASSES 300.88 5.00 21.00 29.25 2.00 8. 600.75 5.66 1.75 12.50 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 8.12 9.00 21.50 25.50 9.38 7.88 2.12 27.88 3.75 12.38 8.25 21.88 9.00 7.38 11. 8.75 0.5 CLASS 150 PIPE FLANGES AND FLANGED FullFaceGasket Nominal Flat Gasket Ring Pipe Size 10 00 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 3 1/2 4 5 6 0.62 3.62 0.25 FITTINGS FullFaceGasket No.50 10.00 7.88 3.62 25.12 1.25 3.12 23. 0 0 13.12 5.5 PIPE FLANGES AND FLANGED FITTINGS.75 0.12 16.84 1.62 10.38 2.12 1.12 5.50 5.25 18.25 1.56 6.50 6.88 5.50 4.25 16.38 22.31 1.88 2.00 FLAT RING GASKET DIMENSIONS FOR ASME/ANSI 816.56 6.88 6.75 0.88 1.SOFT SHEET GASKET SIZES PER ASME 816.00 24..62 0.00 4.84 1.00 18.38 4.25 24.88 4.00 6.00 16.88 31.75 0.50 2.12 8.00 3.75 14.13 17.50 19.50 12.88 0.25 4.75 4.62 20.50 7.38 16.00 4.00 8.12 21.50 32.50 25.50 3.00 11.75 4.12 2.50 3.62 2.50 6.62 2.00 7.50 16.00 19..38 25.38 5.00 20.12 5.75 11.00 1.12 2.00 18.75 14.75 3.

25 57.75 53.21 (CONT.50 48.00 52.12 54.81 38.19 Class 300 30.00 38.25 40.50 34.12 37..00 56.00 52. CLASSES 150.00 46.26 54.50 43.00 58.75 32.56 32.31 44.88 33.25 65.50 67.50 39.88 Class 150 28.31 40.44 53.00 Class 150 26.38* 46.00 48.50 67.38 31.00 50.00 34.12 45.12 52..75 GENERAL NOTE: Dimensions are in inches.00 63.75 65.00 44.75 66.63 32.88 60.50 44.38 37.00 36.00 30.25 54.88 35.00 42.44 55.31 42.25 44.47 SERIES B (OR API 605) LARGE DIAMETER STEEL FLANGES.00 39.12 Class 400 29.75 60.75 62.88 37..62 41.75 63. 300.00 50.88 57..25 47.00 60.25 58 60 GENERALNOTE: Dimensions are in inches.88 45.. 39 .88 40.88 53.88 37. FLAT RING GASKET DIMENSIONS FOR ASME B16.62 56.25 41.50 32.00 46.75 57.75 61.50 50.00 34.88 35.88 48.00 54.19 67. * Dimension as suggested by Lamons.47 SERIES A (OR MSS-SP-44) LARGE DIAMETER STEEL FLANGES.88 34.25 56..38 48.75 61.00 39.00 30.00 40.00 32. 300.75 64.) '-' FLAT RING GASKET DIMENSIONS FOR ASME B16.26 59.25 58. * Dimension as suggested by Lamons.00 56.50 56.00 36.44 57.25 51.56 34.50 48.12 43.00 38.00 30.12 32.00 60.75 39.00 28.SOFT SHEET GASKET SIZES PER ASME 816.12 49.62 58.00 50.50 Class 300 27.50 52.50 45.62 36.50 54. 150.75 34.12 41. CLASSES 75. 400 AND 600 00 Nominal Pipe Size 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 .25 34.75 Class 400 27.00 40.88 41.00 58. 400.25 52.00 48..88 29. "'""NOTE: (1) NPS 22 for reference only.25 39.88 38.25 43.50 65.00 41.25 49.88 60.75 45.56 30.00 42.12 47.75 35.00 Class 75 27.25 43.50 58.00 32.69 36.50 50. Gasket 10 26.00 42.00 54.00 50.26 44.31 46.12 36.00 41.00 61.50 41. AND 600 00 Nominal Pipe Size 22 (1) 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 56 58 60 10 22.19 64.00 44..62 62.25 Class 600 28.00 52.62 59.00 50. Size not listed in ASME 816.25 Class 600 30.88 31.75 48.00 26.25 45.38 32.00 38.47.25 42.00 55.88 55.25 63.25* 62.62 44.88 62..50 33.44 51.75 35.00 59.50 43.00 28.75 37.

85 All All 0 . aq.85 86 .. All All All All All All All All All All All All 140 90 All All All All All All All All All All Room Room All All All All All -.J 40 I . Citric acid Formic acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrofluosilicic acid Hydrogen chloride Hydrogen sulfide-water Lactic acid Monochloracetic acid Nitric acid Nitric acid Nitric acid Oleic acid Oxalic acid Phosphoric acid Stearic acid Sulfur dioxide Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfuric acid Sulfurous acid Tartaric acid Ammonium hydroxide Monoethanolamine Sodium hydroxide Alum Aluminum chloride Ammonium bifluoride Ammonium bisulfate Ammonium sulfate Ammonium thiocyanate Arsenic trichloride Calcium chlorate Calcium hypochlorite Copper sulfate Cupric chloride Ferric chloride Ferrous chloride Ferrous sulfate Manganous sulfate Nickel chloride Nickel sulfate Phosphorous trichloride Sodium chloride Sodium chlorite Sodium hypochlorite Stannic chloride Sulfur monochloride Zinc ammonium chloride Zinc chloride Zinc sulfate Concentration Per Cent All All All All All 0 .GRAFOIL@ CHEMICAL SERVICE RECOMMENDATION CHART Fluid Temp.10 All All All All All All All All All All All 0-4 0 .10 All All All All 0 . up to of All All All All All 200 All All All All All All All All All 185 140 100 All All All All All All 338 300 160 Not Rec.70 71 .95 Over 95 All All All All All All All All All All 0 .63 All 0 .25 All All All All All "-' ALKALIES SALTSOLUTIONS -.20 Over 20 All All 0 .. soln.90 91 ....20 All All All All 0 .J Chemical Reagent ACIDS Acetic acid Acetic anhydride Arsenic Acid Boric acid Carbonic Acid Chromium trioxide.10 10 .

sym.".GRAFOIL@ CHEMICAL SERVICE CHART (CONT.60 All All All 60 All All All All All All All - RECOMMENDATION '-" HALOGENS. WATER Chemical Reagent Air Bromine Bromine water Chlorine-dry Chlorine dioxide Chlorine water Fluorine Iodine Steam Water "Dowtherm" (all types) Petroleum-oil based "Therminol" (all types) "Ucon:' (all types) Acetone Amyl alcohol Aniline Aniline hydrochloride . 'Au reomyci n" HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS ORGANIC COMPOUNDS .) Fluid Temp. '-" Benzene Benzene hexachloride Benzyl sulfonic acid Butyl alcohol Butyl "Cellosolve" Carbon tetrachloride "Cellosolve" solvent Chloral hydrate "Chlorethylbenzene" Chloroform "Deoxidine" Dichloropropionic acid Diethanolamine Dioxane Ethyl alcohol Ethyl chloride Ethylene chlorohydrin Ethylene dibromide Ethylene dichloride Ethyl mercaptan-water Fatty acids Folic acid Refrigerants 11 and 12 Gasoline Glycerine Isopropyl acetate Isopropyl alcohol Isopropyl ether Kerosene Mannitol Methyl alcohol Methyl isobutyl ketone Monochlorbenzene Monovinyl acetate Octyl alcohol Paradichlorbenzene Paraldehyde Tetrachlorothane.AIR. Up to OF 850 Room Room All 158 Room 300 Room 1200 All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All 140 338 All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All Concentration Per Cent All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All 0 .100 All All All All 0 -8 All All Saturated All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All All 41 I . Trichlorethylene Xylene 90 .

Up to of All All Room All All 140 All Room All 140 All All All 140 All All 200 Not Rec.018 .07 MPa) @ 12 psi (.H.03 MPa) @ 8 psi (.) Fluid Temp. J .H.0% 99. (chloride) All Nickel plating solns.5% 40% 20% <5% <0.solutions Amino acid plus hydrochloric and sulfuric acids Ammonium persulfate plus Over 20 sulfuric acid All Anodizing solutions All Butyl acrylate plus acrylic acid 30 Calcium chloride 10 plus calcium chlorate All Chlorinated ethyl alcohols All Chrome plating solutions Cresylic acid plus sulfuric acid Electropolishing solutions (sulfuric All plus phosphoric acids) Over 20 Hydrochloric acid All sat. -- -- .of * The fluid temperature in an oxidizing atmosphere may considerably exceed the indicated temperature without oxidation of the GRAFOIL@ providing that the bulk temperature of the GRAFOIL@ gasket is below these temperatures or that the fluid being handled does not come into direct contact with the graphite. with chlorine All Nickel plating solns.5 ml/hr 900 psi .052 .03 nitric acid TYPICAL TYPICAL MATERIAL PROPERTIES GRAFOIL@ SHEET PROPERTIES 70 Ib/fP 100 ppm 50 ppm 95.GRAFOIL@ CHEMICAL SERVICE RECOMMENDATION CHART MIXTURES (CONT.08 MPa) TYPICAL PHYSICAL PROPERTIES TYPICAL THERMAL PROPERTIES 42 Functional/TemperatureRange -400 to 5400oF Neutral or Reducing Atmosphere -400 to 850oF* Oxidizing Atmosphere Standard Grades -400 to 975°F* Oxidation Resistant Grades GT"'J and GT'M K Thermal Conductivity Along Length & Width 960BTU-in/ft2. (sulfate) 15 Nitric acid plus 5 hydrofluoric acid All "Parkerizing" solution All Rayon spin bath 25 Sodium hypochlorite plus sodium hydroxide 96 Sulfuric acid plus . EXAMPLE: a metal spiralwound gasket with a GRAFOIL@ filler material.oF Through Thickness 36BTU-in/ft2. Chemical Reagent Concentration Per Cent J All Acidified starch .157 '-' Density Leachable Chloride Content-Maximum Industrial Grades Premium (Nuclear) Grades Carbon Content-Minimum Industrial Grades Premium (Nuclear) Grades Compressibility (ASTM F-36) Recovery(ASTMF-36) Creep Relaxation (ASTM F-38) Sealability (ASTM F-37) TensileStrength Along Length & Width Coefficient of Friction Against Steel @ 4 psi (.

18 268.80 43.1 1104.66 40.05 29.0 137.64 73.3 1053.2 1328.93 63.1 131.3 101.01 64.12 700.35 310.69 159.30 874.18 546.69 754.848 53.178 1.484 39.669 8.6 117.65 62.97 247.7 1503.7854 .00 567.46 93.862 63.87 583.11 968.57 21.23 92.59 32.45 29.22 52.424 9.37 55.69 49.78 1003.9817 1.38 22.48 151.0981 .7 1401.05 330.9 108.10 16.662 76.31 15.20 588.0 1156.13 384.73 47.37 44.588 78.27 17.07669 .396 67.7 1452.647 22.92 156.71 179.96 88.8 1119.16 23.09 38.18 654.4 1393.13 14.7 18.43 11 0.3 134.748 2.6902 .98 170.97 66.8 103.617 65.97 55.6 V4 5/.89 92.3 1186.945 3.426 60.939 6.1963 .14 779.90 70.679 31.25 83.29 137.82 85.70 515.35 637.30 48.52 25.784 37.5 100.16 56.94 254.35 13.319 4.64 730.65 12.767 1.1 1477.5 120.4 124.6 115.48 306.CIRCUMFERENCES AND AREAS OF CIRCLES Cire.79 632.96 99.83 660.18 76.4 1233.546 3.36 350.10 80.80 272.40 53.405 2.94 643.07 71.56 98.4 135.36 66.9 V8 3/.00076 .17 12.7 122.767 2.885 95.07 220.85 83.34 24.8 1369.23 41.6 1225.5 131.92 90.13 145.82 217.9 119.4 115.31 785.1-1 279.04 73.9 130.55 45.81 283.068 7.91 37.58 43.1 122.64 84.283 6.08 49.1963 .35 99.5 107.9 101.0 135.6 3/8 7/.3 1511.854 8.94 57.91 26.04908 .8 129.2 118.246 8.17 98.890 6.7854 .200 69.03 406.20 153.13 25.98 44.178 45.62 42.484 1.1 109.6013 .4 106.186 15.88 881.3 1336.30 861.6 V2 9/16 5/8 11/.0 126.61 64.21 207.41 31.76 56.67 93.73 797.98 706.54 375.21 74.62 103.70 525.21 85.44 51.06 934.01 261.2 1082.35 551.66 188.566 13.59 213.6 1426.4 104.65 Diam.27 291.47 420.93 536.06 204.46 258.9 1194.99 975.69 38.70 237.534 3.75 89.69 452.06 93.4 113.08 60.25 907.92 15.33 233.76 45.88 140.088 56.83 298.4 137.0 113.86 466.65 358.132 61.10 338.60 10.2 1291.41 42.4 102.39 75.044 11.60 948.6 3f4 13/.26 61.9 1248.32 79.86 72.364 14.1503 .71 91.946 9.6 104.77 34.95 24.45 250.79 76.4 126.88 28.80 32.515 82.033 15.83 Diam.52 36.65 51.28 371 . 53.55 429.98 33.2 107.81 21.99 11.30 37.28 '-' Diam.46 82.9 1410.69 724.34 35.45 816.39 848.84 363.43 62.88 17.274 29.00 75. 25.80 996.85 120.04 541.3 112.29 165.84 30.5890 . .320 11 .83 63.56 23.29 59.51 791.10 485.06 326.99 773.99 97.5184 .67 182.7 1097.2 1304.95 599.73 438.540 86.54 67.29 70.55 34.4 1089.1 133.66 29.87 495.92 914.82 74.49 16.12 36.:.03 84.90 22.63 20.282 42.13 167.21 96.402 101.1 102.6 126.3 108.6 1164.1 1240.38 97.14 78.159 2.33 46.7 1256.57 76.664 90.745 58.06 18.1 111.46 117.5 1149.80 610.24 19.80 148. 17 V8 V4 3/8 '/2 5/8 3f4 \18 18 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/a 3/4 \la 19 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \/8 20 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \la 21 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \18 Area 226.141 3. 1132 1/16 Cire.5 1272.37 604.26 572.7 124.73 135.2 136.6 1486.8 105.4 117.61 75.67 130.8 118.7 120.01227 .44 276.374 1.690 23.30 443.71 683.55 577.63 31.1 1049.70 16.11 58.74 194.1 120.108 28.5 122.43 73.539 80.72 58.3 1280.36 77.6 135.12 47.759 74.72 185.23 30.77 23.0 124.629 21.720 18.76 760.1 129.38 11.11 69.00 86.1 1171.8 127.72 69.57 87.105 5.1 100.295 8.02 31.47 71.7 1010.05 367.53 89.48 162.590 88.7 102.24 94.9 1435.24 810.927 4.8 116.904 16.86 766.0 115. 35 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 7/8 36 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3f4 \18 37 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \la 38 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/a 3/4 \la 39 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 7/8 40 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \Is 41 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \la 42 Vs V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \Is 43 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 7/8 Cire.25 346.51 47.79 868.9 1217.141 3.122 38.73 201 .03 95.35 88.8 1017.48 49.07 82.497 5.2 127.227 1.761 3.49 410.82 380.95 35.47 60.84 989.86 823.0 117.8 114.6 128.6 1264.183 34.51 58.4 128.9 121.2485 .1 1494.05 51.2 1126.430 4.97 490.37 33.621 10.471 35.665 19.4417 . .0 1377.20 32.98 230.54 649.52 287.8 1024.9 134.35 223.09 27.18 65.16 342.71 510.10 91 .18 127.173 48.02 20.75 78.2 105.84 19.43 476.60 96.25 Diam.265 51.74 505.68 82.68 71.97 415.13 108.70 27.45 18.32 90.49 354.42 20.3 121.52 14.2 1209.82 393.58 65.6 1360.762 92. 109.4 1111.3 123.967 27.46 388.3097 .635 20.464 30.793 12.22 63.068 7.62 53.73 36.71 80.42 95.78 176.58 265.40 64.8 125.5 1202.63 471.61 736.2 1418.79 500.61 901.0 104.3 110.491 7.073 2.13 433.54 78.2 1312.552 2.86 61.19 132.78 98.032 9.7 133.75 67.456 55.78 87.7 113.69 60.9940 1.39 475.20 21.43 84.9 112.3 130.79 65.14 89.61 742.15 67.21 10.03 294.3 1288.52 666.6 137.29 695.94 46.05 40.639 9.11 461.2 1320.90 48.21 829.7 1179.675 7.83 52.97 804.16 318.0 106.817 10.02761 .3712 .75 621.8 107.5 1060.1 1141.19 54.5 133.81 96.39 210.16 45.87 50. 26 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 7/8 27 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \/a 28 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 \18 29 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 \la 30 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/a 3/4 7/a 31 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \18 32 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \/8 33 V8 V4 3/S V2 5/8 3f4 \Is 34 Va V4 3/a V2 5/S 3f4 7/8 Cire.90 982.461 7.06 334.86 712.7 111.74 100.31 26.33 57.9 1075.19 43.516 84.871 41.7 1067.71 125.50 143.2 1385.64 95.0 128.75 113.9 132.16 34.49 689.411 5.82 197.1104 .82 941.87 173.27 28.2 116.01 42.963 2.90 59.60 86.01 447.74 Area .54 556.718 44.4 1344.6 106.0 1039.49 91.9 110.87 39.86 106.5 1352.96 77.41 888.27 39.79 54.22 671.26 615.356 2.01 Area 50.76 718.00 424.6 118.5 129.00 894.7 109.2 114.58 54.5 111.25 481.3926 .60 402.3 1443.57 593. 81.3 132.61 921 .033 97.9 123.850 25.32 68.69 191 .10 240.00306 .26 50.44 40.52 243.029 70.205 99.97 842.78 12.6 1469.89 81.707 Diam.976 4.26 626.32 928.54 56.8 Area 962.2 125.6 1134.47 27.712 5.04 62.27 122.663 47.7 131.919 33.882 72.24 314.2 1460.85 94.5 Area 530.83 855.84 41.95 13.20 397.74 14.758 24.50 80.64 302.41 955.93 79.9 1032. 8 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \18 9 V8 V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 7/8 10 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/a 3/4 7/a 11 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \la 12 V8 V4 3/8 V2 0/8 3f4 7/8 13 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 \Is 14 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/a 3f4 \la 15 V8 V4 3/S V2 5/a 3f4 \/a 16 Vs V4 3fs V2 5/S 3f4 \18 Cire.09 322.50 69.57 835.6 \la 15/'6 1 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 \18 2 Va V4 3/a V2 5/8 3f4 \18 '-' 3 V8 V4 3/8 V2' 5/a 3f4 \18 4 V8 V4 3/S V2 5/a 3f4 7/a 5 V8 V4 3fa V2 5/8 3/4 22 Va V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \la 23 V8 V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3/4 7/a 24 Va V4 3/8 V2 5/8 3f4 \la 6 V8 V4 3fa V2 5/8 3/4 7/S 7 Va V4 3/a V2 5/8 3/4 \Is \Is 25 Vs V4 3/a V2 5/a 3f4 \18 '-' 43 .800 17.48 38.95 677.908 5.570 1.76 562.2 103.64 748.8 136.17 87.25 72.3 119.72 520.39 86.00 115.

0 256.6 150.3 207.8 312.1 4001.9 1953.0 2485.2 3486.5 151.2 4067.9 198.9 1828.0 159.9 238.0 2258.2 193.0 3793.0 2002.8 5607.5 217.7 173.8 2052.0 4839.8 2032.7 2886.7 250.8 3903.5 140.8 147.5 177.4 1837.4 3862.3 1905.6 1590.7 6397.4 181.2 1608.1 248.9 2083.8 7341.7 261.1 206.2 4043.1 195.7 210.4 221.2 171.0 214.5 2922.7 184.0 5410.4 232.1 281.9 185.9 176.4 192.3 4596.1 2507.6 298.2 224.2 3875.1 292.4 2540.6 170.8 2874.7 151.4 288.0 307.5 6647.5 2910.5 175.1 177.9 4717.3 2419.8 7427.5 3104.2 180.8 2722.6 193.4 6792.0 3031.7 3369.0 278.8 290.3 163.11 6256.7 144.9 5741.2 3129.1 1993.1 5674.3 3821.8 169.5 153.1 252.8 202.3 1716.9 4344.2 2851.5 230.5 7238.2 3725.0 2653.0 2862.5 262.5 5707.1 173.7 4901.6 6082.0 1572.7 7736.3 3331.0 4185.9 163.2 6326.5 219.9 165.3 185.7 3067.2 200.8 3685.3 2113.7 5574.2 300.3 218.6 243.0 192.9 207.9 156.4 3931.9 141.9 7466.7 283.3 4329.0 225.1 4417.5 7163.0 2279.2 160.9 260.2 4142.6 179.2 191.2 5153.8 2022.0 1689.4 6186.1 274.3 307.9 196.3 7932.5 186.4 168.2 3043.9 3889.7 188.1 208.4 244.2 1564.3 263.6 3538.7 4171.1 3460.6 225.9 174.0 2452.2 2430.0 289.8 3267.1 3254.9 2815.6 7775.1 164.2 3092.5 226.2 2973.2 267.1 (CONT.8 5842.1 155.8 171.9 143.8 180.3 Area 2206.7 7853.3 2630.2 2365.2 2803.1 6116.7 230.6 3.4 310.5 2757.0 3565.4 3166.2 204.1 230.3 205.5 204.4 201.4 3280.2 6503.0 5508.7 7972.8 204.5 7620.9 242.8 215.) Area 3959.8 Diam.7 7013.6 221.1 1617.6 148.7 162.5 215.3 4809.8 3305.4 2664.6 3807.1 6902.8 1546.8 2780.8 4315.4 1934.8 2343.5 1876.3 229.2 1707.7 Diam.3 141.6 1963.1 3473.7 1734.0 2496.3 4071 .7 3848.0 311.8 297.4 226.9 2745.1 Area 1520.3 3631.5 228.5 273.9 1847.2 7504.9 218.5 142. 44 Va % 3/B '/2 5/a 3/4 7/B 45 Va % 3/B 112 5/a 3f4 7/B 46 VB % 3/B V2 5/a 3/4 7/B 47 Va V4 3/B 112 5/a 3f4 7/B 48 VB % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/B 49 VB % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/B 50 Va V4 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 'l'a 51 VB % 3/B '/2 5/B 3f4 7/B 52 Va % 3/B 112 5/8 3/4 'l'8 Cire.0 2463.4 3191.0 5184.4 5775.2 5345.8 224.1 2518.4 255.5 162.0 5089.5 1555.2 149.1 153.7 1800.3 4271.0 212.9 211.0 245.1 4029.0 139.0 7200.9 7581.9 154.2 178.8 1652.2 289.5 2982.7 164.9 282.9 3179.8 264.9 AND AREAS Diam.6 232.4 234.4 2195.4 199.5 302.5 2970.6 146.2 145.3 209.6 159.5 208.1 197.5 1529.8 226.8 3552.0 1914.2 156.6 4099.4 2839.0 296.6 4932.6 265.1 259.5 1818.5 2269.5 240.8 191.4 3780. 166.5 5058.3 198. 138.7 2562.4 1599.6 269.3 270.6 6468.5 2123.2 256.5 295.1 215.1 7658.3 1983.0 181.3 3408.9 1866.9 1643.7 305.0 3834.5 155.0 170.6 4686.1 3987.1 1885.8 189.1 151.6 309.2 311.8 182.3 296.0 1781.7 3605.2 6047.6 7814.1 1698.4 4403.6 280.4 3671.8 308.6 203.4 277.8 167.4 6866.7 4214.7 195.2 2529.1 1943.5 206.7 6976.5 306.0 4128.5 2551.1 184.8 200.6 192.6 6575.9 231.6 2290.8 2062..3 174.1 219.6 6683.3 281.8 2690.4 3055.6 157.9 1680.5 5121.0 1625.5 284.3 3499.7 7389.2 138.6 214.0 3618.8 222.7 155.1 285.7 199.8 6720.5 4359.1 2154.7 1895.0 179.4 4566.3 2710.1 142.2 147.4 7542.0 5808.8 2311.3 196.1 241.1 2585.5 4242.0 6756.J 44 .8 4447.6 287.4 150.9 249.7 153.5 291.9 4995.5 3318.8 301.2 245.9 271.7 175.0 2093.0 161.0 146.0 2185.8 279.6 234.1 1537.3 3512.5 4156.CIRCUMFERENCES Diam.4 188.6 3645.3 4300.8 178.9 5641.3 176.3 252.6 5443.3 241.5 197.6 4536.5 4085.2 3752.6 2227.4 2958.1 6432.6 2397.0 .7 186.8 4114. 71 VB % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/a 72 Va % 3/a V2 5/a 3f4 7/B 73 VB V4 3/B V2 5/a 3f4 7/a 74 VB V4 3/B V2 5fs 3f4 'l'B 75 V4 V2 3f4 76 V4 112 3/4 77 % V2 3f4 78 % V2 3/4 79 % V2 3/4 80 % V2 3f4 81 V4 112 3/4 82 V4 112 3f4 83 '/4 V2 3f4 Cire.7 217.2 3421 .4 1856.3 165.9 1744.7 1924.6 168.8 7697.0 6829.5 173.2 158.2 3698.7 239.0 7893.3 285. 232.1 175.7 272.9 2574.1 186.3 1790.8 257.5 3382.7 206.9 1670.8 253.8 275.8 6539.9 205.1 4015.4 6361.9 187.0 3343.6 3006.4 3591.7 208.6 5876.9 209.7 197.7 6151.2 182.1 2768.0 2474.6 182.3 183.6 236.2 169.8 233.3 274.2 3434.8 286.8 1661.8 2386.9 3204.8 3766.6 172.9 2072.2 2300.8 158.5 2792.6 258.3 4476.2 7275.9 1634.0 203.7 177.1 144.1 314.0 199.0 148.4 2322.9 194.9 6939.2 202.0 3144.9 4506.1 162.6 Area OF CIRCLES Diam.0 234.5 3242.1 237. 263.6 5978.2 213.3 2687.4 2946.3 292.4 2733.4 210.5 2248.4 214.4 203.2 233.0 157.0 300.2 '-' / .0 223.3 187.9 227.9 3080.7 142.3 259.1 1753.9 4257.8 4388.4 1762.0 2375.9 183.2 235.2 167.4 190.6 247.9 2676.6 2994.9 6013.5 251.5 3525.9 220.1 1809.0 2237.4 2934.4 170.2 2103.7 2608.4 2596.1 228.3 4199.4 4666.4 248.7 228.8 160.9 293..3 152.9 7313.5 144.1 140.7 219.6 2898.0 221 .0 3658.7 316.5 5944.5 2354.2 222.5 5910.5 195.6 161.1 4378.4 179.8 235.9 145.142.2 622.9 2012.9 216.5 184.8 4870.0 5313.4 223.8 246.1 4228.8 149.8 5216. 84 % V2 3/4 85 % V2 3f4 86 % V2 3f4 87 % '/2 3/4 88 % V2 3/4 89 V4 V2 3/4 90 V4 V2 3/4 91 V4 112 3/4 92 % '/2 3/4 93 V4 112 3/4 94 % 112 3/4 95 % V2 3f4 96 V4 V2 3f4 97 V4 V2 3/4 98 % '/2 3/4 99 V4 V2 3/4 100 % V2 3f4 Cire.9 304.3 314.4 237.4 139.6 201.3 154.8 140.1 3447.4 3395.7 4778.8 2042.4 159.0 201.4 146.2 3578.8 3117.2 7125.7 3739.6 181.9 229.6 5378.1 6291.9 3229.9 315. 194.7 4963.8 5248.8 5281.4 157.4 2408.1 188.7 3712.4 148.3 4747. Cire.3 303.1 2441.2 211.3 231.3 143.1 2332.6 2827.5 1725.4 299.9 152.0 2619.7 2642.5 6611.8 3356.2 5476.5 1973.6 3917.1 270.9 7088.3 220.4 3216.6 254.3 3945.8 1581.8 193.8 213.5 313.4 212.7 2133.0 190.5 166.1 217. 223.0 168.6 212.6 276.2 278.1 3292. 62 Va % 3/a V2 5/B 3/4 'l'a 63 VB % 3/B 112 5/a 3f4 'l'8 64 Va % 3/B V2 5fs 3/4 7/B 65 1Ia % 3/B '/2 5/B 3/4 7/B 66 Va V4 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/B 67 1IB % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 7/B 68 Va % 3/B V2 5/B 3/4 'l'B 69 Va V4 3/B 112 5fs 3/4 7/B 70 V8 V4 3/B 112 5/8 3/4 'l'a Cire.1 226.1 2216.2 189.6 139.0 267.0 210.4 255.7 2175.8 268.0 150.3 227.1 5026.1 303.6 190.3 161.9 2144.7 294.2 53 1IB % 3/B V2 5/a 3f4 7/a 54 Va % 3/a V2 5/8 3f4 7/8 55 1Ia V4 3/8 VL 5/B 3f4 7/B 56 Va % 3/B 112 5/B 3/4 'l'B 57 VB V4 3/B 112 5fs 3f4 7/B 58 Va % 3/B V2 5/B 3f4 7/B 59 Va V4 3/B V2 5/B 3f4 7/a 60 1IB % 3/B 112 5/B 3f4 7/B 61 Va % 3/B 112 5/8 3f4 'l'a 3019.8 7050.8 4286.3 216.4 2164.5 164.4 - Area 5541.0 172.7 166.3 4626.7 1772.3 172.

Diameter of bolt.551 .490 1.515 1.. 8 Compression..929 1.049 2.126 .980 2.155 1. 2 Compression. 5.064 1.000 PSI Torque Ft. Values are based on steel bolting well lubricated with a heavy graphite and oil mixture. Inch) .345 .405 1.027 7.. 4.088 2. some of which are: 1.551 .000 PSI Torque Ft.093 .588 2.728 .213 1.162 .045 . Lbs.294 . 2.283 1.939 1.185 ISa.680 1.068 .294 .000 PSI Torque Ft.400 .419 . 810 45. 3. 203 STRESS 15.454 .838 .126 . Lbs..345 .. Lbs.162 ... 30 50 80 123 195 273 365 437 600 775 1050 1125 675 1020 1395 1890 2430 3030 4530 6285 8265 10380 13350 15810 19410 22725 26160 30735 34500 8 12 20 30 45 60 100 160 245 390 545 730 875 1200 1550 2100 2250 1350 2040 2790 3780 4860 6060 9060 12570 16530 20760 26700 31620 38820 45450 52320 61470 69000 Data for Use with Alloy Steel Stud Bolts Load inPounds on Stud Bolts when Torque Loads Are Applied NOMINAL DIAMETER OF STUD (Inches) % 5/16 NUMBER DIAMETER AREA OF AT ROOT AT ROOT THREADS OF THREAD OF THREAD IPer Inch) 20 (Inches) . Lbs.463 1.240 . Lubrication of bolt threads and nut bearing surfaces.045 .838 . Data for Use with Machine Bolts and Cold Rolled Steel Stud Bolts Load inPounds on Bolts and Stud Bolts wh~n Torque Loads Are Applied NOMINAL DIAMETER OF BOLT (Inches) % 5/16 NUMBER DIAMETER AREA OF AT ROOT AT ROOT THREADS OF THREAD OF THREAD (Per Inch) 20 (Inches) . Lbs.693 . Lbs.TORQUE REQUIRED TO PRODUCE BOLT STRESS The torque or turning effort requiredto produce a certain stress in bolting is dependent upon a number of conditions. 405 30.500 PSI Torque Ft.620 .324 8 12 20 30 45 60 100 160 245 355 500 680 800 1100 1500 2000 2200 3180 4400 5920 7720 1350 2040 2790 3780 4860 6060 9060 12570 16530 21840 27870 34650 42150 50400 59400 69120 79560 102690 128760 157770 189720 12 18 30 45 68 90 150 240 368 533 750 1020 1200 1650 2250 3000 3300 4770 6600 8880 11580 2025 3060 4185 5670 7290 9090 13590 18855 24795 32760 41805 51975 63225 75600 89100 103680 119340 154035 193140 236655 284580 16 24 40 60 90 120 200 320 490 710 1000 1360 1600 2200 3000 4000 4400 6360 8800 11 840 15440 2700 4080 5580 7560 9720 12120 18120 25140 33060 43680 55740 69300 84300 100800 11 8800 138240 159120 205380 257520 315540 379440 45 I .068 .454 . Lbs. 1 Com pression. Material of bolt.202 .294 1.302 .202 .713 1.400 .588 1. Lbs.054 1.419 ..300 2 3 5 8 12 15 25 40 62 98 137 183 219 300 390 525 563 338 510 698 945 1215 1515 2265 3143 4133 5190 6675 7905 9705 11363 13080 15368 17250 4 6 10 15 23 .731 . . 1215 60.185 ISo.507 .838 . Type and number of threads on bolt.259 6. 6 Compression.240 .302 .620 .615 1.088 1.000 PSI Torque Ft.093 .963 1..304 2.389 1. Inch) .507 .711 . 4 Compression.423 4. Lbs.292 5. The tables below reflect the results of many tests to determine the relation between torque and bolt stress.338 2.158 1. It was found that a non-lubricated bolt has an efficiency of about 50 percent of a well lubricated bolt and also that different lubricants produce results varying between the limits of 50 and 100 percent of the tabulated stress figures. 5/8 3/4 \18 1 1V8 1% 13/8 1V2 1% 13/4 1\18 2 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 7 6 6 5V2 5 5 4V2 .838 2.027 STRESS 30. 1620 3/8 7/16 V2 9/16 '-'" 5/8 3/4 \18 1 1V8 1% 13/8 11/2 15/8 13/4 1\18 2 2% 2V2 23/4 3 18 16 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 .744 2.652 3. Lbs. 810 3/8 7/16 V2 9/16 \.338 1.890 1. Lbs. Condition of nut bearing surfaces. Lbs.731 .. 4 Compression.000 PSI Torque Ft.

Notes Maximum Allowable Stress Values (psi) For Metal Temperatures Not Exceeding Deg.750 2.300 11.000 20.200 17.450 1450 900 11.500 7.000 3.250 18.000 1000 7.) (4) These stress values permitted for material that has been carbideUCS-23.550 1.750 11.500 8.500 7.750 8.000 20. (1) Not permitted above 450F.750 18. The Code does not prohibit this practice and the stress values listed are rather to be considered as applying in the design of flanges.) (7) For temperatures below 100F.400 1.000 8.200 750 1. stress values equal to 20% of time without retightening is required.250 11.750 16. stress values equal to the the specified minimum tensile strength will be permitted.000 7.650 500 17.500 11. or 25% of the specified yield strength.) solution treated.400 20.000 2. I 46 .800 300 18.300 10. (Table UCS-23.650 16.04% or strength only and will be satisfactory for average service.600 1050 6.000 - 20.950 11.600 2.650 1400 850 12.550 1.800 2.) bolted joints. is based on bolt diameter.000 20.800 8.750 16.000 psi.000 17.000 15.500 10. F Notes (1) - 700 - 750 - 800 - 850 - 900 - 950 - 1000 - 1050 - 1100 - A325 - A354 BB BC BD B7 B5 B14 B16 (2)(3) (2)(3) (2)(3) (2)(3) (2)(3) (2)(3) (2)(3) (2)(3) -20 to 100 20.750 11.000 - - 4.Bolting Materials ASTM Specification Number Grade B A307 * (UCS-.000 15. UNF-23) -20to 650 Stress Table 1 Maximum Allowable Stress Valus (psi) For Metal Temperatures Not Exceeding Deg.900 12.700 12.700 1.250 - A193 2.000 .Grade B6 B8 B8C B8T -.000 20.000 20. (Tables UCS-23 and UHA-23.500 13.000 20.) (2) These stress values are established from a consideration of (5) These stress values apply only when the carbon is 0. (Table UHA-23.300 1500 (2) (2)(4)(5) (2)(4)(5) (2)(4)(5) (2) B8 (2)(4)(5) B8C (2)(4)(5) B8T (2)(4)(5) ASTM A320 Grade L7.000 15.300 10.600 13.750 20.000 1.000 12.200 18.800 6.000 20.000 20. allowable stress value 7.650 15.000 15.400 18. F 200 19.000 20.000 13.750 8.000 11.000 9.A193 .300 11.000 1.300 13. UHA-.000 5.300 11.850 700 15.100 Notes (2)(6) (2)(4)(7) 18.250 14.750 18.000 4. (Table strength.20F to 400F.250 3. L9.750 ASTM .900 11.000 1.000 11.500 10.650 16. L10 B8F B6 For Metal Temperatures Not Exceeding Deg.600 3.750 20. stress values equal to 20% of (3) Between temperatures of .500 5.850 10.250 6.300 15.750 - 12. Table UHA-23.800 10.200 12.- These materials are for low temperature service. (Table UCS-23.000 20.650 11.300 14.650 11. F 1100 1150 1200 1250 1300 1350 6.850 11.) and bolts.750 800 13.500 400 18.650 - - - v 8.100 11. Refer to ASTM Specification A320 for details. lower stress values may be necessary as determined from the relative flexibility of the flange the specified minimum tensile strength will be permitted. For higher.250 17.000 10.900 8.450 2.800 750 14. (Table UHA-23.000 950 7.050 10.800 10.000 15.700 2.650 12.300 11.) lower of the following will be permitted: 20% of the specified tensile v Note: * It is often necessary to tighten bolting to much higher stresses than those given in the Table in order to prevent leakage under hydrotest and also to obviate frequent retightening due to relaxation.750 2. Tensile range given in Materials Table 2 (page 6).000 20.000 20. and corresponding relaxation properties.000 16.800 11.900 650 16.000 20.250 4.200 1.200 600 17.000 20.000 5.450 11. where freedom from leakage over a long period of (6) For temperatures below 400F.

..... W2 2 2V2 3 3V2 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 3V2 3a 4% 4% 5 6 7 7% 8V2 9 10 11 13V2 16 19 21 23V2 25 27V2 32 ':I: 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 16 16 20 20 I (r} 2% 2% 3% I::Sf (Ig.... . of Bolts (Inches) 3/4 3/4 Bolt Circle (Inches) 3V2 33/4 a 1 1Ve 1 1Ve 1% 1% 13/4 4% 5Va 53/4 6314 73/4 9 103/4 123/4 2 2 2V2 23/4 ... .. 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 .. . .:':a} (I} I::Sf (Ig:S} V2 V2 V2 V2 % % 51a % % 5/a 51a 3/4 3/4 3/4 7/a 7/a 1 1 1Va Wa 1% 3% 33/4 4% 4a 5% 6Va 43/4 6V2 5V2 7V2 6 8% 7 9 7V2 10 8V2 11 9V2 12% 113/4 15 14% 17V2 17 20% 183/4 23 21% 25Y2 223/4 28 25 30% 29% 36 2% 23/a 23/4 3Va 3% 3a 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 16 20 20 24 24 24 V2 V2 % 51a % 3/4 5/a 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 3/4 a 1 Wa 1Va 1% 1% 1% 1V2 3% 33/4 40/a 3V2 4a 37/a 5% 4V2 6Va 5 6V2 7'/2 57/a 65/a 8% 7V4 9 77/a 10 9% 11 1051a 12V2 13 15 15% 17'/2 173/4 20V2 20% 23 22Y2 25V2 243/4 28 27 30V2 32 36 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 16 20 20 24 24 24 V2 V2 51a % % 3/4 % 314 3/4 7/a 7/a 7/a 7/a 1 1Va 1% 1% Pia 1% 1V2 13/4 2% 2% 3% 3V2 3a 4V2 5 5a 65/a 7% 7a 9% 105/a 13 15% 173/4 20% 22V2 243/4 27 32 33/a 33/4 4% 47/a 5% 6Va 6V2 7V2 8% 9 103/4 13 14 16V2 20 22 233/4 27 29V4 32 37 4 4 4 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 20 20 20 20 24 24 V2 V2 o/a 5/a 5/a 314 5/a 3/4 3/4 7/a 7/a 1 1 1Va 1% 1% 13/a 1V2 1% 15/a 17/a 2% 2% 3% 3V2 3a 4V2 5 5a 60/a 7% 8% 10V2 1W2 133/4 17 19% 203/4 233/4 253/4 28V2 33 900 PSI SERIES 1500 PSI SERIES 2500 PSI SERIES NOMINAL PIPE SIZE (Inches) Y2 3/4 Dlam.. 1 1% lV2 2 2V2 3 4 5 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 24 5a 6% 7 8V2 9% 9V2 11V2 133/4 15 18V2 21Y2 24 25% 273/4 31 333/4 41 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 16 20 20 20 a a 1 a 1 e We 1% 1Ve 13/e 1% 13/e 1Y2 151a 4 43/a 4a 6V2 7% 7% 9% 11 12V2 15V2 18% 21 22 24% 6% 7 8V2 951a 10V2 12% 143/4 15V2 19 23 26V2 29V2 32Y2 4 4 4 8 8 8 8 8 12 12 12 16 16 16 a 7/a 4 43/a 1 7/a 4a 6V2 1 1Ve 1% 1Y2 13/a 7V2 8 9V2 11V2 12V2 1% Ha 2 2% 2V2 23/4 15V2 19 22V2 25 273/4 30V2 323/4 6% 7% 8 9% 10V2 12 14 16V2 19 213/4 26% 30 ... of (r) 4314 5Va Number of Bolts Dlam. of Flange (Inches) 5% 5% Number of Bolts \.. of Bolt (II c:w 331a V2 3/4 1 W.. of Num- Dlam.. .BOLTING DATA FOR STANDARD FLANGES 150 PSI SERIES 300 PSI SERIES 400 PSI SERIES 600 PSI SERIES '-' NOMINAL PIPE SIZE (Inches} % Dlam.. ...... of Bolts (Inches) 3/4 3/4 Bolt (ICircle Inches) 3% 3V2 Dlam. 20 20 Ha 2 2V2 27 29V2 35Y2 36 383/4 46 16 16 3 3V2 20 16 39 '-' 47 .. . ..... ... .. of r:) Num- Dlam..... ........ ....... "" 14Y2 17% 21% 24% . . of (Ig':a) Bolt (I} Dlam... .... 4 4 Dlam. .. of (Ig':a} Bolt (I) Dlam.... Dlam.... of Flange (Inches) 43/4 5Va 5'l'a Number of Bolts.. of Bolt Dlam. of Num- Dlam. of Bolts (Inches) 3/4 3/4 Bolt Circle (Inches) 3% 3V2 4 4 Dlam. of (r} Numel: Dlam.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful