FIRST Pneumatics

Introduction to Air Power By Bob Koehl Team Ford FIRST And WWW.PneumaticsFIRST.ORG
Edited and Presented by Scott Simons Team 313 Wayne-Westland Community Schools

Pneumatics
• • • • What is Pneumatics? Why use Pneumatics? How to use Pneumatics? Trouble-Shooting Pneumatics.

Nov. 2009

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Pneumatics
• Is part of Fluid Power Industry. • • Includes Pneumatics and Hydraulics Based on Pascal’s Principle: A change in the
pressure at any point in an enclosed fluid at rest are transmitted undiminished to all points in the fluid and acts in all directions.

Nov. 2009

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• It gives a definite. Nov.Cylinder “Rod end” and clevis threaded for the rod “Piston end” and foot mounting brackets • A Cylinder is used to move a slide or pivot an arm. measured push or pull. 2009 4 .

WHY USE Pnuematics? Nov. 2009 5 .

additional pneumatic functions may be lighter than motors and gearing. • Durable: Stalling an electrical motor can be disastrous. An advantage for gear shifting or picking up/holding an object. A stalled cylinder uses no energy and never heats up. 2009 6 .• Weight: Once the compressor and tanks are on the robot. • Last Minute additions of valves or cylinders easy and light weight (for the weight conscious robots!) Nov. • Force: from 9 pounds to 180 pounds of controlled force. A flow control can be used to slow down the motion if desired. • Speed: Can be very fast.

How to Use Pneumatics Nov. 2009 7 .

Safety FIRST How to make it safe Safety Hazard 1. Know how the NO air is on OR if a hose robot cylinder will act comes loose or breaks. Force from cylinder can moving items while air be 200 pounds or more pressure is on. Gravity can move the 3. Include a manual valve to dump all air trapped air. Keep hands away from 1. with the loss of air pressure. Cylinder can move when cylinder. and could pinch or cut off body parts. 2. Nov. 2009 8 . 3. Cylinder can move due to 2.

2009 Tank(2 included) Stores energy 9 .Compressor Thomas Industries • Electrically Driven • Additional Components Gauge Reads available pressure Relief Valve on Compressor Protects compressor Pressure Switch Signals the controller to start or stop the compressor Plug Valve Stops air flow Nov.

sch. 2009 10 .htm Nov.deyes.uk/technology/AS&Alevel/pneumatic_systems.Compressed Air is routed by the valve to extend or retract the cylinder Animations courtesy of Deyes High School www.sefton.

2009 11 .Actuators Make things move Most Common types of Linear Actuators – Double Acting – Single Ended – Double Ended – Single Acting All contain Cylinder Barrel Piston Rod Seals Spring if used – Spring Return Nov.

2009 • The Compressor forces lots of air into a really small volume to create pressure. • The motor is controlled by the electrical system. • The relief valve makes sure the pressure does not exceed 120 psi.Outlet to circuit Compressor Relief Valve 120 psi Motor Nov. 12 .

Number of Ports – Tubing or Pipe – wrap teflon® tape correctly Tapered Pipe Thread Generally Brass Nov. Type of Connection. 2009 Use Teflon Tape Correctly 13 .Connectors • Hundreds of Variations Available – Size.

Accumulators and Pressure Switches Main Air Supply System Compressor •Accumulators are tanks that store the compressed air. 2009 •Pressure Transducer allows the robot to read the air 14 pressure. –Set to turn ON compressor at 95_psi and OFF at 120_psi. –Stores air since the compressor cannot supply it quickly enough Pressure Gage •A Pressure Switch gives an electrical signal indicating the pressure is above the switch setting to turn off the compressor. Air Dump Valve Nov. .

Pressure Regulator and Gage • Regulator adjusts the air pressure lower than the compressor pressure. Pressure • Gage displays the Gage pressure Main Regulator MAXIMUM of 60 psi Nov. 2009 15 . • FIRST requires that the main regulator be Adjustable maximum 60 psi. regulator set lower • An additional regulator if necessary can be added to adjust even lower.

Nov. “A” “B” • Valve stays in its last position when the Electrical is OFF . 2009 16 . Unpredictable actions may occur. • DO NOT electrically operate both at the same time.Electrical Double Solenoid Valve • Both the “A” and “B” operators are electrical.

2009 17 .Electrical Single Solenoid Valve • “A” operator is electrical • “B” operator is internal air (internal pilot) – Acts like a spring “A” “B” – Causes the valve to reset when the electrical is OFF Nov.

2009 18 .How to read Air Circuit 4 Port Valve: With B End operated last. Pressure goes to B AND A goes to Exhaust EA. 5 Port Valve: With B End operated last. • Valves and Cylinders are drawn assuming the B End was operated last. • A is the Cylinder port with pressure when the A end of the valve is operated. Nov. Pressure • P is incoming Pressure goes to B AND A goes to Exhaust. B A A End of the Valve P E B End B A of the Valve EB P EA • E is outgoing Exhaust • B is the Cylinder port with pressure when the B end of the valve is operated.

• E is outgoing Exhaust • B is the Cylinder port with pressure when the B end of the valve is operated. the other flow path is EB P EA done. following the A End. • When the A End operates.How to read Air Circuit 4 Port Valve: With A End operated last. Pressure • P is incoming Pressure goes to A AND B goes to Exhaust. Pressure following the B End to goes to A AND B goes to Exhaust EB. A End P E B End • A is the Cylinder port with of the of the pressure when the A end Valve B A Valve of the valve is operated. The air shifts from 5 Port Valve: With A End operated last. B A Nov. 2009 19 .

Valves Spring Solenoid Passage A Passage B Spool Valve Body Pressure Passage Exhaust Passage Nov. 2009 20 .

This actuator does not include a magnetic piston or reed switches – Three more free actuators can be ordered.Actuators available on order – One linear actuator (cylinder) is included with the kit. Note the inclusion of reed switches Nov. The order form and details are included in the manual. One of those may be a rotary actuator. These actuators can be ordered with reed position switches and magnetic pistons. 2009 21 .

1 ½” or 2” •Extend Area is the area of the Bore size •Retract Area is the area of the Bore size LESS the area of the Piston Rod Nov.Cylinder sizing •Use Table •Equations used are: –Force = Area * Pressure –Area = PI * Bore Squared •Pressure MAX of 60 psi •Bore size or diameter is either ¾”. 2009 22 .

Actuators Differential Areas Force Consideration • Consider the effective area on which the pressure acts • On single ended cylinders there is a differential • Don’t forget friction Nov. 2009 23 .

Actuators .643 (cos 50•) = 9.59 lbs = F Nov.Angles Example: • Load 15 lbs • Angle 50• • Solution • Step 1 – Force at right angles to support weight = 15 x . 2009 24 .65 lbs = F2 • Step 2 – Effective Cylinder Force at right angles to support weight = 9.65 x arm ratio (17/5) = 32.79 lbs = F1 • Step 3 – Actual Cylinder Force acting at 30• = F1 / sin 30• = 65.

friction and leakage can occur at the rod seal and at the piston seal • Avoid getting grit or metal shavings on the rod or in the cylinder – causes abrasion and seal damage Nov. 2009 25 .Actuator (cylinder) Do’s and Don’ts • You do not have to fully extend a cylinder but you’ll need an external stop. • Avoid side-loading – increases friction and wear Weight or force applied at 90° angle to the rod 90° Wear.

¾”. 2009 26 .π x rod radius2 x Pressure (psig) • Teams may order additional cylinders (including spares) for rapid delivery using the FAX form in the manual that is included in the kit.• Use flow controls for safety • Cylinder Force – Push Force = π x cylinder radius2 x Pressure (psig) – Pull Force = Push Force . order spares and stock pile them!! • Avoid leaks – reduces available energy Nov. 1-1/2” or 2” bore are available – see form for available strokes • If NOT using Pneumatics this year.

2009 27 .Actuators – Mounting Thoughts Example: Arm to be raised by Cylinder • Determine overall length of retracted cylinder • Draw an arc from the mounting point on arm • Determine overall length of extended cylinder • Draw an arc from the mounting point on arm • Where arcs intersect is the mounting point • Check for intermediate interference Nov.

2009 28 .Actuators Construction & Operation Basic Construction Operation Nov.

2009 Brass fitting (with Teflon tape) that screws into the cylinder • Controls the air LEAVING the cylinder during motion • Adjustment should be locked with the locking collar once desired setting is found 29 .Flow Control Tube Quick Connect fitting to connect to the control valve Adjusting • Used to control the screw with speed of a cylinder locking collar • Usually two per to set the speed cylinder Nov.

Fittings Connection and Disconnection Nov. 2009 30 .

Pieces can break off • Tape must not cover the first two threads and cause valve or cylinder jam 31 Nov. 2009 .Use of Teflon Tape Male Threads Correct use of Teflon tape • Teflon tape is used to prevent air leaks when connecting brass fillings Wrong: Tape should not • Tape is applied to the cover first 2 male threaded fitting threads.

• Be sure the Manual Shut Off Valve is in the correct position to keep the system pressurized. Nov. 2009 32 .Troubleshooting CAUTION—MOTION MAY HAPPEN DURING TROUBLESHOOTING • Manage and Control air losses and leaks: – Use short hoses from Valves to Cylinders – Use Teflon tape on all threads – Use soapy water to find air leaks • Electrical Solenoid Valves features include: – Manual Override and Indicator Light (on some valves) • Air pressure MUST be above 25 psi for the valves to work.

• Valves can be expensive (over $75 each). • Every 2 electrical solenoids require 1 SPIKE relay. Nov.Problems with Pneumatics • Air LEAKS must be found and fixed. 2009 33 .

org/uploadedFiles/2009%20Pneu matics%20Manual%20Rev%20B.com Bosch Rexroth www.org Bimba Manufacturing www.org www. boschrexroth.org Nat’l Fluid Power Ass’n www.com Nov.pdf Monnier.bimba.fpda. Ass’n www.clippard.com Parker www.nasonptc.com Festo www.com Fluid Power Dist.norgren. Inc.com Clippard Instrument Lab.parker.fpef.com SMC Pneumatics www. 2009 34 . www.ifps.festo.com Fluid Power Society www.smcusa.Interesting Links Fluid Power Educational Foundation www.nfpa.monnier. Nason Corporation www.com The FIRST Manual (2009) www.usfirst.com Norgren www.

Are there any Questions?? Nov. 2009 35 .

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