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Writing
ESSAY-WRITING The word essay is defined in “The Concise Oxford Dictionary” as „a literary composition (usually prose e short) on any subject.‟ Accordingly, it is a written composition giving expression to one‟s own personal ideas or opinions on some topic, an event a situation, an object or a problem. It is a presentation based on ones experience and perceptions. Here more than the originality of an idea, the approach of the writer is valued. Essay is written in a personal style. Characteristics of a Good Essay:UNITY: - An essay must have unity, i.e. developing on them with a definite purpose. ORDER: - The essay should follow a certain ordered line of thought e come to a definite conclusion. It should not consist of haphazard reflections put down any how. These should not only the unity of subject but also unity of treatment. BREVITY: - Essays should not the exceptional long. The limit should be maintained. It should be a brief exercise, concisely expressed. STYLE: - The style of an essay should be dignified e literary. A long, colloquial terms, and free a easy instruction should be avoided. Also it is mistake to attempt any flights of fine writing. The language a sentence construction should be simple, directs natural. PERSONAL TOUCH: - An essay should serve the personal feelings of the writer. It should have the individuality of the writer. Essay is written in a personal style with the reader in mind. If a reader does not enjoy reading it, then the purpose in defeated. Essays are generally classified into the following five types: (i) Narrative Essay:- incidents or happenings are narrated chronologically in a narrative essay. We try to give a sequential account of the happenings. We adept the approach as style of a narrator or story letter, trying to

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gradually move towards the main events or climax. Narrative essay may deal with (a) Historical stories or legend (the reign of Akbar). (b)Biographies (life of Babar). (c) Incidents (a street quarrel). (d)An accident or natural disaster (flood, fire). (e) A journey & voyage. (f) A story (real/imaginary). (ii) Descriptive Essay:- Here the writes describes an object, a place, an event or a natural phenomenon. One tries to create visual images and works on the subject like a painter. e.g. Organic life, My favorite film star. (iii) Expository/Reflective Essay:- it contains the thoughts of its author on some subject- an idea arising in the mind. It consists of reflections or thoughts on a particular topic, which is generally of an abstract nature for e.g. (a) Habits, qualities (thrift, cowardice, heroism). (b)Social, political & domestic topics (riches & poverty, government). (c) Philosophical subjects (reality, consciousness). (d)Religious & theological topics. (iv) Argumentative Essay:- It deals with subject on which people hold conflicting views and opinion. They are written on topics which can be debated and on which people can advance heated arguments for & against the view. e.g. (a) Should banks be privatized? (b) Should India go Nuclear? (v) Imaginative Essay:- here we imagine ourselves in a situation or take up a hypothetical position. One can indulge in flights of fancy & give expression to ones faculty of imagination. e.g. (a) The autobiography of horse. (b) If I were a multi-millionaire.

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STRUCTURE OF ESSAY An essay should have an appropriate structure. If ideas are presented loosely, they will not carry conviction. Hence it is necessary to arrange ideas systematically & ensure the essay gets unity. Hence we should follow the three tier structure in essay: (i) Introduction/Beginning. (ii) Middle/Main Body. (iii) End/Conclusion. Introduction:- Should inform the reader of the topic. A good beginning is very necessary. Some ways of beginning are: (a) Define the topic. This introduction is effective in reflective essays. (b)Pose a question to arouse the interest of the reader. But later in the essay, you have to supply an answer to the question raised. This beginning in effective in reflective & argumentative essays. (c) Begun an essay with a quotation relevant is the topic. (d)Start with a personal anecdote or experience. (e) Begin by describing a scene or a situation. Introduction is followed by the Main body:- It contains ones description of an object, scene, events, natural phenomenon or ones‟ views on any problem. The ideas collected are presented in the section. The ideas are arranged in a logical order & presented in different paragraphs. One paragraph should have one main idea or theme. All the paragraphs should be connected- one leading to another. This gives unity to the essay. The ideas should be discussed properly & supported with examples illustration Discussion is the main body leads to conclusion. It must emerge naturally. The conclusion can tie a brief summary, a restatement of ones viewpoint or emphasis upon the solution to a problem. It can also be a brief reminder of the main events. PLANNING THE ESSAY First understand the topic, & decide whether one has sufficient ideas on the topics. Determine the line of thought one wishes follow. Next get down the ideas as they occur. The ideas that have been

„A précis may be defined as a restatement in shortened form of the main idea and points in a piece of writing. Précis is not putting in different words. Think of an attractive beginning. Do not overload an essay with statistics. Complex sentence structure should be avoided. views etc.‟ There are no fixed rules about the length of a précis but ordinarily it should contain one third of the number of words in the original passage. should be carefully avoided. It is a gist of the passage. Lastly use simple language. expressed in one‟s own language. PRÉCIS WRITING The word „précis‟ is derived from French. meaning „exact‟ or „terse‟. It is a piece of continuous writing & to be effective. original & arresting. Précis writing is an exercise in compression.4 jotted fall into a certain category try to arrange the ideas into different categories. It should have proper organization of ideas. To conducts. It is harmonious blending of „thought‟ & „expression‟. neither is it a paraphrase. avoid difficult & unfamiliar words. Than arrange these ideas & prepare an outline. succinct & full i. It is pronounced „Pray – see‟. Give the different aspects of the topic. nor a list of the main points. including all essential points.e. logical sequencing of points & the use of simple language. one idea in one paragraph. Vague generalizations. The conclusion must be stated clearly & firmly. . Avoid all repetitions. It should be fresh. It should not be vague & shabby. It is merely a condensed reproduction of the original writes ideas. But at the same time précis is not creative writing. violent statement etc. Never be irrelevant. It should be lucid. Qualities of a Good Précis (i) Completeness:. It should not omit any important facts or ideas. essay is a very sensitive form of self expression. Your thought should show logical development & must not the jumbled. The essay must have an impression that it is a well integrated pattern of thought. The arrangement should be logical. be concise & to the point. Decide on the examples & illustration. The language should be free from grammatical & spelling mistakes.A précis should cover the essential contents of the given passage. The sentences should be short & simple.

presenting the arguments logically. DO’S FOR PRECIS WRITING (I) Use your own language as for as possible. read it carefully. and grammar. & reject the rest. Read through the passage again. ideas. (II) (III) (IV) (V) (VI) (VII) (VIII) (IX) (X) . Without reading the original one should be able to get the main message through the précis.A précis must be brief & concise. spellings. (II) Keeps the same sequence of events. Read the revised draft paying attention to punctuations. Phrase etc. Cut it down to the required length. phrases/ clauses gives a poor show.It should express the meaning of the original passage clarity & be free from all ambiguities. as the original passage. Prepare the final draft neatly. Compare your draft with the original for any omissions. arguments etc. It should be a coherent piece of writing. phrases. change only for the lack of clarity. If it is more then the sequential limit. Check the length of the précis. Prepare your first draft on the basis of underlined key words. TEN STEPS TO PRECIS WRITING (I) To understand the passage. in the right hand corner the number of Words used. Think of a suitable title. A smaller version of the original by mere omission of words.5 (ii) Clarity:. go through the draft again and delete unnecessary details. Write „rough‟ on the top of your first draft and cross them Out. Select the essential points. clauses and sentences. Write in brackets. (iii) Conciseness:. got them down. this time underline the key words. Put down the main theme in a phrase or sentence. Irrelevancies etc.

Their aim is to achieve a definite purpose. Do not give any title unless specifically required. examples and illustrations. such as selling a product. suppliers. In a passage devoted entirely to illustrations. telex. big or small. With those separated by distance. A business letters must therefore appeal to the reader‟s interest & induce in him the proper mood. Do not change any facts. are called personal letters. A letter is really. “a piece of conversation by post.6 (III) Drop figures of speech.” Hence conversing with friends/relations by post. seeking information or advice. use the same in a compressed form. (V) Use indirect speech and third person. are called business letters. (I) (II) (III) (IV) (V) LETTER WRITING NEED OF A BUSINESS LETTER:Correspondence is one of the chief means of keeping oneself in contact. Do not divide your précis into paragraphs unless the original passage is very long. telegraph etc. creating good will etc. Every business. govt. Of course there exists other means of communication. Letters written to other firms and companies. customers. . making an enquiry. like telephone. offices etc. letters are as important ago. Hence despite the availability of modern means of quick & convenient ways of transmitting humans sound. (IV) Give maximum information within the required limit. but they can make only a temporary impression on the receivers‟ mind & they are quite expensive too. The ability to adapt oneself to the readers‟ point of view is the basic requirement of a good letters. has to maintain contact with the external world including other businessmen. customers and government departments. DON’TS FOR PRECIS WRITING Avoid copying from the original. Do not make any comments.

This does not mean that the writer should completely suppress his own interests. Good will is a great asset for an organization and courtesy in correspondence is one of the most natural & economical means of building it. Courtesy softens the sting of an unpleasant piece of information. Accuracy. One should avoid these & try to be direct & simple. Promptness: Respond to the letters the day it is received or else acknowledge the letter. It must carry a message & enhance ones reputation.a study reveals that there is lot of deadwood & verbosity in business correspondence. .7 PRINCIPLES: Courtesy & consideration:. Clarity & Precision: A simple expression & a clear thinking are the two most important virtues of effective writing. avoid using formal style. Completeness & Clarity: All fact. Clear and concise letters are able to arrest the attention of the reader. needs & desires is known as the you-attitude. They should have necessary tact & courtesy. Consideration for the reader‟s interests.One must observe the basic principle of social relationship & regard for others feelings. figures. must be accurately mentioned. Sincerity & truthfulness convince the most.It is more polite to directly state the information one needs or the action required. Salesmanship: Every letters one sends should be an ambassador of ones firm. etc. (b)Positive & Direct Statement:. Directness & Conciseness: Transmission of maximum information by using minimum words should be one‟s aim in letters writing. statement. creates good will and produce a favorable response. than to suggest it by a negative statement. The language of a business letters should be familiar. (a) Avoid Verbosity:. It is a good practice to verify them before including it in the letters.

letters are official in purpose but are addressed to a person by name.8 FUNCTION OF A BUSINESS LETTER (I) A business letter serves as a record for future reference. appointments etc. Demi-official or D. (iii) The matter is urgent and requires immediate disposal. in a friendly. They are written to friends/relations etc. but save lot of time & labour. written to exchange news or to seek-favor. Form letters lack personal touch. Business letters are non-personal letters.O. D. notices. Internal letters or memos are used both in govt.O.O. They are used in case of acknowledgements. Form letters are used for correspondence of recurring or routine nature. offices & business houses for internal communication. they have a standard form with some blanks left in them which are filled in and sent to the addressees. (IV) It is used as a legal document. (ii) The matter is of confidential nature. or semi-government bodies. informal style.) letters. internal letters or memos. (III) Since it can reach anywhere. (V) It is used to build good will. letters may be written if (i) The matter require personal attention of the addressee. Official letters are written to govt. it is used to widen the area of operations. (II) It leaves a more lasting impression on the receiver‟s mind than an oral message. form letters etc. . KINDS OF LETTER Broadly speaking letters can be classified as personal and nonpersonal. Personal letters are informal. demiofficial (D. Business letters can be classified as official letters. reminders interviews.

e.Some letters heads contains a printed line indicating where the date should be typed. month & year is indicated e. (iii) Reference. (x) Signature. (iv) Inside address. (i) Heading.9 STRUCTURE & LAY-OUT First as “apparel off proclaims the man. Both methods are acceptable.g. (ix) Complimentary close. (v) Attention line.Most business organizations use printed letter heads for correspondence. (ii) (iii) CHAUKSE OIL MILLS . 3 march. Date:. The date. Stating the reference helps quick & easy future reference. (vi) Salutation.” the appearance of a letters often reveals the characters of the writer & the organization. (ii) Date. (viii) Body..It is the number assigned to a letter. Elements of Structure:The following elements usually constitute the structure of a business letters. (vii) Subject. 2004/ March 3. It contains the name. References:. address. (xii) Enclosure.g. (xi) Identification marks. the telephone no. 2004. (i) Heading:. The purpose of reference is to enable replies to be linked with the previous correspondence & also to send replies to these letters to the proper office or department. telegraphic address etc.

444001 Your Ref:Our Ref:(iv) Inside address:. Frani. K.g. For married/unmarried women. Salutation:. Bombay Road Akola . Sometimes (vi) . plural of Mr. Ms.10 Gokhale Market. Attention: The sales Manager. etc.To ensure prompt attention. The choice of salutation depends upon the personal relationship between the writer & the reader. firms. should be written. (b)titles of rank are used as under: (i) Dr. Mode of address: (a) Mr. Messrs. Shetti (M.C. e.The full address of the person or organization addressing to should be written two spaces below the date. And special attention should be given to spellings of names. “Padma Shri”.It is an essential ingredient in a letter. it gives an impression that you have little respect for the person. Miss. “Reverend”.D. “Rao Bahadur”. This is done by writing an attention line two spaces below the inside address & two spaces above salutation.A. for if you misspell a name. Misses plural of Mrs. The names of persons. Shri G.) Some titles used are: “Sir”./ Shrimati for married women. streets. B. sometimes a letters which is addressed to a firm/company is marked is a particular officer. its like greeting a person when one meets another. Honolli Commerce College Gadag. “Professor”. These details should not be abbreviated. “Colonel”. (v) Attention Line:.g. (ii) Col. or Shri for men both married/unmarried Miss for unmarried women. “Doctor”. J. It is placed two spaces below attention line or if not below inside address. Ph. e. roads etc.

Yours sincerely. XYX. „Dear Reader‟. (iv) Dear XYZ.11 sales & circular letters are addressed as „Dear Customers‟. Salutation (i) Sir Complimentary Close Yours faithfully. In the first paragraph. (viii) Body:. (vii) Subject:. The paras that follow should contain further details.It is a courteous leave taking – a polite way of ending a letter. e. wishes or intentions. (iii) Dear Sri/Smt. My dear XYZ. (ix) Complimentary Close:. reference to any correspondence should be given & in the second the main message should be stated./Kum. Yours sincerely. it is important to organize & arrange the material very carefully. „Dear Member‟. Yours sincerely. (or) yours truly. XYX. (ii) Dear sir. The closing paragraph should indicate your expectation. (v) Dear member/Customer/ Reader/Subscriber .The main purpose of a letter is to convey a message & the main purpose of the message is to produce a suitable response in the reader.g.The purpose of subject line is to let the reader know immediately what the message is about. (or) Yours ever. Dear Madams/Madam. etc. The close must agree with the salutation. if any. This is done through the body of a letters. My dear Sri/Smt. Yours obediently Yours faithfully./Kum. Therefore. „Dear Subscriber‟.

Envelopes used should be of a suitable size & minimum folds must be there in a letter. Mixed punctuation is that where a coma is put after date.If anything is attached to the letters. Resume Apart from this some other things are to be kept in mind while writing a letter. Honey Shah. The initials of the offices who dictated the letters are put first.g. 2. Secondly most business letters are typed coz typing saves time & gives a tidy appearance to the letter. salutation and complimentary close & a full stop follows the last line of the inside address. Or HI/hi.12 (x) Signature:.These marks are put in the left margin to identify the typist of the letter. Identification Marks:.g. Goswami & typed by Ms. If the letter has been dictated by Shri L.It is the signed name of the writes. e. it is necessary to choose a good quality paper. The last two initial slow only the typist‟s initials. house no. The most commonly used style by business houses is the mixed punctuation. Here punctuation marks are used only in the body of the letter. a one inch margin is left on the sides & 1 ½ inches on the top & bottom. Margins in a letter add to its attractiveness.E. The standard size of paper used is 8 ½ by 11 inches. STYLE OF PRESENTATION There are several styles for writing business letters.. For making a favorable initial impression. The third style is Close punctuation. (xi) (xii) Enclosure:. it must be indicated against the enclosure line. Mark sheets of B. Generally. which is conventional where the main parts of the letter are punctuated. N.. Lastly the modern tendency is to omit unnecessary commas & full stops & to use Open punctuation. They are:- .. e. Encl: 1. It is below the complimentary close. then the identification marks will be as follows: LNG/HI (or) LNG:HI.

...........-..-. Secretary...........-...-----..........-----.-----..-.......-.-..-.-----.-......-We are grateful --.-.........-----.....-----.-----.-----.-....... (5) Hanging-Indented style...-..... Ltd.-----.-............-.. (2) Block style...-..-----. New Delhi ........-......-........ Bhauderi Trading Co.-.-.-----.-----...-----.-----..........-..-----......-----.-..-----....-.... (4) Semi-Block style.-....-----..... (3) Complete-Block style.13 (1) Indented style.......-.....-.. Mathura Road.... 434.......-----..-..-....-...-.. Yours faithfully XYZ.-....Oldest form of business letter..-....-----.....-.....-----.. 1133.--....---.-----.... (1) Indented Style:......-----. Closed punctuation is used.. Mahatma Gandhi Road...................... ASB/1g..2004 The United Commercial Bank Ltd.....110001 Dear sir..--.-...-----.. Please refer to --...-----...-----..----------......-----.....-----......-. Each new element is indented (space from margin) 2 or 4 spaces... ........-.--............-.. New Delhi-110001 October 30.

..-.-.....-.. with right margin....-----.-.-..-.-----..-..-....-...... Divisions between elements & paras of body of letter are indicated by double spacing....-----.-----------....-....--- ..-.-..--.-........-----------.....-----......... Bharat Aluminum Corporation 303.-----------......... complimentary close & signature are aligned.................. I regret -----..........-----------.-----..-damaged condition -----...-..-.........-----..-.Here the date line..-.....-----....-----. Jahangir Road Ahmedabad -380003 10 September 2004.14 (2) Block Style:.............-----.. all other elements excepts head are set flush left.... Mixed punctuation is used.-............ Dear sir..-----------....... Your Ref: 43-PA/04 Our Ref: POC-30u The General Manager Shahi Cements Sarangpura Ghaziabad – 201001.-----------...I shall be -----........--------...

-........-----------.. Coz indentation is not required. Letter saves more time.-... But some don‟t like it for it appear imbalanced & heavy on left side.-----------.. ................... except the printed letters head are aligned with the left margin.. Open punctuation used.-----...15 --------..-----...-..All parts... Yours Faithfully XYZ Purchase Officer (3) Complete Block:.-----.-----......-.-.-..

The following seven parts usually constitute the structure of a social letters: senders address. body. etc.This is like the block style except that the paragraphs of the letter are indented. Mixed punctuation used. complimentary close. signature. Senders Address Date .g. Social Correspondence Letters are written to fulfill social obligations or to meet personal need which may not be directly related to our official or professional activities. invitations. date. letters of congratulations. salutation. Some letters are like. e. letters conveying acceptances & regrets. The format & style of these letters is same as the business letters. casualness. recommendations. & receivers address. introductions. but they have an air of ease & intimacy. condolences. Promptness is the key to success in social correspondence.16 (4) Semi-Block:.

.------------......-..-................-----....------------. It may be written by an officer for an employee.....-........------------....-......-----------. (v)Complimentary close Signature Receiver‟s Address......-....-..It is a recommendation made for a person in general terms..----------........-.-. Usually it is a statement about the experience.. abilities and qualities of a person....-..-...------------....-----.......-----..-...........-----------...........-.........-----...----------.......-.-----------....-----------...-----.........-----------.-...-........17 Salutation ( Body) -----------.-----....-.....------------.-..-.....------------.....-... It is a certificate testifying the character & qualifications of the person/applicant.....-..........-----..-...-..-----...................................-.-----------.-----....-... It can be referred to as a letters of recommendation from a reliable & respectable third party.-. TESTIMONIAL:...-----------. ..-...-.............-.....------------....------------...

industry or govt. It has rightly been said that for running an industry or business efficiently the skill of report writing is as necessary as good equipment & quality raw materials.  It is presented in a conventional form. Report writing develops the power of discrimination. A commission or committee. Importance:A report is a „basic management tool used in decision-making‟. a study group or a panel is required to present its findings/recommendations in the form of a report.  Includes information about procedure of collecting data & significance of such data. A report differs from other composition. Thus broadly speaking many memos. A large no.  It is written for a specific audience.18 BUSINESS & TECHNICAL REPORT Characteristics:The word „report‟ is derived from the Latin „reportare’ which means to carry back. it is a conventional form written to meet some specific need or requirement. are taken on the basic of information presented or recommendations made in reports. organization. Brown The essential points are:  A report is a formal statement of facts or information or an account of something. judgment & communication & decision making. Many have tried to define report: “A report is a communication from someone who has information to someone who wants to use that information. A report is a description of an event carried back to someone who was not present on the scene. of important decision in business. Re = back + portare = to carry. letters and news items are reports. A.C.” . .  Often includes recommendations.  It contains conclusion of the writer.

They may be in the form of a letter. But a written report is a permanent record. In written report. (2) On the basis of the frequency of issue: Periodic/Routine reports: They are prepared & presented at regular. It enjoys several advantages over oral reports: 1. memo etc.19 TYPES OF REPORT Reports may be oral or written. 3. It is relatively more accurate & permanent. to several pages of detailed information. An oral report is a piece of faceto-face communication. Oral report tends is be vague. Types of Business Report:We can classify business reports into(1) On the basis of legal formalities we can have. They may be submitted annually. The reporter cannot deny what he has reported first. fortnightly. the write tries to be accurate & precise. Such reports contain a mere statement of fact without any recommendation. A written report can change hands without any danger of distortion during transmission. prescribed intervals. Informal reports: It is usually in the form of a person-to-person communication. fragmentary statement of facts on a single page. . it may range from a sheet. monthly. 2. It may be about something seen or absorbed. Formal & Informal reports: Formal reports: it is prepared in a prescribed form & is presented according to an established procedure to a prescribed authority. An oral report can be denied at any time. It is simple & easy to present. But a written report is always preferred. 4. weakly or daily. Special reports: They are related to a single occasion/situation. Formal reports can be statutory (presented according to the form & produce laid down by low) or non-statutory (not required under any low). semi-annually. A written report can be referred to again & again. They deal with non-recurrent problems.

findings & conclusions.20 (3) On the basis of function: If a report merely presents facts pertinent to an issue or situation. it is informative on the other hand. The project may be construction of bridges. It may have recommendations for action. lay-out of a residential colony or installation of an equipment in a factory. (5) On the basis of the number of persons entrusted with the drafting of reports. performance report. put together in a logical order. .Is the experiment carried out in a laboratory to last a theory. but it also includes an evaluation/interpretation or analysis of data & the reporters conclusion. (4) On the basis of the nature of the subject draft with. An informational report contains only the data collected or the facts observed in an organized form. Types of Routine Report:Progress Report:. Laboratory Report:. draws conclusions. technical report. we have reports by individuals and reports by committees/sub-committees. we have problem determining report. fact-finding report. Whereas an interpretative report contains facts. Such a report is also called recommendation or recommendatory report. if it analyses the facts.In any long term project work. verify the modifications or to examine the validity of the research findings. the administration keeps itself informed through progress reports. Inspection Report:. & makes recommendations.They are of 2 types: (i) Inspection done on a piece of equipment to find out whether it is functioning properly or requires some repairs/replacement. The following elements generally constitute a lab report: (i) Heading (ii) Experiment No. A lab report is an account of the various steps. it may be described as Analytical/interpretative or investigative report. (iii) Date (IV) Object (v) Apparatus used (vi) Method/Procedure (vii) Observations (viii) Conclusion (ix) Signature. buildings.

Preface 7.Periodic evaluation of the performance & general conduct of the employees are made at appropriate times for rewards such as increments. at regular intervals. title Page 4. Frontispiece. furniture. main body.It is customary to take stock of equipment. Front Matter:1. Back Matter:- . transfer etc. Copy Right Notice 5. It is done to determine whether a person is efficient or not. Introduction Discussion/Description Conclusions Recommendation. Abstract & Summary. ELEMENTS OF STRUCTURE Reports are mainly divided into: front matter. Cover 2. 4. Table of Contents 9. Main Body:1. 3. stationary etc. promotions. back matter. Acknowledgements 8. List of Illustrations 10. 2. 3.21 (ii) Report which indicates the result of inspection of a product as a part of quality control. Forwarding Letters 6. Inventory Report:. Annual Confidential Report:.

Both are written for the primary recipient of the report. research papers. photographs. Copyright Notice:. 1. Frontispiece:. number (if any). 2. From the above elements. The inside of the front cover & both the insides & outside of the back cover are usually left blank.. The McGraw-Hill companies. Title Page:.They are of 2 types: Covering & Introductory. classification (secret. It is a window display which ignites the curiosity of the reader. introduction & discussion/description are obligatory.22 Appendices List of References Bibliography Glossary Index. the subtitle.It is given in the inside of the title page as: @ 1999. memo-graphs.It generally appears in bound reports meant for wide circulation. the first type serves simply as a record of transmission & is not bound with the report. articles.It is usually the first right hand page of the report. the title page. It protects the manuscript from damage & gives the report a neat appearance. job no. The cover is the first impression. It contains all information given on the cover. The introductory letters helps to establish a . etc. date. author‟s name. neutral-colored card. The cover usually contain the title of the report. hence we should not crowd it with information. books etc. and also. These elements are generally applicable to formal writings such as articles.It is usually made of white or some soft. Forwarding Letters:. 4. The form most of times used are map. FRONT MATTER Cover:. top secret) etc. 3. No part of this report may be reproduced in any form or by any means without permission in writing from the publisher. drawing etc. Sometimes the following note is added: All rights reserved. 5.

The preface should not be confused with the foreword. digest) which is a report in miniature. and a summary gives the substance of the report. A reader interested in knowing the extent of coverage will be satisfied with the abstract. whereas if he wants to know the method of analysis. A summary presents the report in a nutshell. Here besides mentioning the title. of table & figures a separate listing is done soon after the table of contents. then he needs a summary. Abstract & Summary:.Most reports contain a synopsis (also called abstract. the letter is usually written by an authority or expert in the field.23 report with the reader. the memos of persons & organizations who have helped in the production of the report. contents & purpose of the report briefly. important conclusion & recommendations made.Here we mention diligently. An abstract tells in concentrated form what the report is about. & help him locate a particular topic or sub-topic easily.It gives the reader an overall view of the report. List of Illustrations:. Here page nos are carefully checked against each topic & subtopic. There are a few differences between abstract & summary according to different writes. Acknowledgments:. It gives the information about the no.If there are large no. of each illustration. While the former is written by the author himself. epitome. Table of Contents:. significant findings. we tell the scope. Preface:. without any illustration & explanations. whereas that of the summary between 5-10%. MAIN BODY . By its nature an abstract is shorter than a summary.It introduces the report. precis.. not the subject-matters. It is however generally agreed that the length of an abstract should be about 2-5% of the original. The main difference is that of function. title & page no.

The main function of this part is to present data in an organized form. derivations.24 Introduction:. It is such that the reader can safely omit it without any loss of understanding the contents of the report. The major function here is to tell what the report is about. Its function is to bring the discussion/description to an end. Some writes follow the backward order i. specimen. .The information collected is presented & related to the problem it discusses or describes the main business of the report. Generally the kinds of material included in the appendix are questionnaires.  Scope/Limitation & problem & purpose.This presents a betters starting point to the reader. Recommendation:. first stating the result 7 then describing how they arrived at it. discuss this significance and analysis & the result that flows there from.An appendix contains material. definition etc. Discussion or Description:. The function of recommendation is to suggest the future course of action. It refer to the logical inferences drown & the judgments formed on the basis of analysis. what work has already been done on the subject & what new grounds have been covered.It is the remarks at the end of a piece of writing.. needed to support the main body of the report but is too detailed or voluminous to be included in the text. detailed calculations.e. Are included.  Deference of special terms/Symbols etc. sample documents. statistical data.  Origin/Source & method of collecting data. Conclusion:. Thus is not set procedure for writing this. BACK MATTER Appendices:. Here  Historical/Technical background.In some reports the conclusions & recommendations are combined as they are closely associated.

Entries here are made in alphabetical order & all page nos. Mohan. Glossary: . It helps the reader to locate any topic. 3. Entries in bibliography are in alphabetical order. whereas. Bibliography is often prepared before writing the report. Macmillan Indian Limited. pp 40-42 Bibliography:. 4. sub-topic or important aspects. If the no of words is small.Glossary is a list of technical words used in the report & their explanation. Here the attention is drawn by putting a printers mark (a star/asterisk. they are generally explained in the footnotes. This is done by citing such works in the text & listing them in sequential order. whereas list of references point to out specific location of an idea or piece of information. 19995. Oxford University Press. Bibliography lists the works which the author has read.It is a serially numbered list of published/unpublished works which are consulted before/during the preparation of a report.it serves as a quick guide to the material in the report.It is essential to give credit to works published/unpublished. Index:. to which he is indebted for idea/information. London. If they are small in no. . A Short Guide to English Style.) e. on which the information of entries is available is mentioned against it. whereas reference do not perform any such function. Krishna & N. 2. at the bottom of the page. in the order a suited.g. Bibliography contains works recommended for further study. It is distinct from references: 1. Singh. they can be mentioned in the footnotes. which we have used/quoted in our report.P. Speaking English Efficiently. ELBS Editor 1964.25 List of References:. the list of references is prepared while writing the reports e. in references it is sequential.g. New Delhi. Warner Alan.

Personal qualities 7.26 APPLICATION LETTER Importance & Function: Application letters are written when someone needs a job. In the first. all the information about qualifications. The second type of application is more effective. References: name/address of person who can vouch for your achievements. Personal details: age. There is always stiff competition for any job.a sheet which lists details about you and your qualifications. There are two types of letters of application. 5. Special honors & distinction 6. In the second these are two parts. containing reference to the advertisement in response to which you are applying & featuring your most significant qualifications for the post. So the letter must be distinguished enough to attract immediate attention and to arouse interest. In presenting the achievements we should highlight the tracts the employer is looking for. Part one is short covering letter. The first objective of an application letter is to obtain an interview. . Educational qualifications. marital status. Part two consist of a Resume. Specialized training. experience & personal details is given in one letters. & a prospective employer will form his first impression about you from your application. It generally includes: 1. These letters are personal letters incorporating a few features of business letters. It must convince the employer that he can profit from the talents & services that the writer offers. 4. While writing an application we must keep the employer‟s point of view in mind. 2. the applicant gets a chance to reveal his personality & display his most precious merchandise. Experience & achievements. have all the qualities that are required in the sale of any tangible product. fitness. 3. We should be honest & sincere and say only what is true & what can be supported by documents. It should. A letter of application is written to sell one‟s services.

. One‟s immediate aim should be to respond favorably. (v) Complimentary close. (vii) Enclosures. 1. Those aspects of our qualities & achievements which the post requires. The introductory paragraph should attract the employer‟s attention besides saying whether you are applying in response to an advertisement or at somebody‟s suggestion or on your own initiative. In the end we should try to motivate the employer to respond favorably. (vi) Signature. (ii) Employer‟s name & Address.27 Drafting the Application:The letter of application is a special covering letter. we have excited the employers‟ interest. one should mention it & for details refer the employer to the resume & prompt him to go through it. 2. If any outstanding contribution has been made. (Details of each element is already discussed in letter-writing). It should be informative. to the point & short. If an effective opening paragraph has been written. It should possess the qualities of effective sales letter. This requires emphasizing. 3. Elements of Structure:The structure of the application letters contain the following parts: (i) Address of the applicant & date. it must be something more than a note forwarding an enclosure. Now we have to show with evidence how we are a person he is looking for. (iii) Salutation. Its tone should be friendly but not familiar. (iv) Body.

References:A reference is a person who is ready to vouch for another. Generally the name of the head of the institution where the applicant last studied and the name of the employers order whom he worked. Opening: wish to apply for the post of advertised by you in _ _ _ _ _ _ ____ ____ of Nov 3. which do not usually sketch the character & competence of the applicant. makes me confident that I can do the job of a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ advt. It is necessary for the employer to obtain information about the selected candidates integrity. specialized training. are cited. ability for the post and any other facts. I wish to be considered for this post. The interview conducted enables the employer to select a candidate but before the appointment order is sent. 40/92 in the HT of 12 sept. 2004 for a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. conduct & job suitability. experience. dated. The name of those person with whom the applicant has been associated are given.  Please refer to your advertisement no. by you in HT of dated _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _. It is necessary to obtain the prior consent of the person you wish to cite as your references.  I should be grateful if you would kindly consider me for the post of a _ _ _ _ _ advt. . 2004. These remarks are considered more suitable/reliable than the open testimonial. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. Hence the applicant is generally requested to name.  My qualification & 8 year‟s experience as a _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ of _ _ _ _ _ _ co. references and any other relevant information‟s. in their application. honestly. educational qualifications. by you in T01.28 PREPARING THE RESUME The resume or the personal data sheet is an inventory of the applications personal details. The prospective employer writes to those person for their confidential remarks about the applicants characters. persons who are willing to be a reliable source of information about them.

29 Closing:    I look forward to heaving from you soon. . I trust you will favor me with an interview. I would appreciate an opportunity of attending an interview. I hope that my qualification will merit your consideration.

(iv) Background papers or information. At the meeting the business is normally transacted in the order in which it is listed in the agenda. They are generally written by the secretary of the organizational unit. a week prior to the meeting. (iii) Program of business to be transacted. they are attached in a separate sheet along with the notice. It is drown up by the secretary in consultation with the chairman. . otherwise. time & place of meeting. This helps the group to keep to the schedule & cut down meaningless & irrelevant discussions. to all the members. executive committee. The day. (ii) Day. time & place of meeting & the business to be transacted (agenda). the following elements are included: (i) Name of organization/date of circulation. AGENDA:Agenda is a document that outlines the contents of a forth coming meeting. MINUTES:Minutes are the official record of the proceedings of a meeting. finance committee etc. MINUTES OF MEETINGS. date. The notice is usually circulated. Keeping minutes of the meetings of the board of directors. date.30 NOTICE. AGENDA. is mentioned in the notice. NOTICES:The rules of procedure of every organization clearly states the notice period required for calling a meeting – both General body meeting & meetings of smaller groups such as governing body. (v) Signature of the secretary. It is usually sent along with the notice of the meeting. Generally the first item on every agenda is confirmation of the minutes of the previous meeting and the last item any other matter with the permission of the chairman. It is an official list of things to be done or dealt with at a particular meeting. If the agenda is circulated as an annexure. Other items are arranged in their order of importance. Each item is numbered some organizations also indicate the time when each item will be taken up at a meeting. The notice should reach the members within a reasonable time before the meetings. The items of business is mentioned in the notice if their number is small.

Sometimes however the core idea is not expressed in one sentence. A clear. (ii) Minutes of Narration:. & general body of joint stock company is a legal requirement. b) Date. concise. Types of Minutes:. a brief account of the discussion & voting pattern is also included. compare & contrast it with other similar ideas. details & proof. as a whole. Mere groping of sentences does not constitute a paragraph . the conclusion reached. give supporting facts. the paragraph must have unity of theme & cohesion. In addition to the resolutions passed. accurate & well-organized summary of the business liras acted is all that is required. PARAGRAPHING A paragraph is a group of sentences related to one core idea and arranged in a logical order.31 committees of directors. d) Name of chairman of the meeting.Minutes are of two types(i) Minutes of Resolution:. Minutes usually contain the main points of discussion. Minutes must be precise & they are not a verbatim record of the proceedings.It is somewhat similar to a report. One thing is essential have. e) Name of members present. illustrates or provide additional information. The following items are listed in minutes: a) Name of organizational unit. the recommendations made & the tasks assigned to individual members & groups. f) Record of transactions. time & place of meeting c) Number of meeting. All other sentences clarify the idea.Here only the resolutions passed at a meeting are recorded and no reference is made to any discussion preceding to the resolution. The core idea is generally expressed in a sentences called the topic sentence/theme statement. Minutes may be recorded either in a tabular/block form or in the form of continuous paragraphs. one may have to declare it firm the paragraph. g) Signature of the secretary & the chairman.

e) A full & rounded final sentence in conclusion. end & occasionally in the middle. It can be short or long according to the necessity of the case. it is advisable to very the length of sentences as well as paragraphs. The sentence in a paragraph should be semantically linked. c) Logical sequence of thought. “ A paragraph is a number of sentences grouped together and relating to one topic. . The essentials of good paragraph construction area) Unity.” There is no rule as to the length of a paragraph. b) A good topical sentence. However to make a written material attractive. d) Variety.32 The topic sentence may be located in to beginning. a group of related sentences that develop a single point. The topic sentence occurring in the end usually summaries the contents of the paragraph. and. or.

we would be pleased to send our first order immediately.  Ask for terms relating to discount credit. b) Should your terms be favorable. packing etc. c) We should be pleased to get information about the prices to terms on which you could supply _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ . services or information. ORDERS. d) Since we plan to give you regular business.  If you are asking for concession.large & continuous order. availability etc. please quote your most favorable terms. price. catalogue etc.  Give an idea of the quantity you require. of goods to be purchased. so as to quote the best possible prices. Hints for drafting an ‘Enquiry’  State the purpose of your letter. Closing Sentence:a) We would really appreciate an early response.  Ask for sample/demonstration etc.  Request for price-list. mode of delivery. give reasons. QUOTATION:- . TENDERS ENQUIRY:When a buyer wishes to get some information about the quantity. ability to promote sales in your area etc. c) Since our stocks are exhausted. Some ways of opening: a) We would be grateful to get details of your prices _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _. he writes a letter or enquiry to the seller. or about the terms of sale etc. QUOTATION. Pleases treat this enquiry as urgent. whether you need goods.  Tell the seller know you got his name.33 ENQUIRY. b) We should appreciate details of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _.  State the details of your business.

terms of payment. . b) Place & time of delivery. colour.34 It is a specific offer for sale. and also locate the right seller. Placing Orders:After accepting a quotation. freight. made in response to an enquiry from a particular person or business house. giving details specification regarding shape. conditions of delivery etc. _ _ _ __. e) Ask for guarantee period. d) Charges on account of sales tax. d) Give an idea of quantity required. b) Request for the seller prices & terms of payment. b) Don‟t hesitate to repeat details as size. quality make & description of item. d) Indicate the mode & terms of payment. Sending a Quotation:Give a prompt reply to a letter inviting quotations. quality. e) Mention mode of transport. make etc. Drafting such a letter needs great care so as to get information we wish to collect. Do not forget to a) Place a clear & firm order. g) State the full address & place where you want the goods delivered. color. It is customary for a business organization to invite quotations from several sellers before placing an order. c) Ask for a sample. Don‟t forget to mention: a) Mode & terms of payment. For this: a) Describe your needs clearly & precisely. _ _ __ e) Packing & forwarding charges. Make reference to catalogue or identification number. c) Method of transport. f) Tell the time-period by which you expect the goods to arrive. c) Specify the quantity stating the price per unit of each item. f) Ask for accessories & parts if any. The purpose is to find out the cheapest & the best source of supply of goods required. A quotation includes details about prices of specific goods. size. next step is to place order. if any.

notices regarding tenders are advertised in newspapers. inviting prospective sellers of services & goods to quote their rates for doing a job or supplying goods specified in the notice. . It maybe construction of roads.  Sealed & separate % rate tenders are invited by the undersigned by date: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ up to time: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ & shall be opened on the same day at time: _ _ _ _ _ _ _______. or needs adequate prior preparation. whose execution is spread over a period of time. bridge or bulk supply of goods or rendering of service. Opening Sentences: Tenders are hereby invited for: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .  Sealed tender on work order basis or through rate system are invited from the _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ .35 h) Give details if you wish any extra kind of packing & be prepared to pay extra. _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ __ __ _ _ _. Tenders are invited for jobs. Inviting Tenders:While quotations are sought from a few selected sellers. magazines.  Sealed tenders in duplicate are invited from _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ______. i) Goods would be _ _ _ _ _. When a tender is accepted the successful tenderer has to sign a contract. buildings. if specifically instructed. to do what he has promised. estimated cost Rs.

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