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Boiler Cqlculotions

A. Whntis equivalent evaporation? Ans It is thequantityof waterevaporated from and at 100'C to produce saturated dry steam 100"Cby at absorbingthe sameanount of heat as usedin the boilerunderactualoperating conditions. M"q= Mn (H - Hwt)/539 whereM"n - equivalent evaporation Mact= actualmassof steamgenerated unit per massof fuel burnt I/ - total specifrc of enthalpy steam underoperating conditions, kcaUkg H*, = specificenthalpyof feedwater, kcaVkg Latentheatof dry, saturated steam 100"c is 539 at kcaVkg. A. What isfactor of evaporation? Rateof heatsupplied fuel - Gf X (CV)lkcaVs by - rateof fuel buming,kgls whereGr G' (H H*t) n. .. 'rnoiler Gf (Cv), = Mnr(H-Hnr)/(U)1 whereG"/G1- actualevaporation M*t O. Whatis ecornmizer eficiency?

Ans. It is dcfinedas the ratio of the heatabsorbed by theBFW in theeconomizer theheatsupplied by to the flue gasesin the economizcr,the temperature of flue gases beingreckoned of abovethe temperature theair supplied the boiler to
6 = rleon MactA@

MrrCn(@1-@6)

Ans, It is the factorto be multipliedwith thequan- where AO - rise in BFW temperature the in tity of steamgenerated underworking conditions to economizer get the equivalent evaporation. per M1,= r[&SS flue gases unit massof fuel of Equivalentevaporation- Actual evaporation Cp- sPecific heatof flue gases x (f) - flue gastemperature inlet to economizer @f at M*.(f ) or M"n= O"ir - temperature air delivered theboiler of to or M$(H - Hwt)/539= M*rf Ptoblem 6.1 A boiler generates t of super4.5 f=(H_H*t)/539 (500'C,9}kgflcmz abs.) tonof coal per heated steam feed. a. Wtut is boiler eftcienq? The BFW temperature 45'C Ans. It is lhe ratio of theheatload of he generated What is the equivalentevaporation from and at steam the heatsuppliedby the fuel overthe same 100'Cpcr tonofcoal? to period. Solution Heatload of generated steam = G"(H - H*,) kcaVs generation, whereG, = rateof steam kg/s
Specific Enthalpy = 809 kcaVkg

82 Boller Operolion Englneedng at heatof feedwater 45"C- 45 kcal/kg ^ Sensible Heat requiredto produce4.5 t steam(90 kgflcm' abs.,500"C) = 4.5 x f03 x (809 - 45) = 3 438 x 103kcal steamat 100'C Ijtent heatof dry, saturated - 539 kcaVkg- 539 x ld kcaUt Therefore, equivalent evaporation from and at from and at Solution The equivalentevaporation is 100"C M"q=Mn (H-Hwt)/Lrco Now Mrct- 8.5 kg steam kg of coal Per H*r'163'4kl&;g H,r,- 830kJ/kg (at 14 bar) -r - 0.96 kJ&g (at 14 bar) L - 1957.7 H=Hw+xL = 830+ 0.96(1957.7) =27W.39kJ/kg Itoo - 2257klkg M"q = 8.5 Q7w.39-163'4)/2257 = 9.588kg stearn/kgof coal = 9.59kg steam,zkg coal of Ans. Prcblem 6.4 A boiler produces 220 t o^fdry 60 pcr steam hourat apressure kgflcm', abs. saturated of at from feedwater a temperature 120"c. Coalconsumption 1200VdaY kcaVkg Calorific value of coal - 42O0 unbumt. 1% of coalescapes Determine (a) the equivalentevaporationper ton of coal fred (b) the eff,rciencY the boiler of (c) the overallefficiencyof the boiler

100'c x 3 438 td tcat _ 6.379t per ton of coal = __:_


539x 105 kcat/t Ans. 7.5 boilergenerates tonsof Problem 5.2 A steam the equivalent per steam ton of coal burned.Calculate ftom and at 100'C per ton ofcoal from evaporation the following data Steampdssure 10kgflcm2.abs. Drynessfraction- 0.95 temperature 50"C Feedwater fulution Working formula Mg(H - H*,)

M.s=-BMnr- 7'5Utof coal kcaVt kcaUkg 50x 103 "*,'S kcal x Hr"= 181.3 103 /t .r - 0.95 L-483x 103kcaVt (483)l 103 x + H = H* + x L =t181.3 0.95

Solution Step(I) Heat l-oad of Steam/Ton = 640x lG kcal/t at steam 60kgflcm2abs. inrhalpy of dry, saturated :665.4 kcaVkg M.n=1.5(6<O.tS50)x rc3/fi9 Enthalpyof waterat 120"C= 120kcaVkg = 8.211t of steam/t coal of heatrequiredto raiseI ton of steam Therefore, Ans. kcal = td (66s.+- l2o) = 545.4x103 Problem 6.3 A boileris workingat 14 bar and (II) Equivalent EvaPoration 8.5 evaporates kg of waterperkg of coalfired from Step = the equivalent Coalconsumption 1200VdaY 59 Y6 at BFW entering 39"C.Determine per gencrated ton ofcoal fred Steam 0.96 if at fromand 100"C thesteamis dry evaporation -22U50 - 4.4t at thestopvalve.

Boller Colculoflont 83 Therefore, equivalent evaporation (545.4 to3) x = 4.4 539x 103 - 4.452ton of steam/tof coal Equivalentevaporation, M^(H - H)/L M"= = 8.321(2705- 425.036) r03 x /Q257 x t}l) - 8.405ton stearn/ton coal of

Ans, Step(III) Boiler Thermal Efficiency


Energyto steam = 8.32r (2705- 425.03Ox t03 U Energyfrom fuel = 5400x t03 kcavt ofcoal = 5400x 4.1868 103kJ/t of coal x

Ans.

Step(IID Boiler Efficiency Energy output=220 (545.4 103) x kcaVh Coal charged the boiler = 50 t/h to Actualcoalbumt - 50 (l - l/lm) - 49.5tJh Therefore, energy input- 49.5x I 03 (4200) kcaUh

WorkingFormula: Boiler ttrermal efficiency - energyto stearn/energy fuel from

(s4s.4x rd) _ - 220 'rboiler

49.5x lo3 x42oo

= 0.577 i.e. 57.7Vo

Ans.
Step(IV) Overall Efficiencyof the Boiler 220(545.4xt03) r1 L'rboilerl- 5ox lo3 x42cn
r -

Boiler thermalefficiency _8.32r (2705 425.036)xrO3 5400x4.1868x103 = 0.8391 =83.91% -84%

= 0.5713 = 57.137o

Ans.
Problem 6.5 A boilerconsurrc,s224tons coal of to produce 1864tonsofsteamperday. The steam is dry, saturated 90 afrrr abs. Calculatethe boiler at thermalefficiency, and the equivalentevaporation per ton of coal if the calorific value of coal is 5400 kcal/kg of coal, the specihcenthalpyof feedwater beinga25.036 U/kg of water. Solution Step(I) Rateof Evaporation produced 1864ton Massof steam -224ton Massof coal consumed Actualevaporation capacity= 1864/224 = 8.321 /t of coal t Step(II) EquivalentEvaporation Evaporation M^= 8.321tltof coal capacity, (90 Sp.enthalpyof dry, satd.steam atm.abs.), H =2705kJ/kg =2705 x t03kJtt Sp. enthalpyof BFW, Hw = 425.036W1k1 = 425.036 l0r U/t x

Ans.
Problem 6.6 A boilersenerates tonsof steam 7.5 per hour at 18 bar ( 1 b; - td ttlm2. The steam temperature 598Kandthefeedwatertemperature is is 328K. Whenfiredwith oil of calorificvalue47250kJkg, theboilerplantachicves efficiencyof 85%. an Thegenerated steam fedto drivea turbinewhich is develops 0.75 MW andexhausts 1.8bar,the dryat ness fractionof the steam being0.97. Determinethe rate of fuel consumption and the fractionof enthalpy drop,throughturbine,converted to usefulwork. If theturbineexhaust directedfor process is heating, estimatethe heat transferavailableper ton of exhaust steam above 322.4K. Solution Step (I) Energy to RaiseSteam Specificenthafy of generated steam - 0.84(3 - 3083) = 3106 105 = 3 086.6 kJAg (by interpolation) Specific enthalpy BFW at 328K of

&1 Boller Operotlon Englneedng -230.TlakJkE Specific energyto nrise steam -230.274 = 3086.68 =2 856.4kJ&g. Step (II) Rate of Fuel Oil Consumption -7.5 tlh - 7500kg/h generation Raleof steam to raisesteilrl - 2856.akJ&g sp. energy Energy input to steanr/h 7500 (2 856.4)kJ Step (V) Heat Transfer Available in Exhaust SteamAbove 322.4K kJftg steam 2635.37 Sp.enthalpyof exhaust of Sp.enthalpy water at322.4K = 207 kJ/kB Heat transfer availablein exhauststeamabove 322.4K -2635.37 -207 Ans. -242E.37kl/Kg

were Problem 6.7 The following observations madein thecaseof a boiler fitted with aneconomizen Rateof steamgeneration- 5 Vt of coal =85* from andat 100'C evaporation Equivalent = 0.85 = 5.5 Vt of coal temp.inlet to economizer Rateof firel consumption(Energyfrom oiVh) Boiler feedwater = 100"C - 7500 Q856.4Y(0.85)(47250) of Temperature BFW inlet to boiler - 180"C - 533.408 kg to Temlrrature of air supplied the boiler - 30'C Ans. the entering economizer of Temperature flue gases Drop in Turbine Step (III) Rate of Sp. Enthatpy - 4O0"C steam' of Sp.enthalPY exhaust per produced ton of dry coal Weightof flue gases H 2 =H n + x ' L =15t "C = 49O.7 0.97 Qzrl) + Meanspecificheatof flue glses- 0.20kcaVkg =2635.37kJ/kg Calorific valueof coal - 5400kcal/kg kJlkg Determine Hr Sp. enthalpyof inlet steam, - 3086.68 (a) the boilerefficiencY droPin turbine,. Sp.enthalPY (b) theeconomizer efficiencY A,H=Ht-Hz efficiencyof the wholeplant (c) lhe combined -2635.37 = 3086.68 Solution

Boilerefficien"y=:ry4 Energyfrom fuel./h

Step(I) Heat OutPut 100"C- 5.5Vtof coal Steamgeneratedfromandat burnt heatoutput= 5.5 x 10' (539)kcaVtof Therefore, coal burnt Step(II) Heat InPut -940.229kJ|s Calorific valueof coal * 5400kcaVkg Step (IV) Fraction of Enthalpy Convertedto Use' heatinput - 5400 x l0r kcaVtof coal Therefore, fulWork burnt Energyoutput ftom turbine Step(lII) Boiler EfficiencY -0.75 MW HeatOtttotrt 5.5x l0' (539) llboiler- 0.75x 103 kw Heatllput 54O0x103 - 0.75x 103U.zs (approx) = 0.5489i.e. 557o Rateof enthalpydrop in turbine'94O'229 kJls Ans. to dropconverted usefulwork of Fraction enthalpy Flue Gases Step0V) Heat of - 0.75xro3/90.229 the entering economizer Heatof theflue gases - 0.7976 0.8 = 451.31 kJAg of steam Steamfeed - 7.5 tlh - 7500/3600kds Rateof sp.enthalpy drop in turbine (7 - 451.31 500/3600)kJ/s
I . . . =

Boller Cslculollonr 85 = 15x 103(0.20)(400- 30)kcayt = 111x t04kcaVtofcoal Step (V) Heat Absorbed by BFW in the Economizer Heat absorbed BFW in the economizer by = 5 x ld (180- 100)kcaVtof coal =40x t04fcaUtofcoal Step(VI) EconomizerEfficiency i.e.36% I"-o = (e0x t04 )/(ttl x 104)-0.3603 Ans' step (vII) combined Efficiency Heatabsorbed theboiler- 5.5 x ld (539)kcaVt in ofcoal Heatabsorbed the@onomizer 40 x 104 in kcaVt ofcoal Total heatabsorbed boilerandeconomizercomin bined - 5.5x 103(539) 40 x loa + - 336.45x 104kcaVtof coal Energy released burning co3l - 5a00 x ld by kcaVtofcoal x 336'45 lOa -0.623 'rcornD i.e.62.30% n^^-. = 5aoox ld Boiler HorsePower is a very commonlyusedunit for measuringthe capacity of a boiler. ASME (American Society for Mechanical Engineers) powerastheboilercapacity defines unitboilerhorse a to evaporate 15.653 of BFW per hourfrom andat kg 373 K into dry, satunted steam or equivalentin heatingeffect Boiler h.p.- Equivalent from andat evaporation 373"Kperhour/l5.653 Problem 6.9 Aboilergenerates tof steamper 6.5 ton of coal fired. The steam at l8 kgflcm2gauge is The boiler feedwatertemperature 110"C downstream deaerator of -75% Boilerefficiency Factorof evaporation l.l5 Coof steam 0.55kcaVkg"C Determine (a) the tempcratxre the steam of (b) thedegree superheat, any of if (c) the equivalentevaporation per ton of coal burnt (d) thecalorific valueofcoal Solution StepP (I) SteamParameters
Pressure 19kgf/cm2.abs. Sensible heat,I/* - 213.1kcakg l,atentheat,L-455.1 kcaVkg Satrrration temp., - 20E.E'C @"

Ans. steam 90 at Problem6.6 A boilerproduces

kgttcn? abs.at the rate 150t/h from the feedwaterat The steam dry, saturated. is Whatis theboiler 120"C. horsepower? ofSuperheat Step(II) Degree Total heatof the steam- Hw + L + CoAO Solution where,AO - degree superheat of Steanr,90kgflcm2 Totalheat- 655.7 kcal/kg Sp.enthalpy feedwater Hrw of Dry,sanrrated abs. Therefore, factorof evaporation the heatof BFlv at 120'C- 120kcaVkg Sensible from andat 100'C Equivalent evaporation _H*+L+CoL/g.-Hr* 539 - 150x 103(655.7 t20)/539 (AO)- ll0 + + - 149.08 td fgn x = 213.1 455.1 0.55 or 1.15 539 Therefore, boilerhorsepower AO= 112.09"C = 149.08 xrc3/$.653 Ans. =9524.15 Steam Temperature Step(III) Superheated

Ans.

AO- lrz.Ogrc

86 Boller Operollon Englneerlng or, @-@"-112.09"C or -321"C O=208.8+ 112.09=320.89'C (c) thepercentage heatlossto the ash of (d) thepercentage heatlossunaccounted for of Step(I) SteamParameters
Sensible Heat,If* - ?frO.1 kcaVkg
l---Latent Heat, L - 466 kcakg

Ans. Solution
Step (IV) Heat Output Heat requiredto generate stearn = 6.5x ld (213.1 455.r+ 0.55AO - 110) + kcaVtof coal = 6.5x 103(558.2 0.55x 112.09) + kcaVtof coal = 4029.021x103kcavt of coal Step(V) Heat Input Calorific valueof coal - CV kcaVkg per Energyreleased ton of coal burnt - 103x CV kcal Step(VI) Boiler Efficiency -4029'o2lxlo' 11... HeatoutDut ''borrer=E;ffi ld x cv - 4029.021 ICY; or 0.75 CY - 5372kcaVkgofcoal

Step(II) Heat Output Rate generation 16 t/h Rateof stearn Heatoutputrate= t03 (H, +xL-Hp) 16x = 16x 103(200.7 0.g x 466-30) + =9441.6x 103 kcaUh Step(III) Heat Input Rate Coalconsumption 2.5 Uh Calorific valueofcoal = 6540kcaVkg Heatinput rate=2.5 x 103x 6540kcaVh Step(IY) Boiler Efficiency input rate Iboiler = Heatoutputrate,/Heat

Ans.
,r"q =

= 9441.6x103/Q.5x 103x 6540) =0.5774 i.e. 57.74V0

Evaporation Step(VII) Equivalent Step (V) Heat Load of Flue Gases generated 15Ut ofcoal Fluegases x + 6.5(2r3.r+ 455.1 0.55 112.09 110)
= 7.474t/t of coal bumt

Ans.

Heatloadof flue gases = 15x 103 0.25(350- 25) x Ans. = 1218.75 ld kcaVtof coal x were Step(VI) Heat Generated l Ton of Coal Prcblem 6.10 fbe following observations By madeduring the trial run of a boiler. kcal Heatproduced ltofcoal - 103x 65210 by generation = 16 Uh rate Steam of Step (VID Percentage Heat llss to Flue Gases = Feedwater temperature 30"C = Ir2t8.75 x r03 651CIx l03l (100) / qualitY= 0.9 dry Steam = 18.63% pressure 15kgflcm' abs. Steam Ans. = Coal consumption 2.5 t/h of Step (VIID Percentage Heat Lossto Ash Calorific valueofcoal = 6540kcaVkg Ash + unbunttcoalcollected- 0.2 Vh Ash + unburnt coal collectedfrom beneaththe Heatlossdueto ash+ unburntcoal grrtes= 0.2llh (Calorific value- 700 kcal/kg) =0.2x ld x 700kcaVh Weight of flue gtss= 15Vt of coal fred Fluegastemperature 350"C in Heatgencratcd the fumace Average specific heat of flue gases= 0.25 =2.5x ld x 654O kcaVh kcaVkg'C percentage heatlossto ash of Therefore, Ambient air temperature 25"C 0.2x 103x7ffi , __________ Calculate . _ rl00)=0.85% (a) the boilerefficiency 2.5x 10'x 6540 Ans. (b) the percentage heatlossto the flue gases of

Boller Cdculctlonr 87 of Step (IX) Percentage Unrccounted Heat Usefulbeat- 57.74% Heatlost to flue gases 18.63% - 0.85% Heatlost to ash heat= 57.74+18.63+0.85 Total rccounted --77.22%. % heat .'. Unaccounted - 100- 77.22- 22.77 Ans.

=7.5 rG x2879.55/tfr45x ld x x rt =firlkelh


Step (V) Specific Enthalpy Drop in Turbine ofelhaust steam Specificenthalpy - H* + x L - 490.7 0.95(2210.8) +

- 2590.96 U/kg A boiler genentes75 t of steam Ptoblem 6.ll .'. Specificenthalpydrop in turbine per hour at pressure 1.8 MN/h' and temperature -2590.96 325'C ftom feedwaterat 49.4"C.Whenfircd with oil = 3086.45 of caiorific value 45 MJftg, the boiler attains an = 495.45kl/lrg efficiency of 78%. The steam (325'C, is fed to a at hubine that develops650 kW and exhausts 0.18 Step (VI) Rate of Enthalpy Drop in Turblne Rateof steamfed to turbine fraction of steambeing0.95. I\,N/m2, the dryness Determine -7.5llh (a) the massof oil fired Perhour - 7.5x 1d/3600kgs (b) the fraction of the enthalpydrop through the Specificenthalpydrop in h[bine - 495.45kJlkg turbine which is convertedto useful work dropin turbine .'. Rateof enthalpy Also determinethe heat transferavailableper kg if above49.4"C, theturbineexhaust steam of exhaust (7.5 = 495.45 x 1dl3600) kJls heating. is usedfor process = 1032.187 U/s blution (YID Fraction of Enthalpy Drop Converted Step Step (I) SpecificEnthalpy of GeneratedSteam to Usefull{ork H =3rM - 0.84(3106 3083) Energyoutprt from trbine = 3086.45 kJ/ke by interpolation) Step (II) SpecificEnthalpy of BFW (49A"C) Hr*=2A6.9tJ/lrg Step (IID Heat OutPut steam Energyrequiredto generate -206.9 = 3086.45 =2879.55kJftg The rate of steamgeneration- 7.5 Uh x2 U/h .'. Heatouput =7.5 x 103 879.55 Step (IV) Rate of Oil Burning I.et the massof oil fired be fi vgn Heatinput - Ifr x 45 x 103U/h Boilerefficierc! =78% 0.78= Heatouput/Heat input - 650kw - 650kJ/s U/s Energyinputto turbine- 1032.187 .'. Fraction of enthalpy drop convertedto useful work - 65Cl/1032.187 -0.629

Ans.
Step(VIID Heat Transfer from ExhaustSteam The net heat available,for processheating,from exhauststeamabove 49.4"C- ?59O.96-?n6.9 2384.06kI/lr9

Ans.

plant supplies Pr<iblem 6.12 A steamgeneration 0.75 MN/m". 8500 kg of steamper hour at pressure is The steam 0.95dry. temlrnture = 41.5"C Feedwater Coal consumption 900 kg/h

88 Bolbt Operollon Englneedng = Equivalentevaporation 9.44Q488.125>/2?56.9 Calorific value of coal -32450kJilrg Determine = 10.40ke/ke of coal (a) theboilerefficiency (b) theequivalentevaporation from andat 100"C Step (YI) Energy Required to Generate Sm (c) thesavingin fuel consurnption, by installing Under New Conditions if an economizerit is estimatedthat the feedof Specificenthalpy BFW at 100'C- 419.1U/kg water ternperatue could be raisedto 100"C, Energy required to generate steam when assuming that other coditions rcmainedun- econqnizer is incorporated changedand the efficiercy of the boiler in-2662.U25- 419.1 creases 6%. by -2242.9?5Wfrg blwion Energyto steury'h Step (I) SteamGeneration Fer Ton of Coal =2242.925 8 500kJ x generation- 8500kgh Rateof steam - 900 kg/h Coal consumption Step (VII) Rate of Coal Consumption when per Therefore,steamgeneration kg of coal Economizer is Fitted - 8500/900 Erergy output -2242.98 x 8500kJ/h - 9.44kg .'. Stamgeneration/ton coal of - 9440kg -9.44t Step (II) Specific Enthalpy of Steam Raisd H -- H* + x L -7@.3 + 0.95(2055.5) =2662.025kl/kg Step(III) Energr Required to GenerateSteam Specificenthalpyof steamraised -262.0?5kr/ltg Specificenfhalpy BFW - l139kJ/lKE of Hearouput = 26tr2025- 173.9 =2488.125kJAg of steam (IV) Boiler Efficiency Step HeatoutDut/ksof coal 2488.125 _ ,^ Energyinput- Ifr x32a50Hth Boilerefficiercy-72.38 + 6 -78.38% x 2242.Y25 8500

0.7838

Nl x32450

kglh rt =749.57
Step(VIII) Savingin Fuel Consumption Initial fuel consumptionrate - 900 kg/h ratewheneconomizer Modified fuel consumption is fiued -749.57 kglh = Savingin frcl consumption 900- 749.57 = 150.43 coal,zh kg

Ans.
PtoHem 6.13 The following obsenationswere madeduring tbe trial run of a boilen Rateof steamgeneration= 5 Uh Steamquality: dry, saturated = pressure l0 kgf/cm2gauge Steam

tl*r",=ffi#ff=ffi(g.u't
=0.7238 72.38% i.e.

Ans.
Step(V) Equivalent Evaporatbn per Steam raised kg of coal - 9.4k9 Energyrequiredto gerrcmte steam this -9.44 (2488.125) U&g coal frorn andat Specificenthalpyof evaporation - 2?56.9kJft:g. 100"C

"C Averagespecificbeatof steam 0.55kcaUkg. Redwater ternperature 85'C Roomternperature 25"C Atnospheric pressure 1 kgflcm2 Fuel consumption- 650 kg coaVh Calorificvalueofcoal - 7500kcaVkgofcoal

Boiler Cqlculqlions 89

Moisture content coal-2.5% of Fuelcontains: C - 86%:H - 5%: Ash - 9% Flue gastemperature- 300"C Mean sp. heatof flue gines- 0.25kcaVkg"C Analysisof dry flue gases: C O z -l 0 % ; O 2 - 8 % ; N 2 - 8 2 % Producea completeheatbalancesheettaking I kg dry coal asthe basis. Solution Step (I) Energr to SteamPer kg of Dry Coal = Steampressure l0 kgf/cn? garye = l1 kgflcm2 abs. heatof steamat 1l kgflcm2abs. Sensible - 185.7kcaUkg

Step(III) Coal Analysis Basis: lkg dry coal


Constitu{hemicalReaction nt during combustion Remorks

C+Or-+CO, (r2) (44)

Wt. of dry flue gas produced

- (2992n04)(86trm) - 24.741 kglkgof coal


Wt. of water vapour produced - (18/2)(5/loo) -0.a5kglkg of dry coal

ur+)or-+ Hro
(2) (18)

WL of moisturefired =0.025/0.975 = 0.02564 kg/kg of dry coal Latentbeatofevaporationat 1I kgflcm2abs. Total wt. of watervapourin flue gases - 478.4kcaVkg - 0.45+ 0.02564 = 0.4756kg/kg of dry coal. generaEd Specificenthalpyof dry, saturated steam Step(IV) Heat L,oad Water Vapour - 185.7+ 478.4 of - 664.1kcal/kg = 0.4756[638.8 0.55(300 90) - 251 + =344.5kcaVkg dry coal = of Specificenthalpyof feedwater 85 kcal./kg = where638.8kcaVkg totalheatof watervapour Coalconsumption - 650kdh at I kgflcm2abs.to which flue gases discharged arc = Dry, coalconsumption 650 (100-2.r/lm Step(V) Heat Load of Dry Flue Gases = 650x 0.975kg/h Heatlossto flue gases Energy to steam/kgcoal =24.741(0.25) (300- 25) - (664.r _ 85) (5000)/(650 0.975) x - 4568.836 = 17N.944 kcaVkgof dry coal kcal Step (II) Flue Gas Analysis Step(VI) HeatBalance Basis: I kg of dry coal Basis: 100m3 of dry flue gas
Heat Input Constituent % Heat Expenditure 7o

Volume Mol.v,t. Proportional -3 Mass

Remarks

coz

10

44

44(lO)= 440 Carbon


content = 410(12/44) = l2O

Total hcat supplied - 7500kcal

t00

o2

8 82 100

32 28 t04

-2s6 32(8\ -229< 28(82)


2992
7 500 kcal

Ijcat consumedin stearn @.92 fonnation - 4568.836kcal Ileat lost to flue gas 22.70 - 1700.944kcal Heat lost to vapour 4.ffi - 344kcal Heat unaccounted for I1.80 - 886.220kcal

100 7 500 kcal

100.00

90 Bolter OPerollon Englneedng Prcbtem 6.t4 During the tial run of aboilerthe following datawere recorded
CoalconsumPtion Steamproduced Boiler: SteamPressure SteamtemPeraturc Superheater: tempcrature steam Superheated Economizer: Water inlet temPerature Watelroutlct tcmPerature Air heater: Air inlet temPerature Air outlet temPerature FIuegasinlet temPerature Flue gasoutlet temPerature t 83.1 606 t 1.461MN/m2 -14.42^tn 470 K 6 1 0K 353K 400 K 320K 380 K 503 K 405 K

(ii) suPerbeater (iii) air heater (iv) economizer (e) heatlost in the flue gas Summarizethe overall result on the basisof I kg coal burnt. Sohttion Step (I) Theoretical Air Requirements Basis: 100kgcoal
Molecular Constituenl % W Weight Weight Element klmol

kmol of Ot requircd for complete combustion

c
H

62.5 4.25

t2 2

5.208 2.r25

o
N S Ash Moisture

(bY Coalanalysis weight)

(drYbasis) Fluc gasanalYsis

62.5% 4.25% H 5.tt% o t2% N o.85% s 9.85% Ash 16.24% Moisture


Total

coz o2
N2

13.2%(by volume) 4.85%( -do- ) 81.95%( do- )

5 . 1 I 32 28 t.2 0.85 32 9.85 16.24 IE

5.208 2.12512 - 1.0625 0 . 1 5 9 (-) 0.lse

o.o42 o.o27

o.027 E - 6.1385

There,theoreticalair requirement (100/21) = 6.1385 coal 49.23 kmoV100kg =29.23 (28.9) k9100 kg coal =844.744kglm kg coal =8.447 kgftg of coal AnS. weight of air is 28'9) molecular (c/ The average Step (II) Actual Air SirPPlied 100kg coal contains5.208kmol of C 100kmol of dry flue gascontains13.2kmol of C Therefore,the amountof flue gasproduced - 5.208(100/13.2) =39.45kmoV100 coal kg Let r mol of air be suppliedper 100 kg of coal burnL we by therefore nitogen balance get'

rco%

Grosscalorific value- 30550kJftg (dry coal) = temPerature 298 K Boiler house at steam 1.451MN/m2 Enthalpyof dry, saturated =2791L<IkE.
Substances Dry flue gas Watervapor in flue gas Water p S ecif c H e ats(kJltg'K) 1.005 2.095 4.t81

Determine per (a) theoreticalair requirements kg of coal (b) actualair suppliedperkg of coal fred (c) weightof flue gasperkg of coal bumed of (d) thermalefficiencies (i) boiler

x 79 4ffi+ 0.042H

(39.45)

Boller Colculollonc 9l

.'. .r - 4O.87 kmoU100 coal kg Therefure, weightof air supplied the - 40.87 (28.9) - l l8l.l4kg/l00kgcoal - 11.81 kgfu coal Nore % excess xi1= (ll.8l -8.47)(tU.,/8.# =39.81% Step(III) Weight of Flue Gas Basis: 100kmol
Fluc Gas koiol Conslitaen t Mohca- Wcight ls Weight

-2E9.25lU.kg generation/t coal Rateof steam of =66/83.1r/t -7 .292Vt of coal (or kJlkg coal) Therefore,the heattransferred steany'kg coal to of burned =7.2V) (2259.251) = 16474.458 kJ./kgcoal Grosscalorific valueof coal asfired = 30550(100- 16.24)/100

Wcightin39.45 kaolof Fluc Gas

= 25588.68 kI/kg coal Therefore, thermalefficiencyof the boiler = 16474.458/25588.68 = 0.6438 i.e. 64.38%

coz
o2
N2

r3.2 4
4.85 32 81.95 28

13.2(44) 13.2(,14X39.45/100) -229.t25 4.85(32) 4.8s(32)(3e.4sll m) - 61.226 8 1.95(2E) l.9s(28x39.4sl 8 IOO) = 905.219 E= il95.57k9

Ans,
2. Superheater Net heattansferredto steam the superheater in _ 470) =7.2T2(2.095) (610 =2138.74kJ/kgcoal Therefore, thermalefficiencyof lhe superheater = 2138.7 4/25588.68 = 0.0835 i.e. 8.35%

Waterproduced due to combustion hydrogen of content ofcoal -2.18 kmol- 2.125 (18)- 3E.25 kg Freemoisture l6.24kg Therefore,the total weight of wet flue gas - 1195.57 38.25 16.24 + + - I 250.06kglm kg coal - 12.50kgltg coal Ans' Step(IV) Thermal Efliciencies l. Boiler Total heatcontentof steam 1.461MN/m2 at -279lkItkg Total heatcontentof waterchargedto boiler =4.187(4N-273) = 531.749 U/kg Therefore, netheattansfened to steam the =2791- 531.749

Ans.
3. Air Heater Weightof air charged the boiler to - 11.81 kJ/kgcoal Heatabsorbed air in the air heater by = 11.81 (1.005X380 320) =712.143kJ/kgcoal Therefore, efficiencyof the air heater the =712.143/25588.68 = 0.0278 i.e. 2.78%

Ans.
4. Economizer Heattransfcncd BFW to =7.292(4.187X400353) : 1434.985 kJ/kgcoal

92 Boller Operotlon Englneedng Therefore,thermal efficiency of the economizpr - r434.985t25 588.68 :0.0560 i.e. 5.6Vo Step (V) Heat Lost to the Flue Gas Weight of the dry flue gas = 11.95 kJ/kgcoal Enthalpyof the dry flue gas (405- 298) = 11.95 (1.005) = 1285U/kg coal in when100kg coalburnt Watercontent flue gases -38.25 + 16.24 = 54.49k9
Boiler Air Heater Superheater Economizer Heatto flue gas Heat unaccounted

- (2950.29 88.68)(00) 1 t?55 = 1L.52% (Basis: I kg coalbumed) Tabulation Result of


Heatrecovered %GCV % Elficiency (kJ) t^,ctcoal

Ans.

r5762 712 2t39 r435 29fl 259r

61.591 2J8 |

8.36 r

78.34

s.6lJ
21.66 >- 100.00

I l.53\

1o.t3i

6000kg steam ProUem 5.15 A boiler generates The steam perhourat 10kgf/cnt2from BFW at 4O"C. Therefore, weight of watervapour/kgof coal the The boiler is fired with coal at the rateof is 0.97dry. burnt 700ke/husing16kg ofair (at 15'C) perkg ofcoal - 0.5,149 kg fired. Therefore, enthalpyof waterin the flue gases the Assumingtlre boiler efficiencyto be 70%, determine =0.5M9 t2.095 (405- 311*)+24t1.2* (a) excess coefficient air + 4.187(405- 298) (b) flue gasternperaure leavingthe boiler = 1665.29kJ/kgcoal Given * fDewPoittt ofWet Flue Gasl The coal is composedof carbon and hydrogen its besides ashcontcnt12%.
Flue Gas Conslituent kmol % Composition

Combustion C+Or-rCO, Hr+ Or-+ H, O

Heat Of Combustion 8075kcaVkgofcarbon 34500kcaVkgof hydrogen

coz o2
N2

Hzo

(13.2/100x39.4s) s.2 12.24 (4.82/lm)(3e.4s) l.e 4.47 (81.95/00)(3e - 32.33 7 6 . 1 3 .4s) 1 -3.02 1.tl 54.49t18 =242.46 > - 99.95

'C Specificheatof flue gas- 0.25kcaVkg 18% of total heat generated coal is lost to by substances otherthancoal. Solution Steam Step(I) Heat Contentof Generated H=Hw+xL-Hrn = 181+ 0.97(482)- { = 608.54 kcal/kg Step(II) Calorific Value of Coal from the boiler efficiencv It can be determined relationship. input Iboil", = HeatoutpuvHeat Now HeatOutput= 6000(608.54)kcaVh

pressure water Therefore, vapour of vapour the - (7.ru99.9s) (101.3) =7.z}kN/m2 whichcorrespondsthedewpoint311'Kand to
241 latentbeatof evaporation 1.2kJkg Therefore, total heatlost to flue gas the - 1285+ 1665.29 =2950.29kJ/kgcoa. Hence, percentage heatlost to the flue gas the of

Boller Colculqllonr 93 Heatinput- 700 x CV whereCV - calorif,rc value ofcoal or 0.70- 6000 (608.54)/(700 CV) x CV - 7 4l?kcallkg Step(IID Carbon and HydrogenContentsof'Coal Basis: I kg coal Therefore, coalcontains(l - 0.12),i.e. the 0.88kg ofC + H per kg ofcoal fired. If .r be thepart of CYkg coal,then of (8075) (0.88- -rX3a500) =7452 .t + .r = 0.8669
Heat Generated (kcaVh) by coal: 70{l,Q452) - 521640,0 Heat Rcceivcd by (kcaVh)

Fluegas: 16.88(700X0.25XA@) - 29s4(A@) Steam: 6000(608.54) 3651240 Sirbstances otherthanflue gas: 7 OO(7 4s2)(O.r8) 9389s2

By heatbalancing 2954(A@)+ 365Qa0 + 938952- 52164A0 *212C .'. AO=211.98"C Hencetheternperature the flue gasatthe biler of outlet -212 + L5-227'C

lc-"'b*l*lHyd'os;l
I kg Coal 0.8669 kg 0.0131 kg Step (IV) Theoretical Air Requirement for Complete Combustion Basis: I kg coal

Ans.

PtoUem 6.16 A boiler is fired with coal having following percentage composition mass: by C45Vo; H-54o; S-lVo; O-2.59o: IncomElzme Combustion Weight OrRequirement bustible-6.5%. nt Reaction Determinethe boiler efficiency from the given C + O, -+ CO, 0.8669kg o.E669QAn) data: (r2) (32) -2.3rr7 kg = Excess supplied 407o air Fluegastemperature boiler exit = 170"C at 2H, + O, + 2HrO 0.0131 kg o.or31(32t4) Ambient air temperature 25"C (4) - 0.1048 (32') kg Specificheatof flue gas- 0.25kcaVkg'C = Specificheatof steam 0.48kcaVkg"C E - 2.4165 kg Since air contains 23% Oz by mass, the (theoretical) requirenrnt for comstoichiometric air pletecombustion -2.4165 (100/23) = t0.506kg Step (V) ExcessAir Coefficient Excess coefficient= Actual air,/minimumair air = 16/10.506 = I.523 AIlr. Step(VI) Enthalpyof Flue Gas Massof coal + massof air = Massof flue gas (1 - 0.12)kg + 16kg = Massof flue gas or Massof flue gas- 16.88 kg.
Combustion C + Or--+ S + Or---r CO, SO, Heat of Combustion 8075kcaVkg 222Okcdlkg 34500kcaVkg

H, + Or----+ HrO

Unaccounted loss- lSVo heat Solution Step (I) Calorific Value of Coal Cv - 8075(c)+ 2220(5) 3a500(H- O/8) + where, C, S, H & O standfor carbon,sulphur, hydrogen oxygenpercentage. and - 8075(0.85) 2220(0.0r) + + 3a500(0.05 0.025/8) - 8503 kcaUkg

94 Boiler Operolion Englneerlng Oxygen Step(II) Stoichiometric Basis: I kg fuel


Element Combustion Reoction Oxygen Rcquircd Per Kg of Fuel

= 2 (18\14 -9kg : of Mass of waterproduced/kg coal (H-content 0.5%)burned = 9 (0.05) kg = 0.45kg ofcoal burnt Massofdry flue gasproduced/kg = 17.075 0.45 = 16.625k9 Step(VI) Heat Balance

C + Or --r

ks s) 12)(0.8 - 2.2666 COt (32t

(r2) (32)
kg S + O, ----+ SOt (3u32)(o.ot) 0.01 (32) (32)
ZHr+ Or-+ZHrO

(324)(0.05) 0.4kg 2-2.6766k9

Basis: I kg coal of 0.025kg oxygen/kg fuel' the Since fuelcontains Heal Lost To of of theactualmass 02 requirementperkg coalburnt Heat Evolved (dry) -2.6766- 0.025 Fluegas 8 503kcal - r6.62s (l7O-2s) (0.25) =2.6516k9 602.65 kcal

Step(III) Air Supplied Theoreticalmassof air requtement =2.5516 (1m/23) - 11.5289 kg air 40%excess suPPlied. Hencethe actualair suPPlied = 1.4(11.5289) = L6.l4kg/kg of coal Step (IV) Massof Flue Gas Massof combustibles kg of coal Per - 1 - 0.065 = 0.935kg Air = FlueGas kg kg 16.14 = FlueGas 0.935 of of the Hence totalmass flue gas(inclusive waler per produced kg of coalburnt vapour) = 0.935 16.14 + - t7.075kg Fuel + Step (V) Massof Dry Flue Gas 2H2 + O, ------+2HrO (2 x l8) (4\ of Massof waterproduced/kg H2 burned

Stcam (l atm prs$.)generatedfrom fuel burning = 0.45 [/J + Cp (A@) -@.ir] = 0.45 [639 + 0.48 (170 - 100) - 25] =297.42kcal Unaccountcd sourceg - (18/100)(E 503) - I 530.54 kcal Total - 2 424.61kca|

Heatutilized= 8503 -2424.61 = 6078.39 kcalAg coal (VID Boiler Efficiency Step Heatutilized = TlboiLr H*t ga"*aLd = 6078.39 8503 = 0.7I 48 i.e. 7 1.487o

Ans.

fuoblem 6.17 A water tube boiler operates efficiency. The unit rated at 8400 h/year al 80o/o at7.82atm. 272L5kgh operates gas It burnsnatural for six monthsof the yearand No.2 fuel oil for the rest. Averageaurual boiler loadingis 6O%with an kcaVh. inputof 11347303

Boiler Colculotionr lYlthout Economlzer ^ \ Naturalg:rsconsumption = 1274,25 Nmr/h latwo = Fueloil (No.2)consumption t.+S9m3n,J bd Afier Addlng An Economl,zer BFW flowate (includingblowdown)at60%lofi - 17145 kg/h
F l u og o ! o x h o u r t

Feedwater inlet tenperatureat the economizer = 105"C Feedwater temperature the economizeroutlet at - 136'C Fluegas inlet = 260'C tmperature ateconomizer Fluegas temperatur economizer at outlet- 149"C Determine (a) the fuel savingusing the economizer (b) totat annualfuel cost without insrallingthe economizer (c) total annualsavingof fuel alter installingthe economizer (d) thepayback months, theeconomizer is if cost Rs. 500,000installed Given: Nanral gascost = Rs. 1.06per Nm3 of gas Flg. 6.1 Figureto the Problem6.17 Fueloil (No.2)cost- Rs I 255 perm3 of F.O. x s - 664368.78 100:5.85% Solwion The additionof an economizqr awaterto rr347303 tubeboiler system reduces cosl fuel Ans' The fuel savingusing the economizeris (b) Total operating perid = 8400hlyear - Ilx 100 Naturalgasburnedfor 4200h andF.O.bumedfor "=___ rest4200h overtheyear. Annualcostof naturalgas whereS- fuel savingin perceht /^- r\

H= heatrecovere4 =ry kcavh

=,zzo.zs[*l'+200 r.06 lx rj-), r-R'-)


\n/ 1v.n/
= Rs.5672961. Annualcostof fuel oil / r\

F - BFW flowrate, kg/h AO = 6z - 8l = temperaturcdifference of BFW beforeand after the economizer Or - BFW temperatueat economizer inlet, 'C Oz = BFW temperaturcat the economizeroutlet,

1N*,.,;

=r.45e l,<4200 tzss f+ r-!-)x [4)


\o/ \Year;
- Rs.7690389 Total annualcost of fuel prior to installation of economizer = Rs.5672961 Rs.7690389 +

'c

l-'J

B = boiler efTiciency (a) H= (17t45X136105)/0.8 = 664368.78kca1/h

96 BollEr OPerollon Englneedng - Rs.13,363,350/-

Ans.

year - 270 Number of operatingdays per Costof wasteheatboiler installed = Rs 3,000000/expenses atrd Maintenance overhead - 12%of the cAstof WHB the principal Rate of interest payable 20% on arnount
Load DG Set
@%

a (c) After the installation of the economizer, 5.85%savingin fuel results' Annualsavingin naturalgas x = Rs.5572961 5'85/100 = Rs.331868/Annualsavingin fuel oil cost x = Rs.76903g9 5.95.2100 - Rs. 449888/instalation .'. Total annualsavingof fuel costafter of the economizer = + = Rs.331868 Rs' ut49888 Rs' 781756/is (d) The PaYback o r -- E x 1 2 A whereP-paybackmonths E - installedeconomizercost' Rs Rs with economizer' A - annualfuel savings

StcanGenerationRate 4OVdaY 80 Uday

too%

Ans.

steamat 4'5 1 ton ofcoal generates t of saturated 10kg/cm2g Costof coal - Rs 750 Perton blution y-HB,. ia) Bco"o*ics of lncorporating '-'rn" puphasedfrom the grid "ott of ebcricity -Rs l.l?KWH electricity after the installaThe cost of generated '0.95/KWH tion of WHB -generated frfonetarysavingsper unit electricity = Rs (1.12- 0.95)/KWH= Rs 0'17/KWH

. 'p-!''9SS ,.rz Rs.781756 = 9.21month, on .

electricitygeneratior/day Average

is hookedup Problem 6-t8 A wasteheatboiler -270 set to produce steam from with a diesel generator Numberof working daysper lear power with respectto savings monetary wasteheat. Therefore, steamofl0kg/c# saturated setload' ATQVoDG' frorn the grid purchased rate of 40 g is producedin the wasteheatboiler at the tor/daY. --per day varies nn.tug" ebcric energygenerated from65 to 70MWH. per 250/- year Rs , zzo(,days')= 3,098 Esttnate ''1 heat [vear thewaste tui-,n" oonomics of incorporating (b) PaybackPeriod Of WHB boiler Costof wasteheatboiler periodof the wasteheatboiler (b) th; payback = Rs 3,000'000/Given electrical energy from the "o.t of purchased ih" ard Maintenarpe overheads prid '- - - Rs l.IZKWH = l2Voof caPitalcostof WHB electricityafter the installation cor, of generated = Rs 360'000/of WHB - Rs0.95/KWH 'charand (t* includesoverheads depreciation Interestol PrinciPalarnount ges)

=g#*MwH =67.5MwH

- o/tl

[nffr)'

x'.* 67.5

[#, )

Boller Colculollons = 20%of Rs.3,000,000/= Rs 600,000./Total steam generated 100%load- 80 Vday on 4.5tofcoal generat ton of steam I Amountof coal saved 8C/4.5 17.777 tlday Monetary savings, the basisof coal,per year on (ton/ - Rs359984?(a) Rateof Fuel Consumption Average elcclricenergygenerated day per :67500 KWH Averagefuel consumption day per -6750014.025 - 16770 lL Massrateof fuel consumption (. r<e) I ---^ / rt ) I

- 750 n.t77(tro')"zzo f-n,-)x [-@-)


(oayJ [vear.1

WHB is an energy savingequipment. it So qualifies 100%depreciation the lst year. for in Approximate savings corporate in taxes(@ 55%) perye:u - Rs 3000000x 0.55 - Rs 16500004 Net Savings year per - Rs (3599842 360000 600000+ 1650000) - Rs 4289842Ps Payback = 3000000 period

- 628.875 ke/h

=16770 o.e [dj,. [sf,j' ;i $6

Ans.
(b) Flowrate of Flue Gas at 60% l-oad

-7.55 x 3600 27180 kgh (c) UsefulHeatof Flue Gas Total heatrejected hot flue gasin the WHB by

=27180 ("c) f+l'0.26 f'9)x ezl -r70) (n


J [K8-u' = 1060020 kcaVh
Heatlostto radiation - 106(n20 5/100kcaVh x = 53001kcaVlt

ffiffi

x 12months

= 8.39months

Ans,

Usefulheatavailable steam generation for Ptoilem d.l9 lreterminethe (a) rateof fuel consumption kg/h = 1060020-53001 in (b) efficiencyof WHB of problem6.18 = 1007019 kcaVh Given - Heatinput rate I lt. of fuel generates 4.025 KWH of electrical energy (d) Heat Output Specificgravityof liquid fuel - 0.90 Averagesteanr(10 kg/cm2g and saturated) Exhaust flowrateandtemperature 68%load generation gas at rate are7.55kg/sand325'C respectively. - 40ttday Fluegastemperature WHB inlet - 320'C at = 40x l0ffil24kg/b Fluegastempentureat WHB outlet= 170'C Averagefeedwatertemperature the boiler = 1666.66 to kg/h - 75'C Averagefeedwater = temperature 75'C Heatrequired generate to 1666.66 steam kg Specificheatof flue gas- 0.26kcaVkg'C (10kg/cmz andsaturated) g Assume radiationlosssuffered theflue gas 59o by in theWHB. - 1666.66 (183- 75) + 1666.66 478.4kcal x x =977329kcal Solution The determinationof efficiency of the wasteheatboileris to be madeon the basisof heat Heatoutputrate= 917329 kcat/h balance. Heatinputrate= 1007019 kcaVh

98 Boller OPerotlon

Englneerlng

.'. Efficiency of waste heat boiler

-mxLoo%
-97'05% Ans. BOILER HEAT BALANCE CALCULATIONS Basis: lkg fuel HeatInput (A) Ilr - Gross calorific valueof fuel' kcal (B) Hz= Heatinput of fuel = c' (@r- @r)'kcal "C - specificheatof fuel, kcaVkg c 'C of Ot - temperature fuel, "C temperature, @r- rference (c) tt = Heatinput of air = M"cr(@" - @r), kcal - massof input dry airlkg fuel, kg airlkg fuel M" ca- sPciltcheatof humid air -0.24+ 0.46H,kcaVkgdry air "C I/ - humidig of air, kg moisture&g dry air 'C @a air temperature, Totalheatinput,I{ = Hr* Hr+ H3,kcal HeatOutput (A) Heat consumed generatingsteam in Ho= Mw (he,, h6r),kcal l. Economizer per Mw - fllass of feedwater unit massof fuel,

present in of ni - number molesof i-th component of due theflue gasproduced to combustion 1 kg fuel. at - the meanspecificheatof i-th component En, ofc "C @1,= flue gastcmPerature' (C) Heat lossdue to evaPoration l. Moisture is formed due to combustionof this hydrogenin the fuel. Loss of heatto evaporate moisture H8=M^L' kcal Mm = tnilss of moisture formed by burning of per hydrogen kg of t'uel,kg H2Olkgfuel at = latcnt of hcatof evaporalion themoisture the L kcaVkg dew point of the flue gases, 2. Heat loss due to evaporationof moisture present thc luel in Hs= M*f L,kcal present the fuel' kg/kg in Mnrf= massof moisture fuel (D) Heat Lossdueto incompletecombustionof carbon as carbon monoxide.

= kcal a,o I c o l .x c x 5636.7 fEofrE.]

CO - Vo(by volume)of carbonmonoxidein the flue gas dioxidein theflue COt- qo(by volume)of carbon gas kg/kg tuel C = c:ubonbumt per kg fuel burnt,kglkg fuel iew - eothalpy of water at economizeroutlet' (E) Heat lossdue to unburnt carbon kcaVkg kcal Htr= M"(7 837'5)' kcaVkg of ftfw= enthalpY feedwater, kg/kg carbonin refuse, M" = 62ss of unconsunred 2. Evaporator(Boiler) Hs= M"(/t, - i"*),kcal fuel per M. - massof steamgeneration unit massof (F) Heatlossdueto blowdorvn fuel fuel, kg steam/kg kcal H tz= Mt t (hu* - /t1.."), = enthalpy steam generated, kcaVkg of h, Mbl = massof blowdownwater,kg/kg fuel Hu= M"(Hu- hr)' kcal 3. SuPerheater = kcaVkg ftuw enthalpyof boilerwater, kcal/kg steam, of /rr. = enthalpy superheated (G) Unaccounted loss heat (B) Heat lost in flue gases (Hc+ H5+ Hu+ H, + Hg Hrt= Hi+ H n + H r c + H 1 . +H p ) Ht =2 n; ?0,(@s, 25)' kcal

Boller Colculotlons 99 Therefore, oxygenutilizedfor hydrogen Prodem 6.fr A stoker-fired waterhrbeboiler the burnburnscoal-atthe rate of 4 Uh to generate steamof 30 ing of fuel kglcfl:Pabs and 430"C at the rate of 30 Vhour. =21.438-(12.85+6.5) Evaluatethe boiler performancefrom the following - 2.088kmol data 2Hz + 02 -----s 2H2O (a) Component Proximateanalysisof coal 2 kmols I kmol 2 kmols Ash 12.7%(by weight) = Hydrogen bumt= 2 (2.088) 4.176kmol Moisture 7.9%(by weight) Waterproduced 4.176kmol (b) Grosscalorific valueof coal - 6 250kcaUkg (c) Component Flue Gas Arnlysis

coz

t2.85%

(d) (e) (f)

(g)

02 6.580 N2 rest Carbonpresentin the cinder asunburntcom-2.75% bustible The feedwatertempenture - 90"C Flue gastemperaturc economizer at outlet - 150\C Fluegaspressure economizer at outlet - 755mmHg Air tempqratures burner inlet 30"CDB and at 22"CWB. Ignorethepresence sulphurand of oxygenin coal.

3. Unburnt Carbon for 100kmol of Dry Flue Gas retained thecinder in Carbon

-ffix

)1\

4x 1000kg/h

- ll0k9h (FC+ VM) in coal = 100- (asb%+ moistureTo) coal in = 100- (12.7 +7.9)=79.4Vo unbumtcarbon ". (FC + VM - unburntcarbon) ===-? =0.0358 't9.4 -2.75 Carbonin the flue gas - carbonin the CO2in the flue gas - 12.85 kmol = 12.85 12 x = 154.2 kg Hydrogen the flue gas in - 4.176kmol = 4.176x2 = 8.352 kg Total burntcombustible - 154.2 8.352 + - r62.552kg Carbonunburntfor 100kmol ofdry flue gas = 0.0358 162552 x = 5.8193 kg = 0.4849 kmol
)7\

blwion The boiler performance,i.e. the overall thermalefficiency of the boiler is to be evaluatedon thebasisof heatbalance. Basis: 100kmol of dry flue gas. 1. OxygenSuppliedwith Combustion Air N, in the flue gases - 100- (12.85 6.5) + - 80.65kmol l0Okmol aircontains 79kmol N2 and21 kmol 02 .'. 02 supplied combustion for -(21179)x 80.65- 21.438 kmol 2. Water Vapour ProducedDuring Combustion C + 02 -----+ CO2 I kmol I kmol I kmol I kmol of CO2requiresI kmol of O, forcombustion. 12.85kmol of CO2require12.85kmol of 02 for combustion.

100 Boller Operotlon Englneedng 4. ExcessAir C + O2+CO2 l kmol l kmol l kmol I kmol of C requiresI kmol . 3r for combustion .'. 0.4899kmol of C requires 0.4899kmol of 02 for combustion .'. Oxygenrequiredto bum that unbumtcarbon0.4899kmol .'. Excess supplied 02 = 6.5- 0.4899 6.0151 = kmol Total stoichiometric required 02 = 12.85 2.088 0.4899 + + - (4.176 0.8985 2.203)kmol + + =7.277Sklrrol 6. Compositionof Flue Gas
Component kmol mol%

coz o2
N2 Hzo
10

12.85 6.5 *x21.$8-80.&'7 zl


7.275

rr.97 6.05 75.179


6.781

lm.272

D.980

7. Heat Input Rate Rateof fuel buming- 4 ton coaVh = 15.4229lnnol Grosscloritic valueof fuel - 6250kcaVkg Therefore, air excess supplied Heatinput rate= 4 x 1000x 6250 = 25000000kcaVh _ 6.0151Y rfl) " '"" 15.4229 Ignoringtheheatinputof air (at 30'C), thenetheat =39Vo. input rate - 25000000kcavh 8. Heat Output Rate 5. Moisture Content of the Flue Gas [A] Heat absorbedin generating superheat,ed 100 kg coal contains7.9 kg free moisture and - (12.7+ 7.9)l i.e.T9.4kgcombustibles steam ll00 Hn+ Hr+ Hu Freemoistureappearing with the combustion of - 30,000 (787.8 90.04)kcaUh 162.552 combustibles kg x = 20932800kcaI/h ? o t9.4 where 787.8 kcal/kg - enthalpy of steam at 30 kgf/cm2absand at 4t0"C = h* - 16.173kg= t6.tl3t18 kmol - 0.8985 kmol 90.04kcaVkg= enthalPY waterat 90'C of psychrometric From chart,humidityof air at 30'C left lBl Combustibles in thecinder(asC) DB and22'C WB - I l0 kgih - 13.4grr/kg dry air Calorihcvalueof carbon(GCV - NCV) 1 ? 4 I = kmol HrO$ kmol dry air = 94.05kcaVmol lg . 1000 0.02158 kmol water = -ktnol dry uit Therefore, totalmoisture the entering combusthe tion zone = 0.02158 kmol of air containing x 21.438kmol o2

=#

q4 ()5

tz Heatlost in the combustibles Hrr=Wx 1 0 0 0 xl l 0 k c a V h =862125kcal,/h from coal lCl Total freemoistureevaporated

x 1000kcal/kg

= (0.02158) x 2r.+38-] r [+
lLt I - 2.203kmol Therefore, total moisturein the flue gases

=l#x4ooo"%E
= 305.055 kg/h

Boiler Colculoliom

l0l

Now, partial pressureof water vapour in the flue gas = 755 x rnol frrction of water vap. in the flue gas - 755 (7.I7 5l W7.2:12)mmltg -51.20mmH9 Dew point of flue gases- 38"C Latentheatof waterat 38"C- 575.83kcavkg Heat lost due to evaporationof free mois[re - 305.055 575.83- 175660 kcaYh x [D] Heat loss due to evaporation of moisture fonned due to cornbustion of hydrogen in the coal burnt

innue ='lrt:lrT"i!;"' Heatrost 83ss


Therefore, rateof heatlossof flue gases the

- ee,ee 4,00cys rr> 4.62( rd2. (#EJ


= t,Ag6,06aY
9. Heat Balarrce
Hcd Input Rate (kcd/h) Heat OutputRate (kcaYh)

*"ro

,, =l#r)G.*)
tmot urO

[4#]

25,000,000 (,sx57s.s3)rca,/h $1eamgeneration

-2W3280083.73% 3.4% 0.70%

I lI 1g coarlf -ks cornbustiblesl' '' --------------kgcoal I fkgcorrbustibleslf h lL

-862125 Heatlossdueto unburntcombustibles Heatlossdueto evaporation offree moisture - 175660

tgHro lf -:r""rt I_-| ll lH2oll tg J I kmol

815408kcarl/h

m lEl Heat lost in flue gases(I/r) is evaluated the of rnean specific heat data of flue gas combasis ponents:
Componcfi Mcan Sp.Hcat intlu Rangc25"-l50"C

- El64$ Heatlossdueto evapcation of moishre formed due to combustionof hydrogenh thc fuel

3.26%

Heatlost to flue gases - 1886064 7.54% Unaccountedheatloss-326943 (by differerce) Total - 25 000 000 Ln%

coz
Hzo o2 N2

9.5 kcal/tmol'C "C 8.12kcalrtmol "C 7.l2kcal/kmol 7.00kcal,/kmol'C

(10) Overall ThermalEfficiency of the Boiler _ Heat oubut rate (steamgeneration) Heat input rate (fuel combustion)

for Thercfore, 1f/.272krnol of flue gas (8.12) 6.5(7.12\ (95) + r\c^ = 12.E5 +7.275 ' r t 'C +8O.&7(7)kcaV =79l.957kcal/"C

=#ffffix roo= 83.73%

Steam tables
Pressu re bar absolute 0.30
0.50 kPa

Temperature

EnthalPY Specific

I Dpecrrrc

(hfs Water(hf) | Evaporation ) lSteam(hn)l Steam kJ/kq I kJ/ks I kJ/kg lmJ/kg 289.23
340.49

30.0
50.0

69.10
81.33

2336.1
2305.4

2625.3
2645.9

5.229
3.24Q

o.7s 0.95
gauge 0

75.O 95.0
0

91.78 98.20
100.00

384.39 411.43
419.04

2278.6 2261.8
2257.0

2663.0 2673.2
2676.0

2.217 1.777
1.673

0.10
0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60

10.0
20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0

102.66
105.10 107.39 109.55 1 11 . 6 1 113.56

430.2
440.8 450.4 459.7 468.3 476.4

2250.2
2243.4 2237.2 2231.3 2225.6 2220.4

2680.2
2644.2 2647.6 2691.0 2693.9 2696.8

1.533
1.414 't.312 1.225 1.149 1.083

0.70
0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10

70.o
80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0

115.40
117.14 118.80 120.42 1 2 1. 9 6 123.46 124.90

444.1
491.6 498.9 505.6 512.2 518.7 524.6

2215.4
2210.5 2205.6 2201 .1 2197.0 92.8 88.7 z 84.8 z 8 1. 0 77.3

2699.s
2702.1 2704.5 2706.7 2709.2 2711.5 2713.3 2715.3 2717.1 2718.9

1.024
0.971 0.923 0.881 0.841 0.806 0.773 0.743 0.714 0.689

1.20 1.30
'1 .40

1.50 1.60
1.70 1.80

1.90 2.00 2.20 2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.60 3.80 4.00 4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00
6.50 7.00

120.0 130.0 140.0 150.0 160.0 170.0 180.0 190.0 200.0 220.0 240.O 260.0 280.0 300.0 320.0 340.0 360.0 380.0 400.0 450.0 500.0 550.0 600.0
650.0 700.0

126.28
127.62 128.89 130.13 131 .37 132.54 '1 33.69 135.88

530.5
536.1 5 4 1. 6 547.1 552.3 557.3 562.2 5 7 1. 7

73.7
z

2 7 2 0. 8
2722.4 2724.0 2725.5 2724.6 2731.4 2733.9

0.665
0.643 0.622 0.603 0.568 0.536 0.509

138.01 140.00 1 4 1. 9 2 143.75 145.46 1 4 7. 2 0


148.84 150.44 1 5 1. 9 6

580.7 589.2 597.4 605.3 612.9 620.0


627.1 634.0 640.7

70.1 z 66.7 63.3 56.9 2 50.7 2 44.7

39.0
33.4 24.1

2736.4
2738.7 2741 .O

0.483
0.461 0.440

22.9
17.8 z 12.9 08.1
I

2742.9
2744.9 27 46.9 2748.4

0.422
0.405 0.389 0.374

155.55 158.92 162.08 |65.04


167.83 170.50

656.3 670.9 684.6 697.5


709.7 721.4

2096.7 2086.0 2075.7 2066.0


2056.8 2047.7

2753.0 2756.9 2760.3 2763.5


2766.5 2769.1

0.342 0.315 0.292 0.272


0.255 0.240

7.50
8.00

750.0
800.0

173.02
175.43

732.5
743.1

2039.2
2030.9

2771.7
2774.0

0.227
0.215

8.50 9.00 9.50


10.00

850.0 900.0 950.0


1000.0

177.75 179.97 182.10


''| 84.13 18 8 . 0 2

753.3 763.0 772.5


7 8 1. 6

2022.9 2015.1 2 0 0 7. 5
2000.1

2776.2 2778.1 2780.0


2 7 8 1. 7

0.204 0.194 0.185


0.177

10.50
1. 0 0

1050.0
1 10 0 . 0

186.05

790.1
798.8

1993.0
1986.0

2783.3
2744.4

0.171
0.163

EDB/1

splrax ' tsarco

1.01

tables
Pressu re bar
I t.5U

gauge

kPa 1150.0

Temperature Water(h1 ) kJ/kg 189.82 807.1

S p e c i f i cE n t h a l p y Evaporation (h1n) S t e a m ( h n) kJ/kg kJ/kg

Specific Volume Steam ms/kg

12 . o 0 1250

ffi

ft-oo
IJ.3U

t4 -0 - 1 45 o o

.-I C . U U
I3.JU

16-00 17 . o 0 tsJo 19-OO 20^oo

io_

E.oo
22nO 23^00 24l 0 25-00 26-OO 2 7S O

ias

Z8-oo
29.o0 30.00 31.00 32'00 33.00 34^OO 35-OO 36-OO 37-OO 38-00 39-OO 40-oo

iei #r irffi

?loo
43-OO 44nO 45-OO 46-OO

ffi ffi

nno Zs.oo
49nO 50s0
51i0 52-00 53.0O 54.oO
CC.UU

ffi ffi

56-OO

1.02

splrax ' .lsarco

EDB/1

Steam tables
re Pressu qauoe kPa bar s700.0 57.00 58.00 5800.0 59.00 5900.0 60.00 6000.0 61.00 6100.0 62.00 6200.0 63.00 6300.0 64.00 6400.0
65.00 6500.0

Temperature "C 273.45 274.55 275.65 276.73 277.80 278.85 279.89 280.92
2 8 1. 9 5

Specific Enthalpy

@ kJ/ks
202.1 207.8 213.4 218.9 224.5 230.0 235.4 240.8
246.1 251.4

66.00 67.00 68.00 69.00


70.00 7 1. 0 0 72.OO 73.00 74.OO 75.00 76.00 77.OO 78.00 29.00 80.00 8 1. 0 0 82.00 83.00 84.00

6600.0 6700.0 6800.0 6900.0


7000.0 7100.u 7200.0 7300.0 7400.0 7500.0 7600.0 7700.0 7800.0 7900.0 8000.0 8100.0 8200.0 8300.0 8400.0

282.95 283.95 284.93 285.90


28ti.85 247.4o 244.7 5 289.ti9 290.tt0 291.51 292.41 293.91 294.20 2 9 5 . 10 295.96 296.81 297.66 298.50 299.35

256.7 2 6 1. 9 267.0
272.'l 277 3 282.3 247.3 292.3 297.2 302.3 307.0 311.9 J t o 7 321 .5

kJ/ks 584.5 577.7 571.0 564.4 557.6 550.9 544.3 537.3 5 3 1. 2 524.7 518.1 511.6
501.1 498.7 492.2 485.8 479.4 473.0 4tt6.6 460.2 453.9 4 4 7. 6 44't.3 435.0 424.7 422.5 416.2 410.0 403.8 397.6

Volume o S t e a m ( h- ) | S t e a m kJ/ko | m3/ko

lDpeolilc;

2786.6 2785.5 2784.4 2783.3 2782.1 2780.9 2779.7 2778.5 2777.3 2 7 76 . 1 2774.8 2773.5
2772.1 2770.4 27b9.5 2768.'t 276b.7 2765.3 2763.A 2762.5 2760.9 2759.5 2758.0 2756.5 2754.9 2753.4 2751.9 2750.3 2748.8 2 74 7 . 2

0.0337 0.0331 0.0325 0.0319 0.0314 0.0308 0.0303 0.0298 0.0293 0.0288 0.0283 0.0278
0.0274 O.A'274 0.0266 0.0262 0.0258 0.0254 0.0250 0.0246 Q.O242 0.0239 0.0236 0.0233 0"0229 0.0226 0.0223 0.0220 0.0217 0.0214

326.2
330.9 335.7 340.3

85.00 86.00 87.00 88.00 89.00 90.00 92.00 94.00 96.00 98.00 100.00 102.00 104.00 06.00 08.00 10.00 12.00 14.00 16.00 18.00 20.00

8500.0 8600.0 8700.0 8800.0 8900.0 9000.0 9200.0 9400.0 9600.0 9800.0 0000.0 0200.0 0400.0 10600.0 10800.0 1000.0 12 0 0. 0 1400.0 1600.0 '1 00.0 8 2000.0

300.20 301.00 301.81 302.61 303.41 304.20 305.77 307.24 308.83 310.32 311.79 313.24 314.67 316.08 317.46 318.83 3 2 0. 1 7 3 2 1. 5 0 322.81 324.10 32s.38

345.0
349.6

354.2
358.8
JOJ.J

367.8 376.8 385.7 394.5 403.2


411 I

420.5 429.0 437.s


445.9 454.3 462.6

391.3 385.2 379.0 372.7 360.3 348.0 335.7 323.3 310.9 2 9 8. 7 286.3 274.0 2 6 1. 7 249.3 237.0
224.6

2745.5 2 74 4 . O 2 74 2 . 3 2 74 0 . 5 2737.1 2733.7 2730.2 2726.5 2722.8 2 71 9. 2 2715.3 2711.5 2707.6 2703.6 2699.6
2655.4

0.0211 0.0208 0.0205 0.0202 0.0 97 0.0 92 0.0 87 0.0 83 0.0 78 0.0 74 0 . 0 70 0.0166 0.0162 0 .0 5 8 0.0 54
0.0

4 70 . 8
479.O

487.2
495.4

212.2 199.8 187.3

26912 . 2687.0 2682.7

0.0 47 0.0 44 0.0 4 1

EDB/1

sprrax ' tsarco

1.03