I\ 1YST1C:\L 1\IET.

-\L L)F li()LL)
1-tc.. lhkl., ,;,J. b.
14Y. Ill L.m"l"""" 1\t::i 2LH, t" l. 4<J'-
I 'iu. BL !S 6:,4, 1!. I U\'.
151. u,,,l., 1"1. 17.
151. lhi-1., f"l. IJ,·.
I 53. R, llll;l llll> D.- lhlllilliiHdll"l'-' 111-:r.rllr,". 111 :\m, .JIIll}..:r.t.: \ ll.t>..: l, I 5<J l),
2:37.
154. C.u·l Junt: .. \l)'.\ l.:rllll\1 CunJIIIICIIWU>, l LHl>. it F. C. Hull, Scn<.:>
(l'nnc<.:lllll : Pnn<:<.:t<lll Un l\·.:r>ity l'rc'», I<J61), 122-3, .mJ Al.:h.:nric,,l Sru.li.:,, rr.tn>.
R. F. C. I lull, J3,, lling..:n S..:ric> (Prin..:<.: t<ll1: Prin<:cr<m Uni,·cr>ity Pr..:», l':l67),
6, 215-1/.
I 'iS. 13 .. ,11-:y ':l72, ,;,1. 1\H.
l 5b. Elt:t> Tlr..:,unnn Chcmicum Um.unuc•oll \L .. n,I.Hl, ltl52). 3u3- 4.
157. lhtJ., JJ3--t.
15ti. 1\,,,JJ cy t--l:::l <J72. t,,J. -! in.
159. BL Llll,,i<>wnc 1\IS 203, 4; BL :::ll...nlL' 1\ l:::i ob-!. ,; ,t,, o,·, lb.
l oO. BL S J, ,. tn..: 6J4, f,,[,, I h. 16,·.
161. L. l\.1. l'rincipe ;rn,l L. [lt:Wirt, Tr,uHutur,ai .. ns: :\lchclll)' in An (l'hi l. tJdph ta: Ch..: rtr-
ic:tl H..:nragc Fnun,l.ttum, 2002), 11. in Ltunnda Drx,,n, Alch,•tnrc,,l
lurdgcT) m IJ. ,ch', GarJ.:n .. f Ddrglu, (:\nn .-\rl><1r, Ul\!1 R<.:><.::m.:h Prc», 19oJ),
hg. 6.
l o2 BL St...,nc 1\IS 2640.
ltl3. B,>.llcy .-\, hnll>l.: MS 1-!-1 5.
2
A Biography of Edward Kelly, the
English Alchemist and Associate of
Dr. John Dee
Michael Wilding
Thc ern If>, J r>£< ll'l h >11>, l.rbn..:auc>n>, anJ Jc:r.anJ.l[l<ll1> 111 cxi>tlllg .K ... <>unl> .. r t L,
lit",: uf EJwarJ 1\:clly a n.: rou m.my inJiviJu.1l rduratrun. E1 cn rhc n" >t
rt:>pun,ible comm.:nrarurs anJ h i,rori.ms have, up<m ,lealmg with Kdli, rc-
peateJ the,.: unsub, rantiJreJ anJ gcn<.:rJlty Jcr<>g.tt<>ry ,r,>ri.:s. In rh1, .1rt 1.:lc 1
hav<.: w <l>:.cmble rh<l>e rce<JrJ:. <l f hi:. liic rhat can be venhc, l lrllm
..:ont.:mpor.uy 1!\'iJcn..:c, fucu:»ing fnr rc,I:><Hl> <lf >pace nn the documcnr. u·i Jc-
Lails of cveryJay liic, rather than ,m the v,Jluminuu> Jral<1gue:. with >ptnt> th ... t
ht! unJc:nook fur De:\!.
EJwarJ Kdty wa, hclfl) ar w\)f(C:>tcr on .-\ugu>t 1, 1555, .ll 4 P.:--.1 lit,
>urnaml! is sumerim<.::. :.pctlecl Kdlcy (it b t<> Kdly thr,>ughuut dlh
ani..:le), anJ h.: :1bu wcnr un,ler rhe name ut EJwJ rJ Talb,>t. J,>hn Dee rc..:cHJcJ
Kdly'> Jate nf birth in rht! h<Jf<l>C<lpe he Jrew up ,,i hi:. n.tn,·iti ,
1
JnJ m tl...
margin> of rhe almanac ht' u,c:J .b a J iary: "Eel. Kdly n.ttus h,1ra a mcrtJlc
ut annorarum rdiquir P•ltcr eju,."!
At sumc puinr Dc:e ga1·c Kdly a C<>py uf . 111 u..: t.l\c> biblc pnmc,J hi R, t·..:n
Stcpht'ns in 1555. It i:. the llnly b<>llk thJt Dce rc..:<lrJ, g11'tng t1> Kdli.
coincklence <>i its publi<:.tti<m Jate anJ Kdly'> birth ,t.1rc >urdy lJy behmJ the
gift, whar.:ver llrh.:r h<l(l<! fur mural guiJan..:.: m.1y ha,·.: been imphcJ. '
Parish rc..:,1rJ, ,hllw th.tt EJ,, .u-J Kdl y, >cll1 of P.nri..:k Kdly, 11 .1> dm•tc .. ,.J
on .-\ugu>r 2, 1555, at SL Swirhin's church, 'XI\>rce.rcr. H.: h.rJ a >l:>tcr Eh:.rl·.:tll.
born in 1558, anJ .1 broth.:r ThLl mas. Th,>ma:. larer J<Hned Dee', h<lu,eh,,lJ .u1J
D.:e fl!CurJs h b birth J are in thc Jiary, Ocwhcr 17, 1565, a!,,, dt Wur..:c: ,r...r .at
in the :lftern<>un.
4
AnJ De.: rccurJ:., W<>, rhc bmh J.nc uf EJwarJ 1\:cll, ·•
wtfe in hb Jiary: June 23, 1563. ''jane Cnupcr, n<>ll' My, t ri:. Kdly, h •11.uJ
ev.::ning" (PD, 1- 2). Sh.: cam.: fr,Hn Chipping N<HT<H1.
Nor much i> known of Kdly bdc>rc he mcr Dc.:. Dct.ul, ell h1, eJ .. , .• u . . .
arc unknuwn. Neither the Ruyal Grammar Sch<ll>l nor rhc 1\:mg':. ::> ... I. .... !.
W,wc.:sra, ha, pupil rc..: <J rJs from thi:. pcriLlJ. Thcrc b a >llll) thar he· 11 . ., .a1
uni1·er:.iry at OxforJ, bur ir has 11< >[ been :.ub,ranti.uccl. :\nrl1l>ny j \X
1
,1.>J r,,, ,;j.
in rhar Kdl y "being ab•Jll[ 17 i<.!llf> ut Ag.:, ,l[ fi111c
h.: had attaineJ tu a n>mpetency uf GrammM l.:arning at Wor.:o!.srcr .mJ ._!,, .
wh.:re, was :.<.:nr to Oxf,1rJ, hut tu whar H<lU>c 1 cannot rdl. Hm1 c1 cr, I !. .• , c
35
)() l)f l;()Ll)
hn:n lnf<ll llln i h\ .Ill .lllc' ic: lll P,,ILhci<ll' <J( l)ll' lnit)' llih> in hi, )'Ullngl' r \'Cdr>
h<.:c:n .m .-\llhlllll.:lhh Ill 1-.lr Thlllll.b .-\l kn ut' Gluu.:c;t.:r-lw/1, rhat h..: \Kdl\) h.1cl
, p..:nt • rim..: in th.tr 11·hl'reup.m I, r..:..:urring ru rhc matricuLninn,
uadJ nul tine! t h<.: n.llliL' .1t' Kdly, unly T.tlhur <lt lrdand, rhre.: <l f ll'hi..:h n.Hn<.:
11<.:rc , ru,km, rh<.:r<.: in 1573, 74, &c ... n.:Lniun b..:ing , lubi,Ju:dy
, ldil·ere,l h > Ill<.!, tdl \<RI tk1r Kdly ha\'mg an lllh<.!tti..:J mi nJ, lcfr Oxun
:1hruptly, wi rhuur being enren.'cl intll the marricula."; Somcll'hcr<.: ahmg rh..: lin..:
1\:dly karn.:cl tlu.: m Larin.
El i;b A,hnh>k l'l'Cllr,k,l in 16/5 that the :btrui,Jger Lilly tulcl Ill<.: thJt
J<>hn E1·;11b who tir, t r.1ughr h1111 him rhar he .tCejll<Hm.:J
ll'lth 1\:d\y', ;i,r..:r in Wurce,t..:r, anJ that him ,Ji rh..: g,JI...I h..: r
hruth..:r h.1el triln>mut.:J ancl th.n Kdly 1\',b ti r,r an in W,Jrce>ter."'
Lengl<.:r Ju Fr..:,lll >y claim.:d that 1\:dly ILb •t nurary in Luncl,m, >pcc iali: ing in
h1rging .uH.:i.:nr ritl.: cl.:.:cb, hut n,J J,J..:umenrary e1·iclenc.: j, kn<lll'n tcJ
In h i> Anci.:nt FJm.:rallll lun wn.:nt.s (163 1) j .1hn Wec1·.:r Lucan ;m,l
Ch.1ucer <lll the redmique .1f r.1bing rh.: cleJJ lur >pi ritu.d pn1ph.:q•. H..: then
tdb a , r., ry <>f !-.:dl y in
Thi, eh:JI ,.,Ii..:;d quc·,ri.ming <ll rh..: f111 rh..: knull'leJgl' <l l. t'u[Lir..:
11·a, pur in pr.tcric..: h1 thl' Kdl1; 11·h,1, uppn a ..:enain
night, in the park , ,f Walr, •n-111- le-Jalc:. in the CllUnty uf Lm..:;J,t..:r,
11·irh lllk' l'aul War111g (hi, f..:lln11· <.:lHnp.tni<m in .uch de..:J; uf darkn..:,)
im·ucneel ><lllle une ut· the infernal regiment t<l know c-:nain
in rh..: Ill <:, .d"1 ll'il<H might h..: knc1wn hy rh-: t'nre>lght, ,Ji the
ancl time ,1f rh.: J.:arh ut' a nnhl..: ynung g..:nrl..: man, as then in
war,bhip. The black c..: r..:monic, Llf that night being ended, Kdly
clelll:lllckcl ,J( ••ne ,,f the g..:nrl..:man', seJ'I'ant>, CLl rpse wa; the
hun..:,l in Law church-yard, a church rhereunru aciJ<llning, wh,) tc1ld him
of a Jl<><ll' man thar \\'ob huri..: cl rh..:r..: bur the clay. H..: ancl the
w .• ring entreateJ l hi, ant [ll gu wi th them [\l the gnll <.! of
rhc m;m 'll lardy inr.:rred, which did; and withal , lid hd p rh..:m tl.l
d1g up the carcase ,1f the punr Call it'f, whom by incanrati<lll>, rh.:y
ma, l..: him (or ..:vi l spirit rhmugh his mgalh) to wh<l
dd11·erecl >t range precl ict iuns C<m..:crning the ,aid g..:nrl..:man.
J 11·a, t•1kl much by the said ;erl'ingman, a s.:cundary actor in
th,u Ji,m.d ahhurr.:d anJ dil'l'l'> g.:nrlemen, ancl ,Hh..:rs, n.nv
li1·1ng in to whom he has rdated thb >t<lry. AnJ the g..:nrle-
m.m (wh<l><: m.:nhn·y I am buund t<l h,mnur) t<lkl m.: a lirrl..:
h.:f,•re J ..:atlt nf thb <.:<mjurari<>n by Kdly; '" he had it by rdat ion
tmm hb ,aiel !>1.!1'\';\tH .111d ren.mr; only snm..: circumstance> ex..:cpre, l,
1rhi..:h he rh,lllgh r n<l£ tilting ru cume ru h b mast..: r's kn.nd..:dg..:."'
\\' ..:..:1 er he gi n, h 1, a..:C<lllnt, "!-.:dly ( eH herll'i>l' <.:;Ill eel T.db,lt) rh.n fJm<lU!l Engl i, h
,tkh..:mist of uur limes, ll'hLl fl ying llUt llf hi, uwn -:ountry (afrer h..: hac! lost
h<lth ht, ar Lmcasr..:r) wa, ent.:rraineJ with Ru,l,llf the >t:C<lnd, and l,br <lt'
that Chrbti<lll n.1me, Emt' l..'l'<ll' 11f G..:rnuny." Weel'<:r 11'<1> burn in
.--\ uj f.!u /-:, 11:., Eu_,:ll, h :-\tltdl ll>l
,
an,! rer.uneJ ..:,nlne..:ri, Hh there, >ll the 1\\,1\' b..: .lllt hem". I I, . - .. ,,
tir,r CcHllllll'IIWl<ll' I•> ich:nrtt\ 1-:dl y with Talh,lt ; 11 lth n<l puhli,hed r,·,_, rJ, 1.
Jraw <Ill , h.: lllll1erhdc, knew rhi,
The cmpping ,>fear> ll'<b .1 ,ranJarcl JlllilcJ.tlpuni, hmetH 111 E,, J ,,, ,.I
bur nu cunrempurary r..:C<lrd h,t, h..:en elf 11 h.lt crun..: Kdly ,,.,,, .Ilk_,.!
[ll have nr llf rhc l').eCuti<Hlllt' . uch a

In Pr.l.,;u..: 111 l
Chn>tllpher P.1rkin> a.k..:d lll 1\:dly "in the Emperur', n.une, 1f I c,,uiJ
any aCO.::<lllnr uf the duninish111g of on..: ,,f ..:.1r,."
11
W..:..:1·..:r 1\ td)' ha1·.: ..: :u,.:gcr-
ar..:J in ha,·ing h,Hh lclpped, Jll>t ,b <.:ellllll\etnat<lr> 111 h,t\' 11•-
Kdly regul,trly chggmg up Clll'['>l':i. Only •llle Clll'p>e b lll h,11 c hc:.:n
and only <llll' e.tr i, h..:r..: ,,1iJ Ill ha1·e b..:en
In 1581 j c1hn h.1d b..:gun l<l<Jk mg flt r an <bSbt.IIH tu hdp hun
with >fllri ts. De..: \\'<IS htry-ti,·c, a di.ringui,hecl nurh..:m.l£1(1,111, obl r<l luger, .. nJ
>peculariv..: thinkl!r.
1
! H.: haJ the larg<:>t pri v,n..: bhrary in Bmam hut it 11'.1' 11 .1t
.:n<lugh. N<l\1' he 1\',mrcd dir.:cr t<l dil·in..: knuwleJge, me,b.ltcd d1r,1u,.:h
angds, 11f <.:lJursc. The rec,Jr,h uf t he >)' lrttu,tl rran,a..:tl<llb rh.11
from parmer,hip wirh De.: :ue prl'>l!n·ed in m.mu,..:npt> 111 ti ll'
L1hr.try. Th..: maj ,H· part are re..:nr.J..:, I 111 Il lS Cnrrun App..:ndJ)\ XL\ '1
part> I and 2. Thi, \\' '\> rr;ubcribe, l .md by !l.lcn..: C.t,,luhon, ,,, :-\ Tn,L
and Faithful R.:!tuion uj' W'hw Pru.s.:d jiJl' t>ltlll)' Or. John 0.:.: ( :-\
Mmht.'ln,ui..::ian of Gn.:tll Falllc in Q. Ek.rb,·Lh ant! 1-:ing th<.'lr ,11\J
Som.: Spirits: T.:nJing (hliJ i1 Sl li.:C.:dd) w « Gcncr,d .-\lt..'n11io11 uf lllo>l St.rtl'> ,mJ
1-:ingdum.:s i11 tho.! \\lurlJ ( L111dun: Pnnr..:J by D. llla)\11'..:11 f,ll' T. G.mh11 .ur,
1659).1l Th..: reC<lrJs llf rh..: iniu.d rran>.lCt l<llb haJ h.:..:nm..: 'ep.1rat<.:d fr,Hn rh.:
m.He riab Ca,auhun .md were .u.:qu1r..:d by .-\,hmul..: 111 16/2."
Th..:y are now prl'>el'l'ccl "' Librar1 IllS S!,,,me 3188. They \I'L'I'c tr. ut-
,..::ribed anJ eJired by Chri,rnph..: r Whirhy 111 a d,Kt<Jral th..:,b at rhe Un11·..:r, m
of Birmingham, 1%1, John 0.:/.s A..::tion.s ll'ith S/Jil'll.s: 22 1581 t" 23
May 1583.
11
A furrh..:r ..: pi><hlt!, pre • ..: r\'..:d in the &klb.m li br.1ry A,hm •• k
1790 arr. I) , \\'as dis..:lll'..:r..:d ancl tran,l.u..:el hy C. H. j ,,,ren a> "An Unkn.nl n
Chapter m rh.: Li fe llf j ,Jhn Dee," ]u11nwl of thc \v'urb11rg a11d Collrtuu!J
28 (1965): 223-57; EJwar,l F..:ntcll\ in Tlu. Oiari.:> of John Oc.: , Jr.lll -
clll a ;,el'l'nte.:nrh-cemury rr.ublatll)ll<lf rhi, epi,od.: (Bnri,lt Library, !\ IS Slu.ll\l'
3645, fols. 22-38). S,1me <If the m.u..:ri,ll, fmm rh..: >pimual >e»illn> 11er..: tr.lll-
,..::ribed an,! >)'>t..:m,ui:.:J llH<l <lth..:r li\.111U>l'I' IJ't ,.,,lume,.
1
"
De..:'s tirsr wcr..: He hJun-1 .111 ·'"''t .• r.r
B.lrn,th;t> Saul, a pre;t..: h..: r and ma.rer of arts. In F..:hru.1ry 15b2 S.llllll'a> m,h, le J
but rd..:a, ed, "hi, inclicnnenr being hy law i11>Uihcienr at W..:, llnin,t...r
Dee thllugh ll'lth<lllt wh.n th<! ..:: harg..: ll'<b lPD. I; :
Fent<lll, 24 ). If it inl'oll'ccl >lll\\1\\<llling up 0..:..: 11'<1> luck} n<>t t<> h,,, L
heen tu<L The pre1j..:cr hal'e C•l i\\L' Ill an en, l. But c·.trl\ 111
March a new .ecr wa, intr<lcluceJ t<l D..:..: by a 1\ lr. Clerblln. 1\IM..: h :,,
• anJ hi, triend cam.: t<l my h<Hl>e .... " The hlllmving J .1y, "Fn,L\ .u
dinner tim..:, Mr Clerbcm an,i 11- lr Talh,ll a great -lea! ut B.mul .,;
naughty Jeahng tuwar,l me: 11> 111 r..:lling lr Clcrb.m ill <11. m,· th .. t I
, h,Juklmak hi, t'n.:nJ, rn.H h..: wa> uf me, th.lt I "''''.J
l\l t--IY:)liC.-\L t--lET.AL l...IF t1l...ILI)
,,,tl.nrer hi, fri,·n-1 the karne,lnl.lll rha1 1 ,,.,,ukl h,m._,,,· IFelH<>Il: ''here<ll'e"] hi1n
,,f him. But hi, fric:nJ t<l l, l Jlle, hefure my wife Cl.:rb.m, rhar a >pi ritual
ue.l(ure t••ki him rhar B.u·nah<b had cethur..:J IFentun: ''cu,ened"l h<)th 1\lr
Clerb<m an-I nu: . The injuri.:, 11·hich rhis B<H"n<lhas ha,! June m.: , li l'ers II'J)'S
w..: re w ry gr..:ar, ere" (PD, H- 15; F..:m,•n 24). Tw,, lines partially c:ra,e,l in rhe
c>ri gin;tl arc rest<JreJ in rexr: "Thi, k;lrn.:,l man afr..:r Jinn.:r
t<l du ll"har he coul-1 t<l further my kn,lwle-lge in magic ... with fairie, ... A
;mJ lhliTihl.: lie" (F..:ntlln, 25). Ahu1·..: the JeleteJ emry is wrinen,
"\\JU that r.;a,l thi, unJ..:nHirrt.:n <b>UI\: yuursdf that it b a shameful li..:, fur
Talbnr neither sru,lt.:d f,,r any rhu1g: nnr ,h,lm.:-1 him,df dishonest in
anythi ng." Ab,,,·c thi:. D..:e IITlltc, "Thi, is l\lr Talb,lt, or rhJr karn..:d man, hi,
nwn IITiting in my h,>,>k, , ·,·ry un.luly came by it" (F..:nr.m, 26 n.l3).
Halliwl·ll rcm.1rked, ''There aro.: ••ther ut" Talb,lt cra,ed, bur
whetloer by hitn lll" hy the LJ,Jcror it i, imp<>»iblc [l) >Cl)', hut must rrllbably rho.:
t(mner" (PD. I 'in). The cra>cd entries rdar..: mainl y w Talh,lt ur tu Dcc's wik,
an-I an.: rc,r.,rc-1 in text (-H. 45, 46, 47, 48, 51 , 70, 72). Twu indicate
Dec', J,,uhr, ahuur Talbllt. l'vlay 29, l5tl2, "lunderSl"<JoJ Talb,lt hi:. wicked
n<Hure .md hb ah.Hninablc ,·rc." July 16, 15tl2, "I hJ1·e c.mti rmcd that
Talhut was <I cuscner ... " (Fcnron, 45, -1 6) . Yet whatcl'er douhts Dec had, he
C<HHinuc,lt<> eml'l<lY Talh,lt anJ llllrk with him ior the no.:xt se1·cn ycJrs. His
mu:.r :.cri<lU> -!uuht is in a nllte t•• recurd ut rhc :.piritu<d trJtbac-
riun, ut !\larch I 0, 1582, ll"hcn he rhar Tal bot w!J him that originally
"his cuming ll'a> to entr<lp me, it 1 had haJ any dealing wirh wick.:,! spirits, as
he uftl·n times <ltrer: <llkl that he \\"<.IS :.et <ll1, etc."
1
i Who had set him
<HI i, nc1·er re..:llrded.
The ne11· :.eer came under the: name "f E,lwar,l Talhllt, but after Nu1·cmher
!5Li 2 he i> knuwn as Edw.1rd l(dly (Llr l(dley). J<>hn Wee1·..:r, wr iting in 1631
,1f "Kclly (llrh..:rll'i>c knll\1' 11 as T i, the tirsr commcmarnr t<l i,lenrify
T,1lbur an,! i(..: ll y. With 11<1 puhli>he,l recur,!, w dra11· un ar rhis dare \XIec1·cr's
identili..:miun t<l be trum some now unknown per>cmal or ancclh>ral
Slllii"Ce. l>
On ::l;llur.l. ty, March 10, 15tl2, De..: and his new hcg.m their cun-
sulrar iuns ll"tth spirits, which c.nuinue,l, with inrcrrupti<Hb, tor se\'o.:n years.
Kelly l<hlk,·d intu <t "sh<lll" swn.:" and saw the spirits. De.: a,kcd the quc,tkHos.
The >pirits rq)lied rhruugh Kdly. Occasionall y the spi ri ts appear..:d rhc
Stllne, hut thc n.: was murc nf a risk nf dcvi li:.h impnstcl r, appearing uutsidc the
stune than in ir. R. J. W. El'ans ll"rircs 11f Kdly, ''his at the
seance:. suggc::>t <lt 1·cry leaor thuruugh familiarity with the t..:chnical
ut "cculti>m."
1
'' Nu dcscriptilln ,J( the St<lnc hur ir :.ecms th<lt Dcc haJ
more than une. ,lrawings in rhe margin uf rhe :.piritual record:. suggest
rhar they were: >phcric; d halls, ancl fr,lm eviden..:c in the records w.: can as;, ume
rhcy were uf cryoral. In the British there is <I bbck <lbsidian mirn1r, of
Mexican •Jrigin, ll"hich is tLl hal'e bclunged t<l Dec. It b duubtful, h,>wc1·cr,
whether this wa' uoed in rh..: :;crying se:»ions.:.
1
Dcc dn.;, nut tu seen ur hcar,l dk• >piritual creature>
, ltrecdy, alth,1ugh the yc;tr hefl1rt:, May 25, !So l, he rcc,Jrdcd in hi, lliclry thar
I
A Bt.,gntphy uj EJu.nJ 1-.:dl;.. Englt,!t :\l,·h.:tlll\l
) -1
" I haJ ,ighr in cry:.rallli<Jitcre,l m..:, and I ,m.-' ' (PD. 11; Fent<Hl, I)). but 11. .t
ro h;11·e b..:cn a rare •Kcasi<ll1. His praCtiCe nllw II' J> t<J pur h t> ·I Lie> I •· ,, ,,
and the ,piritual creature, wnuld Jnswo.:r rhr ..1ugh Kdly, whll rlo..:lll 111 rl.,
sr.m..:. De..: wou!J then write ,Jnwn what wa, The n<lte, were l.n,·r •
scrihed, an-I the rec(>r,ls ,If rhe>e up inru buob. Orh..:r m.l nt,,._ ti j'f
bnoks w..:re compi led which ab,rracteJ anJ Ctlllared rh..: infnnnati•m
The spiritual clialugue:. with Uric!, Gabrid, lich.ld, H.aph.1d, N.rh
Di.: lllis, Mapsama, an,! orhcr angds C<llloi,r oi l..:ngthy insrru..:tilln:. 111 .m,:c:l
magic, warnings <lt" apucalyp:.o.:, explc1rariun:. ot g..:nealugi..::., surveys of the rq;tdl•'
uf rh.: W<lrld, rebukes tll Kdly f,lr privately pracu.:ing SataniC 1\\..Jgtc, an,l .tlchem-
ical and parables. Slime of rhe ,pint>, like the )'llung girl l,•J
Madimi), arc Jma:ingly individu<lteJ . Kdly', power, h.l\'1.! been
d,JUbted by C<Hnmenrators, bur if dial.1gucs were J cotb.::Illlb h, ,_,:o. ,
then Kelly sh,1uld be given due credit as a literary

The ,pirirual e:o. pl,mHi<lm were <lftcn interrupre,l. On 20,
T alb,)( was instructed, "He go fm rh.: h<l<lb ebe t hey will pen,h. " !In
explain.:d in a n<)te: "He mc.mr thar my patrner E,l. , h,>uld g<l t•• I.Ctch
the hooks ffllm Lanc.tster (or which were rhe Lurd lounreaglc\ b," •
which Mr Murt yet h,t>."
11
William Stanl..:y, rhirJ L,H·d wh<l h.d
died the previous year, i, presumably meant. He a 1\h.:mber ,>f <li1C <li rlo<l>e
pow..:rful, Cad1<Jli.: ari:. tucratic famili<.!s, around wh<Hn pi.Jb and :.uopicilltb tl .. ur-
ished. His granJ ,un William had inh..:rircJ rh..: ride but he 11 cl> cllll)
sev..:n, so rhe bo,Jb arc unlikdy to have been hi,. Th..: yc>ung {,lunte.lgk 11.1.::
lmo.:r inv.JiveJ in the faile,l rebdliun of tlw Earl <lf E:»..:x. He ..::.c.tped ll"l l h .1
fi ne and became an infurmer llll Carhulic C.Hbpir.lcte,. lr I> generall y bdt..:l·c:J
thar ir was h..: whLl revealed rho.: GunpowJ..:r pi< H. Whether or nlll Talh-1t 11 c:nt
to Lanca,ter i:. unkn,nvn. He lefr rw,, day, ,lt[er the • (PD, 15; Fcm.Jn.
40) and W<b back with D..:e five w.:cks later, b1· Arri128, wirh,lur h.J\'lllg uhr.u1kj
the books.
Ar rh.: enJ ui Aprd !5tl2, rhc angd ichctd tlliJ Tal bot rh.n he , hul,IJ
ger married. Talbut 1·ery unhappy ar the "V..:ry ...lt:.qutetcJ ,"
De..: record,. Acc.Jrding t<l Talbut, "H.: sai ...l rhJt 1 mu:. r bcrake r,, th,·
wmld <1ncl f,Jrsake t he 1\'l lrld. That i, rhar I m.Jrf)·. Which tu J,, 1
have nu tutural inclination: n..: irhcr with <I o<t t"e c,m,c icncc may I J u it , c, ltlt r.tr)
t<l my I'OW and pr,Jiessi<Ho.":; On May 4, T,,lbor kt"t (PD, 15; Fenron, -14).
lr is unckar what he m..:;mt by his Vll ll' and pt"<lfe,ilm. Did h.: m..:an l.v
forbidden ro 1m1rry becauoe he was •1 prie,t ? Wh.tr cbe .::lluiJ Le
have meant? he operating undergfllund in Engbn,l, under an .t:.>Ullled n .• nr,
pur into Engbnd from a ill Eur,1pe? Walsingham's mrellt,;en ... ,
network hJd intercepted and turned a uf such 1)ric,r, and u,eJ tlo..: m ·''
inf,mners <ll1 urher Catholics. Was Kclly/ Talb,Jt <lll<.: ,>( rhuse? 11nL
which he is assuciar..:J in Wee1·er's ,r,Jry and in hi:. prup,1,ed fur 1--l •• un-
b,1uks, was at this t ime a ;,tr,JngllLll,j of C,nh,llic
The ,!Jr..: uf the marriag..: is unknown. Th..: mcntinn <lf ·, 11 11L
io in the , piritual reC<lrcls on April 29, 15tl1, when Kclly rcceil'ed a l..:rrcr 1. . ,n,
'

l\1\STIC.-\L L)f l11.)1J)
h..:r. ·
1
.-\r thb J'<>IIH 1-:dl\ n<>t ru h.r1·..: he..:n li 1 mg with h..:r, hut >f-' \ mg
with D.:..: .H h lllrt lak..:.
\..Jn July I 3, th..: <>f ·'I'J'car:, in D..:..:' s ,li.lr)' t;,r the Li>t
tim..:: Talh,n C<IIHC .rh,•ur 3 uf the d n.: k afrc·r n<l,H1, with whum I h.rJ >dill<.:
wnr,b ,,f unkindn..:,; 111.: fnt!n,lly; h.: >aiel rh.n rh.: Lur.l h.1cl rh.:
L1rd t-,(,,uiHeagle hi, h,,.,k, . H..: pr<llllised me sum..: ni Dr hu,,b" (PO,
16; F..: ntcl n, -!5 , r..:;llb ''with wh<Hll llud ><•me \\'llr,l, c1ih,1ok dc:llmg: whc1 p.med
in fri ..:nJi y r..:rm,"). 1\(,,unre;lgk', daughter Eli:aher h haclm.uTieel EJw.rrJ
Parker, lOth h.1run t-,(,,rl..:y, and it \\'aS prc>Ulll:lbly he whu ncm· haJ the! hclllks.
lr is nor kn, n,·n ll'l1<1 Dr. h lyniver was, bur lat..:r in the ,pi ritual rran,;H.:ti<H1S
(June· 27, 158-!: TFR, 185) Kdly rnl,l D.:..: that he haJ karn..:J >ume magic
frdlll him. p,1SMhly }\ h•untl!agle'> bu,lkS d..:a!t with magic, [ll\l.
\X
1
hen th.: >piritu:d tmnsacti<Hb N,ll'..:mh..:r 15, 15b2, >Cryer is
n:un..:el Eclll·.u·el Kdly.:; In a >pirirual ,.;, i, ln <ll1 Nlln:mb..:r 21, the .mgd, ddrv-
creel .r ,tun..:, ",1, hig .h an egg," whr ch Dee fuunJ un rhe tl u,u· ut his >tuel \:.:o
After thi, gill there ar..: nu recllrd, nf furrh..:r >piritu:ll CtHWer,.rriuns t;1r f,lur
nHmth,. The pri1·ar..: ,li:u-y r.:curd, rh:lt the clay airer the gift Kdly >d llff ru
L, 111d,ll1 anel Lhe tdluwing d.1y t<l Blu.:kl..:y m rh..: Cms\\'olds, h1 rerurn withi n
ten , lay, (PD, 17; Fent<Hl, 51). But rher..: i, thl indi.:.Jri.m th<H he Jicl return
unti l t>.L1rch the f;>llmrmg )l!ar, 1583.
I 11.: returned \\'ith a J"hn llu, ey <lf Bl,>ckky, ll'ith wh.nn h..: ,,lid he
h;o,l f,•und <1 >Cn>ll, wrirr..:n in >t rangc character>, a P<l\\'eler, and ..1 m;mu,cript
cun>t>ting ,,f t\1'<> indi,·i,lual h,>uks <111 >uhj..:.:rs, ,1ne ,,,- rh..:m rh..: alchem-
ical hn,lk ut' Dull>t<m, :m,! the ud1..:r a b,,,,k ut' hi..:r,>glyphics. f,1LmJ,
h..: hy >piritual Jirc:.:ri,lll ar N,>rrhwick Hill n.:ar Blnckley.:i The P<ll\'clcr,
De..: .m, l 1-:dly Lltl!r cSt<lhli , heJ, \\'as the akh..:mical elixir. 1-:dly Jid nut immcdi-
arely r..:1·..:al to De:..: full ,,f rh..: ircnh
.-\ number ,,r manus.: riprs ru Sr. Dunsran exbr . .-\ .:upy ,,f the:
"Tr.oct.JtU> D,Hnini Du11>tani Epi><=llpi Cantuaritbb, \'cri philo,.>phi, dt:
L1pidc phik•,uphl>rum" in rhe hanJ c1f Arrhur D..:..: in rhe Britl>h Li-
hr;lry, h,1un,lwrrh his "Arcr ar.:anllrum" (MS Slnanc 1876). Anhur 11'<1>
J•1hn D..:..:', >lln, anJ ir i> • rhar thi> is a nf the;:
>.l lllL' 1\\lrk rh.lt Kdly clbc<l\·er..:J, hur the where<lhl>urs ,1f rh..:
manu,.: npr Kdl y , li, cm·er..:J is nnr knnwn, ir impu,:.iblc to be cc:rrain.!'
It ha, been rhar rhc enigmatic Vuynich "Roger 13acun" manu-
_,cript , <liKe· hdllngi ng t<1 rh..: Rud,>lf anJ nu\\' prc::...:n·cJ in the Bc:in..:ck..:
library ar Uni1·..:r:.iry, \l'<b nne <>f Kclly's Bln.:kky Jbc<>v..:rie,. De..:'s ><lll
Arrhur rokl Sir Thoma, Br,l\1'111.: rhar in Buhemia p<bsess..:J a bcll>k, t(nmd
rugcrh..:r \\'ith a J1<lll'der, "cllntaining nothing hut hicruglyphic>, which 0<1l1k his
brh..:r hc:st<lll'cd much rune upnn: bur I <=<•ukl 11<1[ hear [har he Cl>ukl mJke ir
llltt." L1e>J1i t..: Cllll>iderahk dt(1rr an,l <hsi,rcd deClleling ru rh..:
y,,ynich lll<H1u:.cripr, still llll <111e hecn ahk ru make ir
In larcr ycar:. . nher acC<lUnt> ut the a.:ctuisiri,m uf rh.: pu11J..:r .m, l
rhe manuscript .: ir.:ularcJ. Eli;b A, hmllle \\Tore in Th.:amon Ch.:nucwn Bmanni-
Cillll rhar ,mJ Kdl r sn >tr:mgdy furtumrre, as tu tinJ a \'ery largc
quanriry uf rhe elixir in pmr of rh..: ,,fGI,t>t<ll1hury abbey.""' But thb
I
A 13togT.t[ilr;. ll/ EJu,n,l 1:-:dl), rhc En,:lt,!r Akhclll•>l
.,,
11.1s \l'rlrt.:n hd,He h,1,l .rcqlllrc:d rhe m.mu,cnpr ,1( thl' nl>t I'.« I,: it..
spiritu,d ri.:CllrJ, , 111 which the: Bh>.:kley .ICC<>llllt i> gl\'1!11. Niclll." Lcn.:kt ""
Fre, noy d,1im..:d in hi, Hi,wir.: d<! ltt Philu:;oJJhlc H.:ml.:ll<jltl' (I i -!2 ) rh.H 1-: .ll,
b,>ughr rh..: pnwder anJ the mamr,.:npr f, ,r Il m the Webh m.1rche· r'r, m ,,;;
innkeeper 11 htl h,1J i.ICLJllir..:J rhc!m fr<Hll the rt>hher> uf th..: rumb Ut .. I f-r,h, J' li:
a neighb<lring church.U There is nll re<b•ltl fll credit e1rh..:r llf th..:>c i.ICCllll llt •.
Dee haJ alchemical lahuratL>rit:> at hi> huu,..: ,n 1\ lurrb ke , fl' l\ nu k •
up,rream ui L, m,hm on rh..: Th.une,. He h,lJ hc:..:n ..:xp..:rim..:nring thll ,
for twenty y..:ars. I lis library cnnrameJ sum..: nin..:ty .d.:h..:mical h,,.,k, ;mJ ,,;.., \
alchemical manu>.:riprs, many con>l>tlng 11f mur..: rhan <me w.>rk.
1
! There ,, ...
diary of ht, alchemical cxperimetlt> f,11' 15:5 I pre,..:n·..:d rn the BuJb.m L1h.,, \
(MS Rawlinson D 2-! 1; in Ft:nrlm, 308-09), anJ hb pnl'arc inJ r-
cate> >umcrhing c1i his cnntinuing intcre>t in rh..: ;1r..:a in rh..: 1580,. lt ,, nut ck.rr.
h<111'1.:\'er, he 11·as ..:ngageel in akhemi.:.d wurk with dt rhr, wn,
Am,mg frequent visitclr> tu tvl,>nbk.: ar thl> rime \\'<1> AJrian Gdbc·rt , h.,lt
brother ro Sir W.drc:r Ral..:gh anJ <l>>i>tanr ru 1\ lary Sidney in her alch..:nue.d
cxperim..:nrs ar Wiltlln Huu,c;. Adrian anJ hi, hrmh..: r Sir Humphrey Gdbl·n
actl\'e in prllllll>ting n>yagc> tcl the t\mc:nca,, pruJc: Ct> in wh1ch Dce 11 ·''
invulveJ. AdriJn G ilb..:rr \\'.!, all.m·..:J ><Hlle pMucip.ll lllt1 111 rh..: >l!»t <lll> 11 11 h
tire spi rir,.
11
Kdly qu.rrrdl..:d \\'lth Grlherr , .1, h..: elrd w1rh .rn<Hh..:r \' t>ll<•r. the
ChJrle> Slc!J. "Serve Gl1d ;md rake h..:cd <>i n..:rrlc:s," a ,pt ritu.LI ,.,1ic..: \\,lrnL·J
nn Apri l 5, 1583. "This was >J1<1kcn ru Kd ly in r..:,p.:.:r ,,fa great anger h.: 11.1•
in yest..:rnighr, by rt!a,,m that haJ J one him inJury hy >pc..:.:h at my r.rHl·,"
Det: recl)rds, n<>ting rhat rh.: per,nn '' hu up>l.:t Kdly wa, • Sled.
11
SI..:J
was one! of Wabingham's lllll>t dfe.:tl\'e .mJ llllb t rr..:achc: r•1US >I!Cr..: r agent>. He
haJ upc:rar..:d a, a spy in R.un..: in 1579, reporting hack nn Carhulk pric>t, wh,,
being prepared fur unelcr<.: <ll'er c>p..:r.Hiun, in Engl.lnJ. H..: ho,l compr leJ ·'
J,»,ic:r <ll \ n.:arly duce hundreel pric,r,, ><1l,lier>, mercham,, .mJ , ruJ..:nt> he· h.,J
met After hi> <=•wcr bl,111'n he: rc: wrnc:J tu Engl.mJ cununuc:J
hi, tl.>r Wabingham. He pre><.:nt,:d 1!\·iJ..:nc..: fur the >tat..: ar rh..: m.t!
uf Edmund Campion. C:l'icknce b widdy hdie1'1.:J l<) h,ll'<.: he..:n f.rhn..: .rre.l.
C.unpi<m wa, >enrc:nc..:,l t<> de.nh and ext:cut..:J. Sle,l hung arc1unJ D..:e', ,,·.,rU
fm a number nf y..:ars anJ "'''' in plunJ..:nng nf his librar). \\ ,,,
Kdly'> a p>ychic re<.:nil frl>lll him! Or d1J Kdly kncm' wh..1t Slt:d \\'a,: \\ .lo
Sl.:d rherc;: war.:hmg De..:, ur Kdly, <l r h,Hh? W.b Slc:d trying tu unJ..: nninc: 1-:ell)
in De..:'s by provoking him in >Llllle wa)'? Or 1f Kdly a> Talhtlr haJ ongr n.dh
been >l!t tu enrrap JiJ they knuw each uther, Kdly anJ Sled, irom wurk m,.
rugether in rhe past, or prcs..:nt !
1
;
Kdl y haJ a tiery tc:mper, anJ hi> rd.Jll<llbhrp \\'ith D..:..: <lften ,, , ,rill\
He rdu>l.:el w conrinue ru scry. Of cme such <lCC.JSi<m, A11ril 2e\ 15,:,)
ll'hen rh..: stone ,hnw..:J only a dark cl.)liJ, Dee recurd,:
Thi, S.uurday h.1d hcc:n grc:.lt .md e.1gc:r p. mg> hetll·ec:n E. "- .111.! u • ..:
while he wuulJ utt..:rly di>Cr..:Jtt rhc wh,>l..: pm.: .:,, ,,f uur ,,,, r.
be lkme hy evil ill uding >eeki ng hb dc!>trucuun. S.r) rn.: ri. .• t
12
()f <.J()L[)
he <l ltc:n hc:rct<II;Jr<.: h..:ct l t11kl rru..:, bur 11f illuJmg ,l..:1·ib: ,1nd
111111', hnw can hc nrh.:1, a mockerr, w ha1·e a curner..:d dark
d , lucl t<l be him insr..:a,l of the plain writmg which hirh.::ncJ h.::
ha,l wrirr.::n <lllf <li? And th<tr when they slhJulJ do in deed that
then they tr. 1111 tb. And rhar h.:: was nut rhus w lllsc: time:
bur rh.1r h..: t<l t<l l,·arn ><lme kn.1wledge, whcrebr he may live:
>111d rhat he a cumb.::r t11 my and that h..: dwdkd hen: as in
a prison: that it were h..:tt..:r f,Jr him t<l h..: near plain where he
might walk .thm,td, 11 it hour danger t•l he cumbered or l't:xc:d wnh
fdlul\'> as he wa:,, wirh one lirrle N.::d dwdling ar
the Black Raven in wh11 railed ar him fur hearin"
of a barg.tin m.t,le the Ne,l (<If E ..lward) and un; .1
whn wa:, lhiW !alien in puvcny, a very htlnest man, erc.
10
But l;•r .dl :md rage,, m.:,liumbric P•lll'er:, were .:xrr.t
1
Kdmary.
O n tvLty 5, 1583, Dc:c a,k..:,l rhc :,pi tirs ,th,Jut " rh.: which ye:>ter ni .. ht wa:,
pn:>c:nlc:d (unl .. ,Jked f,1r) tu th.: :,igh r <lf E. K. a, he :,at :u supp..:r wtrh"m..:, in
my h.dl : I rh..: .tp(:caring , ,f rh.: \'ery :>t:a, .md many ship:, rhercnn, and
the currtng ut rh.: a ll'llllh111, by .1 rall hl:11.: k man, what arc we w ima.,in..:
I l-1..: "The on..:, did :,ignity rh..: prul'ision of
.tg.lllbt rh..: Lit rhi" land: which they pur in practice: rh.:
rh..: death ut rh..: Qu..:en ,1f Scut:>. Ir is nur lung unru ir."l7
nee ntJte.l in thc margin Ill his rc'Clltd,, "The Quet:n nf [\) be b.:-
Ar Lncr date h.: ad, l,:d, "S,J shc was, An no 1587 ar Furh.::ringhay
Ca,tl..:. An0 abo rh.: :,ame year a pr..:parati<lll ut ship> agaitbt En"ldncl by
the ol Spain, rhc P11pe anJ other princt::> called Catholic, etc." That
rhe ::ip.1111"h .-\ nnacla ut 1588. Kdly had :,t:en imn the iurure.
On I, 1583, Dce nnr..:d in his priv<Jtc di:lry the arrival 111 LnnJ,m ,J(
rh.: p,,lbh, 1.1rJ Lt,ki_:-;.11' Alhcrr as rh.: English c<Jihl him (PD, 10;
F..:nron, 7ti). Lt, kl (I) 36-160)), the PaL.ttmc of Sierad:, a powerful figure in
the ..:l..:ct i<Hb ru the thrun.:, had h..:en a major parricipanr in rh..: Puli,h
d..:lcgattlll1 r,J France after rh.-: uf Henri de Valnis. During visit then!
he had marn..:d rhc ut rlw King, Sabinc d..: S-!1·.!, his t hird, ancl last,
11 11..:.. An arch..:typal Renaissance aristocrat, he wa, the aurhnr ,,f rwu lx1uks in
LJtin, on.: a mi lirary rrcari.e, the urhcr Lll1 rdigi.m and politics. He had travelled
wtddy artlund rhe Eur.lpean cnurr, . And he wa" known a gr.:ar patron of
,plrtt ual rd<lrmcrs, and pncrs. In 1569 h..: had financed the
cd tnun <If ArcltiJuxa..: Pblu:sut)hiu, bouk X, annotated by his pcrSLinal
phy:>Jct.:n J•1hn Greg<H)' Macm ,mJ rrathlat.-:d by the pul.'l laurcare of Sil.:sia,
Adam Schr,Jctcr.
1
"
Thc Engli,h .lllrh,lritie" ll'cr.: unabk r.1 why 11 <1> vi,ir ing
England, .1nd 111d..:eJ n<l certai n .:xplanari.m ha, ever been For all his
1:asr La,ki ll'<b imp<ll'l: rished and one thc,lry is rhar h.: hupcd fm
hnanci<l l tr•Jm Dcc .tnd Kdly\ alchemical experti>e. T he 1\'Jtchcd
hun and pruviclcd him with a Wdliam Herlc, wh. 1 had b..:cn
a cruc ial inl, nm.:r in the Rid11lti pl.1r.
1
" AniJthcr spy called Henry Fagot (alleged
L
1'\ j, ,hn w be J CLJ\'l.' r n.unc ,·,,r Gt<lrd.lllll Brun,J) lt.lt>cd 11 trll H.:rlc t. k"''
\\ ,d,i ngham info rmed 11f ,tct ivitiesY <Hlllth.:r .t,:.:nt ,
rh.: Catholic puet Thunhl> Wat:,<ll1, applt..:d w Jtlach h un,ch 1,
La, kt's ent<lurag.::.l
1
La,b visited De..: 11·irh in a ,,f hi" .trrii'Jl-.t 1·i,il rq,,>ncd l'l
tle rle. La,li haJ .1 panicul.1r HHerc:,t in tiWn geneal•'t:\ , and tn h t> ch.uh.c>
uf ;1Cquiring the dcctil't: crown <If PulJnd. Dcc .1nd Kdl\ rh.: >l'lrlb
un rh.-:se topics for hun and he participar.:d wirh them in their tt".llh•.-
• in June. The \'Llung ,ptrit m.tiden M.tJuni inf,mne,lrh.::m rhar L1>k1 "·"
rdared m the Lacey>, the Norman lord, ot the Wcbh mJrchc,Y .1l'"
c.msultcd with Sir John Feme ab,Jut hb genealug\, bur accmding rn thc ac..:, 1unr
111 Feme\ BL.tzun vf (L,mJ on, 1586) n<lthing re,ultd
Lt,ki abu approachecl rh..: math.::m.Hicl.lll and m.lgict.m ThLHn.t:> All..: n
..: nrering service in PulanJ. Alien dccltned rh.: Llli'er.H
On June 5, 1583, De.: rt:C<lrd..:d StllllC ne\1>. "E. K. h.td b.:.:n .:1 .:1
,i nct: nine ot rht: cl.JCk in rh.-: n1t1rning m a great "'
mmd, fury, and rage by hi, brother h.td brought him ne11 th .• t
a our rll arrach, Jnd Jppreh.:nd him <1> Ll /dun for .:ummo: u]
money. Secondly, that hb 11·ifc was g<me fnm1 Fr..:..:man\ h,lU>e .11
Blocklcy, and how l\!r. 1-lu:,cy reported him LOO<! a and u•cJ
very bitter and gricl'llll> rep<lrb Llf him n<l\1' Llf l.n..:; and rh,H h t" Wile 11 a, .H
home with h..:r lli<Hhcr at C hipptng N on1m."H
Kdly's rcacti1m i. inrer..:>ttng. W,Juldn'r f.:M h.tl' t: been the mu,t ltk.: l\
to the ui an impcndtng C•linmg n1lmcy ?
ern..:ss of mind impli.:s But Dee fury .md rage. b that the re.lctttH\
of a man caughr uut? Or of a m.m who that he h.ts been :,et up? Or I•
it guilty bluster? lt is nor dear when the coining tu h.tve •li.:Currcd.
Was it perhaps S•) me old ..:hargc rhar had been hdd uvcr him? The runmg ur
events is it occurred two weeks after La,ki , .,, ired Dce. And th ...
incident tr,df ha" srrang.: rcv..:rherari un:,. Ten year:, later in Flu, hing, C hn, r<>·
phcr Marlowe was similarly invnlved in a coining charge th;tt wa:, no r all rh.11
it >eemed to he, rhat uverl.tppcd with the dupliciri..:" nf the secret >Cfi' JCe lll.Jr!J
around Carhulic acrivi>ts.;; thb on Kdly t11 ger hun ro >PY
Coin ing was a charge, t he sorr ,l( thing t h.tr n11ght mJkc a m.1n
want (I) kave the country. the int..:nti<m behind it (tl cnC<lUfage I<
cnmmit himsdf t•J La,ki and ,u get <JUt uf England? S,J rhar Burghlcy ll'•luld
have hi:. man in c..: ntral Eurupc? lud wnncctilli1S 1111t only with PuLmJ
hut abu with the and rhc Holy Roman Empir..:. lt i, rhe riming th.tt
enc,lurage> the :,pcculati•m. rhi, dramatic event soon aitcr La,ki m.tJ,.
contact; the timing, and rage, rage at .:nrmpmcnr rat hcr rh.m .1 1u1
ot arrest.
No arre"r l.'\'cr <:thuc,l. Were the J nl(ll1ecl m exch;tngc hlr ,, .1... .• 1.
W.b the not truc, a fabc rumur thar hi, hroth..:r Thuma" h.d h.: ... rJ.
Or dicl Kdly im·cnr rh.: coining a f,u juming
and Dee to :,ee ing in La,ki a mnr.:: ftlflll of p.Hrllna;;.: th. ll,
anything tlli'.-:ring in Engl. mJ tl"
-H t--IYST il ::\L t-- 11::'1 :\ L Or u()Lll
ltt rh..: nt.t rgtn D..:..: IIT<Ile <If t he ",t m.:re unt ruth in el'l' ry pan
t h.:re<>l, .Hh l " m.dt ciuu, lie" 6). It i:; n<ll d ..:.tr ll'hen he .tJJeJ thar
Cllmmenr, <111 what gr<J U11lls he m.tJ t: it, whether t h<tt b Kelly', reburr.d, <Jr
b,t, ed " n lt1!lll'lltat i<m Dee 11.1> .tble t<l uhrai n thr,Jugh ofhcial channeb, or ju:; r
a C<Hw icti<Hl. But rhi, epi>uele, ll' hich in the l.lpening of
t<. leric 1659 publicariun <lf rh..: spiritual transact i:; unJ ,Jubre,lly
b.t>l> f, tr the frequendy repeateel cla im, that Kcl ly was convicteJ
lll C<Ji ning, anJ .:.tr-crupring as .1 punishmenr. tar the r.:cnrd:; go,
h<t ll' e\·er, there 11<1 e1·kknce rhar rhen: w;t:; any ro the charge, ur
t har .my mal ur punt, hmenr en>U<!d. It i> un!.kdy that Dee ll'llllkl nut have
n.;.;,,rdc:J ;t rrial, cut1\'icti<ll1, <H- punblun..:nr in either the >pirirual uan><Ktioth or
hb pril'<lle if , u.:h haJ taken pl..tce.
On June 15, 1583, La,ki, Wgt:ther ll'ith LH·el Ru,,d l anJ Str Phi!.p Stllney,
calk,! in <ll1 Dee on hi:; ret urn fmm his .:crcmunial vi, ir ro Oxtix J , ll'ht:re he
haJ heen Ltl'l>hly enrenaineJ ar,J heard Brun<> debate.' ; F,1ur day> b rer, on
June _19 "t he Lure! Alhen La, ki came t<J me anJ lay at my night" (I'D,
20; Fc:nt<ll1, 9 3). :\ nd n. nv Dee <ll1cl 1-.:dl y Cllll1tnirred rhem, dl'l!> ru La,ki',
>etYh.:e. Un Sc:pr.: mher 21, 15t>3, Dee and hts wift:, family anJ >en·anrs, and
Kelly ht> ll' ife lefr wit h Lt,ki l·r,Hn lJ ra,·esend fnr Eumpe. Th..: d.:parture "at
J eaJ <l t ntghr" m.ty h,11·..: b..:..: n moti i'<HeJ by a ck sire fnr At one pllint
thc:y nearl y dnnn1t!d when lll1e nf rhe clmghie> wa, swamped "bur in rhe mean-
ll'hik E. 1-.: . ll'i th a great g•wmk r empti..:d mosr , J( rhe war.:r lJUt <lf the boar,
ebe it lllll>f ne·ed, ha1·e >Li nk, by all man', n.!U>ell1-" ; >
N<l pri1·are diary ,Jt" are knllwn ru 1: 1r rh.: rln.:e
lr<Hll rhe rime nt thei r le:ll'lng England until their arrival in T reh.m in
Sepu.: mher 15t>o, bur rh..: >ptriru.tl l ransact i<H1> continued unabareJ , anJ in their
reC< H'<b ><ltnc: u( rhe e1·enrs ,,f t:\'eryJ ay life ar..: nured.
The) ' p.:nr four munrhs rra1·..: ll ing. Landi ng at Brill d1..:y ll'elH by a >mall
.._.,,t,tal l'e>sd t< 1-l.1arlem anll Anl>rerJam. Then they pn1ceeJed al< H1" rhe
tlllrthern eclge ut Eur,Jpl!, ne1·..:r far t't'<Jm the by sm.tll boars anJ by
ancl C<lrt. Fmm DLlkkum they went t<l Anj um, EmJen, Oldenhurg, Bremen,
H.t rhurg, Hamburg, Ll.iheck, Wi, mar, R,>,[llck, and S:c:.:cin, where rhey arrin:d
<I ll Chrisuna> lllllrnmg and >tayed f,,r three 1\'eeb.
>pirirual conr inueJ Juring their rra,·eb. In Li.ibeck, N<JI em-
b.:r I ) , Dee re.:e il·ed a spirit mc:s;age via Kdly: "Y,tur brorh.:r I> cLtppeJ in
prt>< \11 , h,m· d,, you li ke that? Ynur hnu, .;keepcr, I me.m. " Dee', hr<lther-in-law
N ich, >Lts Frunh m,l I \'a> l,lok ing afr.·r rhe ar t-. lorrlJke. "They say rhar yuu
ha\'1! htJ den secret f<Jr yuur bnuks, you may lnok them ar
letMtre. l r m.ty he rhar )'Llur h<JU>e may he burneJ iur a remembrance." Ei.,hr
later !n Pr;tgut:, 27, 15tH, Dee recei1·ed letter, r.:ll ing "h<J\\' t 1r
Gtlherr, t-- lr _::,led, Mr Andr<:<t> Fre!ll<J_n, hc:im my b,x>b eller, ll>cd me l'ery il l"
anel ht> ltbrary. b n ltkdy that it rh..: mill had taken place by N,wember nn
nne 1\'<Htkl have wnne1_1 f<J D.:e he(H·e rhe tdluwi ng Is Kd ly' , >pirirual
mt urman, m lll<l>t 1aken as .1 pr.:visi,m? That rho: in
se..:ms n,Jt tll ha1·e been a Ji vine one, >o Dec >U>pcct.:d ar rhe rime, is nur
n..:ce» Mi ly <1 pmhlem; e1·il spirits .:nukl readtly impart rrue int<J nnarion; rhe
,
1
, r, ,hkm ll'<l:i 1hat rhey inrennmgleJ tr 11 ith J i>ml<>nn. tLh•n . . -\ t ..
l' ll» lhtliry IS rhar Kd ly h,d prillr kn<lldeJgt: rh.tr . I rate! \1.1> g<Hng tll t.l kl' rlt.e'
.-\lreaJ y b.1ck in Jul)' !583 he had Jdtl'ereel rh.: >ptnru<t l tu Dee tl •.• t
ht> home wuuld b.: searcheJ. DtJ he hal'e llt her <>I int . mn.tlllln l) r J d
he neeJ anythi ng ,nh..: r rh,m a realt, lt.: p.tr.mot.t? Ccrr;unly, .tr ,nme P< 11 n1, '•r
P<Hnr:;, rh.: t-. lnrrlake raideJ anJ ><lme h1·.: hunJ reJ l'l<xJb p[u, Ltb .. r.t
l<l ry equipment >tolen ur J .un.lgeJ. D..:.: marked rh..: >t<>len b<>ob ll1 .1 cupy •ll lu-
lthr,u-y caralngu.:, and Je, cnheJ the l<l>>c> in J .: t,tiltn hi> Cump.:1d ww.
They arri l'eJ in La>k<J ,m February 3, 1584 (TFR, 62) ,mel the tuli<J\\ 111 _
llllH1Lh >l!t ded in The >pimu.ll dt.tlllgues cunrmueJ 111 Pul.mJ. T h ... )
11 ere deeply im·ulv.:J in a,..: mhli ng a o: rahle by whKh l•> >Ulllllh •I'
up angeb. The c<JJe wurlb \\'ere dicLJtl'J hy >pirir tn rel'..: r,e, anJ wh. •k
prucc:ss wa> extremely C<lmplex ,l ncl rime-C<lll>Ullll ng. lr I> llllt knu11 n t1 thl' \ 11 "''
als,l engag..:d in akhemical experimc:nb. Kdly ab,, ( lHHII1ucJ , <I> in Engl.m, l, 1<
practice magic un hi, uwn, anJ rhe >ptrib ut'ten r..: huke hun rhi> 111 the
>CS>illi1S with De.:. Kd ly 11'<1> al ,, cun, ulred by La, kt >Cp.tr;lld) trom Dec. I k
1\'<l> tll recci\'e $400 a ye<lf fmm La,ki, bur La,ki , knllll' n in r lll.md .h ,I hllthllll k,,
bucket, wJs ,horr <lt' and hy 1584 wa, hankrupr. De.: an,l Kd ly ll' erc: then
J itt:.: reJ by , pirir tl> "g<l t<J rhe Emper,Jr," RuJ,Jlt 11 , rhe 1-l<l ly R<llll<lll Emp ... t-.11'.
Th.:y arri1·e, l in Prague llll Augu>t 9, 1584, anJ f, JunJ Ill
the hou>e of Dr Taeld> H.ijek, rcpuredly rhe >eni<Jr ak hemical aelv t>L' I' t<J th ..
Emperor Hi> h<lLISe u,eJ inr akhemi..:.t l 11urk .mJ the >tUJ\ 11 .»
adnrned with ak hemical hier•>glyphs anJ ,·er,e,_ ltb t rucleJ by >pt rir, Dee 11 r,•tc·
w Ruelolf seeking an auJtence. On Sunday, Sepremher 2, 1he ll.ty het<•r..: De:.: till I
RuJ,Jlf, Kdly gllt spknJtJly J runk. Dee rcc,JrJecl che <h.:C: a,Hln 111 t he .• l
rran, acriuns (TFU, 229- 30):
There ll' a> a grc:.n cl t>qut<! tnl!» tn E. 1-.: . h..:mg h,Hne 11<>111 .. ut -
h,lu>e whl·re h.: h:tJ lain .Il l ntglu up.1n a i,11·m, by he h.l.l 1· ...
,uJd..:nly uv.:rcume wirh 1\'ine, which he nel'.:r 11'<1> ltke that her.1r-- , [,,.
:,aiJ . Yet intenJing ll' ith hin1>clt ro r.tk.: heed <lt hcing O\ 111 J n, .k-
ing wine, being by the t<l gi'..: her .1 ut' win.: lll '' '"
rhe g<llhl harg;lln he haJ in a d e1.::k he l'l<IUgln t'r,Hn her fM ll\ e • •
In rhi, drinki ng company 1\'<l> Alex,mJer, L,H·J L t, ki', >cn·.tnt , ,,j,,
c:unc with U> rn Pr.1gue, t<> ll'hlllll E. K., ll'hen rhe J nnk <111 the -uJJ-:1.
haJ lii'CrC<llll<.: him, , aiJ he woulJ .:ur ut't' hi, he,,J, .mJ wtr h ,,,tlktll_
,raff ruucheJ him fai r and ><ltrly nn rhe neck, >itting in ll'<liH ••t' lll m
Thi, Alexan, lcr being halt llrunk hun, d f by ;mJ h) ttl<lk the:-.: 1\ , ,lcl·
in gre.tt ,nuff anJ went t<> , leienJ huu, dl anel ><l tllllk hi, IIC.tl'"n t,l Lt•l•
<lllJ rhereupLm they c.tu>ecl Alexander ru g<l J ,n,·n.
lr wa> >Upper time anJ that nighr l rc: t'rali1L'll fr<Hll e.ntnc: . . 1nJ '•
wai ting at my anJ l<l<lklllg our >.Ill' Alex.mJer >lllllll,! the
greac stunt: uut>ide uur lnllgmg. I callecl tl1 hun anJ c, >ld hun rl u r the·\
11·ere ar H..: .:ame .wer t<J me anJ h..: h. Ill 1wpr much. He c .. tll-
plaineJ ,,f Kdl y', i,Jrmer 11·nrJ , anJ rhe wuch <ll rhe >l.tii, 1-.. 1\\ n 11 _,,
-to 1-. l ET:\L Uf GULD
ag.tinsr hi, cr.:clir l<> wk.: th,l t in guu,l parr, and opuk.: 111.my s,1kli.:r>'
tenlb ut" ,ruur wurcb, 11<)[ worthy nf r<.::C< 1rcling.
I rhereup,H1 ll'l::nr tu <lllr h<Jst's huuoe to find out the truth anJ there
I (,1unJ E. K. fast asl..::cp <H1 a i<lrm, most soundly, t(n· wh1ch I ll'<b right
><>IT)'. An,l yet better pl.:ased to percei ve the word, of E. K. which sn
m,n·e,l Alexan,l..:: r, being halt drunk, to have been spoken by E. K. when
wine and nllr wit b,>re rule. AnJ oo 1 pleacleJ a lnng time wirh Al..::xander
rh.H uf 1n1rds sp.1k.;n so as tht:y wt:re, no SLKh exact account wa, to be
given tll him; ancl afr.::r tll'<l huurs persuasion caused Alexander to gu to
heel in llur 1,1,lging where he useJ tu lie, fnr h..:: would ha1·e gune <lUt to
<1Ur furmer inn in th<lse raging halt drunken p<mgs h.:: wa, in, which l
thllugh t \\' ;IS n<l( g<lUJ. ,
This M,mJay morning E. !(_ hllme and s.::eing
"" he came in, ,a i,l , "Th.:y s<ty I spnke words which grecHly uftencled yuu
b , t night, and that I tuuch.:J you with my smff, ere. l knnw nothing of
it," ancl shuuk hancls with AlexanJer in frien,Ily fa,hi un.
"Wdl." said Alexander, "si fuisser aliu>, etc."
E. K. came up tn me. I t<lkl him !11 Ill' snrry I was fur rh1, mi schJnce
;m,l ruld him ,I( the warchnun perceiving Alex:mder\ Ji,quier mind and
he<tring his wmds, they came tu me and chaq;.::d me ro h<tve a care ,l(
rh.: peace-ke.::ping, as they di,J indeed. And further :,aid that Al..::xander
in hi s rage said that rather, m before he sh<Juld cur off his head that he
,,.,lukl cut E. I(_ in pieces.
As SU<ll1 "" I hacl rlur W<>rd uf thi, clrunken Akxander,
wlhllll tlllll' I >all' quiet .md E. K. alsn quiet, suddenl y E. K. fdl int<l such
a mge that wuulJ l' e r.::vcngcd un him to r so saying and fur rJiling
nn him in t he street a, he ,Jicl, ere.
Much aclt l l , Emeric and his br11Lher t<> >tnp 11r huld him frum
g,1ing to Alexancl<.:r wi th his weapun, etc. At length 1vc let him go in
his J,lublet ancl hose, wirh,lut a cap m hat on hi, heacl, and into the str<.:et
he hasred with his brnther's n1pier drawn and challenged AlcxJnder to
ti ght.
But 1n:nt lr,lm him and >a iJ, "I will n<l[, 1\Lbt..:r !-:ell),
I 11 ill n,1r."
At thb E. J..:. r,lllk up a >t<lne and threw it after him ;ts after a d11g,
:md su came inw t he huu:;e again in a 11hlSt furi ous rage that he might
nut llght with Alex;m,ler. The rage an,! fury was S<l great in W<lfcls and
gesrures a, might plainly pnll'e th<lt the wickecl enemy sought either E.
K. 's uwn destmying of h imself, Ll r ,)f me, nr his brother, etc.
This m,1y suffice lll nutify the mighty temptation and vehement
1\'llrking uf the suhrle >piritual enemy Satan wherewith GoJ , uff.::red E.
K. ru be temptcd and almusr <Wercume, to my great grief, discumfi.1n and
grcar if it shuulcl, as the truth was, ha1·e C<Hne to the
Emperor's understandi ng, except ha,l kn,1wn me well , ere.
I was in d11Uht h,1w G,>d wuukl take this offence and cl..::l·i, ed
with myself huw I migh t wirh hunesty be cleared fmm t he ,hame and
I
lan .. er dnt mi.,ht ari, e if rhe,e l 11 n tight, cL..: . .-\.l t he L .·t ll
:muld cro:s all : ocd hupe here ll'lth the Emp<.:rLl r, etc. fcJr a time till L),J
ir.
After I had brllught E. K. lLl ,ome c[Uietne», by yiekhng [,
h i> humour etc. and saying litrle, mlt long ..1fter came my meoo<.:nger rr .. ul
my wife at Krak0w, anJ Hugh my w1t!1 him, w my great
rh rough her letter>, and the iull :.atislying ot me by l-lugh n:y >cfl
knowledge further t han convenienrly Clluld be written. Comtorr 1n w ne
of need.
Dec met with RuJulf <lll September 3 (TFR, 230). Sh,mly ,ltt<.:rll',lrcl,,
,pinrual instructilllb, he 1\'1\lte w Ru,luli that coulJ_ nuke the phd,b,lpher ,
stt1ne (TFR, 243, 246). There: !s 11ll recurd <l t any tunher RuJ,lll
delegated hi:. advi:.er, Dr. Jakob Kur:, to cleal 1\' lthDee. When Kurz VISited Dec.
September 26, "1\!r l(elly had gtltten h im intL> ht, dumber, nut wdltng t<l
(TFR, 247). Dee abu came tcl know the Spanish amb,b,,ld,Jr, Dun Gudlcn
de San C lemente, a Jescendanr of Ram,in Lull, a> he w lJ Dee. The
transactions cominueJ unabareJ . Rec,Jrd, nt' Dee and Kelly':. urher hlr
rh is perilld are slight , bur, R. J. W. Evan, stres,es, ''[t woukl be_ tabe ..
from this that they necessanly remamed out ut touch wnh the LllUrt . TilL)
returned ru Krak6w in October and then in Decembcr Glme back lll Prague
where Oee left Hajek', mllm> ancllea,ed J house in Salt Street nnt iar lr,Jm t he
marker place in Old Praguc (TFR, 354 ). In April 1585 they
April 22, lvhmduy, Dee that "very Je,·oU[ly m ::ir ::,rephen ,
church, E. K. received the C<Hllmuni,ln, tn my un,peakable anJ C<HHcnt ,
being a thing Sll long and required and of hi_m hy our
good friends." Laski arranged !ur Dee tu meet the Kmg ul Puland, ,::, rq,hen
Bathury, and Dee and Kdly held a seance with Sreph.::n on May 27 (TfR, 40-t) .
But no patronage seems tcl have resulrecl ir.Jm the encnumer. Around rim.:
they mer rhe the,ll,Jgical France,cn Pucci, whu had . l<lll•lll eJ
Sucinus w Krak611', anJ now became a member lli De.:', hnu,ehold. '
1
In July
t hey returned to Prague. .
Dee and Kell y's spirit raising actil' it k > haJ oune tll the <ll the·
Catholic church , and on th..:ir r..:turn tn Prague they were ,ununllned w exrlJm
rhemseh-es. They delayed re>punJing as long as they CL1uld, bur finally un Lrch
27, 1586, they had an audience wit h the papal nuncio, Germanico 1\!aLt,pinJ,
bishop oi San Severo. Dee handleJ t he interview tactfully, but then Kelly >U<,!·
gesred one <)i the pwblems wi th the Carhc1lic church was the P<lllr CllnJu.:L
of many of rhe prie,rs. The nuncio wa> t1Llt amused. Dee wa, tniJ hy "t he·
secretary of a certain great king," who had been tuld by rhe n unciu
that Kell y's speech had S<l enragecl the nunciu that he 11:as tempreJ tu_ h,n·e h,,J
him rhmwn out of the ,,·inJLlW. There was >Om.::thmg ot a trad it ion ot J,,l',l,ll1d
of people by defenestrati,H1 in Prague. The church authurities had he.1rJ " I t he
volumes uf >piritual recurds, and later endeavoreJ to get Kdly tn pmJu-:e rhe111,
wirhhokling confes:. inn ft'<1111 h im when he rduseJ. On April 10 Dee ..1 nJ Kd h
n:ceived a spiritual insrructi,m tLl burn their entire records, and De..: rec.,rJ , d"
l\lYSTIC.-\ L t-. !H:\L 1...!F Gl1L()
<l f the hurning, , l,111e 111 lhl' prl.' oo.: nco.: ,,1 Pucci, 111 mo.:ncuk1uo . .111Ll
kngthy , k·raiiY lJn .-\pnl lO tho.: ro.:C<lr-lo wo.:ro.: miraculuu, ly ro.:, l<l ro.:Ll, .m ept>uJ e
rec,,t ,lecl in , imd.1r , b ail (TFR, 11 t:i- 19).
tvbunl' hile l\.:o.: ;m,l Kdl y fuuncl .1 ne\\" p. m.m anclpr<l [O.:L[<Ir, Vil0m R.l: mb-
o.: rk, llr Willi.un, Lurd R,l,o.:nl•erg, ru gi\'\: rho.: Gcrmantc oi hi, namo.: rhar
De..: go.:no.:ra!lr (TFU, 120). Rn:mbo.:rk, hurn ll fty-. me y..:ar, o.:.Jrlio.:r in 1535,
\\"<h ho.:.J,l ot 111 rho.: muor p•m·..: •t.ul Buho.:mian familieo. He wa, among Rud,llt's
cl<l>I.'M a"UCiaH!>, ancl haLl carrio.:J rhe cnJwn at Ru,(,llt\ Cllrunati<>n in 1575.
ll o.: rho.: >eniur Boh..:mi.m uflicial, rho.: burgra\·c, rhc: righr hancl man uf rho.:
m.march in B,lhemi:m affair,. Ro:mho.:rk wao sc.::un,( ,mly w Rucl,llt" ,., a pat run
,1! .dch..:miob, o.:mpl<Jying ado.:l'b both at his n.:, iJcnco.:, which a,lj,>ineJ RuJult's
1111 the: Hracbchin in Praguo.:, and in hb ..:xro.:n>i\"1.! O.:>Wto.:, in ><lllthern Buhc:mia
i(rumluv. He particlpar..:d in a number llt >pirirual
Do.:e ;mLI Kdl y, Cllnoulr mg lll1, am11ng mho.:r maHo.:r>, hio aopirariut1> rn rhe
1,1l1oh rlH• ll11.! ;m,l lllo pbn, t•l nhiiT)" again. Hb brorher, Po.:rer Vuk Rn:mh..:rk
.1 l, u h.1J <l lcho.: mic;ll inro.:ro;:,r,.''
.. Bui the Catlhlllc \l ppu, iri<H1 [<l Do.:c: <111Ll Kd ly c•munued. Th..: 11<..:\\" nunc1u,
hhpp<l Bt, hop 11! Piacen:a, ro.:pllrt<.:-l <m :\pnl 29 thar Do.:...: ,mJ Kelly were
imp,lrranr and dang...:rou, "GiclVanni Dii et il Zuppo ;u,l C<>mp.lgno
><111u 111 quc, ra C<lrre hu,m p...::u f.1 , o.:r \"<111111> a caminu di far,i auturi J 'una nul)va
, up...:rsti ri uno.:, po.:r n,1n dire ho.: 1...:sia , ><111<1 nuri all'impo.:rarure er a rurr.1 la Cllrtc."
("j,lhn Dl.'c ;mJ his <:uinpaniun the lam..: one were ar rhis C<Hirt a g"\JJ while
.1go, <111LI are on rh<!. way h> being rho.: aurhurs uf a no.:w supo.: r,rition, nor w say
hc:ro;:,y, ;md kn<l\1'11 111 the Empo.:r,lr ancl <Ill ut •
Thi, i, ,mly rct...: rcnce [ll Kdl y', being Lime, alrhough on t-.!ay 2 3, 1587,
:1 >PII"H ,;ly, "((dly, I kn,•w it '' tmuhl..:,ume fur thee m kn..:d. Sir."'; Whether
1£ \\\ 1.' a perm.mc:nr 11r ro.: mp,lrary CllnJiriun, ur wher her Sega 1\".1> \\' ri ling mo.: t.1-
ph<li"1Call y <111cl C<li1Lemptuou, ly, is undc:ar.
. }..tar 29. 1 586, , uccumbing tu cumbin..:-1 pr..:,,ure from rho.: pap.d nund,1,
111, preclo.:c..:ss, Jr .mJ the: High Sreward ut Boho.:mi.1, Gcnrgc
(Ju1) p,1pd Lubkm·1c, Ru,\,111 cxpdlo.:J Dec, Ko.:ll y, anJ rhc1r h,>ll><.: huiJ, !rum
the empire "n rho.: grnunds uf n..:crnman.:y.'" They srayc:J lirsr in E1fun, bur since
the: ,..;nar,Jr, r...:fuso.:d ro l_c r rh...: m l...:d, C a huu>e then;:, rhcy muvecl on w Ka, d,
ll"h...: ro.: rho.: L.mJ_grave 111 Hc,:,c- Ka,d haLl his cuurr.
1
i Pucci auo.: mprcJ w pcr-
oua,le. Lhl! m Ill rh..: nunciu's re,tuo.:sr rhar they , houlJ go ro R11mc r,\ be
.. They >uspo.:cring a_ trap from which they mighr nut escape
.mJ, >L1, p1Lillus <lt Pucc1 mle, hL'ncd unh began tu Jiotanc..: them,dves fmm
htm. On A. ugu, r 8 rd o.:n1 o.:d, ancl alluwcJ rh..:m tu return tu the Buhemian
l'St;Ho.:> and ruwns ul C,lutH Vil ..!m R,1:mberk. Do.:e and Kdly arrivo.:LI at T rdxm
(als,
1
kn<l\l'n '" Wirringau) 111 "luthcrn Buho.: mia un So.:prc:mb..:r 14 1586 (PD
21; Fo.:nt<ltl, 203; TFH , Hi). , '
. They , ..;Lrlcd there fur thL' ncxr twu y..:. u·,, rh.1ugh De...:', diary ro.:c1lrJ, that
Kcl ly made ;I number ,11 rrips Ill P,Jbnd, tu Lin:, w Reichcnotein in Silo.:sia
( whl.' re R,1_:mherk had l.lhdrarurio.:> in d1e Ct>rlo.:), £<1 BuJweb BuJej 1wict:
t<> g11"C 11 trs C:cch n;unc. 2-f kil,>mo.: rre> wcsr uf Treb,m) anJ [ll Prague. They
1 '/
,,,_c: i\ o.:,l .1 number uf \·i,ltur, in Trt: hun, 1nduding L.1, ki un .1 numh.:r <>I .......... .
>llll1>, Pucci, Chrbrian Fmnd.cn, ;md variuu, emb,aric' trll111 Engl.mJ. ':
On December 19, 1586, Dco.:'s Jiary r..:c,lrds Kdly g1ving a clcnllHbll".•ll·•ll
,,r guld proLlucri <m. lr is rho.: hr>r accnunr oi hi, engaging in an .d.:h...:nu ..... l
tr.Jibmuration. "F,lr rhc: grauricari,m lli !vir EdwMcl G.ulanJ and
brurher, which EJward wa, >enr w me a, m..:s, cnger In H11 rhc Empo.:mr ,lt" t-- lu,..:u\'
dur I sh<luiJ Cll1111.' m him, E. K. maJe prujecri,m w1 rh hb pl)wJcr 111 th.:
pr<>p,lni,m of one minun (up<m an ounce anJ a qu<mo.:r of mc:rcur)) anJ
no.:.1rly an uuncc: uf bcsr g•>IJ; which golJ was J brnbuti.'J tr,Hn the
cruc ible anJ une pan wa' gi ven t<l EdwarLI Garland.";y
In larer year, D..:e', son Arrhur ,1fro.:n £Ll iJ po.:<l pl.: abnur the . .l
tr.m, mutarions he haJ ob,crvcJ ar rh1o rime: . One <lt rhe pe<>pl...: he !L>IJ ::>1r
Th,lmas Bruwne, his nc:ighb,lr in Norwi..:h, and in 1671 Br,l\l'nc >ClH an ,IC<.:<lunt
ut Arrhur' s rcclllle..:[luth t11 Aohmnle:
Or .-\rrhur De.: \\'d> .1 Y<lll llg m.111 when h..: >01 \\ pr<•J<:Cll <'ll m.dL 111
&lhemia, hut he: w.l, ,u mllu.:nco.:J rho.:rcwirh rh.1t he tdl c,1rl) up<ll1 rh.•t
oruJ y anJ ro.:aJ nnr much all hi, li t..: bur buob uf th.1r ,ubjo.:Cr.
I have hearJ the J ,>Ctllr ,,1y rhar he lh·l'cl in Blli1cm1.1 w11h l11'
farho.:r b,1rh ar Prague <111J urhcr parrs of &lhemia. That Pnn..:...: <lr Cuum
Ro:mherk W<b tho.:ir grear patr1111 whu J o.: bghto.:J much in alchemy. I h..11"e
often heard hun athrrn anJ ><llnl!fime' wirh llarh, rh,n he h.d ,._.en rho.:
projc:criun maJ.: an,! rransrnm.Jri,m uf pl!\1 rer J1,hc, .md tlag,ltb mrll
silver whic:h rhe gokbmiths ar Prague buught ,>f them. AnJ that Cuunr
Ru:mhc:rk played ar qu,Jirs wnh silver quuib m.tde by pr<1jec£illn "' be-
fi.lre: that rh1, rmn>rnuwt iun wao maJc: by a .mall pllWcil' r rhey h.1J whh:h
was founJ in ,ume nlJ pl.Kc anJ a b<>uk lying by ir cunr.1ining ncHhin,;
bur hknlglyphic, whiCh bollk hb father be>l<lwed much time up.m, hur
I cuulJ nor h..:ar rhar he C<lukl m..1ke it <lLIL<>J
In Apri l, 1587, Kdly <111t11HIIlCCd rha r he \1 ,1, LIIHI"i ll mg ru ,..: ry any (, 111go.: r. D...:c
J£tcmpreJ £<> £rdin hi. >el'...:n-y.::ar-ulJ ,nn, Arrhur, <b a rncJium, bur Arrhur >.111
lirrle uf signihcanc.::. Kdly Joined rho.: m in une uf rhe>l! anempb, April 17.
and ,aid,
l marvd if y,JuluJ n11 <1ppa ntllln hl're, f,lr I ><lll11.'\\'l1.1t rhmking 111 .-\nhu1
anJ his pro.:ceJing in the fear nf ,crymg, came here inro the gallo.: r), anJ
I hcarJ yl)u pray. AnJ opening the winJnw I lnnko.:d <>LI£ .mJ I ,,Ill .1
great numbo.: r glling in anJ our uf rhb ch.1pd ,1[ the lmlo.: hul..: 111 rho.:
glas, winJ,nv. I , aw MaJini , ll and many 11thcrs rhar hacl , b ilr wnh u,
hc:r.::wti.ue, bur rhey , huweJ rhcm, d ve, in very t1lrhy llrder. AnJ Und
appeared and justilicJ all w be oi G,1,!, and gl><hl. AnJ rherd<\re I w,mJcr
if here you have no ; h,Jw. P.::rhaps there is ,omerhing, bur Arrhur J,l<.:>
11L1£ , cc it (TFR, 2nJ p.1gmari11n, 8).
l(dly rhcn r...:co.:i\·..:,1 .1 . piriru.1l mc,;lge that he anJ De..: were t<> h,1IJ rh...:1r 11 1\ "'
in C<>mtnun (TFR, 2ncl p.1ginarh1n, 11- 12). Thl' Wll'e> were uncnrhu>i.t>l k , ,11,J
50 t-. 1\ STlC.-\ L 1-. lET.-\L L)F COLD
Kd ly ,1 lllllll h.: r nf fu nh.:r Clllbuh,Hilllb wi th :. pirit:. . .A:. hllllll<.: 11 rite:. thJ t
rh.: ang..:b w..:re :.ll '\la:.w:.reJ " with Kdly':. '"VIcil)liS cnur:...: of life" that rh.:y
" w,lltkl hun frum that unpluymc.> nt"-rhar i:., :.crying-bur this intt: r-
pr..:tJtlon j, nm horn.: <l Ut by rhe spi ritual r..:.::.lrcls. Kdly had tr..:q uenrly J e:.ired
t<l ..:ea:..: :.crying, anJ Ill)\\' mKe uga in pmpus.:J to enJ rhb a.:: ri viry. Ashmul.:
als<l wrure that '"Kdly p..:rc..:ivmg rh•H h..: shuuiJ b.: whully :...:r a:.ick and becmne
usd..::.s in matt..:r ut scrying, he in:.inuates himsdf imu their .::ompuny one Jay
whik th..:y w..:re at ..:xercise, and Anhur waiting fur a vision, Kdly pretended
to :.e<.: :.<Hil<.:thing, <lf wh ich he rhere gives an a..:counr: anJ by this cunning
amtic..:, that cldu:.ive and impur..: docrrint: tLlUk ph!c..:, frum wh..:nc.: Dr Dee and
Kdly w..:ro.: inJuco.:J t<l mix with each urhers' wiv6 ."
01
Bur the edd.:nce of rhe
spiritual re..:<lrd:. i:. that Dee was c·ager Kdly ro h.:lp in t raining Anhur, whu
W<b 11<\ t prnving a >ucc..:,sful s..:l:r, anJ onl y ruu ready ro havl! Kclly resumt'
:.cry m g.
Th.: ··cr<l:.s-marching" :.e.:n1> t< l hd\"t: rak<.:n plciC<:: nn May 22 , 1587, bur was
11<1r rc:: pc:. llecl."! .The td lowing d;,y rh.: la, r knuwn :. piritual con:. ultutillns D<!l!
and Kdl y hdd tng<!ther arl! recorJc:d. Y l!ar:. br..:r, in EngbnJ, Dee was w
<!:>.p..: rim.:nt wi th other :.crycr, . Bur this i, thl! last knll\vn con:.ulrariun through
the 11\l!cllllm nf Kdly.
Fifty- rhrc:..: y..: ar:. L1r..:r .Arrhur D.:..: ga,·..: one ,1i the cry:. t,l l> h is tarh<! r anJ
1\:dl y ha,l u,.:J tu the: Nichnlds C ulpep..: r ''.•:. n reward fm having
curo.: J a li\·.:r c0mplainr uf his wit h rh<! grear.:sr rapidity, A. D. 1640 ." According
ru C ulp<! p<.: r thi, was rh.: crystal rhar had b..:en given tll De.: by an angd in 1582,
which D.:.: g.1ve to Kdl y, whu gave it tll L<1rJ Ru:mberk bur then retrieved it.
C ulpt:p<.: r rt:CllrJ:., "I have uso.:J this crysral in many ways and ha,·.: thus
.::ur<.: d illn..:s>t::., bur with irs u:.e a ,·ery gr<!at weaknes, always :.et> in and lethargy
<lt th<.: bl1J y. And furt h<!r a Certain appariri,1n which ex.:rcbeJ irselt
tu k wJne:.:. anJ llther J<!pravity with wnmen and girb , U>ed to tempt me, bur
by making rh.: sign of the cros, anJ >p<!aking rhese words, "Pah Adonai, by thy
>tr..: ngrh am I funiti ed. Phlmh! Phurrh! Haricnr! Gambalun!" the apparition
us.:cl tll tly ><llln l\r in:. ranrly, with no ise and evil :.mdl. Fo r the,..: obsceni ties I
gi,·en up the use ni rh..: and ro witness th..:s.: thing:. I hav.: written
them <111 rh b >h.:et o n rh..: 7rh day ot March in the year 1651."
Willinm Lill y bo ught th<! crysral trom Culp.:per's widow and tri.:J his llWn
exp..:rim.:nr:. <111 it with Elia:. .Ashmul<!. They conjur<!d up '' a fl!IIJ.IIl! devil lewd
and llllllb t n l u:.," h<! rec,1rds, Februury 10, 1658. Th.: crystal b llll\\' in the Well-
co m.: Cl)lb .: tll)J) in the Science 1-.lus<!um, Suuth Ken:. ingron."J
Th.: .:xd 1Jnge ut partn<'rs resulted in t<!nsiuns between the twu huu:..:hllld,,
al lu,lo.:cl tu in De<!' s Jiary . .And then lln February 28 , 1588, nine months after
rh.: cro,- matching, ]Jn.: D<!e ga,·c birth m a buy, who was bapri:eJ th<! full uwing
J ay , <lnd nam..:J Th.:ld <>niS Tr..:bunianus D.:c:. Theodmu, Trdl,m tanus, the gift
of Gl1J at Trcbon (PO, 26; Fentun, 233). Was th b D.:c:'s chdJ or Kdly's? DiJ
anynne t:: \·..: r kn,)\\' fm sure? The questinn is ne\·er rabed in the d iary let
answer.:d. C,>uld Kdly hav.: children anyway? In the spiritual rransacti uns of
April 4, 1587, Kdly was told ut his m<J rriag<!, dwdb with you,"
whi ch C< ltdJ he int<! rpr.:r.:J as meaning Kdly was sterile.
) I
.-\pnll u, D.:e r..:.::,lr .. b m h i, , lt .try ( PD. 27; F.:n tlln, 2H). "I \\ nt t. • 1-. lr f:.J
" '11\ anJ t<l Mistr<.:» 1\:d ly tll'll chdrirabl.: l.: rrer,, requmng .u rh..:ir h,mJ, muru ..d
." Apri l I2, "1-.ly wit".: church.:J, and we r<.: CCI\·..:,1 t he cummumun. "
Th.:, .J,ma, Treboni.mus was e\'iJ ..: ntly b.:mg tr.:ar..:d Ll> D..:e', dulJ . .AnJ >liKe
t!.c 10ur uf rhem had vuwcd w tell nubo-ly •>f rh.: cpi:.,ll.ie, \\ hy wuulJ ;myunc:
,u,p<.:ct urh.:rwisc? It i:. nnly D.:e's :.piritual ro.:.::ord, that break th<! \'ll\V of ,e.::req;
J nJ Ca,aubon 's tran,.::ripti un uf them, tollllweJ by lat.: r comm..:nrmor,. O n 1-.!Jy
22, 1588, Dee r<! cord, , "Mistr<!SS Kclly r.:ceived rh.: :.<lcr.un..: nr , and tll me and
my wtfe gave h.:r hanJ in ..: harity; anJ w.: ru,hc:d llllt frlJill ha " ( PO ._ 27;
F.:nwn, 235, r..:aJ :. "and we wi, h<!d wdl tll h.:r") . l t W<b rh.: annivcr,ary ut rhc·
r0:.>·march ing.
On June 13, 1588, Fr.mcb Carl.mJ arri\·..:,lt n T reb, m with EJ muncl C,l,lpcr,
1\\r,. Kdly's bmth<! r ( PO, 28; Fentun, 235). HaJ C,klper Cllllll! t•> hd p re,.lke
the: ten>i0n>, o r tu e>O.:llrt his >ister hack t,1 England? O n Ocwber 17, D.:.:', di,lr\
r<.:c,JrJ s, Kdly anJ t he r<:>t rllde rnwarJ Punch.m z in rh.: nlllrni ng"
(PO, 29; Fenwn, 237, reads " Mi:. rr..:ss Kdly anJ rh.: rl!:. t rlxle tl>ward Prachan..:..:
rhe marriage"). lt is rhe lasr menric1n ,>f hc: r in any of D.:.:':. record,. Bur
11 h.:: rhcr :.ho.: now left ior England, o r Pragut: , i> unknllWn.
Passages of t hree k rters written by Kdly Junng rh i, p.:n.xl (J une 20 .md
.-\ugusr 9, 158 7, anJ N uvcmb.:r 15, 1589 ) survh·e.M They cbtl war h alchemy,
bur it is nor l..nuwn to wllLllll they w.:re adJre>oeJ . Th<! ak hemicul a..:rivttle>
c,mrinucJ. To ,,·hat degree Kdly anJ De.: we re Wll rkmg >epararo.:ly •Jr tuger h..: r
n•>W b unclear. Th..:r.: wa:. cerrainly >01l1e cnnper<Hilm. Sepr.:mb.:r 2t:l , 158 7, De:<:
r..: co rdcd, "I dd ivert: cl to Mr Ed. Kdly, {l!.trn<!stl y requinng it a, h t, p.m) the
half of all t he animal which was made. lr b tu \\'t: tgh [Fl!nt.m, " tu wit"] 20
uunc..:s: he weighed it himself in my chamber. He bc1ught [Fen wn: " bruughr"J
his weight> purpu:.ely it. My LurJ hdJ >Jl llk.:n tll m.: bo.:ture for >LHlle, but l\ lr
Kdly had n0t :.pc>ken" ( PO, H; Fenr0 n, 230). F.:n run n0te> the inclu:.llll1 lll
th<! symbol fur mercury bd ur.: "animal."
O n December I2 , 158 7 there was •>ne: ut th•l>e .Kcid.:nr, th<lf ;tkh<! mi-:Jl
.:xp.:: rimenrc: rs ofr.:: n suffered. "Att.:r nuon , ,Hnc: wh.lt , Mr Ed. Kd ly ht> ldmp
,werrhruw "uverrhrew"). the sptri r llf win.: kmg [F..: nton: " being"[ :. p..: nr
r0u near, and the gla:.s being n<>t stay.:J wHh bllllks [Fenrun: " bricb " l ab,>ut If,
dS ir was wonr [F.:nron: "m<!unr" l tu be; and the ,am<! gla>:. :.o fl itti ng Lll1 <llh:
, ide, the >pirir was spilled nut , and burnt all th•lt wa, un t he t able wh.:r.: 1t
, tooJ, linen and wrin..: n boub - as rhe book oi Zacharia:. with th<! alkan. 1r
[Fen ron: "ar han•>r"l that I translated llUt of French for >Olllc: by >ptrit u.d
nor [F.:nrun: "fur him by spiritual cummanJmenr' '[; Ruwlaschy hts third h""k
of wacer> phih1:.uphical; the book called Angdicwn Opti.S , all in p1cwr..:, , ••· d1<:
wurk fmm the b.:ginning tu rh.:: cnJ; the copy uf rhc: man •>f BuJ w.:b', C, mdu-
silms for t he T ransmuratiun [Fen tun ha:. the: >ymbol fur mercury, not "T r.Hblllll-
wrinn"] of m<!tdls; anJ 40 leaves in q uarw , .:: nritleJ Excracciones Owm,mi . 1d 1t. ..L
he himself extracted anJ 11l)tc:J out of Duns ran hb b,>uk, anJ the very b, >l >k .,r
Dunsran was bur cast o n the b.:d ha rd by frlH11 rh..: cable" ( PO, 25; •• n ,
23 1- 2}."
5
lt ll.h lh>t .dl ll'llil .m,lt.:lbi->n. J.mu.u-y 13, 1588, D.:.: rt:O.:drcl.:cl, ":\r ,]inner
1111\\.: l\ lr EJ11.uJ 1\:.:11\ >t: nt hi. hr,Hher, 1\lrTh. K. hl mt' II'Hh rhe,c ll·,,rJ,, 't-.ly
brother ><I )'> rhm \'<' ll >tudy "' much, ancl rher.:f,>re, >ecing it i> tll<l late ro gu
wday tc> l\:rumlu1·, he 11 i>h.:, \ uu t<l o.:ume t<l pa>> d1e rime With him at play. I
wenr alter dinner and played, he ;m,l I aga uhr l\ lr F. G,1r.: [Ft'l1llll1: "Gar!JnJ"I
anJ l\ lr. Rub [Fenrun: " Rnhert G.trlanJ") rill >Upper rime, in hi, dining roum:
.mJ afrer >Uf>per he c.1m.: and the uth.:r,, and 11·.: playt!J th..: rt' tll'<l or thrt!e
h,,ur,, anJ fri en, lly cl..:parr..:J . Thi> 11'<1S then after rhe gr..:.ar and w,md..:rful un-
l..inclnt'>> u,..:J tLlll'arJ me in taki ng [F.:nt,111: ''b..:.tting"l my man" (PO, 25-6;
Fenron, 232-3).
The alcht: mlo.:al <1Ct ivirie> O.:<mti nued thr,,ugh 1588. F..:bru.1ry o, "tdr. E. 1\:.
.u 111ne ut" rhe cluck after n<l<ll1 >t'nt f,,r me tu ht, labui<ttury m·..:r rh..: gJt..: w
h,lll' he >O.:: ric,,n, ao.: <:Llrcling as in rim..:: past and ,,f lat..:: ht! h..::ard of
m..: out ,,f Ripl..:y." 24, "1\ l r. 1\: . pur rh..: gl. bs in Jung." M,ty 10, "E. K.
,li d <>p..:n the gre,ll >ecr..:r t<l nll:, l),,d b..:: th,mk..:J! " Augmr 24, (in Latin) "I
rh..:: divine 11 .n..: r, by rh..:: Jemlll1>trJri,m of rh..:: magnitic..:nr mastt!r anJ my
fri..:nJ l\ lr EJ 1-.:clly, b..:f,,re midd,ty: in rh..: >P<Ke nf rhrt"e hour,."
D..:<....: mh..:r 7, (in Gr.:..:k charao.:r,:r,) "Grt';H fri cnJ, hip pr<lmised fur 111<1110.::)' anJ
Ill''' uutK..::s ,,f the thing." Dec..:rnher 18, "l\ lr Edw.ud Kdly gav..: me rh..: 11·arcr,
nh:rcury, all 30 ,,:.Wate-r, eanh and all " (PD. 26-30; F.: nrnn, 233-7).
In Nul't!lllbt:r 1587 Francis Garland haJ bruughr a lettt'r tix Oo..!t! frum
EJw.trJ Dyer in England (PO, 2·t; F..:ntlll1, 23 1). The cuurrier poet EJward
Dyer, knighr..:d in 1596 but at rhi> rime sti ll pbin Mr. Dyl!r, had >tuod as
g• ,Jfarher tll Arthur De..: in 15 79. He hacl studied alchemy under Ot!e with
Philip Si,lney.
00
I le ha,l reratned hi s inter<.:>£ in the subjl!cr, anJ in rhe mid
1570, he had a» ay..:cl for Wabi ngham a sample uf rhe <J rt' Frobi>h..:r haJ bruughr
b.1ck from Nurth America, hdieving it was guld. Dyer had ck:mllnsrrated rhar
it ll'as nllr. In Europ..: in 1588, Sa1gl!nr \\Tires, "h.: o.:uuiJ nut r..:si>t the temptation
tll Cllntinue j<lurn..:y .md inn:srigate the bbours of Kelly in per-
sun.""' W,t> it >imp!..: remprat iun, or was he under insrructilll1> frum Elizabeth,
ur Burghky, or Walsingham? He arri \·ed in Prague, paid an official to the
Empl!ror Rucl.llf, and then came m Trebon on July 20. Two Jays later Dee
r<.:<..<HJ s, in a mi xture uf Latin, English, anJ Greck chamcrer>, rhat "Dyer diJ
injure me unkindly," hur thc folluwing day reconci liation wa> efft:cred by the
mecliar iun ,,f Kell y. Dyer kfr on August 9 (PO, 27-8; Fenron, 235- 6).
In N<I\Tmher 1588 Dec 11•rure tll Qu..:.:n Eli:abeth, C<mgratularing ht!r <li1
rh..: Engli,h 1·icwry ,wer rhe Spanish annacb , and prumi, ing to r<.!t urn. H..: \\Tilt'S
nt "finding nur dury cnncurr..:: nr wirh a secr..:r beck of rhe said
La,ly OpplHTuniry, nllll' t<l embrace, ancl enjoy, your mnsr excd lenr
l'<l)' al t-.laje,ry', high anJ gracious great clt! mency, of calling me, Mr
1-.:dly, and <lur hum<.!, inr" y,,ur c:arrhly and monarchy
inc,lmpamhle. """ Was Eli:aberh summoning th..: m back so rhar their alch..:mical
expo..!rim..:nls C<luiJ pruce..:d in En:;lancl, anJ the Engli, h wftt" rs?
GMI.md repun..:J rh.: akht!mio.:al tr.msmutat iun he had nb,erved un hi, previuus
vbir ? 1-bd Dyer bec:n ><=nt ,m a missi,m?
'l
L),·..: .mJ ht> f.unih ldr Tr.:b,m <111 l\!Jrch 11, 1 )b9. Un .-\1nl I '
1
d .. )
r, ·'' h..:cl Bro..!lllen wh..: r..: they >f,l\ e,l f,,r >t:l'l.!n llll>nt h, b..:f,lr<.: Jq' .<rt 111,_: 1r .. i11
•m Nov..:mber 19, tinJIIy .r rnving b.tck in Engl.mJ <lll N,11 ..:mher 22. I S:J-1
lPD. 30-2; FentLH1, 239-46). D..:..: gi1·e, Jn aCC<lllnt ,J( rh1, return m 1 .. >
. •
Kelly r..:mainl!J in Buhem1.1. Whtk under rhe p.rtr,n1.rge ••I 1\.,onl..:rl.. , 1-.:dt,
I,.,J begun working with ><l me ,,f Rudulf, alch..:mic,JI proJ<.:L.I>. 11 . I> •"
.:nrlHJ>ia>tic an alcho..!mic.tl ..:xperim..:nr..: r .1> Rll:mb..:rl... R. J. W. E1 Jll> ufl:, ·'
lcH.:r from rh..: Empa,,r tll Rll:mherk, d.neJ Ocruher 27. bur'' 1th no \t:.lr :,: r,·en.
11 hich '' reque>ts-in friencll y rerms-rhar he r..:mp.lr.u dy rcle ... ecl
fr11m hi> ,ervio.:e rh.:re ro C<ll1l<.: ro Pr.tgu.: anJ >llp.:rn,..: ,1 grt'Jt .rkhemtc.d
11 h
1
ch is in prngrt:». RuJ,J]f will nor cl..:t.lin huu (\nil in nlt !anger .turh .tlten,
.tb t!r sdbst b.:gcrn wire!'), bur rhe operati<m is a d1fhcuh un..: 11 htch e:o.p..:rr
'da, dar:u mangdr, dcr mc:rcunu> ,.,lt,, an dem d1.:
ni t b n v..: rt'crtigr wcrJ..:n, hair derhalb..:n fur gu.:r cla, , lt! r EJu.trd dcr,db,r hteh.:r
l..hamb, J i>t!m mangl..: n :u hdffen.' n;u
Kelly g.linl!d the Emper,lr RuJ11lt\ f.t l'<>r, wa, accepr..:J .1 Cl[t:cn " '
Buhemia, and granr..:d a patenr ,lf lmpenal 11<lhdHy, ..:quire, aurari. I le bco.:Jm..:
Str Edward Kdly. 0<.!..: \IT<ll<.: to W.rbmgh.nn un :\ugu>t 20, 151:>9, rh.1r !\:ell)
was "now in most favuurable mJnner created .1 B.tr<Hl llf the l..mgJ,Hn llf
mia; with th.: grant uf a Ctl.lt ,l Mill>: a, I ha1·..: >een in a IMg..: >eal, h..:mg .1 lt, m
r.nnpanr with [rhc li un ,If EnglanJI in a horJure, wl[h the yo..!ar <ll1 the ,..:.d, 1 1:
I 573, and a mnrrn mund ir.";' AcCtlrdi ng to rh..: Kdl\ claim..:J reLHtlln-
hip to the and cnt Irish t1llhiliry: "EdwJrd Kdly, bllrn an Engli,hman, ,,f rh,
knighrly ki n and h,1usc called l mamyi in rhe O.:<lunty ,,f Cun.tglhtku 111 rh.:
kingdom of lrdJnJ. n): T hb claim ha> g..: n..:r<tlly b..:cn dt>CllUnreJ <I> a f.tbno.:.ll hJI)
by Kelly. Bur drawing <m the geneal,lgical Cllmpi lati<H1, An 1\ liwnh-
ll.?ach, Liam Mac C:Jil ha, rhat rhe>l! genealngle> "make the Ui Ch..:.t!Lugh
(O'Kdly, Kdly) dc,o.:endanr> of 1\ Ltine. The Ui M ha me (Hy-1\ lany, I many) hdJ
territllry in Connaught , m,Jre prc:ci>dy in l.!<l>t Galway and >tlUth R<.l>Cumlll<ln. h
ll'lluld have bt!en quite nLJrmal ancl proper, rhcrdnrl!--orrhugraphy anJ
<.t >idt!-for >Ollleone called Kelly ro say th.lt he was uf the nuble ' hnu>e <li lm.llll) 1
in the county " f Conneghaku' ,md unly a little ..:xhihmnnl>tic. "i
1
The Bohemian ..: nnublt!menr uccurr..:d snme run..: afr.:r Dee', Jcp.rnur..: h11
hefurt! the enJ ,,f Jun.:, 1589. R<l:mherk is >aiJ to have gtven Kdly tl\',, ri Ll·,
with their vi ll.tgl!> n..:ar JII,ll'e- Li berio.:..: .mJ N,,d Lib..:n.:• Vl.tJ imir 1\:.trr.:nl.. ..
writ.:s thar while at T rd1,111, Kdly "recdved Llt purch.t>t:cl <lilt: smJII CJ>rle, nmc
vtllages, and two h<l ll >l!S in Pr.tgul!.";;
In June 1589 Kclly wr<lll.! ru L,,rd Burgh Icy .th, llll .llleg..:,lll' e.J'llll hy
ph er Parkino. The Briri,h Library preserves Kdly'> let ter (I\ IS Lm,,!-111 ne o l.
64)io ancl a kuer frum De..: lll1 rhe >.lllle tllpil: (t-.IS Lm,dnwne 6 1 .ur. 5:J,
ful. 159).
Kelly reporr..:d "ThJt f,,un..:..: n day, he fur..: the t'..: ,r,r ,,f Pc:nrcCll>L I,, , , tl .. ti
<ll1t! Parkin>, burn in Engl.mJ an,) now .1 J..:>uil c,tme fmm R,lllle t•> th..: " '
Prague in B,lh..:mia. And rh..:: rl! C<Hning ll1tLl an inn, whert! the ,,uJ ::-i1r E. K
5-1 1\ IYSTll:.-\L 1\I ET.-\ L UF l)l)Ll )
wa:. , ancl un .:ring chv.:r:. n, ,l·dn.::., anllmg cHh.:r:. h..: pLunl) (but a:. 1t \\ c:r..: m
gr..:at ,..:cr..:q) up.:n..:cl hl rh.:: sa icl Sir E. K. thb h,>rrihle Clll1>pir<ILY again:. r
h..:r l\ laje:.ry:
I . T h,tr th..:re 11<:re nu11' :...:1·..: n :.u..: h way:. , ,r 111..:an:., anJ
agr..:.:cl upun by rh.: Polpe and h 1> cunieJ ..: rat..::., fo r rh..: murcleri ng ut the
Q uc:..: n , th,a if rho:: first , :...:cllnJ, t hird, fuunh ancl fifth fai ld , yet \\'ere
rh..: [pl, ,r:.[ ..: re. in , u,:h s11rt tLl be ex..: ..: ur..:J , rhar rho:: :. ixrh or Sl!\'t.:IHh
sh,n!ld rake ..:ff..:..: r: y..::., ii all rh..: ckvib in hdlth..:reunr,, say nay.
2. AnJ funh..:r Parki ns J..:dar..:J, that rhuse way:. ancl means were
hy him anJ h is culw renr:. m be ..:xe..:ur..:J aga in:. t h..:r Majesty's own
p..: r:.Llll, f, ,r the p..:lfnn nan..:..: whc.:re,lf h..: d..:dar..:d abu, rhar he wuuld
f,>nhwi rh gn inrn England hy the.: way oi Dan:ig. And :.11 irom rhc.:n..:e,
in the hahir ,Ji a m..:n: hanr, inr11 England.
3. That wh..:n the saicl Sir E. K. d..:clarc.: J rh..: :.ame :. rrang..: n..:ws t11
the: Lm,l R•>: mberk, Vi..:eruy ni Bohemia, rh..: said R1>: mberk rolJ Sir
EJw.1 rJ rh..1r rhe :.Ji, l Parkim was rho:: right hand, or chief man ro rh..:
K mg nf Spa in anJ rh-: Pup.:, in all rhc.: ir rreach..: rou, enterprise, 3gain, r
England.
4. At d1..: :.J I1h! Dme anJ ilb tanr rh..: >JiJ R,l:mherk , huwed unw
::i ir E. K. a l..:n..:r, wrirr.:n by uno.: 11i rh.: chief ,Ji rhe , rarc:s nf rhe Low
C,luntric:s wirh the Emperur, rc:questing the Emp..:ror t11 b..: a means ro
rake up th..: mart..:r h..:rw..:..:n rhc:m and the Kmg Ill Spain. And al:.o
requesting rh1s Emp..:ror ro >end them >ome aid to hd p them away with
the English rh,1 r wer..: in thm..: pr1win..:es.
5. That t h..: >aiJ Sir EJward, at his f,uthful di:.clu:.ing rhn:.e things
(rhu, by Ji vine prLwi.Jen..:e come tll his knuwl..:dge) t11 rh..: , e sub,cribed
genrkm..:n, Jid funhermnre much marvd and w,mJcr, h11w it wa, possi-
bl..: that thl.! uf the Low Countries, Jwdling in England, would
or ..:oulJ lend and >end unru rhe Emperor or Ki ng of Spain a million of
gGIJ ar any rime 11r rimes, ru his m their which he of his certain
knuwledge assur..:J tu be done. BLI[ he wdl hop..:d, Lhm the treason
therein by this rime 11as Cllm..: tu rhe knowledge of >0111<! 11f her 1\laj..:sry's
mo>r h, li111UWble pri1·y council.
We Rnben Ta n un and Gemg..: Leic..:,rer, gentlemen, do witness
th..: , e articles anJ rh..: effect of every pan of them ro have b..:en dedared
unr,, us, and Ed mond Hi lron, ,en ·ant to the right II'L1r:.hipful John Dee,
E, LJ , by t he within named Sir E. K. at our being with him at T rebon in
Btlhemia in th..: end nf June last, 1589.
LeiLL'>L<.:r w.1s pre,um<l hly rh..: G..:,Jrg..: LL'i..:..::. rer who wa> ,,f h..: r Maje:.-
t y', in rh..: Luw
Parkins wr11te t•J 1--·b y 12, 1590, ..: umpL1ining ab, >ut rhe trouble
J..: ..: lly' s rep,lrr cau:...:d him. "H ighr hnn,Jrabl..: Sir, it has been >tHne cnmfnn unw
m.: tt l unJ..: r:. wnd by yuur lt:rter, that my t rouble b pro longed, by lookmg for
,m an, w..:r from Sir EJward Kdly, who been conj ured m deal h..:n:: in sincerely.
;:,,,
1
1 Kdl y d..:al C hri, rian ly w1th run.: all wtll be: wd l. Bur tl 1·,· ·"' c:"
I\\L'.111111g man a, c.ummun iam..: reptlrt>, 11 hat Ctii1)Urt ng be >Ulll(lc111 t".""'""
hun deal sincerd y: specially if he io lluw rh..: cnun:.d ,,j lu, fnenJ, an-I ,;t. •. odl
urh<.!rS the Je>uit>, whu have \' uweJ the1r enJcal·our. tu trouble thl> L'>t.l t..: ·•"J
,
1
ll wd l-wi, her," (Publi..: Recmd O ihce, SP 12/23 1, f, Jl. 22).
Parkins had been at sd1o,1! ar Win..:he,r..: r wi th ThtllllJ> Wat>.H1, the \ \ .d
, mgh.am agenr whu h;Jd Gft'ered hi> sc: rvice> ttl Ltskl. In 1566, ag..:J 19,
haJ ..:nrercd rhe s,,.:iety of Jesus ar Rome. He had been an
among th..: Je>uirs for mJny years, hu_r • h..:..:ame di,t,H1ceJ tr,Hn rhe1n.
In rhc miJ-1580, h..: prt>vcd him, dt usdul tu Burghl..:y, llHervenmg t ll >.11 t
' I)
Burghk y' s grand:.nn frum tmuble afr..:r ,,,m..: expr..::.>ion rllk >L .. nt
,>p inions on a vi, ir w Rum..:. Parkin> i> >aid hl have returned EngLmJ
rhe young William C.:.: il. who r.:conuu..: nJeJ him tll h!s grandt.uher. In 1 ) \:1 /
Parkins was , rill d.:scribed in rhe government'> li, r ul recu,,mL> abr.,aJ ... , "
J..:,uir, resident in Prague. What in,pired Kdly' , le u er i_> HaJ h.: r ec r.
i.:J misinftumatiun ? Was h.: trying ro pre>ent him, dl .1> u:.d ul t11 rh..: <! "l,m-
menr? O r was he trying tLl pre-empt any r..:pllrt> Parkin> may ha1·..: mclJ.: J bcJLot
hun? Parkins ,..:ems tll ha\·e be.:n imprisuneJ on hi, rerum t1J Engl.mJ, bur 11 .. ,
r..: gularly empk1yeJ on diphnnari..: mi» tOll> .atr..:r . rhi, , and in 59 1 \\,t> 111.1J t
ambassad,u m D.:nmark anJ gi\·en an annlllt)' ot 100 mJ rb. Wh.:rh..:r h..: h.1J
been an agent beiurehanJ, or wh..:rh..: r he wa, re..:rui r..:J after a , ,men Ill;·
up spell in pris0n i> undcar.
Deo:: haJ exp.:cro::J Kell y w m..:d h1m 111 Bremcn an, ! ret urn w
with him. He wrote tll Mr. ju, rice Yo ung, Augu:. l 20, 1589, rhar h..: kJreJ hL'
w
1
1ulJ have "ttl endure th i, Br..:ami>h habHation Lh i> winter, b..:..:au,e I hc:ar n.
"'' 'rJ of Sir Ed Kdly's apprtlaching" (SP 15/ 31 , h1l. 35 ). Ntll'ember 3, o lJ >£) lL'
he records in h i:. diary, "I r11 gu intLl Engl,mJ, h.1ping w meet l\ l r
EJward Kdly ar Srade, guing also intn England; ,mJ rhat I su>pecr..:d up.m l\l r
S..: crerary Walsingham', leucr:." (PO, 3 2; Fen£<111, 2-11 ). Ba..: k ar Morrlak..: , J,,nu-
ary 23, 1590, (Fenron , 247, has December 23, 1589), Dee ww te, ' 'l\lr Thunl.<·
Kdly came fr,lm Brainf,m:l; pur me in good hope ut S1r Edward Kdly' s r..:rurnm;"
(PD, 32). But h..: never saw Kdly aga in.
AnJ now S ir EdwarJ th1uri:.hcJ a> nn.: ui RuJ,,lt\ tJVllllte:.. H t> ,lkh.:n<k.d
trammuwrion> were widdy repon ed. A, hmlllc r..:corJ, in Th.!atrwn Ch.:n'"' ""
Britannicwn: " I have received ir from a crcdi hl..: per:.1ll1, rhar one Brll,,mndj
anJ Alexander Ruberrs ruiJ him they had often >cl!n Sir EJ Kdly mJke pr.IJL'c-
tion, anJ in particular upon a pic..:e of m..:ral cui our of a warming p.m, ,m.J
without Sir Edward's touching or handling ir, or mdrmg the mc:ral (onl) 1\.lfiJ.-
ing it in rhe firt!) rh..: dixir being pur rh..:r..:,m, ir wa> rransmur..:d ilHcl pt..r,
, ilver: the warming- pan anJ rhb pie..:e uf it W<l> ><.:nt ttJ Q u..:cn Eh:.1bdh b\ hc:r
ambas:.ador who then lay at Prague, that by fiuing the pie..:e inr11 rh..: pl.,,c·
whence it wa> cur our, it might .:xacrl y app..:ar tn be ,me parr oi rh.a 11
pan. The af0r..::.aid p.:r, ,m ha:. likewise >t.:en in the hands of on.: lvl r Fq .: an-i
Scroupo::, rings uf Sir Edward Kdly's gt1ld, the fash ion of wh1ch 11'..1> unl-,
wire, rwbted thrice ahnut rh.: finger; anJ of th..::.e fashi, meJ ring>, h ..: g.11 c· . ·' ··)
m the valu..: of 1:4000 ar the marriage of on..: of hb , ervant m,u-1, . Tht> '' ,,.
)0
t-.1\":::iTIC.-\L t-. IET.-\L L)F GOLD
lllghl ) hlll td truth he: \\'<lo tlpo.:n ly pr,ltuo..:, h.:yun,l th..:
limito phil,,,, ,pher." W,",J rep..:at> d1e srury in Atl1.:nt!<! Oxuni.:nsis,
u,IJmg rh.: detail rhctr rh..: amhasoacl,,r was LurJ Wil k1ughby.11
R. J. W. E, <llb cite> urher rcporro rhur ci rcular.:J rhrllugh Eur<lpc:. The
13oheml.m a,l.:pl t--lard1icto Erhin.Jus \ ' cll1 Branclau \\TOte arounJ 1630 rh;t r he
hctJ een Kdly's tincture, and rhar Kelly .:uu!J proJuce rh.: .1\. l.:t.:urii<S Solis in
nu llhll't.: than ti trc·..:n minurc,. An,,ther uccuoiun is r.:purrecl hy Gasoenduo at
L?r. 1-Lij..:k', huuo..:, wh.:r..: with rhe mfuoiun of a oingle >mall Jnlp nf reJ liquiJ,
Kdly LransnHILeJ a puunc.l <>f mc: rcury into g,,JJ. RuJ,>lf uoed Hcij.:k w r..:or our
the ..:ro.:J.: nrhtl, 11f alchcmiob bdorc raking rhem inru hio service. Thi s nccaoiun
may ha,·c: he.:n such a to.:oL, one which Kdly pa»ecl oucces>fully. Nicolas BarnauJ,
who wao li1·ing ar H<i jck', h·>use, b vari•>u>ly rcporr.:J LO hav.: ubsern;J ur
p.trttCipatc:J in <ll1..: ,,{ Kdly's rratbmurarilll1>. A number of B,>h.: mian manu-
ocriprs ,tf the oixr..:enrh anJ ,,e,·enrc:cnrh century contain alch.:mical recipes
ll'hich .tre .1>cnh.:cl Kdl y; anJ a Hungarian alchembt claimed robe reirer.ning
the true \l'loclum 1>f Sr. Dunoran which Kdly haJ reJioC,Jver.:d anJ transminc:d
rhr<lllgh Rulk1lf.i• .
On Ocr.1bcr I, 158':1 EJ,,·,Ird L \er left Lon, ku1 , 111 a Sl!CI'd miooi,m h>
peroualk Kdly tll rl!rurn t<l EnglanJ with hio alchemical expertlo<:: . Burghky
rl'C..:i\·e,J report> on Dyer', prllgt"l!S> fnun Th,Hnao Budky at The Hague (SP 84/
15, td,. 17- 28) and Will iam ll·lilwarde ar Sracl..: (SP 82/3, ful. 116). On March
7, 1590, .m Englioh mc:rchanr ar Hamburg, Wi ll iam Fuwlc: r, repurreJ rn Burghlo:y
"up,ln my late rra,·d in thl! ..:vumrieo of Oeur.chland and Bvh.:mia f11r h.:r
td,tje>l y'o oervic<.! ":
.-\n, l un_r,' the! l try ,,f Pr;tgu.: mer wirh rho: worohipful Mr 1\:dly,
whum alter hi, trit:nJiy enterr,tinmem anJ ar my J eparrure tr,Jm rhence,
cldi,·ercd un[ll me: a bnx with the or.: ancl order of the silver mines, for
Lu ddi,·.:r untll Y•1Ur hunuur with rhis letter here .:nduseJ ... nor
J, ,ubri_ng with Gud', hdp bur that he hinbclt will he here vc:ry ,h,mly,
ao he full y inrcn1leJ :1r my C<H1ling away. Mr Oyer is g,me unru him, and
has hecn nu11· rho:rc a month t'nun Srade, and b lu1)kecl fur dail y. I l1<1pe
thq · wi ll cume Wgerhcr, G,ld gram they may, ft1r he is a guoJ oubj.:ct
ancl tt> be a..:cuunre,l uf.
The ktt<.:r, iopreoe!'\'ed in .-\ohllh1le'o papers in rhe B11dlcian Library (/>.IS Ash-
llh>k 17oti, h1lo. I )9-60) . .-\ccurJing tu De.:'s diary, Oyer h ..JJ rl!lllrnc:d to L,m-
clon hy March 14; Dec: rc:ceived a l.: uer from Kdly March 17 (PO, 33;
Fl!nt"<u1, 247).
Qu.:c:n Eli:ab.:rh's 11h1St >l' l1i11r otctreMmm, Wi ll iam Cecil, L,1rd Burghley,
rhe k1rJ trl'asurer, noli' \\T<>Lc directly to Sir EJwarJ. An undated drair of a lerr.:r
oun·iveo in thl! Brirish Library (t-. IS Lam,Jowne 103 no. 73, iul. 211 He
rhank.:d Kdl y hio krr.:r rccl'il'c:J l' ia Oyer anJ nored
you C< H11;_., a Je>lre 111 rerum [<1 Y•'Ur naril' e C<lLu1try; which 1o very
C<l mln.:n,bhk in )'<lLt. I J•erc.:il·e alou by yuur own 11·urdo, expreooly, that
),
)'llUf nunJ dr..t\\'o )'<lll f<l\\clrd )'•>ur lllh•ll1 .&Lo\c ,11
woriJiy yuu ,lc:otre 111 o.:n·e and plc:.toc:: wh1ch mrenr )•'LI ·'"'
desire me l<l furrho:r .... And )'d nevcnhde>o, I \\ uuld 11llt hcl\'o: )•"'
ignorant, thar ounJr) nten, bemg Ill>[ acqu•unr..:J with rhc: oo.: p>ur t".mhtul
off.:ro anJ purpooeo, let nut in oume ><lrt, >111Cl! ir 1o oeen rh..tt )<Ill ..:.uuc
llllt ll'irh 1\ l r Dyer, tcl d1vine \'<lricluoly of yl>Ur oray, oume o.tying rhcH )• '''
do forbear tu CLlll1e, because )'llll cannor perf,mn rh,n inJ,;ed "h1ch h .• :
been reponeJ ,,f )' llU. Some that )'<Ill dft! enr i..:eJ ( hy ouch a> n .. t
rhc Queen nor rhio re.tlm any guoJ will), nur w Clllllt: fll henc:hr 1 .. ,,
Majesty. Sume ,1ll.:ge your <J\\'n pmfes>icm ni rdigion ,lu..:> nnr
w1th uuro here. Yc:a ><1111<.! rh,lf malic iuuoly are di>p11oed, oay, rh,lt )'<1ll .11'
an impooror [anJ a decc:i,·er-- dd.:rdl with yvur
lr io clo.:ar lrom Burgh Icy', leuer rhar Queen Elt:aheth h.1J requo.:otecl hun t d '' nt,
to Kelly, anJ rhar ohe hcrodthaJ alreaJ)' wnrren. "I <1m e:<.prc»ly • h
her Majl!ory t<l requirt:! yuu to havt:! regarJ w her h<ll1<1Li r, .tnJ accurcl ing t• '
rcnur of her fmmer leuers, r<> asoure yourodf, tu he oingularly fuv,>ure,l; Y'·'· 11,
respect, ,,f the bc:netits rhar y•>u may, by the gift> that G11J hao giv..:n, t,
her Majcory, eo be hLlnourcd, w rhe Cllmfnrr ,tf Yllllrodf and all ynuro." I le
condudeJ with rhanb rv K.:lly "fur rhe nwunL.t in, ''r rock rl1<H Y''u oem, .111.1
safdy brought ro me frnm SraJe, which I will pla..:e in my lh1Uoe wl:c.r.: I
d,l bt:!stow orher rare rhingo of wmkmanoh1p, and ,hall he cl mel11l lrial ul ) •'"'
kinJneso. Wishing I might enjuy sum,; omall r.:ceipr fr,lm )'<1LI, thar m1ghr Cllllll• 111
my spirits in mine age, rhan my cuffero with any wealth: f, Jr I e>t<.:.: lll
health abovc: wealrh."
Thc: "mounrain or r<Kk" th.1r Kdly ,enr ru Burghlq \\'cl> prnbJhl) .1 lJo:ll ll-<1•
a mndcl ni a muunrain made up •li aoo.1ys ut ore, ownc: ancl .:ry,r . .!-.
ohowing in ,,;criun the layout ut the mine workingo wirh minc:rs ar their Juf,·rc:lll
moks. Burghlc:y wao l..n,,wn t11 h,tl'e an inrc:reor in mechanical J.:vice> .mJ n"' , 1-
ties, which he kept , t<lgerher with an c:xhauotl\'e collection uf nupo, in th,
cabi nets in his srud ico and galleries."''
Burghl.:y', lener ru Kelly ocrupul,>uoly m·,,i,b mentl<llHng akhelll) . Pr.:"ll"
ably rhi:. w<b in caoe rho.: lerrer was im.:rcc:pteJ. Thc: matrer wao juJ geJ t11 r, ..
sensi tive one. Burghley wao certainly de.:ply inrerestccl and full ,nl·eJ up L1·
inquiries rhrllugh llthc:r meano. The Britioh ducumenr uf F.:hntclf)
1590 (t-. IS Lansd.nvn.: 846, iols. 21 6-17) conr,uning the wpy of a p.H..:r.t , r
knighrhvocl granr.:J by RuLI,llph to Kdly may wdl be a reopunse w ,u..;h ll1cjuif·
ieo. On March 8, 15':10, ar rhe enJ ut a lung lertl!r w Sir Horatll > P.tl,l\ 1..:11•c·
Burghl.:y writes, again "I pray y<tU learn what yuu ..:.111 , lhlll ::-,r
EJwJ . Kdly's proft.! ssion may b.: credited" (SP 81/6, fob. 7-8).
Palavicino wao a fi nancier whoot! fllrtune was bas.:J <ll1 the Eut'<' l'e.ln .• 1,.:,
ll1llnllpoly. From 1580 w 1592 h.: wao rh..: Englioh g,wernm.:m'o ti n,li1CI.d .•,;cill
in European Jealings. He Wl>rkcd clo,d y wirh Burghlo:y, prln·1dmg " c«nJult , 1
finance fl1r diplomatic, eopivnagc, and other expendirureo, anJ he: 11 cl> ,I lu __ J..
levd snurce of information f,1r Burghley and Wabingham."
1
1\ IYSTIC.-\L t-.IET:\L L)F lJl)L[)
July I ), 15':)0, l \:c: rc:c-' t"<b in ht:. ,liary, "l ll'<:m tu the: Ar..: hbt, h<l[1 ,,f
C. IIHerhur\: ll'ith him bul-ll y •>t Ill\' righr t<l the p.lr:.<m.Igc:s; ancl t<> the
<lt-Su· EJwar, l 1\:..:lly's Alchemy" (PD, 35; Fent<.m, 249). Wa:. Dee claim-
ing ><Hll<.: right:. t<l a 1\\ lrk ,,f Kdly':., ur was it a maner ut <. 1wner:.hip oi n
manu:.cripr! Th..: ldklll•ing y..:.u Raph R.1bbard:. nrgani:..:d the: publicuion <li rho.:
first ..:Jinun ,i Rtpley's Th.: CumpuunJ of Akhemy. Amung rho.: prda[l)ry
..:s:.<l)'> l' <.:r:...::. "ui <lther n. 1rablo.: 1nirer,'' appeareJ the poem "Sir E. K. Cun-
cerning rh..: Phi lo:.tlpher', Srune wrinc:n w his e:.pc:cial g1.1oJ fri end, G.S. Gent."
Dc:e ;llsu C<HHribur..:J a prc:iar<>ry 1'•><.: 111 r,, the h,1ok, "J. D. Gc:nt: in pr.1 i:.e Llf the
;luth,H- and hi :. W<lrk," su h,; may ll'dl hav..: bo.:en invnlvcJ in arranging the
uf tht: by Kdl y. Kdly's "e:.p..:cial guuJ fri enJ G. S. Go.: nt" has
ll<1r hec:n iJ..: nnfio.:,l.
Kdl y replic:J tu Burghlc:y from Pr.Igu,·, July 1590 (SP o l /6, iub. 56-7) .
Kdly refur..:J "whdt:.de\'<.:r ha:. been spuk..:n ui m..: anJ by whum I kt hlll' nor but
am ,b:.urc:d rh.1r n1.1 man ha:. conuni:.:.i•m r,, rept:at any WL1rJ:. f, mn.Illy ir<1m me
in EngbnJ to rhar pr..: renJ.:,J eff.:cr, 1\l r Dy..:r excepreJ whn h <b d.me rhe parr
uf a iairhtul :.ubjecr anJ tclld a truth :.uch as nune of these blabbers :.hall ever
<1\·..:rrhrow." He 1\'C:llt <111 rn aJJ that
:. uch <b r.:warJ m..: f,u my fanht.ul :.t: n ·i..:c arc: nut r<l he: ulutH..:cl emi..:..: r:.
n..: irher b my Ji:...:reti.>n :.•l weak .Is t<l apply any sen·ic..: t•> the enemies
ui hc:r 1\laj..::.ry nr my narivo.: country wh ich hithertu I duubr nLlr bur that
I h,t\'<! well u,·,1ido.:J ... I pr<.lt<!:.t beiuro.: GnJ the rru..: and :. tnc..: r..: l01·e,
Jury and nh..:Jto.:nce thar I J ..1 and always shall bear to her :.acred 1\ laje:.ry
anJ the h ..m,lur of my c,>unrry; and ><1 an cnJ for rhi:..
Wel l a 1i•ord m tll'll wi th rhllse that find faulr with my rdigi.m. If
th..:y be such a:. luve Gu..:l care for h•mesty, hate pride and
Clll·..:rou:.nc:ss anJ rh..: filthy sin of l..:chc:ry: if they prefer nor the Cl1Urt
b..:!, m:! tht!ir CllnSCtence and tv!Jchiavd's docrrine bo.:furt! the wnrd of GoJ
rhen am I oi rhem. AnJ hope :. hall wdl conform with their religion, etc.
But now I :. tng oi a rms anJ the man. And und<!r )'<lllr Ci.l rrcct ion my
g<.111J l,>r,I :..1y whar:.,Jever he be in England that is nnt a:.h,uueJ tu report
that I am an imposter I will n,1r be ab;tshed to :.uy that he is a knave
:md that h..: ltes in his throat and will maintain it with my :.wllr-1 upun
hi:. care ts..: wh..:re:.\1\!\·cr I can •>r shall find it abroad, will gladly and
tn<IIi cinu:.ly trea-t it dl>Wn at hum.:.
[He went on tLl o.:xplain hi> :.illlati<.Hl in B,1hemiu.j Being in :.ecurity,
ancl that in a C<luntry iull of pt!acc and lib..: rry, seiscJ in bnds of inheri-
tance yidding U500 yeurly, inCLlrporar..:J to the kingJ nm in the :...:conJ
urd..:r, some expecratiun and u:.e more than vulgar, uf ht:. Majcsty's
privy council (n,JtwithstanJing y<!t sworn for t he love.: l b..:ar unto
my sacred Que..:n and country ), chief regent in nnd uver all the lands
and affair:. 1.1f rhe Prince Ru:mhcrk: I cannot see how I nught easi ly or
h,m..:srly depart, much lt!ss :.o :.tc:al mvay, for why such properties belong
to a paltry mitllled man and ro him that knows nut rh.: u:...: of honour.
-.
.-\ b.ntghr 1 <ll\1 anJ SW<.l rn r<l prumllte l' trtue anJ chti'Jir\ 11l.kh i ·· .tt
p..:rform by all ..:ndeavuur (GL>d helping me) tll the uttc:rm<l>L ,
But if it may pleas<! my most ,,weretgn anJ u •ut. tr, t.
rc:Jre:.:. tht: done ag..t inst m.: h.:rc: tul,lre t1.1 m<.: lhJ tt.c t.
the like honour; me ui much bnJs uf by )"·' r t.
:.erve ho.:r, a, 1 ,h,lll lea1·c behmd me in &1h..:mtJ k1r her; rh..:n 11 tll l
Jeclare my:.di upenly, rake l..:ave uf h t:. htJC>tY anJ b.mgJllm anJ rq· ... r
hume ru her
J,
1
cs
1
w r :.p..:city the " in] urte:. J util! agatn:.r m.: her<.:l<l lllr..:" but di e: \ " .. u
be rhe ear !upping ur the t.:<>ining charg..:. . ,
On Augu:,t 10, 1590, Kd ly 1\'tllte replying t<l ,t rurrher ktt..:r ll lHliPUr; hk.
··1 um nor ,
0
mJJ t1.1 run ,l\vay from my pre:.em hon<.J ur and lanJ, t<l r, •
,
1
n<!l\' . Sarb e:.t per 1·inur..:m nll>xi 4ua per dedeam l"tnc..:rc ... · T ..> Jo.:,Jl pl.lli.l
I rind mysdi wdl ar ea:.e. And can well cunrenr my:.dt
anJ will not bur upun grcatcr rea:.om rh,m I yet hnJ (::,P b l /o, tul. OJ I
Sir Hurattu Pal.
1
vicinu r<!:.p,mJeJ w requ.::.t f, >r
Jbout Kdly by iorwarJing a lnng, rambling Puo:i had :.enr huu lh·t"
Pragu<! on August 25, 1590 (SP 81/6, fob. 68!1). Puc..:t ro.:p<.m..:d th.n h<.: h.t-.1
brok.:n with findmg him "..:v..:r nwre mcon:.ranr m m,m..:r:. •ll .u.J
piety and knowing him in ,J( irienJship lung m pr<.>m_t:.o.::. .mJ WLlrJ, h....r
in deeJ:., tinJing him over l,mg anJ year:. , -,ll n anJ tntukr.tl-1\
haughty." Pucci went nn tn complain th..tt Kdly uweJ hun mon.:y, anJ r.
Jescribe a quarrel that h,tJ ,levdupeJ hetwe..:n Kdly anJ Cuunr Sc,Htu.
quarrel, he repurreJ, had be..:n :.rarteJ by Kdly, "who 1\' r•H<.: th..tr _he: h.JJ It rr .. n.
tru:,tworrhy per:.<ms d1<1t Scottu W<IS :.peaking untb n..:ringly L1f h tm .mJ 1\ -''
rhrcutening to beat him up, who.: reby if such wa:. the h.: ordc: reJ h tm t,
indicate the place anJ rh.: t ime so rhar he might ro.::.p<.md wtt h weap.m m lunJ
.... Suftice it tll knuw ior the mument t hat th<! quarrel m my <lptnt<lli cmn,.t
have an earl y end without bkxxhhed, anJ t hat all tn all I dun t bdt.:l·c d1..:1 <.: t'
much to cho:.e b.:rwcen them.""!
Count Sc,Jtt<l, the Italian alchemi:.t, a :.mi:.ter hg_ur..: .. -\b,l b.n.ol\ t. ••
Scow or Sc,lta or Scorta or Scott i, anJ vanuu:.ly gtven the hr:.t n.1mo.: Cic:r.
or Alessandro ur Giovanni, h.: had arriv..:J in Prague e.1rlier that yc.tr, I J 'J-...
and :.eems m ha1·.: pl.1yed a parr in the that pre..:tpltat..:J 1\:dly':. J , o\\ nt . • ll
in 1591."
1

One.: again EJ warJ Dyer WLb :...:nr r<l Jc:;l l J irectly ll'trh Kd ly. 1-1<.: .otTtl , J
in Prague: .:arly in Ocrub..:r 1590. He prc:;;enr..:J h ts paper:. t•l the nHnbld> ' t
star.:, but rh..: (K1Iitical climarc was un.:asy and he let t r.IptJ ly. H.: 1\fl>l t: t.
Burghley Oct<.lb..:r 3 I. "I u:..:J all my be:.t mt:.m:. _ro have g<lrt..:n "' Hll<.: ni<. Jt .. " .,
w have :.<Hisfied her by her 1.1\\' n hlisslul :. tght: but Str EJ k Jr..:J l
consent rherew, le:. t rhe rep•1rt rhere<ll being blown .wer, ir might he .m ,1-:c .• ·•· ••
to kindle jealou>y here, whereuf he b..:ing n•lW of _rhe Emp<::mr\ pn\·) .._ ,,t,n.:d,
he has mure regarJ than in t ime pa:. t" (SP 82/3, tol. 134 )._
The sa m..: Jay, Octob<!r 3 1, Kdiy wn1te tll Burghl..:y trlllll 1 ::-I .:l •
6, iol. 76):
1\1\':->T IC:\L 1\ II::T-\L l) F GULD
Very I ,\Ill th.H h.:r l'vlaJc>t\ h,t, >c<:n .md hk.:, l Ill\ Ll>t
k rr.:1> . .'\n,l .un wdl plc.i><:d abd, rhm \'< Ill ,tCC<1UI1[ \<lur:,.:h· rher..:in fully
><Hi,ti.:d. Bur wh.:r<:a> \llll ll1lll'c m.: (a, from her l'vl.tjc>ty) w m,tle ><line
,kmtllhtrari,m in rh..: principal puinr (as it pka:,..:s Y<lll t11 r..:rm ir) uf my
,cienc..:, tll rh.: .:nJ her 1\ l.tjesry might he rhe bener :,arbri..:J, and !,1r the
>ll d.Hng pnunt><.: m.: (in h.:r 1\!Jjesty', lx half) graci1lU> fan1ur, incr<.:<be
uf htHh1ur ,mel li1·ing, I dHt> atbll't.: r: it h..:r htghn.::,s huJ >pedheJ any
p.trricular hy h..:r uwn direct ur indin:cr kn..: r, whe rein h..: r
:,a[l, f,tcti<•n haJ C••Jb l>l<.!el, ir , h,Ht ld hal'.: t.tken :,uch performance a, the
.!..:,Ire> <If ><I great a 1\ bj.:,ry, <tncl rh.: shmv uf my re<J I love and luy<t lry
tnwards h.:r might an\ way requirt!. Bur b..:cau>t.: yuur lorJ,hip's letter>
:tr..: tu< 1 in rh,n b.:half, and fm that rh.: pr,>ceedi ngs are so entangled
with 1 W»ing elf " •lilt! worthy man':, wdl known anJ un:,t.Jinahle
cre,llt , I rh,1ughr it rir tu wk..: a l'<lll>e umil I leJrn fmm her 1\1ajesty
wherein lmighr h<lll<Jurably :,.:n·..: an,l :,at isfy her graci<lUS htgh-
11<.:» <thr,l<hl, being :,.: ttJ.:d <t nd c.mtenr..:J already with sullici..:nr r.:puta-
ti<lll J nel linng.
D\<.: r ••·turn.:,l l'ragu.: 111 Ac..:,;relmg I•> :,argent, Dyer
'11 ,!v.:ply with rh..: Empcrur that h.: CLHdJ lltlt hal'c ld r the Empir.:
h..: wi, h.:d tu. "Whence cam.: <lriginal :,ugg.:stiun une cann<>t s;Jy,
hut bcr11·.:cn the tll'u, Kdly and Dyer, t hey hi t up<m an ingeniuu> :,olutim1. Smce
Kdly cnuld n<>t cJrry ,1\\'JY hts :,e.:rer, it wa> pmpu,..:J rh,tt ,hnukl enter
in!ll C<l llaburuti<>n rh.: e:qwrimen t>, with rhc .:xpccratic>n th<lt Dyer , h,lLI IJ
..:1·.:nrually lc:.arn the nt.:rh,,.l uf rransmut,ltiun for Dycr was Jdighred
wnh thc: pt'<l>pcct. Eel ward Dyer accordingly e>tabli>hed him,df in Kelly', hclu:,e-
hniJ, under Kdly' > tutelage: plungt'J int<l t he myst..:ric> of alch..:micallabllur.
The whole winrer 11'<1> gi1·..:n lWer w the pursuir."M
lr seem:, unlikely rha r Kdly wouiJ have ,hareJ hi, , ecr..:r,. But they ..:..:r-
t:unly JiJ 11'<1rk Kdl y later r..:called this p.:rind in a leuer tll Dyer,
September 14, 1595 (BuJieian Li br<tr\ MS A,hm,Jie 1420, p. 328): "Yea, honor-
ablc ::.i r, \'<Ill kn,nl· very well , ll'har Jdighr we t<lllk tugcd1..: r, when fr, Hn the
merab >imply calcincd intn P<lll'dt!r airc:r the u:,ual manner, distilling the liquor
, ,1 wi th the samt! we cum·t!rtcd appropriate b,Jdie> (as 11ur asrmnvmy
int'enc1r .. hc,) im,, m..: rcury rhei r tir,r marrer. "
Dy..:r's itw,Jh·..:m<;:nt with Kd ly i> the subj ect uf <me ,,f Fr.Jnt.:i>
ApoJ>hr/t.:gms:
Sir EJwa1J D1.:r, .1 gr.l\'<: ,mJ wi, c g<!mleman, clid much hclic1·.: 111 Kdly
the .t lch..:mi, r, that he ,liel ind..:eel rh.: Wclrk, ..1 nJ maJ..: gukl: in>umuch
that h..: w..:nr 1nru Germany, 11·herc: Kdly then \\'<!>, to ini<)rlll himsdf
fu lly th..:reuL After hi> r..:rurn, ht: Jinc:d with my l<1rJ of Cantcrbury,
wher..: ar rhar time ll'as Jt the r;tble Dr Brnwn rhe phystcian. They idl
in talk uf Kclly. Sir Edwar,l D\..:r, turning w th..: archbi>hop :,aid, "I J u
d:,:,ure Y<lur gra..:e, rhar rh.tt I , h<l ll tdl you is truth, I am Jn .:y..:wirness
therc:<li; anJ if I n<l t :,ccn it, I :,huuld n<1t hal't! hdie1·c:d it. I saw 1\l r
l ll
1-.:dl\ pur of rh.: m.:t.tlmtll rh.: .Jncl .!IL<:t ll 11,1> ><.:1 ·'
upun the tire, a ,·..:ry nt m..:,hctn.: pur >£1 1-' "-:
with a snck vt ll'll<ld, ir cam.: f<Hth tn grcJ! pr<lp<>rll<ll1, o '-
1
U, I•
the wuch, t•l tht: humm.:r, tu the tl.! >t.
1\ly 1,
1
rJ archhi,hup :,,tiJ, "Y,1_u nc: eel t.tkc: wh,H \"ll '·' ·
Sir EJwarel Dyer, for here: i> an tnnJd at rh..: h,J,trcl.
Sir EJwarJ l)ycr ,aid ag.Jin plccl>.Jiltl\, "I 11'<1uiJ h..11.: llll1k.:J h·l ·••·
tnh, ld ><l<H1er in any pla..:c: than ar yuur r.thle."
"What say yc1u, Dr Bwwn?" ,ay> rhe bi,hup.
Dr Brown J n>ll'..:rt:J , after hi> blunt anJ huckllmg mannc·r, "TL,·
gcnrleman h<l> >('<lk..:n cn<lUgh me."
"Why," ,ay> rhc: bi>h<>p, "What h..:
"1\!.ury," :,ay> Dr BrllWn, ''h.: ,,tiJ, hc W<l ukl 11<1t h..:l tc:l -. J 11
h
I . 11 I .. ,,
exc.:pt h.: au :,ccn tr , a> n<l llll>rc Wl .
)
F l
1 )-91 ,. ·I!<- \\Tll t .: ru Bur .. hk•· il\<.:11fllllllllg " I h.tcl r'llq . .; <>tt <:l> ' '
L n )ruary u, , "-t.: , o 1' l
l.:r you und..:r
3
ranJ in la,r lerr..:r I 11'•1ukl , hurrly \<lU t '"t >.'"n'
•'<l<>cl thing Y<lll ,lc:, irecl tel l" ynulrl he.tlth (Bnrt:, h t--.b Lnbcltl\1 oo.
• 58, f.
1
Is. 164-65). In 1\lay 1591 Burghley wn1te ag.Jm 1-.:clly: a clr,ttt <lf the
kner survive:, (1\ IS Lms,klwn.: 103, n<L 72):""
1 hal'c eau:,..: t•, rh.mk ,mJ ,.11 j,1 1·.:r\ h.:.trUI\ t.c1r \• •ur g•1"J , km. t
letter :,ent tu m..: by <Htr C<luntrymJn, 1\lr H. uyJ,m: 11hu nuke> :>Lil:h
rep
11
rt ,lf you, (.1; due> every nrher man rh.n h.l> h,tcl C• nn·..:r:,,l! '' 1n 11 H h
you), a, rh.u I Jm C<Hnfnrr..:J m h..:ar their r..:pclr!>. \er I h.11'C rhe ,,,n tc
mingleJ with ><lllle grief. that nnne ,J( rhem c.lll gti'C m..: any >:"•'-'
a:,:,uranc..: ,J( Y<1u r rerum hith.:r; rh..: thing lllll>t earnc, tly Je, tr..:J •lf ,,11
well di:, pu,..:d p.:r><li1S rn the Queen's Majc:,t y, anel tll rh..:tr uluntrym.:n · ·
.. . AnJ I h,1pc t<1 hear lr.Hn you w ha\·e ><lmcrhing <lt \<lur .1ppr, ,[,,Hh ti
ro , rrengrhen me .1inre the n..:xr wmter again:, t my ,,IJ .:nemy rh.:
which rarhc:r f..:J by a cuiJ humuur than a hut, anJ 1", ·•
rheumatic head, which l ab• 1 rh ink rc:ceil'l.!> hi> tr .. m ·'
swma..:h ll<Jt fully Jigc>ttng rhe ll>oJ recei1·eJ. Bu_r w alnrm I t,,k,
to bt! the must direct cause i>, <>ppr.:ssiun wnh alt.tlf> anJ lack nt hh.:n \
again>t the which n<l medicin.ll receipt can >en·e. AnJ ycr l wtll h.: ..:1.• I
m make ll >l! of any yuu wi ll :,end me, with Y•>ur ,J:,:,uranc..: th.tr 1t ,h.,ll
J,1 me no harm.
1\ l.nth..:w Ruyclcm, wh.1 h.td Jdt1·ereJ Kdly', kttcr tnHn :' ·''· 1• .. _.
.t po..:t ancl a member uf tht! SiJn..:y circle. Hc IIT<l_t.: ,tn on :,dn..:y , d<--•ll ..
"A FnenJ', Pa»l<ll1 f,Jr hi> A,trophcl." H..: w.t> ,1 lric:nd ut Chn, !clpher 1>.1. trl" "'
and George Chapman, he wa:, li nked 1\'tth L<lrJ Su .mge JnJ '·::>,,\.. ..
of Night," ... nJ he i> gc:nemlly tu have been part of Wabtngh.un' ·'' " '
Burghley'> imellig..:nc.: nelii'L1rb."' . . . ,
Wa> Eli:ah..:rh's ,eni<lr ,ratc>tncm r.:.JIIy -!t,cu,mg ht> g<1ur ' ' uh K-.tl
Wlluld a pc>lirical rigurt! re1·c:.tl a ,lt,abling by ktt..:r, ><> r.:;dtl , llil ei ·
tll an expatriate alch.:mt>t wh,, rdu:,c:d tLl r.:rurn hllmc:. Ur ' ' d ..
t-. IY::iTIC.-\L t-. IETAL OF GOLD
ktt..:r <llil"l ll1g Clllkd [lll liLic d b th.: rh.:umari.: h<.: <kl Rud,Jif the
impert"..:cdy dige:.ring Rudult's <ILh·ist!r:., and tht! lad uf libt! rry a
m..::nt <l_n B,1hemian attairs? At,d due:. that imply that Kd ly w.t:. operating as an
.tg..:nt Burghky in Prague, "a highly-placed a:.set in the ..:ourr of Emperor
Rudolt, ,\:, Charle:. N1d1,11l ao>..::rts, with the knuwn agt!nt Roydun a.:ti ng as
cuuri..:r ?"'
R,1lxrr Hullkc certainly rhuught ><l. He th,tt Dee', o::ntire >pirnu.d
rec,>rJ , \\"t!re CllLied • ut P<lliti..:al el·ent>: ' 'AnJ ll'hen h.:: returned, he leit
Kdly with thl.! Empet"<1r, whu lllr se1·..::ral years after kept Cllrre:.pL>nd<.: nce with
Or Dee here, \\"hich might plh:.ihly C1.mtinu.: ro ..::xecute rh<' de,ign; Kdly
being 11ll\1' gmll'n Sir Kdly, the Emperor' s chymi, r. AnJ in prubabil-
liY Dr D<'t:: nught hal'e ,uthciendy furnished him wi th cryptography enough tu
send what uuclltgence, . he pkas<'d, ll'ithuut :.u,picion, \\"hich w,ts easi ly cun-
un,ler any teigned ,r,Jry." In pruhability, perhaps; hur Hullk<' nel't::r
utters any exampk s ,1t rh<' all..::gcJ crypr,lgraph, decudcd. Nunetheless, rhe >pecu-
lau,m I> n11t an unpos, ll:l..: one. The rhird vulume ofTrith<'mi u,' Scegwwgraphw,
ll>ten,lhly .1 >equ..: nce llf tables h1r summoning up ,pirits, has now bl:'en ren:akd
tn be a ":'>rk of cryptllgr.lphy. Thi s ll'as the book rhar Dee ha,! tried m acquire
in 1563 f,lr Burghley (SP 12/27 i,11. 63 •
l)n 12, 1591, Burghley 1\Tllte ,lt length tu Dyer:•·
I h,t,·..: recei1·.:d Y<lllr tll'<l letter>; the uno:' ,1f rh.:: I )rh, rh..: urh..::r uf rhe
1_6rh. By, h<l th \\"hich I perct! il·e you huld fast yllur tir, t upiniun ,>f Sir
ELlwarJ Kdly, namely, a, ynu \\"rite, k>r that worthy truth in him ar rhe
pninr rhar ha,_ been you reported: anJ rherl'tu you add in
the :.ame letter, rhar fllr hi, perfect k11'e toward:. ht: r Maje,ry you think
there cannut be bdt.:r in any man; move me ro expect certainl y
hy yuur means a p.:_Iicct reS<lluti<>n in Sir EdwarJ K. wirhuut all scruples
t<l r.:turn ro ht, na_u,·e tu hon<>ur her as a (,lyal natural
>Uhjecr, Wi th the fruit> ut . uch gr..::at kn,>wl..::dgl' a:. GoJ has given him.
light .md l'<: ry t'abe C<trneJ thither; the f. tbehu,Jd ut' SlllllC llf
hy 11\l' e1·en ar this prc>enr that my LurJ Chancei-
J,,r (SirChrisropher Hathm] ;holl'ed me in a lener irom yuu brought
II'Ith m1nc whl' rein Y<>U wrote, that Sir Edw. K is infonn..::J that my
Lord Chance!lllr Utl l' reJ di vers reproachful speech,;:, even afnre her
whereut my k>rd b notably wronged. For nn my I nev..::r
heard my l<>rJ any el·i(,,•orJ, of him: and he him,di, up<H1 the receipt
•>f \ uur kn..::r, as ;lnd do,:s avow it upun his faith and hun<>ur, and s
1
1
akll·e her Maje,ry; anJ rhar he never uttered any n:: pruach-
ful wnrJ,, etth..::r af,H·c her M.1j c ry nr out of her Which ab<l her
M<Ije,ry in my heanng has conhnneJ, ne1·cr ro have heard his lorJshtp ro
h.11 e , Jepra\·cd hi m.
I'
But Burgh!..:) JtJ .:un<.. .:Jc that .J,,ubt , h.t, l h..:l'n ::h•lll<- l'"• , h.
t" \\ hltl', ", eeming tll thml,. the aCt illl1 llll('lbSih(e hl \dH.: h I> rCj' < tl<.J
,
11
· ::i
1
r Edw. K. , concl.!ive rhar tlll')' ll'htch m.1kc r.:p.m of thetr l1Wn e:-..:ell<. n<-<
1'\ , euing rrammurarion ut m<.:: tJ b mro g,1JJ by hun J,> n<>twnh, t,:mJmg <.:ll nt <..LJ
w
11
h rh<' that rhey arl' de.:l' iw d; and "> may be h l u,. AnJ Bur,;t. l... l
.:unclud..::d that , ii Dyer wa, unable tn per>u.tde 1-:dly tll ·"lmu, r cerr.unl,
thmk that he cmn'H perinrm rh,H which )'>u cuncei1·e llf hun, hut th.H h) >ullil
.:unning, ur, thc:y ,ay, k g<!rdem.t in, buth y,>u .tnJ h.tn: been J_.
Lei,·eJ , as rhe wisl'>t in V.: nicc ll'cre thl' la.r )e.Ir: or ebt! I mu>t m my hc.•ll
(which 1 Wl1uld be mo>r hHh t<> .J,>) C<li1Lil'Inn hun, a> an unnarur.tl hllrn ll•-' I'
t<1 hi, country, and a very di>k>yal ,ubjl'ct tu ,\ mu>t ':inu1>U> guJiy l..Jd). h1,
>lll't::reign." And he concluJI.'J with rh.:: r..::que>t th.n ".1t you cant1<lt :::> 1r
E,lw. Kelly's return per"JI1,llly, yet rhm you Wl>uiJ, ll>l' _m.lmten.lnCl' ,,, \ ••lll
procure ,nme ,m,JII, th,1ugh very ,mall puniun ur the pcm_Jer tll m .• \.. ,
, lemun, rrarion in her own >iglu ut the perkcnon ut \..n' "' 1-
l'dge .. . . I wi, h h.: wc>uiJ, in >tlme ,ecret bL>X, ;c:nd tl> h..::r 1\laJe>t)', t.>r a tdken
,
0
mc such P•>rtiun nught bl' rn ht!r ,t :.um t<l clefr<lY her ch.tr,:e>
tl>r this Mllllllll'r fur her n,t,·y whkh I> n<>W prl'paring [ll the t<>
rh
1
: strung navy ,l( Sp.tin, di,Cl >l ·c:rl.!J uplll1 the C<l<l>t> betw..:en l3rirann) .111.!
Curnwall ll' ithm rhc>e rw,, Jay>. But wi, hers anJ wnulder> were ne,·er t;ll<d
hmt>ehuklers. "'
11
There are v.lri<lll> highly cul,>red rh,1ugh unaurhenu.:.lted C:c.:h >t,>ne> " '
Kclly ar rh.:: height 11i hts j,1,d Svarc:k, wnrmg in .' 890, , h,1, hun
buying a brell'ery, mill, ancl pr,1p.:rry in j fl,ll'e anJ gammg a l\Hll1ul'''' >
over the food trad..: in the district, rabmg pric<',, ign,>ring the [W<Jte;nng r•' l' U-
Iace. When he was m>r nn hi> estate> ht! in Pragu<', indulging in urgle> " '
wine and women. h·an S\'ltak annbute> Kdly', unLklllbted wealth tn ht> rc-
procl.'ss ing waste from the J ikll'e mines, retrieving g.>ld hy rh.:: U>e of mcr.:ur\.
RepureJiy Kelly bLHighr a how.e in Dubyrci rrh, rhc: C urie Marker, 111 \\ htch
none other than Dr. F.,u, r 11·a, h> hal'e hvecl. He b >ili<.l r,1 h.,,"
bet:n less than enrhusiasric abuur the ,·arillli> urher travel li ng akhenll>b 1d , ..
convc:rge<ILm Pragut:. Mamugn.ullJ he kept at a di, t.m<.:c:. Slllularly, wh,·n
ci1Jd SenJivugius arrived in 1590, Kdly is ,,uJ ro have 1,1Jged hun m <ll'le · •I
his h,>us.::s at Jilul' e, r,1 prel'enr hi> becoming a nval f,Jr Rud,>lfs patr<lll.lg<. .
Events nnw tuuk a dramat ic rurn as RuJ,J(f Llr, lcrcd Kdly', arre,r. Tl. ,
..::a rl i.:sr is in "The true Cllp)' ui a letter wrmen fnm1 Frankiurr , thc I j d,
of May," 1591, now in the Bri ti>h Juhn Srrype 1t t<l .... n
English merchunr, a> it ,.,.ems, at Frankfurt ,""' pre>tun,lbly the upc1Wl,
paragraph d..::clare>, "T,1 Prague l came ' m rh.: 28th Apri l, 111) J<lllrih:)
sn as I might fall in with rh.:: l'nll of rhe Lcip:ig marr becau>e ot lhe uc.:.<>t-•r,
iur Frankfurt with the merchant, ui c,1l,1gne and Srra, bourg." Thb oltnl•uu, n
h.t> ne\'er been Ji, puteJ. llowl!ver the: letter 1> mo>t prub.1bly fmm He_nr) \\ · t·
wn. it is written w Edward Worron, hi> h.1 lf br,1ther, with wh.m1 he lre, l""n,l
corre:. ponded, and rhe ref..:: rencc in tt t•> 8,1ughrun ll,lu>t:: , hnw, a tamd1..1 nt )
wtth that family home uf rhe wher..:: Henry <mJ Edwi.lrd 11ert: hr11u,.,l.t
up. The knu\1'1\ timet.lble of w.mon', trJvt:b >llpport> the cnnJeC!Ure. L .. ., .• r.
64 1\IYSTIC:\L 1\ IET:\L ()f Gl)Ll)
Suuth llrll<-'> th.it ".tt rhc cn,l <ll April, I ) 91, \X
1
,Htun ktr \' ic:l111.l .me!
wc:m f<l Prague:; ;Jncl 111 June: ,,r· y<.' ar 11'<.' tin,! hi m again at Fr.mkfun, whl'rl'
he: L•> ha,·..: .u-ri1 <.' cl hd ur..: th.: encl <)i May, anJ where, he tu
Bl,ltiu,;, h.: h.lll >ulf<.'reJ fr.>m a ;md ..:xpcnsil'e • nf . 1 nhmth\ dura-
riun." Th.: lare>r biugraph.:r ,)( w,m,m, G.:ralJ Cur:un, a.:.:epb my iJc:mifica-
ri<ll1 ui Wurwn as thl.! aurhnr.'';
.-\1 my C!ll11111g, I w;J> th.lt thl.! r..: 1\'l.! rc m;my tn
Lhl.! ruwn. Up. m which lmeanr m•r rn cl bc<ll'er my,di, rill I h.1d >ll Uncll.!d
our 1rh.1r rhl'y werl.!, t he rhcy h,1r.:, anJ what th.:y ru,lk.
W" rJ 11'<1> gil'en m.: rhar .me 1\ lr Dyl.!r wa> in Sir EdwarJ Kdly'> hlllt>l.!,
.mcl anothl.! r p.1g.: ll'lth .me uf rhc Le.:> in the t<lWn and tii'Ll <lr rhrl.!l.!
ntl1l.!r which d,partc:d informl.!cl) char Ja} to Nurnbcrg:
I ,lt, l chink the next J .ty t<l Ll t't"cr my Jury tLl Mr Dyer, in mean whit..:
h;tpp..: ncd rhi, ;dterati<m. •111 rhe lasr nf April abtJUt nvdve
oi the: ci,Kk rhc: parr Llf 1 he genrlemen oi the gu.trd ancl
rh.: Ll rh.:r ,lnwn fr,lin tit.: court ca,tk r<J Sir EJwarJ Kdly's h,lu>c: with
(<lmlllandmcm Ill hring him up bnun,l, rh.: cau>c Cll!KcaleJ , rhc
it wa, thnughr th.tr h!.! might h..: t;tl..l.!n ar Jinn..:r. And bc:ctu>l.!
it >c:cm..:cl ,,,mcwh.tL a lu rJ pr,KccJing rn l.!nrer rhc ,1i a .:uunci llor
tli l.!>tJtl.! wirh thl.! guarcl ;llnne, thl'y joinc: J unw rh..: m rhe captain
;m,l li..:utl.!nanr <lf rhc .:.tstlc, [1J'llVLlSt uf thl.! t<111·n, anJ >l.!cremry in rhe
scare Lli B,1hep1ia.
The <lfti cer> in him nllt rher..: bur d> upun
mrdligen.:e irum J >ecrer fnenJ 111 thl.! .:uurr JcparreJ a lmll.! bl.!iur.:,
which by rl.!as.mui thl.! lm l..: Ji,;ran.:e bt:t\l'<.'en thl' court anJ Sir EJwarJ',
l<K..lgi ng (b ... ing l1ll turrher than irom B<lughtun house ru the 1·ineyarJ)
was unprol'abl..:, bdng nm abl.: to gu, so that rime must
hl.! >penr in thl.! preparat llll1 nt a h<l rs..: nr coa.:h. Othl.!rs >aid, rhar he was
Jc:parreJ rhe nighr bc: ture wh k h in,ll.!l.!d wa, thl' right rrurh rhnugh , kme
"' M.>..: rl.!rl y a, his uwn Lunily \\',\> kept from ir. The! officer tinJing nut
the prin.: ipal >t.: i:c:J < 111 rh.: ;KCl.!»llril.!>, huuncl hi> sen·ant> and l..:J them
up ru pri s<m in >ighr ut the 11·huk wwn, >eall'J up rhe Jllor> ,1f ev.:ry
ch.unher, ll>t:cl ..: htei c:-.rr.:mity Ll\1 hi, brother, n•lt wirh,lut speech t hat
he wa,; rurrurccl which yer wa> falsi!. Mr Dy.:r wirh hb was
commanJt!,l t•l keep the nll iurrher h!.!aring ot his tlbjesry\ plc:a-
>Ure. S,m\c say, he kq1r in up<m his Gwn wisdom and ju, lgeml.! nr which
rhe s..:crl.!tary ui Bohemia w lJ m.: bur I Jare nm alti rm ir, b<.'catbe
I hl'ar ut per>ell1> in grear aurhuriry rhe contrary. lr may be he was unly
aJ munishecl wirh,,ur C< lfl\1\\dncl menr or .:hargt: and rhencl.! ir aro.c:.
Hi, Majesty aJ \' l' rti >l.!cl rh;H h!.! was gnne is w have: curscJ in
rhe Dutch manner, ga1·c f,mh present ordc:r ro have rh!.! highway> • ..: t,
plaCt!S [ ll harb,Jur him 1\'l.! rl.! >!.!arched in the [Llll'\1
1
a pUS[
patche,[ wwarcl rh.: Earl Ru: mberk his parrnn wirh a letter fr,1111 the
Empemr <l i thl.!>e cumcm, th.lt ri he came unto him, he , hnuiJ Jelrvc:r
h im up<H\ his allcgi.lnt.:l.! ru rh.: ..: rm1·n llf B,lhl.! mia.
Th.: tumult bemg ,wer, , h,nt!J he rht: \\',to the n-.: "1
ylll.!>tiun. To be w.:ighry anJ heinnu> ir 11'.1> he<.:<.l U>'-' rr 11 ·''
contrary [l) rhe Emperor's hum,,ur anJ CLlUr>e <ll t he h<lli>L! lll :\u,tn.,,
w pr,Kc..:d in cnminal marr.:rs ..: irhc:r >Ll Ll r ><l g..:n.:rally. Th.u
it rouchl'J rh<-' Empc:mr\ <lWn per>cln w.l > mantl.;,recl hy ke..:pr ng H c!"•'-'·
ar ll';
1
sr by inr.:rpreration n:cl.!ivc:J no nrherwi.e. The cauo<.:> gil'en lurrh
w<.'re Som<.' saiJ ir wa> f.1r J<.'bt, which thnugh ir ll'<.:rl.! pr.lb.thl}
spokl.!n bl.!causc I ti nd rhe >uppuwtion Lll Jd1r in the l<lll'll t•l ari>c: t"
rhirry-rwo rlhlu>anJ Jnllar., which h.: llll'l.!> t<l twu m..:rch.mt>
rhar rraJ..: with yl.! t d id tll'<l rca>•H1> m.tkc: e\'lJt:nrly ag.11r1>t 11.
Fir>t hecausc he 11'<1> known t<l hal't! much 1\ILlf<.' in pn;,enr mun<: y .mJ
land> rhan h is Jl.!bts C<l lllC unrn anJ !1<1 l.! nrry m J i,t-rainmcnr hearcl .>11
upun hb unmovable, which <ICt.:LJrJmg CLl rhc: pr,lC<.'» of dur cw11 n Llu,;ht
w have: bl.!l.!n in the: C.l>e ni J.:bt. S..:conJly w th.: Empl.!n1r h..: krhl\1 n
to ha1·e L111'l.!cl l1Llthing 11Llf l.!v..:r w h.II'l.! pur him in any ,,t, ·e l;1r
CLlals anJ n1lll\l, and it W<b 11llt hi> tllaJl.!>ty'> mannl.!r en l<l llLlll' the
actions oi his own subjl.!Ct>, being prince and prucur;Hur Lll hr> p!.!uple.
Od1l.!ro saiJ rh.H the Duke oi Bav.ma ..::-. cuninmg rh.: g•1lJmaker ' ''
Venice {whum h.: executed at rhl.! 25 ,lf April) h.: c<mfc ,..,J
unw him rhar h!.! We!> in nne lc:.1gu.: wirh tllr Kdly wh1..:h the:
Duke: signifying h l rhe Emper,lr ,huukl d!.!sirc in l..:rrl.!r tLl h.1ve hu11
imprbond. Of thb I can ndth..:r tinJ rhe f.1beh,,uJ l1L>r rrurh.
A rhirJ gJV<.' rhat Mr Dy!.!r ha,! hr<lughr unto hun rh..: Qu..:..:n\
lerrers to call him hnm..:, which CLlll1ll1g w the Emp.:mr\ car> JnJ l11'
MaJl.!sty ro htnJer it, impn>cmmenr ll'a> thought f,Jr the pre,..:nt
time a go.lcl mean> t<l sr,1y his departure anJ he nughr hl.! rall....:J
furrhl.! r wirhal. l takl' t<l have: b.: ... n ><HIIc ui h1, in.:nJs' 111\' c: nthlll
m still rhc: peLlpll' from rhe <lf him. Whl.!thc:r P }er
br,1ughr them m no, I cannot oay. Tht! Fr..:nch agent h.h 11 llh >t
con.ranrly unto me as likewise char the Empernr was Cl.! rt iheJ <>t tr. .-\
J ocror's ,.m in rhe t<lll' n t<1lJ me, h!.! kn..:w the Quc<.'n'> hanJ .me! r .. .. J
rh.: lerrers kll'ing Si r Phtlip SiJncy >omcriml.! in Engl.mJ h\
wh,J>e ml.!an, he came: tu rhe >ighr oi >uch rhmgs. I J ar..: ndt • t ..
believe it, rill I hear further grnunJs of trut h, b.:cdltS<.' bemg lerrc:r, " '
s<.'t.:r<.'cy, t-.lr Dyer a gend.:man of rar.: J i,cr..:ti<11\ \l'nuld hav<: h.mJI... J tt
so as rhl.!y shoukl n<lt hal'l.! cume (,,nh, ar bl.!en knuwn th.H he
bn ng d1..:m which might endangt!r him,df. Till c.:rtai n aJvrce I wdl [..,IJ
lhl.! opiniun rhar Sir EJward Kdly <H ><1\ll..: rime <1r other , ·aumc:J ,,,
t.Ibk nr in hb cunvl.!r>atiun wirh other>, rhar rh..: Queen ha> >t: nt 1. r
hi m he is a man who r,tkl.!s as I h!.!ar a pl.:a>ur..: in >pc.1kmg th . .t
prin.:cs Jc:si rl' him.) Huw>ol.!v.:r ir bl.!, ir i> likdy in rhb mu.:h 1,,
hurt him, rh.: Emp..:rur hdng a»uredly iniurm..:J rhar h..: l> ><.:lH ,·,,r.
Thl' inurth all<.'gt!J was char h.: haJ m h is rahll.! ... n pt:t 11 ""'
,,.,1rds agai n>t rh..: Emper,lr, anJ rhc: P .. 1ples which is rhc >l'C•111J ,·,,nul)
of B,lhl'mia who being thl.! <l lJ l.!n<.'mi<.'> of rh..: Ro:mbl.!rks ancl b..:mg tht>
the principal oitic.:r. of that cl> onl.! a pn1·y Lllun..: dl •. r.
()() t-.1\'STICA.L t-. 1ET.-\L ( ) f G()L[)
.llllHh.:r m.t, r.:r ,,f rh.: cmm, ,1 rhirJ LmJ c>tticcr, J fllurrh ,,f rh.:m pre:>i-
JeiH in rh..: appdLni<m, h,11 prc1·mleJ wirh rhe tu hJ1·o:: him
impn:>on..:d; so under pretence of rublic ju:>ticc, [() their uwn
pri1·are quarrds uptln rhe Ro:mberks who have burh d1e setters up
of Sir EdwarJ Kdly and the principal maintainc:: rs oi him hitherto.
The:: tifrh reporr was th.1r his Majesry having lung had a rh rubbi ng
.,f the heart (:t, it wen.: an hereJrrary di:>easc:: from his father who J ieJ
uf ir) by wh ich he ialls into a swoun, Sir EJwarJ Kdly J isri lkJ an
uil inr ir which being :><.:nt unt<l the Emperor and Sir EJward's ..:nemies
heing by per:>uacled h is Mdjesry it was appointed rn puison him. Proof
was mad.: of rh..: in ir and ir wruughr rhe ettl:cr of poisun. Sume
:>aiJ, the throbbing of the hearr was given forrh fm a colour [l) hide a
1\lllre infamtlU:> J1:>ea:>e which I leav..: in J oubr. The circum:>tances bear
,hrewJiy about ir, rh..: oil I:> :>aid hl havl! had rhe virrue of acting in
favour, ur orhenvbe, accurJi ng w the quantity, which for an inward
clbea:>e suuncls :>clll\ell'har impmbably.
The ld:>t rea:>on uf his imprisonmenr wh ich I cuulJ by any means
recei ve was rhar h is Majesty rhrec Jays before hi:> Jeparrurt: :>houiJ have
:>enr ior him t<l makt: proof ,1! his art ar rh<! c. 1urr which one Scorro an
Italian haJ d babbl h un in. 1\lr Kdly returned ans11·er he was sick and
nur lung after tied. Ht: was taken on rht: secund of May ar Sobeslav,
rwdve miles frcll\\ Prague, a wwn bdunging ro Peter, Earl of Ro: mberk,
a" he was in h b juurney tull''trJ William, Ea rl of Ro:mberk. Ar first he
re,ist..:d rhc ,1fticer making answer he was a ciri:en of Boh<!mia and a
wuncillor of stare. Hb thght \l'cb objected ro him which he JenieJ and
callcJ it only a ,. i, iring ut h b patron the Earl which he might J o eid1er
secretly nr A cuuricr wa:> despatchc:J in posr ro rhe C•lUrt to
know the Emperor\ will whcl commanded hi m ro be bruught w his
Ca, rl e Pi.irgl ir: :>ituare duel! mile:> from Prague. Mr Oyer wa:>, as I rake
it, <ll1 the 2 uf l\ lay ' c:nr f,lr up to rhe court with rht: :>I!Crc: tary and
an<lther CllUtKillor c.mJucti!J him in goc)J convenienr :>Ort home
•lgain. The :>ccrcrary I :>pake withJ I afterward:> who commt:nJeJ him for
his grave behaviour and answers .mJ aJJeJ this praist: uf him that h e
haLl ,,1 great a grace in courtesy, as non 111lo moJo par refen·e.
Thuse were hb words.
Whar will be rhe condu:>i<ll1 I kn<lll' nut. The ankm b k :>e-m,ljesry
11 hich the Emperur inrenJ s. Tu have him openly ext:cureJ there b nu
fea r, bccause rhc: Earl • 1f Ro:mherk wi ll earne,rly inrerpo:>e him:>df, anJ
in B,lhemia it is a r ule rhar his Majest y dares do noth ing wirhuut rhe
Earl ', cunsent bc:i ng burgrave of Prague, the immediJ t e person and ofticer
undcr rhe crown. If di t'i..:rcnce :>hould arise between them, rhe Emperor
ha, cause t<l rh mk upon his mvn ,ecurity, matters going not so as the
pe<lple would, in regiment wh,, wair upun such dn occa,ion w work
n change in the ' t<He. Se.::rcrl y in rhe ca,d e it may be June anJ the Earl
thl t know otherwise than rhat he lives or is dea,l by dise;I, C, almo:>t grown
nuw w b..: a commun practice in t hl! Empire, and rh<! Palatine specially
l '
n<ltcJ rh.tr way. Th1, I kdf 1' etth..:r J,111c <lr wtlll c J, H•'-' · H, ..
:>ervanrs , h,tll n•l dnuhr be :>Ct ,H ltberry, un.: ,11' them I hc.1r \\,b r.t.:> ..eJ.
Mr Oyer ar his r..: turn t'rum rhe cuun where he m,tde hi:> .ubll'cr b.:r<>r.:
the counciii<Jr:> wa" n<lt fully free a, far a:> I cuuiJ hear by tht: Frt:lh:h
ag..: nr'" means. .
l r wa:> , 1 great cw"" rh.1r kept me trum l\lr Dyer, Echl ,\rJ Kdl \.
and rh..: r.::>t oi rh..: Englbh. The aniun b.:mg rreJ:>Un d rew t.he \\ huk
naulln into Jealuu:>y and ior my parr I had r.Hher be :>pcGJlllr ,,f ,1 rrag.:J\
rhan an acror. Neirht:r inJceJ C<JuiJ I wdl cume airer tht: apprt:hen>llll1
ro eirher rhe sigh t or :>pt:ech of rhar hon,lllrabk gentleman . In Prague I
founJ the stare uf the Empcrur's coun mlh.:rwbe quier anJ :>t ill , n<l •pec ...h
of any m.trnage with Spain which wa" :>tirnng Au:>triJ, 1\t.ln\ urn.:c>
void by dedth of great men ldtd y as t he Earl ut T ri vul>e, m,t,rer ut the:
hnrse, rhe Lc1rd uf T rt: nriane , 1 Ccluncillo r Ll f the: privy ch.unher, the: L •rJ
of Oierrich, te in, mJ:>ter lit the court, rhe l'ice-chancdl.u· ,mJ <lthc:l >,
gr..:ar way for prdermenr and whc)le suit mJJ e f,lr it and <ll1e re;bun t', 11
all, hb 1\l aje:>t y is no go•1J pdyma:>ter \I hich make" mcn we.u y <ll rhc
timt:. Th<! <li the Emper<>r':> b..JJ\ b lardy ch.mgeJ .mJ he:
is grclll'n very far rhc>ugh it :>et:meJ unto me rathc:r puffed up rh,m tirm
ll<!sh how:>Llever they call it at rhe court.
The <llTe:>t created a :>en:>ati<ll1, anJ new:> ,Jf ir :>p rc,\J r.1p1LII y. Burgh le: \ rL(L 11 L·J
a rt:p,)rt frum Rob..:rt SiJney, the governnr of Flu, hing, Jat.:J tv!Jy 22 1 5'.11. "I
had letters lardy from Aug,burg rh.1t the grcar Italian alchenH:>_t Br<tg.tJm1 h .• J
about a munth agLl h b head cur c>l'i at 1\ lunich by the Duke <lt 13,\\'ariJ' ,
mand ment anJ rhat abour tht: ,,un..: time Kell y h.d thclUghr tll h,l\'c tlc:J hut
was brought back anJ ir is th<l Ughr tht: re he will run rht: ,,\11\ e rac..: th.Jt rh.:
other J iJ" (SP 84/-H, Col. 68).
'Junt: 4, 1591, a repurt came trc1m 1\Lmhew G rcetl>llllth:
In my l.1>r letter I ll'f<ltc: you th.tr a fri enJ ,1f mmt: wr,1re me tr,lln l'r.'-"'
that Kdly and Mr E. Dyer, <lr as he wrme an Englt,h gcntletn.m, l·.:ut.,
suddenly departed tn 11n there w,1, po>t ha:>teJ a iter anJ ' rayeJ I \\ .:h.:
miles from Prague where rc: maining three Jays rh..: Empemr'" ple.t,ul'
were bmughr from rhert: and carri<!d to a ca>tle prbcmer:> in Bllh.:llll.•
Kelly's cunning being J oubreJ anJ hi" practiLt: lung :>u,pecrecl.
Th.: 2nd of this munrh I had news frnm a iriend at Colugne tl. ... t
rhe 29th April last wa:> hanged at Prague an Engl i:>hman " '
great reputation by rhe Empernr ... accu:>..:d and cnnJemnt: J lur J11 et•
matters uf treachery. So rhar I can nut juJge 1t nob,1Jy but Kdl). Th,·r,
was abo anorht:r hanged with him on a new pair nf gJll<lll:> , ,, ,;rc: .•l
height and rhc chain whert:wirh the prindp.1l wa, h.mgeJ ,1ir"r he I\ ..c
strangled 11 , h m· er all anJ o\'er tht: gallow:> cnpper ..:L. .. n-
hanged and hurrons, rmgs with such likt: na1led on rh<! gall, m,, 11 hdl..:r
th<!y were made uf purpo:>t: ur of Kdly's cuunrerft:iring I knuw n.>L. 1 :-P
8 L/7, ful. 28)
1...IF G1...ILD
it rurn.:cl tll h.: .1 l.1bc· r.:p" n - w.b h.mgc•,l, it w,1, n<lt Kdl y. Bur
rh.: threat >liLh a l.n.: t,u· him.
W.:hb.:"" wa, wirh ktt.:r, frum \.}uec:n Eli:ab.:rh to
en,ur.: the <lf Dy.:r, whll was ltl h.: unJ.:r htlUS.: Wchb.:
repurr.:cl b.tck ttl Burghky, June 26 (Briti>h Lthrary, /\IS Lm.dt lll' ne 68, ntl. 93,
tds. 110-11):
lt 1> f, u· .1 rrurh rcpt•n.:J rh;H :Str E,lward Kdly wa, .IC<:U>cJ h\ on.: ::).;,mu
l<l rh.: Emp.:rur. Tho.: •lt"hi, un.:..:rwin, )<!t ><>me r.:purr
11'01> h.: >huukl t•l poi>lll1 rhe Emperor, anJ mh.:r, that it
h1r J...:ht. Up,m which hb the Empo.:rtlr >ent li.>r him duke
S1r EJwarJ Kdly always excusing him,dt rhar he wa, nur wdl, anJ
11llL Bur rhar night he h.tJ wmd ar miJnight char hc ll'a> ro be apprc-
h.:n. k,l the n.::-.r ll1l>rt1ing, anJ s, > in>tanrly ckparrcJ with on.: man ro-
warcb rhe Lurd R,1zmherk. The no.:xr Jay somewhat early rho.: Emperor
>enr hi> fur hun in number wh,J brought with rh.:m nm only
ch.un> ur lcner> hur ir.ms nt rorruro.:. AnJ tincl ing rhat he was Jeparro.:J
they >e.trched ht, hou,c, br,>ke open his dnnrs, rhru>t rheir halberds
thruugh hb bed, tlr in any place wh..:re ir mighr be supp•l>ed he might
he hicl, apprchcnclll1g hi, hrurhcr and using much viuk:nce, in kadin"
hi m ro pristll1 pinnacle_! like a rhiel, ancl rhere lefr in chains wirh all
re,r nf his ><.:rvanr •. AuJ a gre,n guarcl wa> l.:ft uvcr rhc LaJy Kdly and
lr Dyer, who since has <llhwcrcJ objections as has heen laiJ ro
him di\'cr> time, anJ as I hear rhrico.: in <me day, yer now 1 hear rhar Mr
Dyer is mure enrreareJ anJ is in antlther llldging wh..:re he
g•le> n<1t nur: neither can I certify unr.1 yc1ur htmllur rhdt he is re>tramed,
>hall 1 be ablo.: tcl certify unrn your hllnuur of rhe particularities
ut Dyer's rr,luhlc umil 1 . hall have >puko.:n wirh hi mself.
Bur ru pmceed with Sir EJwarJ Kdly's apprchetbilln, a, I co.:r-
t.unly unJer,rand mtlrc· rhu •. Departing early he wenr , ix mile_,

the LnrJ Ru:mberk rn a certai n t<ll\'11 un,ler hb jurisJicrion
where he bei ng weary anJ without su,pecr he ro.:po,.:J him,df afrer cli 1mer
un a heJ and >kpr. In which rime rhc: Emperur', guarJ, enrerecl, took
hun, entreareJ hun l'cr',' ill, cm his clnublcr open wirh a knife,
and rulJ hun they were by the Empernr's cununanclmenr ro carry
huu back agam, de.tJ or alive, they careJ lWC, anJ >O pri,oner.:J
he carrieJ ag.1i n t<l a casrle abour of tivc: mile, from Prague,
where he I> closely kept, withllut any manner tlf access m him. Bur he
J'l\l\"ecl rhar he was going m rhe Lord R,1:mberk anJ rhar rhe LorJ
Rll:mh...:rk fllr hun anJ rh.H he wa, expecreJ ar the >ame rime by
rhe LorJ Rtl:mberl... At whi.:h rime rhe LorJ Ro:mberk was sick which
L<l ll>t:cl him ro he ><.Hnewhar l.mg ere he ro the ca.rl c in which
time Sir Edwarcl Kdly'> lanJs anJ gtKxb wero.: ><.:i:eJ rhe Empcmr's
behalt: _bur ' mco.: the LtJrJ Ro:mberk's coming all his men were enlargeJ,
hun,cll bener cntreareJ, 11n ly JepriveJ of his liberty anJ t'rienJs.
I '
Smce whl.:h ( tme a. 1 ,1., l<.:.trn ::).: .. llll hun,dr I ' tkcl , ... 1' n. ...
can " I)' hnw ur whirher. Farther ar rhi, tune I c:mnur wnre. But J, , ,,td
rhi, lcner t•l Y<lllr lorcbhip by a gendem.m <>ne ,1t S1r K.:ll ·. •
men and wa, pri.uncr .unong,r the re>! rhe ,,1111e anJ perL..
1

can certify your hunuur nlllre at large ell .1ll • ..: • hnho:nll p.t>,<.:-1.
Th.:re b mnrc inf,mll.ll lt>n in krrer fr,Hil Thlllll.l> P.1gc·, tn rt.,
Public Oftice under July 2, 157o, rhtlLigh 11\ Hn rhe e1 cnt> , le,.:ni·..:J d,,
b ck.1rly 1591 (SP 12/I Oo, tul. 119). FrcHII thl, a.:ccHIIH n etne1ge, tlt .• r
rhere haJ been anempt> ttl iiWtlh-e "S1r EdwarJ Kdly rhc hun r.
be a iavourcr uf the arrempr ,Ji a true di,cm·er, t'c>r Chin,t ur the N,mh
E.1,r parr lltherwt,e calleJ C.1th.1y, 11 hich enr..:rprl>e ur· hun greatly .._,,m-
lllenJeJ, bur nnt allowing rh.: weakne .. of the .trrempr, per. uaJed rhe
.mJ it became ro be >ll>penJed upun berrer ddiheranun, .tbn ht> tlll n >edl.l
hu,II1C>S, for d1e bo.:tter iurrhermg rherenf in tun.:." h 11". 1> .>!k • 1
rhu,e .chem<.:s tlf explor<tli<m anJ tr.tJe 111 which Dee haJ h.:en 111\'<lh cd. PcrL.q·,
the Engli,h ru Jraw on Kdly's new fnund w..:alrh t<> 111\"e>t in lt. Ru..l .. lt\
,u,picion> char Kclly was >till Jealmg wtrh rhe Engli,h I> an.! the
, peeJ wirh whkh Page gur tlUt uf Prague rhing> m.1y n<ll h.1\"e l'n:n
utterly abuvc board. Page otto.:rs anorhcr ,lf the re<l ><m fur Kdly', .1rro1.
"Lies here very fir m•Hter ro allege fur gl1ing ro the L>rd
..1 co:ening by .1 Pmrmg.1l la Purrugu.: • ..:l wnh certain cup> <l l. pult,h.:J
horn resembling agate, anJ ,,,lJ agare by rhi, , ,uno: Ptlrltng.tl ttl Str E. K. t.
the value nf 14 rhou>anJ Jullar>, rhc on..: lulf where.1t Sir E. K. p,ud hun, the
resr robe paid wirhin a ,h,>rt wh1ch rune .:xp1reJ rhc Purring.tl cl..:nunJe.t
payment bur Sir E. K. J..:fcrreJ him, for rh.tr he perceiveJ rhe pill[ laiJ L<l ,I.: ... ..: I\.._
him, whi.:h n<.lt ycr npe 1\'oukl n,H t"e,tr L<l prcm.: 11, expecrmg rh.: Ctlllllng ul· rl.c
LorJ Ro:mbcrk tll the rnwn, whu in he i, l'ic.:ruy Joc> J ct..:rmmc .• 11
c.mrrover>k> in rhe kingcl, un, rhc Purring.1l imp<l rtuneJ hi, p.tym<.:nr. :S1r E. !..:
Jelayed him, sri l1 expecting rhe Ltlrd Ro:mberk ( <l lllmg, fllr rhat rhe1r term "·"
rhen w be ht>IJcn, wht> falling ,ick came nut. This paymo.:nr was urg.:J ,ull 1'
1
rhe Porringal in rhe cnJ by rhe m.:am of rhe Spanl>h amb.l:.<><iJnr .mJ rh..: . .t
leg.1re. The Emperor WJ> ptl><><.:»cd wnh rhe Poningal's plaint, anJ a, Str E. K.
ll'a> cerriticcl, haJ granro.:J ro >end fur him with >Umnwth, 1r ,h,Htld >t:en. Le
prevented by Jerarring bcf,lre it .:am<.:, ha,rening ro rhe LurJ R, •:mherl.. r,
CtHnplain him of his wr, mg, bur rhi, rhc least nt many ag.Hlb t l1t<1•
.:onrrary whereof rhe Lord R,1:mherk had prtHni,eJ by <Mth 11 hen he tir,r c>t.d -
lbhcJ him wirh rhe Empemr."
Page goes on Ccl give a»ur<liKe char Ru.._f,>lt" h.tJ inJeeJ l..: dl
1
hi, uhjcCt, a knight tlt the Em1)ir..: 11nc of pri1·y .;,Hm,d, 11.,
truth where, If i> 111.1[ almost with any in England. l:- ut I 1. .• 1 c
rhis rea.on tcl lead me char ir b true by an incklenr rhar h.tl' l' '-'ncJ .• r .•
banquet whither it ple.beJ Sir E. K. ro carry me with htm, 1-<lr D) er ..d.,
pre>ent, by the >ecretary 11( the Emperor, whu .:oming in rh..: l.•tter .:n.l
theret>f, >aluted .1l1 the company bur ntH Sir E. K., bur b.:.;.> n L•> r ..... e
1\1) Lj()LI)
c·:-.cc·pt1.>11 rh.11 he: be: llhH'<.: rc:g,u·cl.:,l with S1r E. 1(. in th.1r
he: ha,! ci<>J h' hun a in rhe quick cllop;Hch ,,( Ll mart.: r 11hich pa"..:J
h1, pla..:e b.:ing o..:-=rewry, 11 h..:retd Sir E. K. an:.wereJ rhar in that he
>l>uglu t<l teach him manner,, he Ct>ulJ nt>t be opJn:cl, hut muor reil him
he: diJ hut his Juty tu the Empc' l'<>r. The marr.:r :. rill aggravareJ wirh
111.111y ••t her ll'l>rJ, hy the ><.:cn:: r.1ry, Sir E. K. bad..: hun remember he
opake ft> .1 Cc>uncilldr ,,f the Emperur, with ouch urher clignitieo
n;lmecl, n<>r he knllll' it wirh rhc price ,,f his life in rheoe expreos
\''< or,b (If nut ) per Jeum a..: rum ..:or de re, whereupun rhe oecretary tl..:d
rhe table. The Emper, lr acqu;linre,l herewith, rhe secretary was
chaotio.:d .m,l re..:uncd..:J himoelf r,, Sir E. K., all which I 11 rite in contir-
mdriun ut rhe trurh that rhe Emper,>r ha, gra..:e,l him with theo..: Jignirieo
ol huntlur. But yer within this busineoo there was, as ;1fter appeareJ,
purpt>oed pr.Kt ice b1 rhe o<.:..:retary tu draw him Within ..:ompas, of rreaonn,
1nt.muing as ir b hy their law:. treason for any llf rh..:m w report rhe
meermg u.t caber in CllUIKi l, and rhe oe..:r..:rary aokcd him ar his tiror
lll<.:<.:ting il he knt.:ll' him 1_wr, wh,.l knew him no utherwiot.: bur by meeting
hun m_ cuuncd, 11 hich, if h.: haJ .:xpr.:ss.:J, he haJ been wirhin compass,
hur rh1, nut grllll'll1g currenr it ohnulJ o.:em they han: pracrao.:J oclme
orh.:r Cllll roe_ t< l hun within breach of rh..:ir !Jws, by colnur whereuf
th..:y nughr turce trcl m him 11 hat G,x! ha, bleos<.:J him wirh I mean the
phi lu><lph.:r'o >r,m.: which h .: p' >oseooc:. wirhnut qu<.:otiL>n t< 1 ;he contrary,
wuh kn,>ld.:, lg.:, it G,,J ,h,>ulJ permit, h.: is ab!.: ro perfect all
rh.: unpert..:cr m..: ral in the world, which f!1r my part I J,l nut at
at hur huiJ ir •_1,_ a t:arural secrt:t which GuJ 1\:sen·eJ t<l be imparted
Ull[tl the rru.: tanht ullahourers and Jdightt:!J in hio W<lrk nllt ddighring
the ,,-,,rlJ bm LLllHemplating his Jivini ry .mJ unoearc:hahle works.
Th..: fugg<.: r h.111king ht>uoe a!,,, carefull y uwnnured the cas.:. GulJ manut;Ktur-
ing tuuch..:,l Llll th.:ir pmf..:ooilln;d inter..:sr;. May 8, 1591, '-1 C<HTeopunJenr re-
J1<lrte,l Kdly's arrest anJ impri oonmenr: "H.: was n,,r l!\'<:: n alluweJ a breaJ knife,
ll'as taken all'ay. His o..:n·;uHs arc still h..:r..: under reorrainr. Bur hi,
11'11.: anJ <l ther wum.:n ar..: kept under arrest ar hume. It wuuld appear that thcrt:!
., ><>m..:rh mg hdunJ .1 11 rh is, wc Jo nllt yer know what." A letter un May 14
rl-p<> rted "Th.: Englbh akhemior whu has r.:c.:nrly been taken tll Ptirglir: as a
pno<>ner, tu h.: in rht: Jeprho llt Jespair rht:!se latter Jay, retuoeJ
tu parrake ot t.,,,d, ,,, that it reareJ h.: might die." Ther.: were further lt:tters
un tvl.:l Y 1_, Jun.: 10, an,! July 2, the latter reporting rhar Kdly was imprisuneJ
'_nth_ <llr bur that wha..:h Cllllh.:o rhrnugh a hul..:, thmugh which ht: can reach
lt>r h1s bi t hy bit .... On <.:xamining rhe accuums ofR,l:rnberk it wao founJ
rh.1r tht:! Engliohman h.1J Cll>t him <ll'er three hunJred rh,lusand lr is
• mu:mg thar theoe nublcmen haw alllllved them:.eh-es tll be ,lup..:J in ouch a
ta:. hllln. He IS satd t11 have cusr the Emperur near l.ln a rhuu>;md Rhenish
guilJt:!ro."''.;
_ Dyer ll".ls ;dl,,ll'e,lt, > return t<1 England with Web he in July 159 1. D..:.: notes
Ill 111, d1ary, July 28, Dyer oent me by Mr Thumao Webbe," anJ
l
July 30, ''rec,mcili,Hi<Hl bcrw,·en tvlr Dyer .mJ me ><ll..:mna:eJ rh..: .11-r em,,_,,, , i.
FriJay, and LH1 S.11urda1 (rht:! 3 br) .dl Jay rdl Ill\ g<ling by !Fcnt.m: L .• t
at Mr Webbe\ llJJging at Rnchcsrer Huuoe" (PO, 38-9; 253).
Meanwhile Kdly l.mgubh..:J in priocm. In V Mm Ru: mberk J1.:J.
1\'ao now without his prime pmrecror. The gL1\'ernment cunrmucJ t.
maintain ,m inr.:reot in the Chriotopher Parkm, rt:!poneJ ba..:k l<l Sir
Cecil, Burghlt!y'> oecunJ >llll, who W<b nuw running inrdl ig..:nce <lperau,nb, tr.
lerrers uf July 18 anJ 20, 1593 (SP 81/7, HO, 1·13-0:
Of I tine! h.:re in Pr.1gue rhr..:e <l[111ll<llb. The llrol 1> th.•r I"
makt:o n.:1tht:!r g<1IJ, neither in truth rranomutattlm ut metab, hut ••nl\
that he ha, a n..:w ran.: kind uf jugglmg, whereby he oedut.:..:o >lllllc Wl>e
mt:n tll bdit:!v.: what is llllt, <b Clll1lllhlll juggler> decl!i\'t:! ClHHlliLHl 1''-'•'Plc:
think rhis dpini,m tOll auorerc, l!otet:ming that he tn"
tr<momurati<lll ,lt merab y<.:t in ouch ><lrt rhar he thereby looo anJ nu
cllmmoJiry. The ground uf rhb llpini<m is th.1r he ha, be.:n appr.:h.:nJc J
for wh..:rt:!by he io .:oteem..:J ro want ancl h.ll'e need.
Others abu think rhb optniLm uf litrl.: anJ rh.:y .:oreem d .. ,,
Kdly can du what ht: wilL And that thb ohow ut need an,! 11 .111 t 1>
unro him I'Oluntary anJ nLH nece,,ary, oranJmg upon general P•lllH <>I
rt:!purari,m anJ cunrempr ut Jross. Men ,,f this Llpininn be acc,Jum,-J
oimple. AnJ rhooe b.:;r mt:n about the Emperllr bt:! ,,f the oe..:unJ <>('1111.-11
This much ,,f his opi ni,m.
Thi, b hi> stare. After he ha,[ heen pn11·eJ t<> d.dl1 wHh J..:ll d,, 1
grc.1t imporranc.: ohllll'ing that he had will tu buy llllll' L>i un.:, anJ n. 11
ui anL>tht:!r, raking them upon t.:redit, and p.1wning them lLl the jcl\ o h>r
preot'nt money, anJ redeeming sometime, the jewd, Llt l1ne With the
jewdo of another t:!ach one urgd him, and rher.:by givmg ><lme .:.on-
tent tu e.1..:h one at oundry tim.:s, by tht:!ir jt:!web in h1o
forthcoming, ar the length somt:! gor their jt:mds imm him again, urh.: ro
whose jt:!wt:!b lay irreJ.:emable with the Jewo, urgeJ him tu tht!lr urr.: r-
mosr, and at the l.:ngrh being withLlUt oati, facrkm rh..: y •
plained tu the Empt:!rur whu calleJ Kdly hdure him. He t:xcu,eJ ham, '-I!
by sicknt:!os, yet in tht:! night he ruwarJ Ru:mberk, anJ at
thllughr tll oeek remedy tu uphold his crt:diwro.
The Empt:!rur t0rrhwith had inrdligence rhar hio cxcuoe Lll
not oincer.:, whereupon adJoining ><1111.: off.:ncco that h.d p .
bef,lrt:!, the Emper,lr St:!nt to apprt:!henJ him in hb voyag.: , rho.: whiCI1 11 ,,,
accorJingly. And Kdly apprebc:nJeJ wao by rhe
order led tu the castle calleJ PlirglltZ four miles trom Pr.1gue, 11 her.: [._.
b now derain..:J .
The f0rmer ,,ffence i:. rhao. l(dly ha\'mg maJe many pr,k.t- . 1
nll gai n, haJ m;iJt:! a Slllemn prombe lung :.ince ,,fa granJ pr,,.,r· rh.:
which should ht:! with Cat:!,ar', great aJ\·anr,lgt:!, bur delaymg thllll tllll<.:
tu time about tht:! dfect ir wao agreed of a pt:remptury Jay, and rh.1t •
than once, Kdly ever failing anJ tinJing sumt:! gent:!ral ol<.:evd..:oo t.: hu'"

1-
)f ul)LI)
)cl C.t.:,.li in the 11\c.tn ,..:,t>,>n ch.:n, h..:J .mJ C<lumcn;tn..:o..:cl huu ll'dl,
J.nly .lncl more hy tht, g,,,,J J <!al111g .:nu>urag..:J to stJncl up.m
P<linr, ul r..:put.Hi<ln, y.:r n.Hhing p.:rform.:J of him ,JCcorJingly, sn
rhJr rhi:. drclo..:r ,,( ••ll . .:nc.: juin.:J with rh<! :.uir ,,f hi:. cr.:cht<lrS, anJ his
J..:dining, has been rh.:: eau:..: Llf hi:. tmpri:.lll1lllcnt. AnJ Ca.::.;H
,,t"f..:r, him ht:. ..:nl.1rg..:mcnr pr..::..:nrly when he has maJe his grancl proclf.
He :.rancling upun hb r..:putati<Hl, answers rhat he ll"il l ncH ,,, Jisgracl!
hi:. cunning td m;ll..c any pr,,of until he be full y .1r libt:rt\. So ht: remains
in h,,IJ upun the:..:
1\ ul..ttl' r.:puno..:J th.lt ht, • cam..: ft\>111 the cmpct"<lr', c.,uncdl,,r,. The
(llunctllllr> abo :.lhl\\'cJ him a lcn..:r Kdly
oai-1 her 1\"l"ut.: unru him, wh..:rc·m he 11".1, ro..:quir..:J r11 cnme hllme
.mJ ,tJ,·;mcc hi, 111\'n unmrry ll"ith hi, , kdl, ll"ith divers prumi,e,. In rh.:
,,1me lcrrer they saiJ tltcre ll'cre Ct:rtain wurJ:. ll"ritrcn with her 1\lajc, ry's
<llrn h.mJ, the 11 hid1 they , hllll"l.:d unt1llllc, anJ requiri!J of me if I coukl
gi1·..: ,If rhe111, :.ignttying if Kclly cliJ intcrprer rhem t<l•l much
t<l hb AnJ at lcngrh they requireJ ,11 me in the Emperor's
it I cnuld gt1·e any acc,,um of the Jimini, hing of <lilt! of his cars,
ur ut his g11oJ <H. evil hd1avk1ur in EnglanJ. Whereunto I an:.wereJ, that
I might ,eem an untit man tLl t.1lk of Kelly wirh,lut some atfccriun, whu
h.ts ,,, gncnJu:.ly <lllcl fabdy Lltl<!ndi!J me, \'l!t :.erring a:.t..lc all pa,:, ion,
being rl!quired in the name '1f such a munarch, I WLluld rder what I
knew .mly upon thc gruund ,,f comnwn rcpLl rt. An,l sn I did.
Parkin, clue, n"r rep••rt what he ,aid in rc:.putbc ro rhe l!lll(1er-
''r, enqumes.
B.tck in Englancl, PMI..ins IIT<>te l!nigmatically t11 Sir Roberr Ce..:il, Nm·em-
I 593, " Fur that I rh ink her 1\ wdl havl! no m.tJe of
K..:lly' :. m.mer that is now cl<!a,l, I will arrcn,l the uccastun wcll to bury it. '"""
. Kdly', clealings with rhe Pnrtuguc:.e jewellers arc abu reporreJ in a letter
I rum Cocke,, July 28, _1593 (SP 80/1, 154) whu says hc passed on rhe
• m Parki n>: "I hncl by th,lse that ll'ere rhorLlughly a..:quainreJ ll'ith
many ot his_ shifts, that rh.:_ phillJsuph.:r's stone has been nothing else rhan rhe
ut 6,000 Juc..1r, lll the Baron of Ro:mberk, together 11·irh ,m extraction
ot_ certain jcll"eb ll'hich by the creJir h<! haJ by rhe L)rJ Ro:mberk h<! rook up
<ll a an(l French uur of rhe which bdng pawn.::d w rhe Jews
he Ja,tdleJ w the value nt 16,000 du..:ars, ll'hereof he melted many ancl sent
the: wedges t•' bl! :.okl m the goiJsmith, which ga1·e such opinilm of his skill
rhar ir was rhoughr thcr.: wuuiJ nut be leaJ enough in the cnuntry tor the
uperat111n ol hts powder, and thus he li1·c:J f,,r a while in libl!rry."
J11>ef Sdrek an,l Vaclav Kaplicky, ha1·c Kelly impri,-
cmcd l1ll· killing an nthci.d ,Jf RuJ,,It\ C•lurt, Genrg or Jan llr Jiri Hunkler, in a
clue! in 1591. Hunkler had bt:.:n inquiring ah,lut the cr,lpping of Kdly', ears.
'l
But Kaph..:k1 ·, n<ll'cl a, a '"'rl.. uf l"IHIUnu..: ti..: uun anJ nut ;;enLr •• ll\ lu,i • •
call\ rdiable.
1
'\' • • •
Kelly now hc:gllb tu k.nurc in rhe ltt..: r.ary rcC:IlrJ. '" u .ahno..:l H.IIYC\ 11 r.t,-
m Paerc/ s Supl.'raogmiuu (159 3), "I \\\mJerc:J t<> he.tr th.ar Kdly h.d ,:utll:li t k
G,,IJ<!n Fleece, anJ by virtue thereof wa:. suJdenl1 a.h-an..:cJ lilt•' ,,, hcHl.>ur .• t I.
rcpurariun with the Emperor', Maje,ty; bur ll'ouiJ have w.mJered nh,ro..: hl 1,_.,'
:.el!n a work of >Upcrerog.ttion irom Na,h<!: whu,c: wir mu,r n<>t enter tho..: lt-t,
of compMt>llll with Kdly', alchemy: he \HJu!J >l!elll t1l h,n..: tl._
grl!l!n liun, .tnJ the tlying eagle in ;1 box. Bur Kdly wall_ baJ h11n lllnk r" tl.,
swnll<!n maJ anJ the dancing fuul. Kdly killlW> hb lure lll wr,,klm, u,..:, Ll-
rerms of arr."
1
•'' Thuma:. N.t,he him,df refer> t<l Kdly 111 Hut<.' \\ 'l!h Y.," t
Saffron-WalJm ( 1596). Lull and Paracebu, arc upllll, whtch prcl\· .. tt.,
re:.pnn:.e, "Let him call up<lll Kdly, whn i, bt:ncr th.tn them b,nh; <lllcl r,,r
,pirits and ,oub of the ancient he h.t, them :.1_1 clu,..:.
rhe fiery purg,tt<lf)" lll hb t"urnJce, th.tt tor the weJith <l l the I' m:,: 1ll ::>I'.Jtn >
lndies, ir is nur po:.,ihl..: tll rde.t,e 1H" get the thirJ <ll ..1 nn <l l •111..: ,,r
them tLl help any bur him,dt."
101
In Ben J1Hl>•lll':. Th ... ( I o 10) ::-> ar
Epicure 1\lammnn refl!r, ro Suhrle lllJn, rh..: ..:mpemr/lla, courr..:J, ab ..
Kelly: sl!nt hi, medJb, / AnJ chain:., t•> 111\'itc: hun" (Act 4, , cl! ne I, t>Y-Y I). '
In Hudibra:; ( 1663), the Wm.:e,rcr:. hare puer SJmud Butler cat<.:> the intngu"
between Dec and "Kdh•, / anJ rh'Empcror" (2. 3. 237-8).
1
,;
Kdly was tinally -releJ,..:J by RuJolf. EJwarJ rep.mccl h., ... k t.
EnglanJ fr,m1 Padua, July 3, 1593 (SP 85/ 1, fol. 158) _i, nllW no..:11:. th . .t
Kdly i:. set at lib<!rty and in again, bur not ut Hllhctent creJtr untd
the next pnst." SuliarJe's infonnariun may have bo..:cn premature. S..:pteml-..:t •).
Abraham Faulkon wrotl! t"wm Bnhemi,l w Rich.lrll in LHKJ,ht re. ··.-\,
wncerning Sir EdwarJ Kell y, his delivery hJ, hcen the 16th day ell" Ocr"l'..:r
new style, anJ is in gnoJ h..:.tlrh, both fat and merry. Th,ltn<b Kdly tullk anc
alung wirh him at Ld1en, where I wa:. three Jay> by ha, h•mour, ,m,l rc..:..:11
me vef)' courteously, and mu,r sit at rahk, b11th dumer an ..l ,upper, what ,:uc>t-
>Lli!Ver hb honour haJ, anJ pnHni,ed whar,oever has n1>t bec:n J,m..: ht> h.n1llur
wnuiJ dlJ. At my being at Lcbl!n, hi:. honour dtJ fi,h a p,mJ, anJ g.ll'e mo..: C:•••·j
store lJf ti,h hume with me ltkewi,e."
1
'"
Pu:zlingly, this letter clarc:J September rct"er:. tll Kell y':. rdc:a:.e in ()cr ••
Bur O<!e also gil"eS an Octllhl!r rdt!.bc: Jar..:: hi> cltary r..:.:,lfJ s "the 11<.:1\:. .. r· ::-11
Edward Kdly's liberty" on December 5, and he nor.:J 1t rerm,pccm·dy t. 1
October 4, 1593, old :.tyle, which C<lrrdarcs clu,dy with Faull..on', O.:tub,·r I r
new style: (PD, 46-7; Fenr<ll1, 262-3). O<!cl!mber 9, 1593 Scrh Co..:l.., rc('ullL-1
from Padua, "Mr Kdly is Ji:.chargeJ of lu:. kmg imprisonmcnr anJ in gro..:Jt ... r.:J.t
with the Emperor" (SP 85/1, fol. 163 ).
On August 28, 1593, Burghley haJ J e:.pat ..: hcJ a letter tll Kd ly h1 .1 ._: , uflc
called William Hall. The rl!corJ uf th<! cbpatch ,urvil"e:. in rh<! Cecd ..:dllcdt. a.
at HatfieiJ, bur rhe conr..:nr:. ,,f the letter are unkn11Wn. It ha, bl!cn >Ll<::o'-'>t,..i
thar William Hall w;a, an alias used by non<! other than Wi ll i.un .• r..:
on ,ecret ,..:n•ice wnrk, and that the me,sage inv.llved communic:.Hhllb tu 1--:..:l h
7-f
LIF GOLD
in : ••ntl<.'l:tl•111 11 llh th..: anllthl'r J,l,Hlli.:J .&ttl'mpr tu ..:r..:m.:
.1 C.trh.d tc upn,tng in Britain. '"'
Sir R,,hert Cedl ktJ a ,..:hem..: ru test rhe I<Jplry llt" L 1rd Strange,
11 hll ,,.,b >U>pcct..:J Rnman Cath •• lt..: A l..:ner wa, w b..: sent ro
him by •H1l! ut" t h..: ..:xi kd papbr, li vi ng in Prague, calling for u Cad1,1lic
If Strange faikJ Lo r..:purr the ll'rtt!r, hb cre,tchay cuuiJ he assume(!.
had lxen livmg in Pragu..: fm three y..:ars; returning ro England
'.n S..:ptemher he >tuppl'J at the Whi te Liun Inn in lslingt•m on hi> way
trl1m Prague t<l Strange's seat ill Lancash ire, anJ was given the lener by ".1\.lr
Hi..:kman," Pi.l >>tbly Del''s funner skryer, Barrhnl<lmcw Hickman, <lr his brmho::r.
Jdi1·ered it to Strange whu r..:p•>rted it tu the Queen.
ill Ocrubcr, and hangl'J, , lrawn, anJ quan..:rl!J at Sr Albans un Nov..:m-
h..:r 29.
Sin..:l' K..:lly h,,, [ hl'l'n unJ..:r arre>t and in jJi l frum .1\.lay 1591 until miJ-
0-: rub..: r 1593, hi, a..:ri1> parti..: ipatiun in the whl'ther a, c,lnspi ra-
tl1r, pru1 ••car..:ur ' 'r intunno:r, is unltkdy. The namc:s of Kdly, Lady Kdl y, anJ
ht, hruth..:r Thumas ..:o: rrainly ren1r in il'tll:r> inrer..:..:pred in rh.: o:nsui ng invo:sti-
g.mon. They wer..: clearly acqu<t im..:J wirh parricipants in thl! cun>piracy. Bur
there ,, n•Hhmg tu any dire..:t im'l•lvl!menr by them in the affair.
Oct.1bo:r 15, 1593, Ri..:har,J Hesk..:th wrut..: fr,lm impri,onm..:nt t•l LorJ
Cohham <lr Sir Rub..:rr C.:..:il: "Bt!>iJ..:s it were conv.:n ienr ro un .. ler,tand wh..:rh.:r
lvlr unJ..:rsmnJ <lf my impri,unmenr ur nor, fur if ir be bruit..:d amungst his
m..:n or t, ,[j, l.wers, rhcy will srraigh r wri te tu my Lady Kdly •lr Mr Thomas Kelly,
Ill resp.:o.:r •>t that I tul.l yuur h,lllllUr the ut her Jay, anJ then rhe goiJsmith will
kn,lw H, anJ he wtll rei l rhe Father Jesuit, anJ Jesuit the Cardinal, su >hall
\'llUr ne1·er h.1ve them, which wuulJ be a gr.:ar hinJrance ro the sari,fac-
ri,•n ot )"llu r hunour in my bdwlf. If Mr Dyo:r, nor have nothing, ir
were g<md they shuuiJ Jhlt, und..: r \'<>ur Honuur', fa1·uurs."100
On De..:embc:r 8, 1593, a r.ril!>r in Prague, Thomas wr,lte
tu Heskerh. In the .'lt his letter he remarked, "Our Lnrd >end us
a Kmg, anJ some llhJre ..:umturr atrer >ll many surging wave,. Mr Thomas is in
h.:alth. I have bo:en. wirh him rwi..:e. Sir EJward is at Leben, nut yet in his
tl, lll'er. l'vlr Hamm,ln ts. b..:cnme a new man, and I hupe will continue. Commend
me to \'<lUr g,1uJ b..:Jtdl,nv, thnugh una..:yuainteJ. I bc>..:ech you deliver my
krrcr tll Mr Lcigh. • Mr. Thomas may have been Thumas Kelly, Mr. Ha mmon
may be J,>hn Hammund, (see note 130 inf.), anJ Sir Edward is certainly Kdly
now at lthcrry on his Leben esta te. '
. Stephens,m wrot..: tu Henry Leigh rhe same day. "Courte>y ..:ompds me t<l
1\Tit..:, anJ our old ac4uainrance mll\'cs me continually tu rem..:mber you: I
marvdleJ ut your S•> ,uJden departuro: fr<1m us, without any further notifying
Yllllr hut \"llU, I duuht nor, JiJ all fur the best, and so, a> I understand,
tr has o ur, and wrute of you frnm Lo nJon, that you were become a goud
>llhJcCt fnr the current tune. Hnwevc:r it be, no ralcs, nor talk nor Hying words
make my wtll to shnnk, su lung as I live I will nnr leave Jearly on yuu to
rhmk. I Je, tre hcamly tu se..: Y• lU. Sir EdwarJ is ar Le hen and was delivered
twu m,mrhs ag<l."
110
'
, )
l knry Lc:igh had >crved <b .1 cuuri..:r f<1r ber11·c:..:n Bu rgh!.:\ ,Hh.ll', ll)
.11<-i Dyer 1n Augu>t <)nJ Ocruber 1590. lodg111g \I'd> Wllnr Ill 1'..: Jbuul
H ... lb<>rn bridge," t he Earl of 1-lunringdnn informed Sir Ce..:tl. '" H..: llld\
11dl b.: rhe Harry Lee who Kdly an Jnnlllt)" ut furry p,1unJ, ,1 )c.tr,
rd.c:rr..:d tu in Kdly's argument wirh De.: , June 29, I5o3 (TFR, 2S). lk"'o
memioneJ in Sreph..:n,on's inrercepred corre>punJence Leigh c.m,iJ..:r-
abk rroublc, and in December 1593 he 1\Tutc the carlot HunringJ, m an .tCl:• •unl
ui acquaintance with Kdly and Srephenson ar the time nf Kdly\
Fir>t, I, rh..: ,aid llo::nry, J u cunf..:, th,H ,,ft.:r I haJ lll"l!r>p<.:nr 1111 11-h .. k
estate in Her .1\.lajesry', servic.:, wirhuut any rcc.unpen>e, and hy th,
cause uf my furrune wa, dri1·en t<l gu tu Pr,Lgue, tl> >eek >llllll! ta1 <lllf
Sir EdwarJ Kdly, I did there , ee the >aiJ Th,Hnas 111 the
company <>f unc RicharJ Tankard, an Engli,hm,m, who JiJ Jt,·er t tm..:,
to Str EdwarJ Kdly's hou,e. AnJ n.>r k1ng Jftcr rh..: ul
Sir EdwarJ Kell y and all rhe Englishmen rhar wc:ro: rhen Jt Prague, ll
w<b my dunce t•l mec:t the satd Srephcn>•ll1 up•m Prague bridge, whl. rl.
he began tll J i,uade me: frum that mdan..:h,lly who::rewirh ir >eem..:J '''
him I wa, oppre»eJ, otf..:ring unro me all [,we anJ >ervi..:e r,l sr..: al me
in rhar >O Jangernus a rime for all Englishm.: n .... All whtch h,, C: •>Ur·
te>y anJ otf..:rs nf ar rh.u rime I wa, l:<lm..:nt ru ac..:.:pr <lt, rh.:
rarh..: r tor that Mr Dyer was then d os.: pn,un..:r, with wh,llll 1 <.:dulJ
have nu confer..:n..:e, n•>r receive direction what I might dll h11· rho:
furrh.:ranc.: uf H.:r >en·ice in that behali. And I rhuughr n n, 1
amiss ro em..:rrain him at rhar t ime, wdl to r my ,1wn >Jlc:t\ and ltbcn\ ,
as abo w under>tanJ by him from time w tune rhe pr,>ceeJing, in :)Lr
EdwarJ Kdly's with the Emperor, for that lme Methur anJ dill.
ALtUen,is, which were in the college with him, were confe,,lr> .mJ
special intlamer> of the the greJt family of &1hcmia, ag.un,r ::itr
Edward Kdly, anJ rhe ,aiJ Poples were it were 111 )intt C;c>arb; >ll ,., I
purpuseJ by that mean, to await rhe h..:,r upp..lrtunity to del Ha ll l.t)<:>l\ ',
service . .. I was a lmo>t in Je,pJir of any comfurr in mine nwn ..:llunlr)
and as ir were plunged in rhc d.:pths llf J.:soLni,m abmad by rh.: dun;,
of Sir Edwe1rJ Kelly's f,,rrune, having then neither muney n.>r lll..:Jn- r.
maintain me, yet el'en at char time when all Englbhmen in Prague 11 d'
in prison anJ nunc durst ....
As tllUt.:hing rhe conrcms oi rhe l..:ner >enr fr,Hn Srephc:tbllll t" " ' '·
which ir has plea>cJ your Honuur lu me, I rru>t ru 111\>l.li.
for though I cannot l.:r ur prevent any man w write tll me, yet lf,l.
very parr give resrimnny ru rhc W•lrld char he had nur .Ill \ 11
bewrccho:J el r enrangleJ me wrth any ..:m·.:nJnts of i.ll"e <>r IIH..:r-
course of for rhar he w cumplain I ldr him ,,tJJcnl\
and unsar btied, withclut taking my leave of him, whtch ,, a .tr
mo:nr of the little a..:counr and ,mall r.:garJ I gave ru ..:harmm,;; t .. r
in very rruth when I haJ wrought him se> far a> I coulJ 111 Str EJ\1 ,,rJ
i'n
1\ IET.-\1. OF GOLD
f.: dl1 ', I lcfr hun .u,J all hi, \\'lth d11:ir rr;t>h r11 rhcm-
>..:11-..:,; .mJ •K..:,,r, lmg r11 my clury I rcrumed tll ,..:n·..: my n.uur.1l pnnc..:
.mJ 1111 c,1u1Hry.
Lc1gh 11 ..: m 'll1 t11 cundu,l..:, ·· .-\ nJ 11 h..:r..:.t> rh..: :.;11,1 Srephcll>llll clt1..::. llpcn hi>
pa..: k nf •JCt: urcnr, .1:. tll Sir EJ11'.1rJ Kdly':. liberty, he an.l all men kn,JII' it \\'a:.
rh..: •lll ly m.utcr l man.tg..:d or ,J.:alr in, in rl111:...: parr, ."
11
:
L..: igh IH•llC cl furrh..: r lcrr..:r, February 21, 1594, !lr•>tc:.ting hi> innv..:..:tK..:,
to Str Rnb,·n Cccil. In a JlllSt:.cri pr he r..:marks, "In rh..: very Lt, t llt Srcphen:..m',
l..:ttcr m.:nri,lll is maJ..: ,1{ a l..:n..: r h..: rcc.:iwd from Mr H. fr,>m his h,Jus..: in
L<llle<bhirc, which I f,Jrgut w explain in my amwer ddiv..:reJ r,J my ltJrJ ,1(
I luntingJun. lr ,.:..:ms t<l m..: rhar rh..: l..: u..: r came frum one 1\lr Hc:.kcrh, a
Lmca, hirc m.m, which ll'a> at Pragu..: rh..: sam.: rim..: that I wa:. rh..:rc, and wa:.
famili.t r with Sr..:phcll:.un; hut I hav..: l1llt s..:t:n him rhc:.e tll'll years almo:.r."
111
Leigh aJ mits tll hadng ",..:en" H..::.kcrh in Pragu..: , rh,1ugh du..::. nnr indicar..:
wh,·th..:r h..: ..:vcr >P• Jk..: rn him. He m..:r t he priest Srephen:.on rhmugh RicharJ
TanbrJ, a g••IJ,mirh, "'h'' kn..:11 K..:ll y. Bur rhcr..: i:. lhl ..:vid..:nce t hat Kdly ..:vcr
m.er l l..:sk..:th, nr, ind..:..:d, Sreph..:n:.un. Kd ly was in jail for mu:. t nf the p..:rioJ
,,f He:.k..:rh's in Pragu..: . Thc m..:ntiun:. of him in rh..: int..: rct:pt..:d Cllrre-
:.ponden..: e nccJ :. uggc!>t n,J more! rhan his impri>l111ment h.1d bccn a cau,e
and hi, r..:lea,..: a marrer tlf C•lJHinu..:J interest tlJ rhe Englbh cummuniry in
Pr.1gu..:. Therc is nu suh, tantiatiun tlJ Charl..:s Nichull', claim rhar "this cb..:-
munic hgure lE. K. ] wa> und,luht..:Jiy itw,>l v..:J wirh rh..: Cath,Jiic plotters in
Pragu..:."
11
;
Dce's ClliTe>p,lnclencc 11·irh Kdly rc>umeJ lllliV f.:elly haJ b..:..: n >l.!t at lt h.:rry,
. mJ his diary recorcb len..:rs tu f.:dl y 11n March 28 and S..:pr..: mb..: r 18, 1594, and
tt\Hl1 l:(dly ()11 Nm·emhcr 24, 1594 (PO, 48, 50, 51; Fc! nton, 265,267, 268). He
• r..:cor,b, May 18, 1594, "Her Majesty s..: nr me again rhe cnpy uf rh..: letter
ut E. K. wirh thanks" (Ft:nt•Jn, 265; PO, 49, ha:. "G. K."); it is und..:ar whether
rh1> is rh..: C• 1py of a l..:rtcr frum Kelly to the! Que..: n llr ru D..:e. The ,lf
rht::.t: letters ar.: n< Jt disd,l>cd and l:(dly's acriviti..:s ,luring rhis time arc un-
Accurding t11 l van S1·ir..i k, holl"c!V..: r, Kelly, rel.:ased fr1Jill impriSlll1menr,
11'<1 > hghring in Peter Rl1:mh..:rk's army agaith t rh..: Turks in the :. ummer tlf 1594
near K,1mJ rnu.
11
;
Engl1, h intdligcnce cunr im.eJ ttl il1<llllttlr Kdly. S..:th Ctlcb IIT•>te r,J S1r
Ruherr Ceci l frum Krah iw, April 8, 1595, "I am now withm the:...: rwo t1>
h..: nc..: and m..:an pass br Prague, I will Sir EdwarJ Kdly,
who they enj,ly> hi> turm..: r twour with the Empt!ror" (SP 88/ I , fnl. 22 I).
In 1\ lay 1595 an,lth..:r >c.::r.:r agent \\'as in Prague. He ll'c!nt und..: r rhe
name of Juhn Snuwdcn, hut h.: had bcen b,m1 John C..:cil in in 1558
rhrc..: )'C.lr> after Kdly was born rhere.
110
Was this a childhood acquaintance oi·
Kelly's s..: nr r,, mak..: C•lntacr! Or sometme wirh a shared background which he
could use t<> ingrariare hinbelt? Or snm..:one nn an enrir..:ly np..: ratinn?
On Augu:. t 12, 1595, De..: recurds " I received Sir Edward Kdly\ letters of
thc Emp..:mr' ,, inl' iting me m :.ervicc again" (PD, 53; Fenron, 275). Kdly,
1r appears, accept.;,l hy the Empertll. one..: murc!. he now tu offer
1
.ttr11n.1g..: h11n:.dr! Or 11\1> h.: 1n neccl tlf .b>t>t.m..:c! Scprcmhc·r 14, f.:dh 11 • ,,
tu Dyt:r, rccalling th..:ir cxperimcnb: "Y ..:.1, h,m .. r;Jhle >lr, }'llll knuw 1 11' ll
wh.u ddighr ll'e ttlllk rog..:rhd' (MS 1420, p.
But Kdly was SllOll impri,.mcd a :.ec,mJ rtnh:. H1, lltkn..:c, au .. llrJ,n;,. t.
I 1.111 Svin1k, was rhar on N,ll'ember I, 1596, b.h.: k m t:<lllrt , he 11'•Jun,k,l,
J1d nut kill, G..:11rge Hunklcr, 11i alchemi>t S..:haiJ S..:ln1 err:cr. Th1o
11'.1:. "the immecli.tre cau, e" uf the arrc>t , hur Sl'ltJk .tt rh..: >.t mc run..: h.h Kclh
unpn>cmcd t•>r d..: bt ,mJ hl> ,;,rare umti,..:.lred by ".1 <.:llrrupl .m. l mtluc: nrl .tl nun
f.:ry>t•lf Zdi11>ky :..: S..:hu: in.1."
11
;
H..: was impri>un..:J at 1\lu:.r (,tl,.l knuwn <b Brux). ;m, l clunng thl> rcrt. ,I
Cllmpos.:d hi:. akhcmical tr..:aris..: The r;f" th.: which hc 11 r.•rc
m Latin and d..:dicar..:J w Rud,llf; the np.:ning r..:t'..:r:. tu h<ll'mg "alr..:.1d1 t11 lee
, ulf..:rt:d chai11> anJ impri><Hl llll.!nt in Boh..:mia."
110
Thc al..:hcnll>t U>walJ 1 i,lr..:J
him in jclil ''.1ppar..:nrly in rhe hll(1c! uf ><11111.! enlighrcnm.:nt ,Jv..:r the S.:cr.:tl<lli
"
11
Y Mic had S..:nJi1·ogiu:. i> :.atd tu h,J \'C bl1ughr 1m<: uf e>t.ltl.!> wh1.:h
Lady Kdly :.uiJ w rcl i,c nllm.:yY
0
J.:r.ul, tlf Kdl1·', tinancc> anJ rl"
Jbpu:.al uf hb pr,lp,·rty at this tim..: ,url'i1·e in C:c:ch

Thc end, lik..: rh..: h..:ginning, , Jb:.cur..:. Dec':. d1.1ry rc<.:•lr,b l'-! u1 clll·
h..:: 25, 1595, rh.1r Sir Edward Kdly wcJ> ,I.Jin" (PO, 54; Fentun, 217) .
Bur the: llllldcrn hi>t<lrian 11f the: empcrtlr\ cuun, R. J. W. E1 ,m,, CltC> a
m..:nt indicaring rh.1r Kdly 11·a, deri nitdy alive on t<.by 22, 1597, .1r the .:a,rl ..
,lf Borb.miu> rh,Jughr h..: was >£111 ,JLti ve in A numhcr <li >tllrtc•
r..:cmd rhar trying to ..::.cap..: fmm the h..: tdl anJ hr,1kc hi, k g; ,.,m..:
aCCl)UntS :.ay he Jicd fmm hi, injuri..:s; Kaplidy rh.n, injurccl, h..:
tOllk pubon and di..:d un N,JI'cmb..:r I , 1597 .
Accmding ttl J•1hn W..:e1·cr, Eli:.tbcrh >ClH "C.tpr.un Pcr..:r Gll'\ nnc
with snmc! othcr>, ro p..: rsuaJ..: him ro r..:wrn hack w hb own n.Hil·c home,
which he was wi lli ng w do: anJ thinki ng m c>..:ape away 111 th.: night, by :. tc:.1lrh,
a> hc wa> dam b..: ring u1·..:r a wall in his O\\' n hou, ..: in (which h..:<lr> h1,
name w rhis Jay, and which >Ll llll.!timc wa> an uiJ >illKtuary), h..: fell d,J\I' n fr,•m
the baul..:m..: nt:., bruk..: hi, legs, and brubeJ ht:. h,Jdy; 11f which hurt> ,1 whtlc
after he deparreJ this woriJ."
121
A,hmole r.:corcls in 1652 that Kdly "wa, d.tppc.lup .tg. un 111111 prt><ln, .• r.-t
.m..: mpting tu make! h1s ..:scapc! our uf a htgh wmJow, by th..: t..:armg ,>r· ,hc<.:t-.
whi ch rt.:J wg..:rher ro l..:r him duwn, he! (bemg ,1 ll'<.: lght\ nt.m) tdl anJ
bfl)ke his leg anJ thc:rcof died" (TCIJ , 483). Arrhur D..:e ga1·.: a llltJrc J ..: r.ukJ
account tll Sir Thuma, Bnl\l'nc, whu C<lllllllunic<Jt..:J it tu A,hm,Jic! in l b74:
lie :.atJ .11,.1 that Kelly dealt nor Jll>rl y hy hl> t.Hh..:r anJ rh.1t he 11.:1 d
aw.ty with rhc: gr..:are:.t parr tlf the pt>wd..:r .md 11 aft..:rward lllll'rt>, c • ..:.t
by rh.: Emp..:rur in a ..:asrle fmm 11 hence att..:mpring an C>C.lpc J ,111 n rl...:
wall h..: tdl and br,Jke his l.:g and wa, impri>lll1ed agam. Thar lu, l· •• ,h-r
Dr Juhn Dee pr..:>ented Queen Eli:aheth w1t h a li rde of th..: )'ll\1 .l..:r, 11 h,
having mad..: tri;d rh..:r.:of arr..:mpr..:J to g..:r Kdl1 out uf pri>tlll .. -\nJ ,cnt
>lllllC tu rhar purpll>c! whu giving optum in drink um1l thc kcc·pcr:., Ld
rh..:m fast <l>le..:p thar K..:l ly flllmd oppnrtuniry w au..:mpt .m <.:>C.t!'c· .11d
I\1ET:\ L l)r GOU'l
th..:r..: 1\ l.' r..: ll > cMry him But rhc unhappily
i> ll'<! ,(c;ci ,trt:d.
1
: '
1-:dl) by wil"..:, J•><l nna 1\:dly (d. 1606) .mJ ll\'11 >tl.'p-
chiklr..: n, a >•ll1 Juhn Fr.m, is W..:>run ( 15ti0- 1600) ;111d a Jaughrer, Eli:ab<!th
( 1582-1612 ). El1: .. b.:rh .lChie,·.:J cun, iJ.:rable (,unc as the Lnin pucr

In the >piriruul rr.m>acri,>n> ,,f Apnl 4, 1587, rh.: lack •Jt children in Kdly',
ru is Kdly roiJ "barrenn.:,s J wdb wi rh
yuu, )'<>ll di,l n..: gl.:cr m..: and rak.: , 1 wit".: ro your,eli cnnrrary [Ll my
cumm•m,lm.:m . .. . Th.:rel•>n: yuu , hall huv.: rh.: Wl11llh which Yl1U have barren
and t• > Y•lU ynu han: d1JC which I commanJ.:J
yuu." Nuwh.:re in Dce', pli ,·ar..: , li,try , ,r in the >piritual tran,ac[lnns is there
any r.:ier.:nce [ l l Ju.lll c.,uper h.t\' l11g be..:n marri.:d b.:fun.: or having any chi ldren,
..: ith..:r by Kdly ur by any prel' l<lll> rd ar i1. ll1>hip. The step-chJ!Jren are n.:vcr men-
Cilll1<:cl.
Hdwc:\·cr, the 11t Eli:aberh Wt:>hll1'> Cullectd W'mings accept rhar
1\:dly' , 1nic: ]o.tn C..>•1p.:r h"J bc.:n prel'iou,ly nurried.
P,1ri>h , lh1\\' rh.n j .,hn W.:s,on.: anJ j uan.: Cuwp.:r wer..:
un 29 Jun.: 1579 ar Ch1pping Nc1rrun, .. .. :\ son uf this
uni.1n, Juhn, was christcn.:d on 23 July 1580, and E1i:.t b.:rh, J aughrer uf
''J. •hn W..:sr,,n," was christened sc11ne rime larer, ,eemingly between 4
March ancl 31 Ocruber 1581. J•>hn W.:,run, "cl ,trk," was buried on 6
May 1582.
A w..: d hurial, Kdley . .. ro.?p<lrt<:cl dur d1c:
:\rchangd !l!ich.tel had him char ho.? must marry; injuncriun
wa, r.:pear..:d nn May 4rh. Shorrly rher.:after, Kd1.:y l11clrri.:d the recenrly
ll'idmnc!J Jane W<:>ttH1.
Tho.? fnlluwing year, Dee and Kdlc:y left 1\·irh their wives (bur appar-
ently with<lUt the rwo yuung Weswn chd,lren, whn are nor menrilmcd
in Dc:c:'s diary accnunr of the vnyage, <JnJ who presumably• behind
ll'ith thdr marernal par.: rn<JI grandmorh.:r> fm rhe rime being, as
degy for h.:r 1111.1ther would suggest) ... it likely that rho.?
by aJmir.:rs that Weswnia came frum a gloriuus and
nt>ble tamily wc: r.: based on the grandeur anJ of rhe Kdley
housh,,ld in ir. h.:yday, anJ l1<H nn any family connexion:. t>t "j,Jhn
Westun, dark" whus..: mo.?mury haJ JieJ with him in Chipping

Eh:ahc:rh t<l 1\:dly in <1 Linn pu.:m, publi:,hed in Pr,Jguc: in J60b,
thar :.ho.? \\' rc1t<: tl11 rh.: , lo.?ath of h.:r mnrhcr, m "Upun rh.: death of the noble
an,l high-hl1rn ll'uman LaJy Joanna, widuw oi Sir EdwarJ Kdly of !many,
gubhed and wdl-bc1rn knight, C<lUIKillor elf his imperial a most
honnur.:d and hduved her Jaughrcr poured fmth the t01luwing elegy":
':X' hcn, 1 an mt'am ut b.1rdy mnnth:., l rho.? wound ut my
lather > lnss; anJ sh,>rrl y atrerll'arJs the of my rwc1
,'1
11
c.tre l h.11.l been. Ho.?.t \ en g,,,.o.? me a >lcp-t.Hhcr, .u., l 1 .. .. .
1 kwcJ a> a tatho.?r, bur , lc.uh t<>uk huu. :\ rem.unc:.t t.
me; yet in, ariahlo.? J..:.td1 cur him J,m·n 111 rh.: tl.,w.:r •'' youth.
;n ..:pt t.lph by Nlt.:c>I.LU !1 1aiU> un J.,,mn,t'> ,k.llh .11><1 rc:fc:r, £•> hu· lll.trll.•-·
1
,
1
Kelly, maki ng ir cle.lr he ,,,b rh.: ,md rh.tr ·' ·
"i Englbh birrh.
I, Joann<l, 1d111 h.11.l h..:..:n wuc r" rh.: p\HI""'I' hcr Kdl\,
Butf..:reJ by the: changing tmrunc:> ot t h..: w,,r\J, h..:r..:.
The gro.?arer rh..: er<>>> I h,>rc, rh.: grc: ar.:r rhc p.m.:nr
The gro.?ar.:r t he gl•>f)' in He.tn :n. ,_.
Engl,md g'''.: m.: a nauve \.mJ, B,1hcmt.m ,.nl . 1 gr.ll..: ... ,
1\Luu, ,
1
bo \\'felt<? an .:pn.1ph cm \X
1
..:,t\lnt<t I k 1\,b ."llc .,r· •
m.:mbcrs of rhe Dee .m,l Kdly w<l rld 1\h<l wcrc: kn.,wn t•.' Wc>t<mta. ,::,he .d·.
knew EJ warcl Dyer anJ , he wrur.: t\\\1 name p<>l.! llb t.1r J 111Jnch : ·'
powerful poll[lcal tlgurc:, rh.: J .:pury chancd k>r, ll'h<1>c meet: LuJmdl.t h.d '.n.• r-
···J K' lly's brorh.:r Th,nna:. in 1587. Anorh.:r ccmncctHlll \\'lth De.: .mJ Kcll y
" - J

SI · I
1
, a poem Eli:abcrh wrc1te r.> ll11c 11! her teach.:r>, J•>hn H.unmon . , 1..: . 1 '•
,n,
1
re m Per er Vok Rn:mber\.. , .mJ tu rho.? akhc:mt>r O,waiJ C ,,,11, \\ h,
a>kcd her w cnmp<l>C " p<l<:m which h.: induJo.?d in Btlldt.::a Ch)llllc'<L .
Of Kdh \ '"''11 rh.: puem, "Sir E. K. Cllnt.:.:rn_ing thc Phii•'•"Phc r ·
'r me written k> C>l1.:cial g.,,-,J fnc: nJ, G.S. Go.?m.," hr:. r puhh,hc:J am' '"-
.JI. ·c p· 1 •
rhe prefawry tu R.tph RabbM,b' o.?Jni;m <>I .:c>rg.: "I' ..:y ,
Th.: CompuunJ of :\ldt..: my (LunJ un: Orwm, I ) 9 1) 11 repnm..:J r. ·-
, ·rher with a longer noem, "Sir EJwarJ Kdle' s Wmke," 111 A,hmul..: ' ,
fl
1
,arrum Ch<!miwm (LtmJ,m, 1652). Excerpt> tr,•m Kdly' >
,
1
p;car in Duu Chcl!lici Sin&'Hkt r.::. et Br;t•es (G.:i>m.tr, 16j 7). "
1
Th,
must cull..:cticm ut wnrk a,cribo.?J hl Kdly ,, EJoHu.nJt KdL.t' t :\1.J
Tractatus Duo Egr.:gii De Ltpide Philosuphunlllt, Unu Cum
T.:mmTi , pubh, h.:J po,rhumuusly in Hamburg in 1676 "per
ccn." 1r contains, in Laun, The Swnc of the Plulu:.ophas, Th.: HumiJ P.Hh .,;
DiscUi trSl! on the Veg.:wbl.: uj Sawnt, an,! Th.: Thctur.: of
Astronomy, and brief t"rum three letters ,,f 1587 _anJ 1589. T he o.?Ju, r.
J. L. M. C., h<l> nc1t been icl..:nritled .. 'll A ,,f rh.: \'Ilium.: l: y .-\. E.
Waite was publisho.?J in 1893 anJ tr..:quently repruuc.:l ,J> EdwarJ f-:.:11} .!tl.
Englishman's T 11 u Ex.:dknt Tr.:uriscs On The s Stune T ug.:th.:r \\ 1il.
The Th.:acr.: of T cll'C>rrtctl A:. trunum)' .
111
Notes
1. 0:-.f,wJ , BoJlci.H1 L>br.Jr), llb :\,hmol..: l 7bh, 1<>1. 40. b) Eh., • . -..•l •·• _
in Thcumnn C!wutt.'l<lll Untunnicwn (L,,nJ,m: J. un>m•mJ h>r N.nh: Br."• ... . lo) _
(;K>imilc rcpr., New \'.>r\.. ; Juhthlll1 Curp., 1967), 479.
bu
1\IY::lTIC.-\L 1\ IET:\L OF Gc1LD
1
l ) lch. u-. 1 H.1liln·dl, nL, Th.: l'rmu.: Oi,ll')' uf /Jr )uhn V.:..: and th..: C u,t/,,g
11
.: o/
lu, u/l-. f.tlllbcn}'l> (LLHlcl<ln: C nnJen :),1Cidy, 1o42), I. Rd;; rrcJ t" hencef,
1
nh
ib PD. De<''> cliary emri<'s ar-: fuuncl in th.: margi n, nf rwo alman•K> pre>.:n·eJ in
the _B"clb.m the E11h:m.:rid..:.s ,,( SrJdius f,w 1554-1 600 (Cu1,
1
gne, 1570)
rbhnwl-: 4o7l. an,l t he Eph.:m.:ri.l..:.s of t-lagius 15ti l -1620 (Venice 1582)
(t-IS ·Hlll). :\ ncn· tr•Ubcriplion hy EclwarJ Fentc1n, Th.: Di,lri.:.s uf )uhn D.:.:
(Charlbury: L'by Boub, 1998), rcsmres material <1mitrcd by Ha lliwd1 anJ corrects
he ma,k; it i, rd;;rr<',1 to hencdunh as Fenton.
l. S-:<' Julian Rohcns anJ .An,Jr<'\\' G. War,,m, John D.:.:'s L1brary Cawlogu.: ( L,mJ,Hl :
The B1hlhlgraph1ccll ScKicry, 1990), irem 109'), anJ p. 96n.
4. PO, 1. The parbh arc. n:p<med in Su,an Bassnert, "Rc:,·ising a 13i,
1
graphy: A
Ne\\' lnterprer,luun <11 the L1k ut Eli:abet h J,m.: We>I Llll (Wc,ronia), Ba,ed cm her
Aur,,bi<Jgra phlcal r.,ems <lll rhe Occasi•>n nf rhe Death other Mvtl
1
·r "Cah · . .
El b. I . 37 ( " ·
l.S<I <'I wm; April 1990 ): 3. Ten miles sm1th nfWorce,ter is Upr<m·upcHl·Severn.
Dce was g1,·cn the recwry !here in 1553, anJ ir wa> L>n<: vi his basic >llllrc.;, nf
1ncumc· .. There is nu r.:c,,r, l rhar he <.:\ 'er \\'eiU 1hcre; rhe parish provided a li,·ing,
h<' klr nu • r,, l1,·c 111 lL He may ha\'C vi>itcJ Wmcc>ter. His library
a C<
1
1'\' ot .Ac:dl l<.:us btcr', Cusmugn.1phia given him, he: nnrcd msiJe ir, by
J, ,hn I cJder, a J ean at W.1rc.:_s ter C.tthedral, on February 11, 1566. Bur there is no
C\' ILkn..:c that he knew Kclly lrum Worceste r.
). Oxoni.:n.sis, 2 vnb. (L,mJon: R. Knapluck, D. MiJwinr.:r and J.
Tu11>un, 1711 ), 1.: 179. A mi>rcading uf Anrh<HlY i1 Wood's rcxr >ccms tl l lie behind
the cbun rhat K.:lly haJ h..:..:n an amanuensis ro Thomas Alien. It wa, Wood's
ml unnanr wh,l \l'a> am.111ucnsis. Glvucesrcr Hall is n ow Worces1er Colkg.:.
b . B<llllc:lan L1brary, lo.!S .Ashnwlc 17YO fol 58 l'fl.nt •J
1
'
11
C H J · J El '
A ·h 1
1
. ' · • " . . lhlc n, e ., 1u:;
'nwe 16 17- 169_: l-11s Auzobiogra11hi.:al an,/ 1-li.swrical Noc.:;, His
and <Hh.:r Conc.:mpumry Sourc.:.s Rdming 10 l1is Lfe and Work, 5 vols. (0xf,
1
rJ:
C bn:nJ"n Pr..:;,, 196ti), + 1-!36.
7. Lc;1gkr '.In Fre>nuy, 1-li.scwr.: ,/..:la l'hil<Jsuphi..: H.:nnJWJll<', ) , .. ,b. (1\u i>: Cm,.
.S. lchcr, 7-f_, f,lC>IIllde rcpr. Hddc,hcun: Gec>rgc O ltn>, 1975), 1:306-07.
Jl1iH1 Wce\·..:r, Anci<nc fun..:ralllo.!omoncm.s (LunJ,m 163 1) ·'J. '6 A - 1·
G · I · PI 'I I' · · ' · ' ' -. -o · Ccllr, mg
10
Lr:
1
_
1

1111
_ 11 _ lP> anJ lo..'arnn Kc<Jtman, Th..: Conspiracy (LunJ,m: .'\rruw,
I !hiJ), 1 J 1 •

cl us utkncc "Kdly .".'a> hau!ed bet{':" rhe I<>ea I Scjuire Thomas Lang-
tliiL F"rrun,ltdy, Langrun was a tnc:nJ •>I L 1rJ wh"'" farhcr, il> Earl of
." ·as .:•'rJ nf eh.: Srrange. imervcned to free Kdly anlllhe
'".''men hcc,Jmc •Kcuil colleague>. Strange W<Js infaruared by Kdly's unholy acti vi-
nc.>, .mJ >O.•lll the·. P'llr were e xpen!ncnting wirh alchemy." Nu evidence is giv.:n for
lt 1> unlikely 1har Weevcr would nor ha,·e mt'nrion.:J a court appcar-
•111L<' ll thcr" h.t,l been o1w. On Langwn's friendship wirh Strange, a nd furrher

• ah.Jt tt Kcll y in Lanca,hirt!, see C harles Nichu ll, A ClcJ
1
nf
NLJL': Th, ofThomu; N":shc (Lc>ndnn: Rourlcdge an,l Kcgan Paul, 1984), 193-!.
9. C?n .'V;'ccn•r > Luh.: a, lurc ..:unnccri.ms, >Cc E . .A. J. H.migman,

The Lost
) <'lll> (1-. lanchcsrcr: lo.Ltnc hc, rcr Uni\' . 1985 ), 6-7, S0-58.
10. T. R._ • l-li.swry anJ Anti.juities 2 vnls. (LvndcHl, 17ti 1 ), 2: 246,
1-.:dl) Ill rhe plH, >ry a t Lme<lSicr lor l<>rging >Oille ancienc title dcc<b. du
Frc>llc1y h .1s hun l<l>lllg h1s cJr> in Lmdun on a >imilar charg.: ( 1 :307). O rhers claim
he was c"mxrc:,l ot coining. N.1 c\'iJcncc has been adduced fur any of the>e a>ser·
IIUI\S.
11 . l'arkilb\ lcrrer rq>•>nmb: inquiry i> in the: StJic: in the: Public Rcc,,rJ
Olhcc, Kcw (SI' Id,. H 3-!).
...

,.)n Dee """ Charl<>llc Fdl :Snurh, ),,}Ill/).:.: 15.!/-loLlS (L,mJ, m: L:.abi.•H, . I< ·•
f'cl<'r j. French, John D.:.:: Th.: \1/ur/J of an lo.bgll> (LnnJnn: R.ouiicJ,.,
,md Kcgan Paul, 1972); NJCill>ia> H. Club:, )ulm 0,·.:', Narcn,.! P/ul.,,,,ph): 13.:c.. _. ,,
wul Hdigion (LcmJon anJ New Yc>rk: R,1urlcJge, 19tib); Bc:nJ,llllln \\ 'u, lk·,
Tile Qu.:cn's Conjuwr: 1h.: anJ 1\!agi..: u/ Dr. D..:..: (LunJ,m:
1000) .
I). Rderr..:J [<l ob TFH. Ell.!> .-\,hmulc', C•'PI ,,f du, hll<lh \\'llh hi> olllll< 1 .•.
t ion> ancl C<)rrc..:rions i> pre>cr\·cd in rhe &l.llcl.lll L1hrar1, 1\lS ,-\,hmnlc 5bv.
14. • 1: lb5.
IS. Chrisr<1phcr Wh1rby, John D.:c'> Accicms with S/JJrH.s: 22 O.:c.:mh.:r 15.:>1 111 23 \L.:·
1583. 2 vols. (N.::w York: Gc1rl.mJ Publbhing, 19titi).
lo. The>.: arc: the mysreriurum, s.:x1us cl -f8 Cl<uc> ,Lngdl.:al·: Lil>cr
uuxilij , & vicwriac 1cn.:sms; De hcJnanhiu mysci.:a; Tabula bununnn angdunnn: F1<11 ..•.
menta inwcwionwn. (13riti>h Librar\', MS Sln.m.:: 78, 2575, 2599, 318ti, 31b9, 31':1!
3678, MS AJ,I. 366H, (,,I,. 167-titi; B,lJician L1 hrary, t-!S !\,hmulc 1790, 1·,,1,. H-
56; 422; 1790, arr. 2) Snm..: cli the materia l is publi,hcd in R.1bcrr T urner, .:J .. n ..
H<pwrchia Myscica o/ ./o/m 0..:..: ( Edinburgh: l'o.lagnum Opu, Hermcr i..: ::;;,,lll-..:.:,l , ,d, ,.
1983; 2nJ Wcll mgbnrnugh: .Aquarian Pres>, 19o6); Gmtfr.:y J.mlc>, .:J., Th.
Enochian of Or John Dec ( 19ti4 ; Sr P.JUI, 1\IN: Lbn:l1n, 19Y4 ), ,m,l D .. n.d..J
C. LayC<Kk, Th.: Cmnpl.:r.: Eno.:hiun Dictionary: A Dicriunary of rh..: AngdJC Lm,-;1< .• ,.'
as HcvcalcJ w Or John Occ .md f,hmrd k:dky ( 19 78; York Beach, lo.I E: Wt:i><'r, I ':194 )
See C lulet!, Jolm Dc..:'s Philusuphy , 204 , 196-7,306-7.
1/ . British Library, MS Sl.1anc 3 !ti8, foL 9r; Whirhy, 1:18.
I:>. lr is p<>ssibl.: t n ,l..:du..:.: ircllll Dcc'> J 1.try nnd >pinru.d rr.nb.Kfl•'lh 1h.u T.dhul \\ ,.
Kdl y bur D.:..:'s , hary wa, nnt publi,hcJ umil 1841. When 1\l..:nc Ca,,lUbon pubil -h,J
a large: parr uf the >piriwal crall>.!Cti<lll> in 165') he \l'it> nnr awar..: ,,f rhc
mar.:rials dealing with 1h..: s.:rycr unJ cr rh..: n<Jmc: uf T.db,1t ; rhu,c m,mu,cnpL> \L<.:fc
lusr fwm vkw unril EliJ> .-\,hm,,k acquircJ rhem in 1672.
1':1. R. J. W. Eva11>, Hudolf 11 ,mJ his \VoriJ: .A Study 111 1-li>!oJ) .
COlT . ..:J. (OxfllrJ: Cl.m.:n,l<lll Prc:>>, 1984 ), 226.
20. On rhc sh<lW srnncs, ><.: t: Hugh Tai t, "'T h.:: LJc,·il', L,1ukmg-GI.1»'; The: • •
Speculum ,,f Dr J,,hn Dcc," in Warren Hunring Smuh, ..:cL, 1-lor,u:.: \\.', dj><•l..: : \\"nc.J
Politician, Cunnois>cllr (New Ha\'en anJ Loncl,m: Y.tle Uni,·cr>ity Prc>s, 1':1o7). l)L
scrying ><!<'C. L Whirby, "J,,hn Dee anJ Rt:nab,,mce S..:rying," Bulletin uJ 1h..: ..
of Renaissana SwJi.:s 3 ( 1985 ): 25-35; The<xJ,,re J3..:,tcnnan, A Sn.J:.
in 1he 1-liswry, Oi.srrihu1inn, Th.:ury anJ Pracci.:..: ofSkJ)ing ( L<Hlclon: RiJ..: r, 1o.)24 ).
21. For Jiscus>i vlh nf rhc >c >l<lllS, >t:<: E. lo. L Butler, The 1\!yth of the M<i!,'ll.'i (C.unbn,l,...:
Cambridge Univer>ity Prc>s, 1948); E. M. Burl..:r, l<iuwl l\ !ugic (Cambndgc: C ••m
briJgc Univer>it y Prc>>, 1':149), 158-81 ; L R. F. Cakl.:r, "Juhn S1uJio:J ,., ·" •
English N.,,,plawni>l," 2 vuls. (l'h. D. che>i>. T h.: Warburg ln>Utur.:, Um' .:r,IL\
of LonJon , 1952) ; Wayn..: Shumakcr, "Juhn D..:c' s Com·cr>atl<>n> Wllh :)l'lflt>," 111
Henaissana Cmiosa, lo.lcdic,·al anJ Ren.1bsan..:c T .:xt> a nd Stucli.:,, 8 ( Bmgh.Hut. n.
NY: MRTS, 1%2), 15- 51; Clulcc,)uhn De.:'s Nuwml Philosophy, 203-30; [)d-,r.Ji,
E. Harkn.::s>, ' 'Sh.lw> in the Shnwstcmc: A T h.::cllre ,,f .Akh..:my ,mJ .-\p,K,d\ I'>' u,
the Angd C:. m\'l:rsari.ms of Jnhn Dcc (I 517-1608/9)," H.:nw>s<lnc..: Qu,m<JI) .;';I
(1996) : 707-37; St cphcn Clucas, •· 'N,Hl c>t kgcnJ um ,..,d inspiccn,lum ,.,lu1u': In·
spectival Knowledge anJ rh.: Visual L.,gic oi John Dce\ Liber J\ I )>L<'IhH' I<Hi.'' n,
Al ison Adcun, and SrantLm J. Lind..: n , ed,., Embl<ms un.l Alch<my, G b ,gu\\ Eu.H,,,
Studies, 3 (Gia,gnw: Gbguw Emblem Srudi.:,, 1998), 109-32; Debvr.1h I-L.rl 1" ..
John Conwrsauons uoith Angd.s: C.!btd..c, Akh.:my and 1he End of Nurw.: ll: .... ..
CambriJgc Univer:>ity Prc>>, 1000) .
1'-tY::iTll:.-\L 1\ !H.-\L ()f ()l.)LD
11
l)rllt,h Lthr.tr\. 1-.IS :::il''·!lh.: 1 .. 1. 2·h-2Sr; \\'hnh1, 2: 7b-9.
1-.b ::;l ••. m..: )I:,<:>, f., l. \X' hithy, 2: 126. 2 3.
2t>.
1-. IS Sl ... m..: HhS, 1;,1. '->t!v; \X' hitby, 2: >67.
1-. l::i :::i l,•an..: 31o8, lol. ·Hr; Whit by, 2: 118.
t-.IS :::i l .. an..: llo!:!, 1;,1. S':h·; \X' hirby, 2:2 18.
t-.- !S Sl ... ull: 1186, 1;,1. 6 lr; Whitby, 2:220.
L1n.ly Ahr.dum, ..:,1. , :\rrlwr D.:.:, F.t,.·h:ultc> l:lt.:uuctt>. t1l Clnuuc • .l lt.uh.
Elt.h .-\,hmul..:, En:;lt >h 6 (N..:w )'.>rk .mJ LunJun. Gar-
l.m, l Puhlbhing, 1997), J:.o-b.ii.
S.:..: S. Brumh.1ugh, "Th..: Vn\ nt..:h [l,,..:,>n' Ltph.:r D..:..: iph-
.:r.:cl t-. l. tp> ,,f Sr. u·,," ./cJIIllldl uj' th.: ,mJ Cutcn.uc/.1 lmtitlll.:> 39 (I 976): I 39-50.
Anhur'> .:.>mm..:m, at..: in .-\:, hmuk', p;Ip<:r> in th..: B.xll..:i.m Libr.1ry, MS A,hmnl.:
17Sb, fnb. 151 r- ,·. Th..:y ar,· pnm.:,l in Jo>r..:n, Allunol.!, -!: 13 72 anJ 111 G.:otfr.:y
1\:,·y 1\.:>, ..:J., Tit,• \X'u1b uJ .Sn· Thum,._, Bruu•Hc, -! vol:,. ( 192o; L1nJcm: F.1b.;r and
F.,h..:r. 1 ')b-l l. -!:2%- o.
lu. CllL·mi.:llllt Brll.llllll<Jnll, -! <:>1. r..:.:,r,l..:,l ,, h1ghly .:nl.>r..:.l ,r,ry •If
K..: ll y', r..:..:..:t\·ing rh.: ,·lll< lr fn11n a lll)'>t..:riuu> fri.1r, t<IIJ h1111 by Wilham
(l\IS .-\,hnh>l..: 1790, ,;,t,. bC- 1, pri nr,·.l in J•>>t..: n 2:603- 5). Annrh..:r , . ..,r,illn mid
h1111 hy \X' illiam Ldl y I> r..:wr.bl tn 1-. IS Ashm.1l..: -! 2 I, f,,J,. 220v-221 , anJ publJ, hcJ
in \Vdh.uu Ldly, 1/ t,tllry uf Hi; ,mJ Tim.:s (Lun.l.m, 1622), 225-0. A>lllHul.:
th> cr..:,kn.:.: h> 1hc ,wn..:>, nur no:.:J w.:.
ll Lc·ngkt du Fre>lh>)', 1:307-lu. The >h •ry ,, n.:p.:.n.:J m Lull!> F1glll.:r, .:1
b 3r,l d. (Pari >, 1860), 232tT. anJ in A. E. Wa1r.:, ..:J ., EclwarJ Kdly,
Tit .: TH''' un rhc Pitilosojlitcr's :itollc. Tuget h.:r wi1h The
Tit.:.m.? uf Tarc•stri,.ll Asmmvmy ( 1693; n:pr., Larg.: Banr.m Prc:ss, 1991 ), xvii-xix.
>2. Jull.ll1 Ruh.:rt:. anJ :\nJr..:\\ G. Wabllll, John 34-5.
ll. On AJn.m Gilbc:rr an.l 1--·huy SiJn.:y, ,.,.: Juhn Aubrc:y, Aubr.:y's Bri4 . .,,1.
Olh er Ll\1><>11 D1d; (ll.trm,,nJ,w,mh: P.:nguin, 1982), 220. D.:c: haJ it» tru.:ll:J
1\l.try', hn>th.:r, l'hdip SyJney, in akh.:my; >l!l: 1-. f,,rf.:l, Nvbili:., ur A View
oi th.• L1j",: and fJ.:Ulh of a Sicln.:y, .:J .• ud rr:u1>. V1rgil B. Hdr:d an, l Huyt H.
(S. m ldari n<l: Hunringrun Lihr.try, 19-!0), 75. Ralcgh, •1> Aubr.:y .mJ Lu.:y
H111.:hm,.H1 rt:..:llrJ, \\,I> a..: ri n:ly invulvecl in akh.:mi.:al .:xp..:rim<'nt>; ><:<! LynJy
Ahrah,un, 1\ f,m•.:ll ,mJ (,-\kl.:r, lwr: S.:ular, 2- 3. On Humphr..:y Gil-
h.:n', • Am.:ncm >.:trkm.:nt '"" lt B. 1-.h:rrim.m, "Sc>m.: Nut.:> cll1 rhc
Tr.:.nm.:nr ,,f th.: Carh,>IK> m rh.: R.:ign ,,f Ell:,tb.:rh," :\m.:ricw1 Hisroricul
Rc:t'lcl<, I 3 ( 1907-b): -l b0- 500. On Rakgh's a.:qu.Iinranc.:,hi p with D.:o:, • ..:.: Wovl-
k y, The L: cmjwor, 3L:9-ll , anJ Ral..:i gh Tr<:vdyan, Str \1/al!.:r (Lon-
,lun: l'..:ngui n, 100 l ), p.1."im.
>-l. 1-. IS ::il,>.m.: 31tltl, lul. 77\·; \XIhirhy, 2:29-!.
l5. On SJ.:-1 ' "" Ruh.:rh .m.l \Vats•>n, )olul 51-2; .-\ lan ll.lyn.:,,lmml>l.:
l'ou.:r: Tile Scrl'IC.:' 157ll-16LU (StrliU.I, Ut\:: Al.m Suuon, 1992),
17, N- 46; E,·c:lyn Waugh, E,lnumJ CumfJilJil, 3rJ ,·,1. (Lm,!,m: Longmans, 1961 ),
10o, lbd. On Wal. mgh;un', i.n.:lligcn.:.: np.:rari.m,, '"" Cuni, Brc1ghr, Sllrt'.?lllaJK.?.
,ud Dnunu 111 Em (L,>nJ,m: 1-. lacmill.m; No.:w Ymk: St
1\ larun', l'rc», 2-!-21, 10 1- 10, 27t>. Br..:ighr argu.:> rhar Wabingh,un
Burghky's pro1.:g.:, ,d..:.:t..:cl l•> run rh.: >tll'\'.:ilhm.:.: •>po:r,u iuth O.:>tabii>h.:,l by Bm-
ghlo:y, .111J thar Burghlc: y l'<'>llllll!cl C:•>nt rul afr.:r Wal.ingh.un', ,!..:arh m 1590. D.:c
w,1, .t»<ICiatcJ with b.>rh Burghl.:y .m •. l \\/,1l,ingham. On .:,Inn.:crk>m
"ith D..:c, '"c C,m\ Cr> R.:.1J, 1\ fr and lit.: J',lln "1 Eka-
3 ,.,,1,. (Camhndg.:: Han'alcl Univ.: rsi ry Prt:S>, 1925 ), 3:-!04-DS, -!3-!- 15.
:'l
JU. :0.1 ' 3lt>o,lnl. 91r; \\'hnhy, 2:33'1--!0. "Cc>l>.Ill pl.tm" 1> pc:>ulli.,J.Iy '-·• :-
"''IJ,.
li. l\IS Shm.: )lob, h1l. 10-!r; Whnby, 2:1<:>';}-';}0.
3<:>. On La,ki >..:.: Kmht. nuy "Olbr.Kht LI>kl m Eh:.II•.: lh.m En.,l.u1J: .-\n E:., •
,.,J., in rh.: 1-li,wry of Culruro:," l'olJ>It l l,-l ( 196!l): 3-22; E' .llh, 1\ ... L;
11 , 219-20.
On 1-!t:rl.:, ,.,., H.,
1
n.:>, lnt·l>thl.: l'uucr , S-9, lo; ].>hn 13.>»\. • • Llllln ••• u.J
Emb«ssv (N.:w H.w.:n .mJ LmJ,m: Y.tl.: Um' .:r>HY Pr.:», 19'1 I). 2o- >-!
101-D-l; Ali,,m Pl.m·,l.:n, ScLI.!I .Scrtl(.; (H.:md H..:mJ'>tc: • .J: 1-Lr·
\'l!>tcr Whcabh.:ai; New Sr 1-.Luun'> Prt:», 1991 ). 25- 29; C. Br..:t,:ht
Surwilumcc , 106-D7, 2-!2 , 256, 277 .
.j J. Bo:,y, Giurd.uw Bnmu, 22-7. Th.: i'""''bdtry th.ll .ud F.•g•ll Ill-<\ .n"l h .• ,.
bt:cn rhe s.un.: pc:r><>n I> in J"lm Bu,y, L'nJ.:1 th.! 1\lul.;htll: <Ill .. J.
Spy Swl) (N.:w I lav.:n .m.l LnnJ.m: Y.1k Un,,·.:r>ll\' Pr.:», 2001 ).
41. Zanruan, "Olbr.Khr LI>kl," 15, Wat><m ·, kll.:r ,,, Bnu, h L1hr.1r\, :-.1;:,
J 731. Wal><m h.1J >p.:nr >llllll! um.: .11 [\lu.u, rh.: ,.;mm. I!)' h1r rr ..
Carhoh.: w b.: ,_,nr ,,:cr.:rly n1l <l Engl.md, an,l h.: f,>nnc:J .1 cunn.:.:It•ll1 "nh
Walsingham when rh.: l.m.:r wa> ;nnb..t»OI.Ior 1n P.tn>. Hi> P""m l\ld1bu:lu
f,>r Walsmgh,un. J.ul..:.l inr Jn inn-ke.:p.:r'> ><H1 wa> a hght \\ 1tb
Chri>tnpher t-.-.f.trl..l\1•.:, h.: \\·a, a.:qulll ..:,l un th.: gniLmcl, •lf ,dt-,ld.:n.:.:. I ll, J>><>Lt.l·
nnn wirh M.trkl\vc anJ W,tbmgh.un i> g.: no:r.JIIy l,tk.:n t•> ind1.:.1r.: rhat h..: \\,t, "n'
nf rh.: laner'> ,.:.:r.:r .tg.: ms. Sec Ch.trlt:> Ni.:h,>ll , Th.! 1\.lurJ..:I uJ
Citrisropha (LmJ,m: J,u,.uh.m C.1p.:,
42. MS 3188, td>. 107r- IO!:!v; Whir by, 403-6; TFI( I. 22. 25.
-!3. On La.ki's appn>:I.:h Ill Alkn >l!<: Amhuny a w.llxl, 0,\oJltl.!ll>l;, '"I I
cob. 574-5.
H . TFR, 5-6. The n.nn.: ,11 Fn:m.m .m, l Frc:.:m.m(,) m >l:>. lo:.:mh-..:.:mury l)l, ,..:kk\
r.;cor.ls. S.:c H. E. t-.t. l..:dy, BL,ckl.?y Through Tud1.! Anu,1/, oJ Ll Cut>t,,.LJ
Puri>h (AI.Iburgh, Nllli.ulk: Er,kmc Pro:», 27. 15- 37, -!1. -!!:!,51, 5b.
-!5. Se.: Nichull, A C11/J of 19+-91l, and Th.: /l,;.:k .. nmg, 2H-l9.
-l b. Clul.:.:, )ohu Nawral l'ililosopity, argue> rh.tt K..: lly m.mipul.n ..:.l the >J' lfllll.,l
Jialogu.:s "t•l Jr.l\\' D.:.: aw.ty t'r•>lll Engl.mcl, br.:.1kmg hi, t i.:> wtrh hl> lll\lr,· >< .1
,cknriti.: \\'\lrL Th.: k.:y de m..: m mthi> "'"' rh.: apr.:.u;uK.: ,,j Albr.:clll \1
-!7. Fur an .JCC•>llnl oi L1>k1's \'i>l t tu OxfclfJ >l!l! R.1phad H<>hn, h.:J, Hulnt>h.:J', Uu, .,,,
cks of EnglunJ, .S.:.,danJ lllld lrd.mJ, 6 \'Ob. (LunJ,m: J. l •>hn,..>n, lo08),
anJ J. G. Nich,,J,, The and Pw.:o!S>IIJliS of Qu.:.;n 2 vu b. lL•nJ •ll
1821), 2:398- -!11. On Brunn'> Oxf,,rJ J.:bate>, """ R,>b.: rt t-.kNuh y, "Bnuh> . 11 Ol<·
ford," I ) ( 1960): 300-5; nn Brun•>'> a.:qu.umanu: with :::,.ltll'\
ro wlwm h.: J.:,hc.Itt:J ,1 number nl h<>ok>, '"" Franl:<:> Y.lll.'>, GIJJr.lunu 111,
H.?nnccu: Tnulwon (LnnJnn: Ruutldgo: & Kcg.m P.1ul, 196-!). D.:>ptl..: th.:tr 'un.l .. r
inrcre>t>, tht!r.: I> thl n:.:nrJ th.tr Brunn "'·.:r m.:t <ll' Kdly, .:llh.:r m En"l..m.l .• 1
rhi> rim.: or b rcr m Eurnp.:.
-\ b. PO, 21; Fo:nwn, 100; TFR, 33. Kdly'> cl.: p.mur.: fr,Hn m.•y b..- .m ·' l' l' r" r r•·'''
!X>int tu n•H.: th.H rho: ,·an•lU> • • • a.:ri' ltk> m L.m.l•>n annhu1.:.l t•> Kt.:! I. 11.
Po:rcr A.:kroyJ\ n.wd Th.: oJ Oo..:wr (Lu,,l.m: H,uni,h H.muhun. I 'J ' ' I
arc wirh<>llt ,my b.l>l> m rhc: ht,wric.II r.:.:.>rJ. N,, J.., 1> the u 1'
of Kelly'> >Plnl m Umb..:rr<l E.:n'> n.wd, Foucuull':. PcnJulwn ( 19oo; L. >n.l.>n: P1..: .. ..1. r
1990), 591-92 (ch.lpt.:r 11
49. TFR , 212. On H.ij.:k, s.:c Ev.111>, 1\uJolf ll , I 52, 203-D4, 221.
10. Evans, RuJolf 11, 223.
51. l)n l'u._ l "'' IJ.\U; Fr.tllcc,.:d 1
1
u.:.:t, L:lr.:r.:, ,/llc lllll..:Jlll l'cl. L. Ftrp->
.111.1 R. l't.ll l•olt , 2 1ub. (FI,Hc·n..:.:, 195)- 5') ); L. Ftrpu, ''J .. Im [), . ..,, >Ul' n: t,Hu, n.:-
J.: h llll.lllll' <: ·" l'c:l11 ll n.:r .. ," 3 ( 1952): 25--;')4; .mJ Elt.11 -Fd,lun,
"S.:cl\.:1 U1t1p1.1> ;u,, l P.:J.:.: PL111>: Th.: C.l>C ,,, FranC.:>ctl Pu.:ci," )uumul
u/ ;\ hlk'l .tl unJ Slltdr.:> 14 13<J- 5ti.
)2 Th". \' ii'IJ .tc.:uwu , ,,· thl> .:xrr.l<lf,lon.try .:pi,.xf.:, prc'"" .:J 111 d1.: B.1J I.:r.tn Llhr,l ry
:-\ , hm,•k· 1790 an. I , 1<11>. 1- IY), 11.1> Ji>cul·.:r.:J .mJ t'mml hl' Latin
hy C. 11. J•""'n .,, "An Unknuwn Ch.tptl' r in the Ut.: of J••hn ll,·c," )uum,d o[ 1hc
\\ l,n hmg <lllJ C:uun.t uU hblillll<'> 2b ( I 965 ): 22 3- 57 .. A >el'l' ll l..:<.:lll h-n :nlllry tr. ub la-
ri,1n i, prt:>l'l'l'eclm 1hc Rriri,.h Library, MS 3645, (.,1, . 22- Jt:l, .md i, J wwn
' Ill h\ Fc' IHLlll , I b)-9 I.
5>. On VdO: n1 • ·''"' E,·,llh , Ru.lulj 11 , 212- 111. () n P..:!..: r \ '.,J, R.,:mherk,
rhr,l, 14(\-+3. L.,,ki ·""' a' pir,·,l 1t1 1h.: l\11i, h dll'ttlll'. Ncuhc:r 11·a, >lll'ce,_ful.
5-I E1·an>, Ridlllj 11, 22 3. (I .till incld•lccl Ill Su:ann.: K1.:rn.m th.: Iral b ldri,)ll.)
55. TFH, 26 l2n.lp.tgin.tll<lll l.
56. TI-U, 429; h .m, , Rudulj 11 , 22l .
57. TFH, 42<), 4H. Ftmh.:r .l.:i.nb inl :lulc<' , ) uhll /).:.: '> ,\ \ uur, d l'lul"'"i'/n, 226, 300
11
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11
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,md Clt.:JntcJI diem.: m 1hc Cird.: o[ .\ uf I b >t:ll ( 157 2- 1632) (Sturr-
g. tn : Fr.m: \'crl.tg, 1' )9 1 ). On D.:.: .m,l 1h.: L.mJgr.ll'<: >l'l! Ahr.1ham, t:J .,
An hur ()cl' , Fcf3C!Citlll> ChL' mr.:u, ,
):-> El.llh, Nu,lolf 11 , 216, 215; PD, 21 - 30; Fl'nl.ul, 20 1- 39. Fcnr••n', Ir.m, ..:ripu" n ut
the clt.try t.: nJ .:ro d1l' n.un.:, ut' l' l>ll<lf> nturc rlun Hall tlll' ll .
5') I'D, 22;_1-.:nl un, 204. TrJJh lariun t'r,,m th.: LJ IIn in R.tlph At tit.: c,,
1
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l,_lu .. ·n Tit.: Lij<' .ma L)l'ics u/ S•r Edu arJ 0 )·.:r (N-:11· y,,rk: Oxt: •rJ Un11·er>ll\'
Pr.:,,, 191 5), 102. D.:l' rd cr> ru thl' ToJr', inl'ir.lll<lll in hb Comj>L' Il.lwus I<L'ilL'ilT><tl
prtlll <'J in Jam.:, .:J. , Tract.> 11f Dr ] 11hn 0 <'.: (lllanch..:,ler:
Chcth.m, S••ct..: l), 1851 ), b--9. The rcxr ,,f rhc: inl·it.lltlln is pruu..:J in R
1
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H.tklu)' l, Nul'ig.uium, 12 ,._,1,, (Giaog<lll' , 190! ), 3:445-tS.
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Ltbr. try. li !S Ashm. tl .: 171)8, ti •b. 15l r- 1511·, prinr..:J in )uol..: n, A, lunuiL',
4: I J tl - t l an,l tn f.:<'\ 11<:>, Bn·u·n<' , 4: 196-ti. Or her a<.:<.:<>unro by Arrhur Dcc arc: in
to. IS A, lt nhJI.: 17o8, !; , (. I 53, pnntc:d in • 2: 755 <J n, l Kcync>, 4: 293; in
BnJ k i.tn Lthr.tr)' i\ IS BaiLu, l 14, 1;,1,. 13- 141', pnnic:clln • 4: 175 7. On :\rrhur
'"",LI' '_,.Iy :\hrah.un, ":\nhur l1.:.:, 1579- 165 1: A Ltf..:," Cu,,J" J>,n viiiS, n.,.,
13, _ 1- 14 (rcpnmc,l 111 cullc.: llun), ,mJ 1h.: uur, xfuc!l<ln eo LynJy
:\ hr.t h.tm, cJ. , :\rrhur Dec, Fasc"i.:ulus Clt.:mrcu,.
nl i\ IS B.tl l. trJ 14, h•b. l l- (4,·, J' rintl'cltn )ll>l<: n, : \.>luu!IIL', 4:1751:>.
(J2. F.:nh•n, 22 l ; >dill<.: l'·' "·tgl'> lrtllll the >(ll rttu.tl rc:C<l tJ , <lllllll<.:cl h\ C,t>,luh,lll arc
pnm.:J Ill Fclll <l ll , 224. Fcnn n 241 n. I, >llgt;<.:>t> rha1 1h.: "cru»- lll.ltchmg"
11
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r.: pc·.tt.:, l. The h.t> h.:cn u,.:J "' lht: ouhjl'cl r;,r ,1 pl.t)', ThL' \\'.:JJmg
hy L l\1'<.: , hr>l pcrJ. l[Jnt.:J in Bnrai n .tr rh.: S.tlt, bury Pl,lyhnuoc in to- lay 1998.
(R"' tcl\'.:,l m Th.: \\'d.ly 356 lt<. lay :!6, 19981: 24.)
nl. C'11 lpcpcr', an,l Ltlly', accllunt> nf cxpcnment> ll' llh De.:', <.'r)'>t.tl .trc r..:p .. n..: d m
J•>hn .Applchy, "Anhur Dc:e .md Jnh.mn.:> B.infy HunyaJc.: Furt her lnt'urm.Jr
11111
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dlctr :\kh,·mJCa l an,l l'r,,t..:, ion.tl :\cti l·trico," Ambix, 24 ( 1977): 9b- 109.
ll4. .11'1.: prinrl'd Ill E.luu.trJi Trac' l<liiiS Dll u Ul/Jt.IL' PllilmufJ/)(1-
Un,, C:11nt Thc, uru Asmmintia: T..: n.:sni, .:,I. J. L. C. (H.unhurg: Gnchot'r.:cht>
:::i.:hul! :cn, 1676), 40--4 2; rran,lar..:J in E.lw,rrJ f.:d ly, 51- 53.
:J' hnt<Hl 1Jcntihe> R,>llla,.:hy .t> l'hdl)'pll> R.1utl l.,,chu, 1242 n. 15) 11,.., , l.t t .: ,
cd!Jh>guc lt>b " C<>py ,,f !he nr. t Fr.:nch .:J llhlll tll Dent> UjJll>Llto. Tl. -
ExcdiL'nl ..le kt t1<lY<' Philu>upluc Jwundl..: J.:, 1\ IL'tulf.\ (:\lllll.:rp, !5o/), .mJ J '"·""'
, .:npr ,11><> 111 French. (Se.: Rohcrt> .mJ W,lt><Hl , John Uc<''> L1h1ul) C,aulu;;Jt, , Hell. ·
1546, MSO.) p.,, ,bly it ll'.t> Ihi, l.llt.:r manu>diJ' l d1J1 11 ,1> dn irll) .:J. In ht> Jt.<i,
Jul y 31, 1590, Del' n:wrJ, "I g.JI'<.: 1\lr Ihc <.:llJ'\ .,( Z.d .. trH.>
1\l'<.! h-t! l.:ll<.:r>, 1\Ttncn in Fr.:nch ll' ll h Ill)' •>11'11 h,m,l; .m,l h.: pnunt>c·cl Ill<.:, h:I.Ic
my wik, n..:1·er ru J i, d "'" l<l any rl u r h.: h.trh 11 ; .md Ih,n tl h.: J te hcl,•r..: 111..: 1 ..
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Ill \' >lln>, ti1 IF..: nl lln: ",1p1"l Jllhll1J; th.:m t•• h.tl't.: u " (1'0 , 35; F.:nhHl, 21.',
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The lcrr..:r i> prc><:r,cJ 111 1h.: Bnu,lt L1h1.try (t<. l::i li.1rl.: t.t n D'.lbh .11r. 2o) .• nJ 1 ,,1
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and l8ch CcnunrL's (L,,nJ<H1, 11:>43), 45-tb.
In 32- H.
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Publtc R..:wr,I Orti..:.:, SP 15/3 1, t. •l. 4S, pmH..:,It n ),•lm ::-,lf\ J'c, :\llu,.I,,J Ilk t\.:j
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f .KI rd.: r 1u ,m uniJ cnllricJ p<:r>lln in rh.: L,m· c:,,lllll rtt.:> 11ll<lm De.: h ..d >l'•l[(d .••
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Sn.:my Cd.L' od ILia 1526 (Prague, l t:> 7'i - 1910), 7, lhl. 41 2 cl!.:J 111 £, _, ...
RuJulf 11 , 22on.
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ri ,>n nf the lri, h r.:cur,l,.
Angd u M.tri.l R1pdlm••. ll ..llb. D.ll·t.l Nc11 ldll tl l. mndl1, cJ. ....
H.:nry H..: im (L, m,lun: 1995). 97.
Vl.tJnnir f..:arpenku, " Bohcmtctn Nubiltry .tn,l .-\ l.: hc·tll ) 111 th.: SccunJ l l.dl 1 ;1.,
Sixi.:cmh C..:mury: Wilhdm uf Ru,cnbt: rg .mJ T11ll .-\ k h.: mt>t>," 1' ... ' ·•>
n.s. 15,2 ( 1996): H .
Pubh, hc,l in S!r)pc:, A11nub, ,.,,1. 4, l - 2. F,•r P.nknh, '"" L),\i /3 .
ThcammJ ChL' lllKtfl ll BrirunnJ.: tml . 4o l -o2; :\rh<'ll<l<' 0.\lllll.:ll->'>. 1.2t:>J .. -\1 d .... l ..
in a lccr.: r ll> AIJri..-h in NLlrwich, 1649, C: ll<.: > L,>rJ Wtlluughb1 .1> .1 "tiJ .• --
of tr.m>mur.tliulh in Bohcnud S1cphc·n c,.(l,_,
LonJun Un11·cr Hy). Dt.: c:'> '" ' " r.uu B.lrth,•l••lllcll HKkm.m, wh .. r..:pl.tccd 1-: dL .
De.:', >C r) <: r hack 111 Engl.mJ , l<.:!l D.:c', ><.:rl' lc.: h1r L 1rJ \XIdl,,ughby ' '11 D.:cut.r u
2, 1594 (PD. 51; Fenr.m, 268).
Evam, UuJvli 11, 226; Wane, E.lu, nJ /-:, 11:> . 1.111 L..- nnq .. .....
Conmbuliun a l'lu.>[cJifc J.: l'arr ulduUUtJllc ( Bnt>,d ,: Crccll! c.nnlllllll.tl, I ), ::,
Publt, h..:J 111 S1rype, Annllls, 1·nl. 4, f-o. Burgh Icy'> L.<)l'fC>I'<'IlJ.:n.:c 11 nl. f..: ell, ,
dbcuooc·J bndl\ in Re;lJ, LurJ Burghl.:y un.l (.Jll<'<' ll (LmJ .. n J. ,, ,
than C.Jpc, 1960), 474- 76.
Sec B. W. &:cking>.tlc, Bw!;hlc' ): TuJur Sr<ll<'>llhlll 1520-15<Ji'l (l.lnJ .. n: ...
New Ynrk: Sr i\ lartin', Pro.:», 1967 ), 2h l.
On Palal' i..-inLl, >cc L tiiT<"IKc Sltlllc, An Srr 1/,>r,l!hJ P, LLac.:ut .. ll h l. , 1
Clar.:nd,m Prc» , I 956).
bo
1\ IYSTI 1.. :.-\ L l\ IET:\L OF l)()LI l

tll.
I "'" gr.ildulll> Su:.u1n.: 1-..: to:tn.tn f<>r th.: tr.ubl.ll h)l) 111 1111 the lt.dt.tn.
On :-,..:ut tu, >o."L" Rtp.:llinll, <'- l,r_.:r..- l'rugu.:, 103; Tit.: Fugg.:r 1\;.:u>-L:u.:n (>ccunJ :..:ne>)
13..-mg '' Funlt.:r S..-1..-crHIIt }rum 1lt.: Fugg.:r Papers w (,)u..-.:n Ekab.:1h
<Jn,l :\ l,ut.:r> 111 During tit.: Y.:.rr, 1568- / 605, H.:re l'ub/i,hd fur
1
11.:
Frr>1 Tun.-, .:J . \ t..: r" r \'on ld.m1 tll, tr;nb. L. S. R. Byrno: (LmJ .m: J•>hn Lm..:, The
B,><ll..:y 203, 208. R. J. W. h an>, UuJulf 1/ , op.:..:ulat.:o .tbmu "OJ ,KtrJu,
S..:.>tu._" th.: oill rl h>f ,,f th.: Vr.:nn.I lll.lllli>Ui pl, Stx:..-ulwn Aldtciiii<IC, ci.:Jt..:ateJ [I)
RuJ ,,JI :_ ''S..:o.>tl t> I> <HhHh.:r .mi.l.:nrtli.:J , lleeting li gur.:-ht> Chri>lian n.unc oeenh
llllbl olt .:n t•' bo.· I'<.:Cilrcl.:cl a; Al.:;,:mJt\1 .tncl hio •>rigllh ,t
0
h.tlt.m" (21 0); "th.:r.: ar.:
tll'<> >.:p.lr:u.: qu.:oth>ns h.:re: ll' h.:tho.:r Kd ly anJ th.: ><.H:.dl.:cl 'Sco.>rro' wcr.: lltl<' anJ
rh.: o. un.: ; .lll,lwh.:th.:r Kcll y ll'f•>te rh.: tr.:.•ri, .:" (217). From Puc.: i', lcttcr ..:
1
tcJ here
<lllcl W.:hbc'> ut June 26, 1591 (Bririoh Lihr.tf)' !l-IS Lan,J ,,\1 11<.: 68 nn. 93, f,
1
Js.
10- 11 ) ur.:-1 l.1tcr, th.:r.: io n.> J nuht that " C.>unt S..: ..nr.>, cl t>tlllct fr.ml Kd ly,
.lt<l cxior.
S.trgclll , III -I
85.
bll.
li7.

Fr.tllcl> B.lclln, • 111 Tl1.: \\'or/..; ,,f Fnmu; Bacon, cJ. B .. , d 1-.lunt.tgu.:,
1 """ · (L"nJ.,n: Wdli.!nt P1 ck.:nng, 1:1 22.
l'uhlioh.:J in Slr}p.:, ,·ul 4, 3-!.
Sec Phdlip> an,l f-:.: .ttm.m, Th.: C.,n>lllr.tc'), 105,
Ni.: lt, ll , Rc·rkoning, 259 Ni..: h,>ll J i>..: u>oco H.,>yJun'• ll'<>rk an,l a>ou-
tun; \\' llh rhu.l . ,
R, h.:rr H<><>k..:, Tli.: PrwiHmlcll" \\ 'orb (L.>n,l\l n: R•ch.1rcl \'i.'.dlcr, 1705; f,te,lmd..:
r.:pr., LmJ un: Frank c ,,, 1971 ). !Uo. I h.n mn,l.:rni:.:J thc opcllmg. Whuby
(I : I lH-:-6) the Cf)'i"t"gr.lphic d. unt> .mcl i;, ,..:cptlc.tl. So wao baac D'brad i,
oJ (I LonJo.>n :m,] N..:w Ynrk: G.:mg<: Ruud..:dgc, n.J .), "Thc
Ck..:ult Phrl<l>llph.:r, l )r n .. ..,... H l-!. S.:.:rt: r ;cri' ice work by De.: .mJ J...:dl r b ..l»llll!CJ
)olm Asm,/ug,·r ,md Scc
1
·.-t Ag<!m
10
I l\ lullcr, 196d.) Firm ..:vicl t: nce j, mc:l' it.
1
bly lacking.
rh.: clcc,xlmg ul :-i1<!gm1ugraphw, ' "" Th,>m •• , Ern>r, "Sd l\L,Jr:wcio.>e 1-. !agic. D.:r
• Trith.:miu>," o,,plmi:. 5,1 ( 1996};
Jun h ..:..:d,, Sol,·c:J : fh.: Ctph.:ro 111 l1>uk Jlj nl Trilh.: mi uo' St,'J,!•IIIOgl·dl>iu<J ," Cr)'/>10-
( 199b); w, ... ,ll.:}. Th.: QIIL'<!ll'> Conjuror, 72-81.
(13mhh L1hrary, Il lS C. >rt lll- Li h. Tltuo 11). Publ i>hd in St"'l'" Annah
1
·ul 3
2, 6 17- 20. . , • ' . . pt.
The rc: fc:rc:n..:c 1<
1
\'.:niCe 1> r" th.: .KII\'Itlco rho.·rc ,,1 the ll l. tmt
1
g-
n.m •. ,._l\Lm:u Brapcli n•-::-"·h•..:h 1\'C:rt: later t. > b.: frcl udult:nt.
R1pdlmo, I h1g11.:, 103; Th.: N<!II'SIL'tiL'rs, Bcing a Sd.:.:tiun uf Uupubbh.:J
from thL' of HtJ1rsc of Fugga During 1h<! /568- / 605 ,
.:d. Vt.:t<>r \ '\Ill f-:br will, fr<lll>. Paulmc: J c: Chary (Lunclon: John Lane, The BuJky
1-bJ, 140-1J, 146, . 4/i, 149-) L).
J_•:•d .1lchyn11>ta Kdl y \' C.:..: h,i..: h," 111 kiJIIl rmi..-/1 JJjin
1891 ), 1:112-!7, anJ "Akhymic ,. C.:ch.ich :.1 ,luby RuJ nli'.
1
ll ,"
rh1J ·· - :4ti-J I, cited 111 Rtpcll mo.>, Pr,tgllc, 97, 99, 103. h-.111 Snr,ik, "John D..:t:
Ec!w;u,l Kcll..:y," IT!>.: )otmlal of and C:ntr,d Eur(Jpcmt Studies)
J ( l l)l:i6) : I 34. 11-.m S\'ll,tk, Lundynu: )uhn t• Cccach, 158-1-1598
(Prague, 1994); 11',111 Snr,ik, Sir EJwar,l Kcll.:y: l)' tir 1555- 1598 ( P ,
1991) J . WJ ' r.lgue,
·ell..: m wnllll.:y, Tit.: Qu.:.:n's Conjuror. On S.:nJi mgiu, in Prague:, sc:c abu
E, .lib, l<uJolf 1/ , 211.
1-.IS L:u, J ,,w,1·· 6" 1· 1 1''1- 11 1 1
• u no. u) , ">. " - - J, pu 1 I> lt:c in Str) p<: , .-\llnLlb, ,.,,1. ), pr.
2, 62 1-25.
:-nn''-'· Ann.ll:., n>l. 3, pt. 2, I H.
L,>gJn ::.nu rh, l'cl. , T/tc Lrjl! .mJ Ldl-n •'} Sn I kill) \\'uu,n 2 '' ·"- \1..):- J 1.1
Cldr,·nd<ll1 Pr.:o>, 1907), I: 16- 17. (Tit.: kllcl un,l.:r ,h,.:u»l\lll I> lldt mclucl.:.l u,
collo:ctinn.) Gcr.tiJ Cur:on, \X'oHcJII ,mJ 1-ft> \'i'ud,/.,: Sp)IIIJ,!, S.-r.:n.:.: \ '.:IlL!•.•••
lnmgucs (Ph.!.JJdphl.J: >. hbno, !004), H.
-.:., \\'t: bb.: wa' nnc uf Burghl.:y'> .:nun.:r>. In 1591 he· 11 ,., .:h.1rgo.·,l 11 uh .;,Hnul..:, .11 •• 1
pMJ nncJ m 1591; """ NJLh,>ll, Th<! !59, 1t:>7n, cum.; PRL) :::.P 12, 2>'.1
n,J. 20. Thi> io pr.:oull\,Jhly the 1-. lr. W..:bbc wh ... n,·.; no.HC:;, \1 ,1> L\IJIIIII)([<:,l t•> the
1-.IJrchd><! a, D.:.:.:mbcr 21, 1593, wh<>ll\ he: \'loll> th.:r.: J.mu.lr} ! 6, 1594 .mcl "! 11 Lu111
he wnr.:s 10, "ul"-'tl .1 tltghr ,,f k.1r b.:.:.Ht>C ,,( 1-.lr Wd, h..:'• o.:nclmg lnr m.: t ..
.;,m1c Ill him to rho.: 1-.I.Jr.:h.:bc.l, lll111' when he l•l<>kccl r,> be ,;,,nJ..:mn.:J un thl
1-. lomi.Jy <>r Tu.:,Jay n.:xr"( PIJ, 47-lti; Fem.m, 2o3--64).
'7 / Wt: bbc', in>tru..: t i<llh .1r.: puhlt,h.: .. l 111 Srrypc, .-\nn,J/., , ,.,,, 3, pt. 115-lo. Tl.c
Publ ic Rc:.:.>r,l Ofli cc lh>kls Queen k ncr> r,, RuJ ,,It· ll (::>P o0/ l , ,,,1. I llJ
.mcl the El..: ctm ,,( S.,x. my (SP 81/7, f,,l. 31 ).
:1:-. . Th.: Fugg.:r N<!n>-LcH..-n, li r>t >en.:>, loV-61, ,,_.,,,,J '"n"'·
99. Hiswriwl l\ lallll>lTI/lt.S Ccmuni;;iun: Call!nJm uf th<! 1\ I.J>IH>Cl'l/ll> of <'-l u>l Hu>L f1 ..
1\ lanl'm uf Salulmry, K. G. , &c. &c. &c. pr.:;.:n·.:J Lll H,u]idJ 1-l uu.-,.:, Hmfu>J,/,n,
Parr IV (L,mJ ,m: 1-l.:r 1-. l.•J.:,cy', Srat t\l n.:ry Olllco.:,
1-:'J. Jnsd Sv;itck, "Anglicky .1l..:hymistd 1-:..:lly ,. C.:..:h.i.:h," 111 l..id!lmll,h .1, I"·
c.:sky.:h (Prague:, Hil) l) 1:147-!d, ..:u..: ..l in R1pdlmu, 9t:>; V.id.11· f-:.1plt ck}, .::... 1
Alc:hymtSIIII', uf .Jn (Pr.tguc, 19bu) . l .un gr.u.:rul l<J \ 'l.dmm
Klima f<l f l.>..:atmg ancl rr.m,l.uing fr, •m f-: .1pl•.: k1 \ r.:xt.
101. S.:c St.mt.>n J. Lmcl.: n, D.trkc Alc:hnny m En.;/,,h Lit<'hlllll c ]"""Cl .... ,
ccr w 1h.: H.:>llllWicm (L.:xingt.m: Un11·. Pr.:» nfKcnru..:ky, 199b), o7, So, 12o,
287,290,31 1 n. 42.
AlcxanJ.:r B. Gn».trl, .:J., Th.: \\: 'ur/.., uJ lldlmd l l,ml!), ) 1 ,,J,. \L>ncl.m: Thl H .. d.
1884). 2:6tl-M.
103. Th.: \l/01L uf ThcmUI> Na;h.:, .:cl. R, m.tlcl B. 11 kl-.:.:rru\1 , 5 ',J,. ( L, >nJ .,n:
anJ Ja..:bL>n, 1905), 3:52. Nich•>ll 'ugg<.:>l> 111 Th< R<!,·kulllllJ:i (3::>6n) th.n "th.:r.: .trc:
alluoiOJl> m J...:.: ll y in N.!>hc'> burl.:oquc ..,( rho.: ' .:unmng m.m' 111 T<nvr> <l} 1h.: .\r<,IH
(Naohe, I: 363-67)."
101. G. A. Wdl.. .:;, cJ., The Cumplc1.: uJ IJ.:n )oll.llllt, 4 n>b. (O:o.t.,d: l:I..ru.J •.
Prt:», 19b2 ), 3:307. j.1hn R.:.d >llggC>I.:cl rh.Jt "th.: ..:h.Jr.Kt<:ro ut Subd.: .mJ F.,,,
may h,J\'e h..:.:n . 1 •>l Dr llt:.: .mJ h1o ,b,.>..: l.l!.:, EJ11.1rJ K.:lly, "h'' c ...t.c.J.:
anJ ,lcaths were fro.:, h 111 m.:n', lllcllll>n.:o dC the rime 11hc:n 11.1> ll'rltll i,_: the
play" <J•'hn Rc.1J , Tit.: Alchcumr in UJ<!, Ul.:r,JUol! .-\n [194 7; r.:pr. B .• m. ·lo
Pre», 19901, 42. 1-1<>\\C\'t:r, 111 Ill> l.itl!f oiUJy Thruu,:h t<J Ch,' llll>ll) •
r.:pr. Kil.1, l\ IT: K..:.. ingcr Publiohmg, n.J .) R.:.1J rt:mark.:cl. "Ot th.: rhr.:,· 1,.,.. l,
J•1hn De.:, Kdly, Sm1lll1 F,>rn!.m ...• tll th.: c\'IJ.:nc.: r •ll.t·
to .b the '.tl..:h.:nllor' whom J•m><>n h.ILI 111 nun,!" ( 75 ).
105. Samuel Burl c:r, HtJJihr,IS, cJ. John Wtlclero (Oxfur,l: Cl.Ir.:nJ ,,n Ptc:», ::- ......
LinJcn, Dark· HJcruglipiH..-L, 2o5, 90.
10o. Hiswn.:al )\(,nlluc·ripts Cumllli»ICJII : Cctknclur <l} th,· ,\ Llllll>cTI/Jb 11} Th, .\ 1.. ·:· .
Sulishury d w HurjidJ Hou.-,.:, P .If! I V, 3o6.
107. Philltp> ,mJ t.:..:.mn.111, Th<! I Sou. • T ,,, ...._ ....
Conj uror, 315- 17.
10b. H1>1clltCLII l:om>lli'>IIIH: C,Ji,n,Llr uf dJc .\!.mrl..>c,l/ll> uj .\1. • . , .•.
t .:J at ll,u]idJ H(J)uc, Parr I V, 3o9.
109. Ibid.,
I I L1.
Il l.
11 2.
11 ).
11-f .
11 1.
I I n.
11 7.

11').
120.
121.

3.
12-1
IS
12o.
121 .
12:::. .
129.
I 30.
I 31.
lh.J. ,
lht-1., -l9b, 7'-J.
lht-1. , -150-5 l.
th,, l. , -fo 1.
1-. tET.-\L l)F L)l)Ll)
N tch .. ll , :\ C"i' "i t\.:t<> I \1 > '.1-1 ::;,., .. tl, .. N ,, 1,. >11 , 1\.:, 2 5::.-bJ, lot1-::.l .
\X'.,ullq, Tit.: f.Jtt .:.:ll ·, th>l<:> hull' ltl c .. n, ptracy w.:r.: kt h•\1 n
r.t h .. th Kdl y .mci D.:.:, )1 5- 17.
S1 tr:ik, "J.thn [).;,· ancl E,h1.1rJ K.: ll .:\ ," 13 7.
H.t\ ne·,, llll t>thl.: l'utt•.:r, I H- H.
S1·ir.ik, "Juhn D.:.: anJ EdwarJ Kd l.:\." 1 \ / . Tht> '"' "'" ' ltk..: ,, ' "r>t•lll• >t' rh.: J u.: l
ci. Hc·,ll 191 rh.11 rc·>ttlr.:, lml tb hr>l .trr.:st tn th..: .t..:.:.HII ll> hy J•»O: I ::i1·:it.:k .mJ V,tCb \·
1\:.tpltdy (n•ll l.' 98, ' "p.). 1\tpd lith>, t\ l,tgic Pr11g11.:, 98, h.1> J .:bt ,., rh..: " prct.:xt"
Rucl<tlt\ >'-'Llltkl unprt>.tnm, nt .tt' K.: ll \ .
Tr.tcttllll> 1),., , 3; W.tit.:, EJuwJ 1(.:11) . 5.
E1 an,, 11 , 22b.
Rtp.:llt nu, ll!tt!:i,· ll\).
Chart., Nt..: h.tll , "Th.: Lt>t Y.:.u, ,,( EJ\\.tr, l Kdl.:\ ," L .. ncl,m 1\.:tt.:u "i /3,,.,J. ,, 23,:::.
( 19 :\pril 2l101 ): 1-8. l h,l\'oe th>l .::o. .unineJ the ungtn.tb , ,f thl> m.tr.:ri.tl . Ntch" ll
!'I d\ h ..k :-, no
E,·:llb, 1\uJ"iJ 11 . 227.
\\'.:.:w r. Anct.:nt t\ 1 •t HIIIlciH>, -1 5- -l o.
1\1:3 .-\, l,m<tl.: 1788, f, ,t, _ 151r-152; Ju>tc•n, :\, /uu .. l.: , -1:1 3i2- il .mJ K.:\ IIC>,
L3 tOII 'lk', -! :296-1.)::,.
::5.:.: :-ltt>.tn Ba" n.:ll, " R.:1 I> ng ,, Bt,>;.:r.tph\: .-\ Ne\\ ,,t· th.: hk ,,(
Elt:.d,.:th (n11roe -f ), 3. L tut><: S..: hl.:in.:r, "Eit:.Jb.: th W.:>t.>n, .-\khc-
mi, r', Sr.:p-D.Htglu .:r .md l'uhlt, hc·J P<>cr," Cc111<Lr Pctt'cnt i>: SruJi.:> in 1-l.:nn.:rrci, m,
n. >., 10 ( 1\19 1): 9, 1-1, .tn.l Lmtt>l! TuJur u11d Srudn \X '"m.:n \V'>ir.:r.>
(Bt.'' •tnmgt<>n: l nJ t.m.t Uni,·.:r>iry Pro.:>S, I \19-f ). On \X'e,roni,r', P•>l!tnS, >l!l! al><t J.
\V. Htnt1>, lnrdl.:cruvl Cul111r.: 111 Ekt1i>.·rlr.n1 LtnJ )t1cub.:,m EngkmJ: Tit.: larin \X'riring:;
uf rlt .: (L.:cJ ,: Fran.:i> Cairn, , 1990), 110- 1-1.
Eli:,rhcrh J.mc Wt:>f<ll1, Cuth rd \l; 'ritin)!>. eJ . D.makl Ch.:no.:y .mJ Br.:nJ.1 ll! .
1-(, , ingr.m, wit h rh.: .rs,isr.mc.: ,,f D. K. 1\ l,m.:y (T,>runr,1: Un11·.:r>ll \' ,tf T.>romo
Pro.:», 2000) , xii. Tho.: >uurc.:s .:itecl art: W. P. \V. l'hill nhm:, eJ., 0 >-furd Pmrsh
l-1..-gi>l<l'>. t\!ani,t):>.'S , l'ul. I (L,mJ,>n, 190':1), -I; J.u:k H' "' ·' rJ -Dr.t k.:, OxfurJ Church
C?ull l'l > D.:posiriun> 15-f2- 155J (OxlurJ, 19\1 1 ), ir.:m 3; Chtpping N.>rr<n\
Su..: 1.:ry .mcl rhc 1\ (i,>t:S 1\ lcade.,, checkcJ agJm>r an ;m, >nymuu> copy nf ea. 1790.
\V.:; tun, CcAI.:ct.:J \X'ririll)!>, 136--1 1. I am grar.:iul tu Su, an for Cttpi.:> ut'
rh,· <>rtgin,\l publican< m ,,f \X/.:>l<>n', puem> anJ tu B. K. ld arnn rhc rr.m, l.tri<llb
t'r. un rh.: Lar in.
\XI.:, tun, Colb:r.:d \\" >Uing>, HV---1 ).
\X' .:, r. u\ , Cull.:crd W'riring>, 176- 79. D.:.: C:<liT<:>p<nt,I.:J ' "rh i\I.II U>, ,m,l wa, \' l>l! o.:J
hy h11n 111 Trd><n\ (Fcntc>n, iO-f , 238).
A,/ Nubil.:11t .:r lirchllllm t•innn On IOANNEt\ lll.-\t\ 1.\ lUNil 't\ l ,mu.:ul n su11m ..:ul..-n-
dwn . .: r t\ l,rgr>rrwn ulnn llt.: tioni> .: rgu (Cull<ct.:11 \\:'rirings ,
312- 13). I k ha> bt:.:n icl.:nr ih.;,l wi th rh.: man Dc.: hircJ in Tro.: bun ,m ,-\u"U>l 7
I 5b8 (PO, 18, 31, 32; F.:nrun, 236, 2-10). " '
l h;11·.: nllr >l!l!ll rhi, \'lllllm.:. i\ ly inf,1rnt.lli»n i> lr•>lll J•>h n Fo.:rgu><>n, Biblwtlr.:cct
Ch.: mi .. r: ' ' C<lhcl,gu.: .. J rh.: -\lch.:mtcctl , Cll.:tnlcal LtnJ Phann,u:.:wic<ll Bvoh in rh.:
Coll.:criun u/ 1/t.: Lu.: ),11!\.:S Young •>J Kdly Omris, E>y, LL. 0 ., F. R. S. , F. R.
S. E. , 1 ,,,t,. (Kil.1 , !\ IT: Kc,,ing.: r, 1\19 1), 1:-1 5-f, 2:-163.
I 32.
I ll .
The ml.: ,,f W.nro.:, EJu,trd 1(,11), ,..,,tJ, "N•"" IH>I puhlt, h.:.l t. •r b.:ttdil
,
1
i the Stll\> of Hcrm.:> by J. L. C. (Th.u i>, John Ltll y .mJ l\k-11c e,,,,,ul>.>n) ."
Tht> h.t> ' "' ..: r..:,lthtluy. Fo.:q.:u><Hl >ugg..:>r> Ltn,;c·
CanJiJmu> (L3tbliothcc,t ! : b) . Thc u e.lll>l! •HI th.: Phd, ,,.,ph..: r', Sr<>n<
whtch Kdl y J .:Jic.u.:J L<> RuJ,,Ii ti r, r '' i'i'"·rr.;,l in .t ,;,,tk..: ri<lll .:Juo.:J b1 P<.:tr..Cl <>,
Dr..:y Vvrn4 J1 i.:h.: unJ nu.:h ni<! im Druc/.. gcu'c><!llc Bit.:lr..-r .lli . . ( 1111 f),,
\X/drbcruhnucn Engdi<lnd.:>S E.lo<trtli l(dl.:t.:i clll>>}ll hrltcha Tr,u:wr cbn /(,1)>.:1 1-luJ.,/ph._,

publt, h.:J m Hamburg by j,,h,m N.nnn.m, 1670, ro.:pnnr.:J by G,m-
iri.:J Llt:bc:o;: tr, 1691 (Bchlwrh.:cet Ch.:nucct, 1:226- 27, -1 >7- 3::>; E\.111>, l{uJ<ilj 11 .
227 n.l ).
Ftr>t publt, h.:,l L.m.I.m: Ell t,>ll , l b\1); rcpt tnb mclu,lo.: LmJ, m: Sru.trr .m.l
1970; N.:w Yurk: :3.unud \X/.:I.c·r, 1970; Lrrg>: B.tnl\11\ Pr<:>>, I \1'.1 1. Fur <.:•Hll ll\l! nt..tl).
><=<: Lyn,l)· f\brah.nn, "EJw..rrcl Kelly', 1-b.:ruglyph," in .mJ Ltn,kn, .:.!>.,
Embkn1> vnJ ,-\lch.:m) , 95- luo. I have: bo.:cn unable: l t> J. Gth><m, "An lmt:r·
prcrari<H\ uf Symb,tlt >m wuh Rei.:rcnc.: I•' rhc Wnting> ,,J E,l\1 .1rJ
Kd ly," j uum.tl of rh< Alch.:mi.:ttl Suet<! C)' 3,1 5 (Dcc.:mlxr 19 1-1 ): I 1- 2 5, w eJ m .-\Lm
PritcharJ, Alchemy: A vf \\'nung> (L,mJ ,Jil.
RourleJgc & Kcgan P,Htl. 1980).
I havo.: mo..lern1: cJ >pdlmg anJ >L.m, l.trJI:e,l n.nnc> m rh.: J , >< ll ll\<.:lll • .:xct:q•t.:J
in thi> arr idc; the full r<.:x L> Jr<.: giv.:n m my R..lt>lll)! Sptrtu, GoiJ,
\XIu•cs: Th.: Tru.: AJwuwr.:> o} Dr ]uhn D.:.: wtJ Srr (Nutrmgh.ull:
Shn..:>trtng Pr.:», 1999). T.::-.1> anJ J tg.:>l> ,rf rh.: St.ll..: PJp.:r> c.m b.: htunJ 111
Calet uL.rr of Star.: Dum.:>ttc.S.:nc>, of th.: Rdgrb oJ EJuLtrJ VI. t\ lt1t} .
15-17- 1580. cJ. R,>b.:n L.:mun (LmJ,tn, 1856); C tkn.Ltr oj Oum.:,u,
Series, ttllcl )ttll t<s I. AJcl.:nJa 1580- 1625 . c.!. Ann Ev.:r.:rt Gr.:.:n
(L,mJ,m, 1 b 72 ); Cak nJur uj Swtc For.:ign S.:nc> , of the ll} Ek,tb..rn
vpl. 21 , pr. I, ) tmc 1580-]un.: 1588 . .:J. Supluc L,un.L> ( LunJ . u\, 1921 ).
Cakncltr of Swr.: p,,p.:rs Scnc> oj th.: of ' ol. 2 3. J,mt"-ll')-)t.l)
1589, eJ . Richar,l Bruc.: Wernham (lunJun, 1950); u , r cmJ Analy>i> uJ Su.H.: •
Sc'Tt<!> I Pr.:,.:rwJ in th< Public RccorJ Oj}i.:c, ""1. I , .-\11,\!ll>f
1589- ]un.: 1590; ,-,JI. 1, July 1590-t\1<1) 1591, cJ. RidurJ Bruc..: W.:rnh.un (L, H\·
don, 19o-l, 19o9). Cr,,wn w pynght m.n<!n.tl th.: Puhli..: Rcc.trcl
Kcw-(SP 8 1/6, f,,ts. 7- tl), (SP o1/7, f,tl. HO), (:31' t3 1/l , tub. anJ \ SI'
82/3, td. 13-ll- 1> n.: pr<>J u..: .:J by p.:nni» h>n <l f rhe Cunrr.tll.:r • >I. 1-lcr 1\l.tj.:>t\ ',
Srari.tncry Ofticc.

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