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THE

MAKING OF RELIGION

BY

ANDEEW LANG
M.A., LL.D. St

Andrews

HONOEAKY FELLOW OF MERTON COLLEGE, OXFOBD SOMETIME GIFFOBD LECTURER IN THE DNITERSITY OF ST ANDREWS

jOf

\r\

2'H-f-R-D

EDITION

LONGMANS, GKEEN, AND
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PATEKNOSTER ROW, LONDON YORK, BOMBAY, AND CALCUTTA
1909
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Andrews. ANDREWS Dear Principal Donaldson. these chapters on the early History of Religion. in acknowledgment of her life-long kindnesses to her old pupil. and Argyll. and the friends of against Fate lost causes who fought bravely —Patrick Hamilton. I wish they were more worthy of an Alma Mater which fostered in the past the leaders of forlorn hopes that were destined to triumph. Cargill. Believe me Very sincerely yours. Beaton and Montrose. They may he taken as representing the Gifford Lectures delivered by me. I hope you will permit me to lay at the feet of the University of St. .TO THE PEINCIPAL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF ST. and Dundee. though in fact they contain very little that was spoken from Lord Gifford's chair. ANDREW LANG.

.

For Australia the and 'The classical sources are tralia. with the book of Pere L'Origine de I'Idee de Dieu. S.' 1908-09.D.V. and for his amusing account of its fortunes at critical hands. Langloh Parker (1905). condition of man in the ' For a theory of the mental dawn ' of religion Mr. A. in * be consulted.' Native Tribes of South-East Aus- by the late Mr. The study tralia.' of * The Northern Tribes of Central Ausof the by Messrs.' published Anthropos. Spencer and Gillen (1904).. Howitt (1904). 160-305). other regions the Journal of the Anthropological Insti* ' tute since 1900 may * Schmidt. W. I owe especial thanks to P6re Schmidt for his learned advocacy of the ideas contained in the second part of this work (pp. Marett's The Threshold of EeHgion (1909) must be studied. For Euahlayi Tribe. and .PEEFACB TO THE THIED EDITION second edition of this book Since the publication (1900) of the much new an ' evidence as to the existence of the ' belief in All Father ' has accrued.' by Mrs.

the conception of an All Father. Strehlow's region. Mr. F. . Society and the and 'Journal' the A. Mr. Strehlow ' German work on Tribes ' The (1907-1908). Myers' 'Human 'Proceedings' for Psychical Kesearch. it is hardly necessary to recommend the Personality' of study of (1903). by the Kev. As to the earlier part of the book. and the Arunda in Mr. May 1909. W. Spencer and Gillen have possessed. which deals with the basis of animism in super-normal as well as narmal experiences. has led me to think it highly probable that the godless Arunta studied by Messrs. H. L. which has left conspicuous traces in the behef of the Luritja. but have lost.viii THE MAKING OF RELIGION Luritja and Aranda (Arunta) of Central Australia.

such as Mr. the doctrine of spirits is said to have arisen). that while one small set of students is interested in. Yet I have been censured for combining. Jevons's History of Eeligion. in part. the two branches of my subject . that set of students neither knows nor cares anything about the . again. and the second part has been regarded as but faintly connected with the first. Grant Allen's Evolution of the Idea of God.' Mr. criticise the current anthropological theory as to how. man arrived at the idea of a Supreme Being.-xvii.' the late Mr.' and many others. Herbert Spencer's PrinIntroduction to the ciples of Sociology. Chapters ix.PEEFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION By the nature of things this book first falls under two divisions. Tylor's Primitive Culture. and familiar with the ' ' ' * themes examined in the first part (namely the psycho- logical characteristics of certain mental states from which. eight chapters criticise the current anthropological theory of the origins of the belief in spirits. in this work.. the notion of spirit once attained.' Mr. These two The branches of the topic are treated in most modern works concerned with the Origins of Eeligion. The reason for this criticism seems to be.

sor Anthropologists have gone on discussing the trances. as and so-called demoniacal possession of no new researches into similar facts in the ' ' psychology of civilised mankind existed . Myers. . or do not. Dr. double personality. hypnotic trance.X THE MAKING OF RELIGION matter handled in the second part. This group of students is busied with Psychical Eesearch. and one or two Psychical Eesearchers have criticised the first part each school leaving one part severely alone. . Eomaine Newbold. before the modem psychological studies of Profes- William James. As to whether these researches into abnormal psychological conditions do. Janet. clair- voyance.' and the like. Mr. and many others had commenced. Primitive Culture. if they existed. Professor Sidgwick. if savages. Mr.' human automatism. German. the book has been virtually taken as two books anthropologists have criticised the second part. Parish. M. the doctrine of spirits arose. The only EngHsh exception known * me is Mr. anthropologists appear to be to unconcerned. anthropological readers are double personality. and so on. Gurney. and visions. Eichet. and his great work. Dr.' and the obscure * human faculties implied in alleged cases of hallucination. or. I have. the recent * ' ' researches of French. Meanwhile equally indifferent as to that branch of psychology which examines the conditions of hysteria. Dr. and English psychologists of the new school. threw any glimmer on the abnormal psychology of savages. Anthropologists have not hitherto applied to the savage mental conditions. thought it desirable to sketch out a study of savage psychology in the of light light of recent psychological research. . Thanks to this daring novelty. * telepathy. Tylor. indicate the existence of a transcendental region of human faculty. in part. Such are the natural results of a too restricted specialism.' was written thirty years ago. out of which. on the other hand.

vfhich. who had not been amenable to European hypnotic pracBut he was not a trained expert.' Mr. of the belief in spirits while we neglect the scientific study of those psychical conditions. fSec chapter xi. of its origins. among the savages. Stevenson. laboratories of ' We . in his thropological expeditions. Letters from the South Seas. was novel sults. correspond to the supposed facts examined by Psychical Kesearch among the civilised. As to the second part of the book. as of hallucination and the hypnotic trance. of . Louis Stevenson makes some curious observations. Anthropology must remain incomplete while it neglects In the this field. I have argued that the first dim surmises as to a Supreme Being need not have arisen (as the notion of spirits at on the current anthropological theory) in Here T all. because witnesses to successful abnormal or supernormal faculty in savages cannot be brought into But I do not give anecdotes such savage successes as evidence to facts they are only illustrations. used in native medicine. course of time this will come to be acknowledged.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xi Even to Psychical Eesearchers the earlier division is of Bcant interest. as members of anIt may be noted that. as Bastian had already pointed out. and the results were entirely inexplicable to Mr. in which that belief must probably have had some. the existence of a field that deserves closer study by anthropologists who can observe savages in their need persons trained in the psychological Europe and America. I only point out. ' personality '). and evidence to beliefs and methods (as of crystal gazing and automatic utterances of secondary court and cross-examined. It will be seen that we cannot really account for the origin homes. tice. whether among wild or civilised men. at least.) . especially on a singular form of hypnotism applied to himself with fortunate reThe method.

I again and again decline to offer an opinion.) This conception of a magnified non-natural man.' then the theories and processes by which he is derived from a ghost of a dead man are invalid. have said that I attribute the belief to revelation * ! shall therefore here indicate what I think probable * ' in so / making things. and could not make. . He would regard this unknown Maker as a magnified non-natural man.xii THE MAKING OF RELIGION * have been said to draw a mere verbal distinction. and regard for the ethics of his children these ethics having been developed naturally in the evolution of social life. offer any opinion. as far as I can see. and remote from the point. Tylor believes.* * obscure a field.' but no distinction can be more essential. In all this there is nothing * ' . being given his Power would be recognised. and fancy would clothe one who had made such useful things with certain other moral attributes.' nor anything. who is a Maker. As to the origin of a belief in a kind of germinal Supreme Being (say the Australian Baiame). ' human. as of Fatherhood. mystical. none the I less. in this book. As soon as man had the idea of These speculations appear to me to need less reflection than the long and complicated processes of thought by which Mr. goodness.' by Professor Spencer tained. (See chapter iii. beyond the limited mental powers of any beings that deserve to be ' called to add that another theory may be enterSince this book was v^ritten there appeared The Native Tribes of Central Australia. I do not. he might conjecture as to a Maker of things which he himself had not made. Critics. If such a Supreme Being as many savages acknowledge is not envisaged by them as a spirit. the theory of spirits to have been evolved. But I hasten . and probably believes with justice.

these ten lines contain exhaustive. in a bogle of the nursery. Though not otherwise conspicuously more civilised than as among the primitive Arunta. and granting that (as Mr.) What they found was a belief in the great by uninitiated boys spirit. 240. and will have become not diablemenf. prevail in the mysteries South Wales and Victoria. 1899.' the phrase repudiated by Maitland of Lethington.' but divinement. Spencer and Gillen is missed in a brief note. Twanyirika. * ' * * ' ' ' Macmillans. found none of the moral precepts and attributes to which (according to Mr. Hewitt's South Eastern natives will have improved the Arunta confessed bogle into a beneficent and moral Father and Maker.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION and Mr. apparently. Howitt. in his essays in the * Fortnightly Keview. a most valuable study. it seem to follow that the moral attributes of Baiame tions and other gods of other Australian regions are later accreround the form of an original and confessed bugbear.'^ ' No more is said. Spencer and Gillen will see that the Arunta philosophy.' chang^e en route. in marriage relations). not believed in (apparently) by adults. Eeligion will have its origin in a tribal joke. Next. Mr. Now if the native lore of Twanyirika. will 1899) the Arunta are the most primitive of mortals. cit.^ xiii The authors. ' the Arunta (except. Gillen.'' Headers of Messrs. not by adults) to preside ' over the cruel rites of tribal initiation. granting that the information of Messrs.' April and May. note. Frazer holds. p.' who is believed and women (but. no myths about all ' the great spirit is a mere bugbear. . he He is disare given. G. J. but invented by them to terrorise the women and boys. whom their work is of the natives of New dedicated). Op. (See * * chapter x. closely scrutinising the esoteric rites of the Arunta and other tribes in Central Australia. perhaps.

and every soul. after death.' taking for native ' . in the case of TwanyiIt may be noticed rika. of using a misleading rhetoric. the moral attributes of Baiame. is of a high ingenuity. the Being or in their isolation. criticism has taken various There is the high a priori line that savage minds lines. or have had and lost. in an early form. but a son or deputy of his. seems to be well within the range of any minds deserving to be called human. in the use of such words as Creator. the Being who presides. and the witI am accused. a being superior to Twanyi- Arunta. I have already said that the notion. in certain versions. over initiations is not the supreme being. I can regard to all With creative Beings as only refer readers to the authorities cited. such moral. and. opinions declared There is no to be extant among other Austrahan tribes. that. Baiame. in South Eastern Australia. On the other hand (granting that the brief note on Twanyirika is exhaustive).' As to my rhetoric. is reincarnated in a new member of the tribe. or never possessed. and so artfully composed that it contains no room either for a Supreme for the doctrine of the survival of the soul. are incapable of originating the notion of a moral Maker. I am also accused of mis- opinions the results of 'Christian One or other charge must fall to the ground. such as the Kurnai Tun dun. may have degenerated in and may have dropped. the facts are disputed. with a future of rewards and punishments . rika. religion.Xiv THE MAKING OF RELIGION primitive or not. like Twanyirika. They speak for tribes in many quarters of the world.' As to the latter point. nesses are laymen as well as missionaries. creator. again. We do not know whether the Arunta have. and of thereby covertly introducing Christian or philosophical ideas into my account of savages guiltless of Christian teach' ing. teaching. Next.

and ' . involving minute detail. sublime or silly.l^ PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION • XV Eternal. : two separate human moods moods as I am arguing tinct as lust and love. I have called the result 'Eeligion Being acts like Zeus in Greek fable.' and These distinctions of Myth and Eeligion may be.' and the like. set. I may refer the reader to Folk-Lore. the loftier set. Personally (though we cannot have direct evidence) I find it easy to believe that the loftier notions If man began with the conception of a are the earlier. I shall later qualify and explain For a long discussion between myself and Mr. * See the new edition of Myth. the nobler set of ideas is as ancient as the lower. then I can see powerful how of the humorous savage fancy ran away with the idea Power. in Eeligion while the other near to extincset. good or bad. are equally Myths. like the parasitic mistletoe. ' . I have actually traced (in Myth. I have spoken of Myth. and beneficent Maker or Father. Ritual. the puerile set of statements. as far as our information goes. I am arguing that the two classes of ideas arise from what we still commonly call . is fitter to survive. and to the Introduction to the new edition of my 'Myth. and Eeligion' (1899). is lustful and false. plays silly or obscene ^ tricks. Where relatively high moral attributes are assigned to a where the same Being. Eitual. especially the new . Sidney it. Hartland. the last number of 1898 and the first of 1899. ' and Eeligion. indeed are. different and dis- that. Moreover. [ntroductiou. Very well but one does survive. and attributed to a potent being just such tricks as a waggish and libidinous savage would like to play if he could. is fairly One set has been tion. called arbitrary. . The whole complex set of statements about the Being. it may be urged. and is usually called Mythology. the other set is being lopped the root of a goodly tree off.

edible plants. rites ? they ask and. or Punjel. Instantly. At once a degraded set of secondary erotic myths cluster around Zeus. THE MAKING OF RELIGION and Eeligion ') some plausible processes of mythical early mind was not only religious. they attribute what they do to a the Com Spirit. later. Why do they per. Baiame. a primal initiator. The a Maker seemed to exist. a new set myths crystaUises round a Being who. on the original level of the conception of the character of St. Men then. It embraced the idea of Evolution as well as the idea of Creation. was the Father by an amour in which he wore the form of the Totem snake. was originally moral. looking about. then. thus Zeus was the Father. in each case. or to primal being. what we call low have of parasitic invaded the higher realms of Eeligion Myth may : a lower invaded a . intended for the increase of game. This is man's usual : form these for way of going back to origins. and in other ways. but scientific. Zeus. for — Again. find themselves performing certain rites. mainly magical. swan. has not maintained itself on the high level. it was held. or Manabozho. bull. : — . To one mood accretion. or Baiame. say. dog. as usual. perhaps. on the other hand. developed out of their Totems animals and plants. it is notoriously the nature of man to attribute every institution to a primal inventor or legislator. in its way.XVI Eitual. the keeper of the keys of Heaven. or Mungim-ngaur. and in this. or the like. ant. was regarded as their Father. But the institution of Totemism (whatever its origin) suggested the idea of Evolution men. But then. any more than the facetious mediaeval myths maintained themselves. How were these contradictions to be reconciled ? Easily. in short. Demeter. for the benefit of the crops. The savage mind. but. in origin. All this appears perfectly natural and human. or to Zeus. Peter. or. in its way. often of a buffooning or scandalous character and.

and keep them away from the initiatory rites. a dancer of indecent dances. creative. the boys learn that the great spirit is a mere bogle. Conceive that Zeus. discredited by adults. or bull-roarer. as I call butes of the Being. all-seeing. Grant that. like Twanyirika. a shape-shifter. Then let us suppose that the Arunta Twanyirika. Grant that the adults merely chuckle over Twanyirika. a confessed bugbear. in practice. I fail to frame such an hypothesis. he daily who argue for the possible priority of the lowest. was originally. the tribe in How. and potent moral being ? For this. whose 'voice' they themselves produce by whirling the wooden tundun. is the belief of many Australian a . but a lewd and tricky ghost of a medicine-man. and with which. then. not a Father and guardian. in that case. was the original germ of the moral and fatherly Baiame. and credit him with the superinfall into their tendence of such tribal ethics as generosity and unselfishWhat were the processes of the conversion of Twanjdrika? I do not deny that this theory may be correct. a burlesque droll. of South Eastern Australian tribes. did men come to believe in liim as a terrible. a wooer of other men's vdves. must advance them. broke and despised ? Students attributes. invented to mystify ' ' the women. but I wish to see an hypothesis of the process of ness ? elevation. and only invented to keep women and children in order. How. on initiation. all-knowing. a mere jocular bugbear.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xvii higher element. come to believe seriously their invented bugbear. did the adults of own trap. By what means his loftiest did he come to be accredited later with regard for the tribal ethics. But reverse the hypothesis. or Baiame. or. undeniably. mythical attrian hypothesis of the concretion of the nobler elements around the original wanton and mischievous ghost.

as (on my theory) the creed degradation and practice of Animism. offered a theory of the processes by which the lower attributes crystallised around a conception supposed {argu- menti gratia) to be originally high. accounts for the phenomenon. the combination of the highest divine and the lowest animal spiritual. swamped and invaded the prior belief in a fairly moral and beneficent. since the time of the We earliest Greek philosophers. That these higher behefs are of European origin. point of view. I have. Being. but not originally theory. the lowest myths are the earliest. 'bogle * arrive at reply. and. Howitt denies. or worship of human ghosts. are here concerned with what. From my point of view. But I have yet to learn how. often of low character. How were they evolved out bogle ? I of the notion of a confessed artificial am unable to frame a theory. and it must be as easy for opponents to set forth what. or a confessed being regarded as a patron of such An hypothesis of the morality as had been evolved? processes involved must be indicated. My same Being. the highest attributes came in time to be conferred on the hero of the lowest qualities in the if "Why. What that method was (from my point of view) I have shown. Other processes of would come in. at least. in general. : ' . at. is a theory. did a silly buffoon. or how.Xviii tribes. least. namely. That is granted but there must have been a method in its madness. It is not enough to myths. the method was. from their . that the illogical rudimentary human mind is and confused. has been the crux of why are and men ' mythology infamous myths told about the Father of gods ? We can easily explain the nature of the myths. rightly or wrongly. Mr. is THE MAKING OF RELIGION where his ' ' voice (or rather that of his subordinate) produced by whirhng the tundun. that the higher and simple ideas may well be the earlier.

Tylor's arguments. his theory of loan-gods. or Sons. in regard.' in which his hypothesis may be reinforced. shown some probable processes in the evolution. from whom. Again. and may win my * ' * : ' adhesion. I replied in the Nineteenth Century. Allen. in a work which I overlooked. Tylor's Gifford Lectures. InstiTo Mr. they would necessarily be known to the native women. I need not have taken the trouble. they are absolutely concealed by the men. but await the publication of Mr. Mr. as this distinguished writer had already.' January Are Savage Gods Borrowed from Missionaries ? 1899 I do not here repeat my arguments. them. Tylor had recently advocated the theory of borrowing (* Journal of Anthrop. if the Son. formally withdrawn. say. In this book I deal with that hypothesis as urged by Sir A. xxi. that is.' vol.). I * when I wrote. however. is Africa. was. . But wherefore do they crystallise round Zeus ? I have. of Australian chief Beings resemble part of the Christian dogma. under penalty of death. B. in fact.' But nobody will say that the Australians borrowed them from Greek mythology ! • See Introductions to my Homeric Hymns. unaware that.PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION xix They are the natural flowers of savage fancy and humour. Where criticism has not disputed the facts of the moral now attached to.). too. when I read tute. to the highest divine conception. at least. attributes. in West Africa (chapter xiii.' no believer in the borrowing hypothesis for West Africa. It may here be said. that if the Australian higher religious ideas are of recent and missionary origin. Ellis. especially as concerns America and Australia. as regards Miss Kingsley. 1899. it has accounted for them by a supposed process of borrowing from missionaries and other Europeans. an Australian Being. they much more closely resemble the Apollo and Hermes of Greece.

however. a myth represents him as having been destroyed. the statement that Darumulun never died at all. Mr.' I have tried my best to elucidate the bibliography and other aspects of Strachey's account. and I only wonder that. among the Wiraijuri. mistrusted Strachey. Darumulun is not the highest. Mr. was given by many and (as offered by . I have to withdraw in chapters x. Mr. I quote his remark. different. In that tribe. are so rare. doubtless.' and I contrast this. but a subordinate Being.' Mr. Tylor's opinion is. I have done injustice to Mr. Mr. In an excursus on Ahone. * for hitherto collected. the examples. owing to a bibliographical error of my own. not necessarily identical with what occurred. As to a remark in Appendix B. Eitual. Hartland has also collected a few myths in which Australian Supreme Beings do (contrary to my statement) set the example of sinning. Tylor. copious. he is right.' Nothing can surprise me less. by supposing him to have overlooked Strachey's account of the VirHe did not overlook Ahone. As to Australia. continues to disbelieve in the theory of borrowing. Podmore takes a distinction. Podmore replies that what was * ' described ' is Strictly speaking.. as illogical. with his opinion that a girl may have been directly responsible for all that took place. and pointed out that. for his offences. Hartland has ' corrected me. but the evidence was witnesses. but ginian god Ahone.XX THE MAKING OF RELIGION In chapter xiv. in the new edition of Myth. Hewitt. ' our best authority. and may prove more persuasive. and Eeligion. xi. which I cannot regard as baseless. in so savage a race. by Baiame. the phenomena described are quite inexplicable by ordinary mechanical ' means.' Mr. and so easily to be accounted on the theory of processes of crystallisation of myths already suggested.

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION me) was in part XXI contemporary (being derived from the local newspapers). weeks which elapsed before he examined the spectators. says. kind deductions for example. Bennett gives an account of the rehgion of the cannibal Fangs of the stitute. Dr. and the flames could be seen coming out between his fingers. their ' ' Journal S. asbestos. . What I had to say.B. They have no business.' ^ Sir W. so that here Mr. about a own low savages. in the same chapter.S. 2. II. But in The Journal of the Anthropological In' Creator in the creed N. record. first described by Du Chaillu. what substance ? he answered. or otherwise. anthropologists declare.. to entertain so large an idea.' Sir "William Crookes. Nos. his account of the performance which he again repeating ' ' ' * * witnessed. phagi have some idea of a God. 147. Crookes stood close beside Home. fire if it The light was that of the and of two candles. qualificainserted (in order to ' seize the earliest opportunity) in the Introduction to the recent edition of my Myth. The from reader will perhaps make his my rhetoric when of I talk. Probably Sir William could see a piece of asbestos. p.. I ' of withdrawal. Podmore. explanation.P. p. developed in the five out of court. 1. December 1899. by way tion.' Asked. He blew into his hands. is The evidence was of contemporary published The handling of fire by Home is accounted for by Mr. and Keligion (1899). Home took up a lump of red-hot charcoal about twice the size of an egg into his hand. was covering tlome's hands.' These anthropoCongo. and he carried the charcoal round the room. Eitual. as the result of Home's use of a non-conducting substance. a superior being. Podmore's theory of illusions of memory on a large scale. 85. on which certainly no asbestos was visible. which he was watching.

as rhetorical. the savages simply cannot have the corresponding ideas and I must throw the blame on people . set This is inconsiderate in the Fangs.' ' . else can you call him ? he made all Yorker ') what where creator ' ' ' ' and creative * ' are used by me. assure us that they have. . but to the ghosts of parents. This additional information precisely I my general theory. Anthropologists distrust missionaries. I am not aware that Dr.' of native cannibals have no business with a creative Father A who is in heaven.' Offerings and prayers are therefore made. and most moral. Bennett illustrates a missionary. knowing the savages and their language. in heaven"). but came to be neglected as ghost-worship arose. where ghost-worship is most in vogue. by critics. Tata ("Father"). This Fang Father or Tata 'is considered indifferent to the wants and sufferings of men. readers will allow for the As anthropoimperfections of the EngHsh language.Xxii THE MAKING OF RELIGION main merere ("he made all things ") Anyambi is their Ta ta (Father) and ranks above " he lives all other Fang gods. of my evidence is from laymen. I say ' ' creative ' because * things. If the anthropological study of rehgion is to advance. because a'ne yap (literally. covertly introducing conceptions of which savages are The phrases' Creator. all creative. where ghost-worship has not been evolved least potent. a ho . or Baiame. the high and usuis and most Beings of savage religions must be careexamined. not consigned to a casual page or parafully graph.' as applied to Anyambi. I have found them most potent. who are more accessible.' and (as the bowler said about a In all such cases. women. not to him. logists say. and children. or at events most indifferent. have been described. that the chief Being was not evolved out of ghosts. The inferences (granting the facts) are fatal to the current anthropological theory. who. ally indolent chief .

' he savage tongues.^ Once more. as Mr.' is. a word which means nothing. The strong reaction early men against the cosmical process by which 'the weakest goes to the wall. .' for I mean that he sanctions the morality of his people sanctions veracity and unselfishness. I do not mean that these virtues were impressed on savages in some supernatural way. p. I do not wish to credit savages with thoughts more ' ' than they possess. also everywhere.PEEFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION incapable. authorities. that Baiame. XXIU I have already shown that I only follow my and their translations of phrases in various eternal. These are examples of 'righteousness in conduct. ' critic has daringly averred that I do. may be misleading.' The savage theologians no beginning for such beings (as a rule). But the phrase * ' would imderstand what you intend. Howitt distinctly avers.' As to the phrase. indeed." say Messrs. But that their thought can be abstract is proved. a curious moral of some " Native Tribes of Central Australia. I do not wish to Anyambi assert that." or existing. 388.' by their myth of the Ungani' " self" out of bikula. for example.' applied to or Baiame. as a ' : ' . Spencer and Gillen. and no end. and where the Wiraijuris declare that their Darumulun {not supreme) was destroyed by Baiame. used. except where Unkulunkulu is by some Zulus thought to be dead. rather Ta-li-y Tooboo.' a modern metaphysical rendering only * He can go words attributed to the savage and do everything. * ' I * find that I have spoken of ' omnipresent out that this of the actual and is some savage Beings as But I have pointed omnipotent. * supposing him to be assert eternal. even in the case of the absoabstract * lutely primitive Arunta. if you talked to a savage about eternity. instance. makes for righteousness. I merely mean what Mariner says that the Tongans mean as to the god Of his origin they had no idea.

as the Platonic Thrasymachus says. . of the Australians. is no place of for a discussion of the origin of morals.' and moral. a learned historian has me that no anthropological evidence is of any ' If so.' ' creative. in fact. in employ Bome points. Be it little.* With these explanations I trust that my rhetorical use * of such phrases as ' ' ' eternal. interest Dampier be it says. accept. But would be to knock elderly invalids on the head. 'the interest of the strongest.' and of the nomadic group. As value. as the strong and lusty. the religion of the Kurnai insists (chapter x. Howitt. according to Mr. such sources as anthropologists.' 'omni- potent. L. in 1688. and deserves the attention of moralists. there of institutions). as well the ' young and tender.' That does not appear to me to be demonstrated but this . or covertly to import modern or Christian ideas into my account of the religious conceptions of savages.' 'omniscient. But I never dreamed of supposing that this reaction (which extends beyond the Hmit of the tribe or group) had a tribal It has been argued that supernatural origin is only a set of regulations based on the conmorality * ' * ! ' venience of the elders of the tribe : is. or much they get. and the construction of theories from which.' may not be found to mislead. Thus the Being concerned does make for righteousness. and the old and feeble.' The origin of this fair and generous dealing may be obscure. * The the strongest.). every one has his part. in But the evidence can be no anthropology (in the realm that I adduce is from least. who are not able to go abroad.XXIV THE MAKING OF RELIGION phenomenon. at A.' omnipresent.' informed to the evidence throughout. I venture to dissent. but it is precisely the kind of dealing on which.

He suggested the writing of the book. Ani>rews : A^il 3.PEEFACE TO THE FIBST EDITION * The only begetter ' ' of this work is Monsieur Lestudies febure. the author must say here. Mr. however. part of the book differs considerably from the opinions which have recommended themselves pological writers to most anthro- on early Eeligion.' and other in Egyptology. but is in no way responsible The author cannot omit the opportunity of thanking Mr. and that he certainly did not expect them to fall into the shape which he now presents for criticism.' As the second . in the chapter on 'Possession. is probably not in agreement with the author on certain points for example. Frederic Myers for his kindness in reading the proof sheets of the earlier chapters and suggesting some corrections of statement. Myers. 1898. . Bt. for the opinions expressed. that no harm can come of trying how facts look from a new point of view. as he says later. author of Les Yeux d'Horus.

.

IV. Opening the Gates of Distance Crystal Visions. XIII. Chiefs in Australia . ' 1 14 39 65 83 105 128 147 . Crystal-gazing D. Taa-Eoa XV. The Poltergeist and his Explainers 324 340 344 C. III. Tui Laga. A. Index 345 . Savage and Civilised Anthropology and Hallucinations VII. Theories of Jehovah . 230 254 268 XVII. VIII. Conclusion 289 Appendices.CONTENTS CHAPTER I. High Gods of Low Races Supreme Gods not necessarily developed out of ' Spirits ' XII. PAGE Introductory Chapter II. Miracles Anthropology and Religion Science and ' ' ' . Savage Supreme Beings More Savage Supreme Beings . XI. VI. Pachacamac. - . . The Old Degeneration Theory XVI. Oppositions of Science 307 B.. 211 XIV. Demoniacal Possession Fetishism and Spiritualism Evolution of the Idea of God 160 173 185 193 X. Ti-ea-wX.. IX. V. Ahone. Na-pi.

.

Meanwhile man retained his belief in the existence of his own soul. Thus the ideas of God and of the soul are the result of early fallacious reasonings about ' : ' misunderstood experiences. was regarded as the one only God.THE MAKING OP RELIGION I INTBODUCTOBY CHAPTEB The modern Science of the History of Keligion has attained conclusions which already possess an air of being These conclusions may be briefly firmly established. and apparently so well bottomed on facts. and from the experiences of trance and hallucination. surviving after the death of the body. Ghosts. Finally. But there can never be any real harm in studying masses of evidence from fresh points of view. and so reached the conception of immortality. shadow. man later extended the doctrine of spiritual beings in many directions. Worshipping first the departed souls of his kindred. at last. as the result of a variety of processes. one of these gods became supreme. the failure of adverse B . prospered till they became gods. stated thus Man derived the conception of * spirit or ' soul from his reflections on the phenomena of sleep. or other spiritual existences fashioned on the same lines. so logical. At worst. and. dreams. death. It may seem almost wanton to suggest the desirableness of revising a system at once so simple.

according to visions of the ' ' Primitive Culture. The evidence is obtained by what is. clairvoyance. and collect savage beliefs about visions. if anything. can be. can be ascertained as to the nature and hallucinations which. however that idea itself may have been attained or evolved. social conditions. need not logically be derived from the idea of spirit. as a general shall so We ' ' ' condemned by modern science. by the most backward races. Our first position can only be argued for by dint of evidence highly unpopular in character. we shall collect and compare the accounts which we possess of the High Gods and creative beings worshipped or believed in.' and the acquisition of knowledge apparule. therefore. or improbable. what. in its earliest known shape. there are two points of view from which the evidence as to religion in its early stages has not been steadily contemplated. Now.' If these two positions can be defended with any success.8 THE MAKING OF RELIGION criticism must help to establish the doctrines assailed. We ' . on experiences which cannot. will not. a legitimate anthropological proceeding. derived from evidence of a different character. at least in part. first. Therefore we intend to ask. Tylor in ' ' We then ask whether these relatively Supreme conceived of by men in very rudimentary Beings. The first may be regarded as fantastic. Mr. also bring evidence tending to prove that the idea of God. at all events. But the strength of the second position. it is obvious that the whole theory of the Science of Beligion will need to be reconsidered. as we shall show. shall end by venturing to suggest that the savage theory of the soul may be based. The conception of God.* Secondly. or may be masked and left on one side.' his celebrated work lent their aid to the formation of the idea of spirit. But it is no less evident that our two positions do not depend on each other. mere developments from the belief in ghosts of the dead. as anthropology declares. and. be in any way impaired. at present. need not be evolved out of reflections on dreams and ghosts. then. Tylor's example. hallucinations. may follow Mr. be made to fit into any We shall purely materialistic system of the universe.

representing This observation of the Eed B ? . but with what we may call the X region of our nature.' So says Hearne (p. down to the founder of the new faith of the Sioux and Arapahoe. then. vision.INTRODUCTORY 3 rently not attainable through the normal channels of sense. it will emit many sparks of electrical fire. strengthen our first position. may then compare these savage beliefs with attested records of similar experiences among living and educated civilised men. out of miracle. That chapter. Men is a kind of parable a part of the purport of the following treatise. and the great religious innovators and leaders.' published in 1795 346). be unscientific to compare the barbaric with the civilised beliefs and experiences about a region so dimly understood. whether they do or do not logical science. in his * Journey. must be curious and instructive. our Lord Himself. may conceivably have something to learn (as has been the case before) from the rough observations and hasty inferences of the most backward races. It cannot. too. and so fertile in potent influences. John Knox. Out of that region. Even if we attain to no conclusion. or even of savage and civilised illusions and fables." that is founded on a principle one would not imagine. Jeanne d'Arc. or a negative conclusion. Experience has shown them that when a hairy deer-skin is briskly stroked with the hand on a dark night. as to the actuality and We supernormal character of the alleged experiences. prophecy. have certainly come forth the great religions. still to compare data of savage and civilised psychology. St. Francis. though a neglected part. Here the topic will be examined rather by the method of anthropology than of psychology. is concerned with no mean topic. if only as a chapter in the history of human error." Their ideas in this respect are thin. of the function of anthropoThe results. is decidedly part. Christianity and Islam . We We may illustrate this by * an anecdote : The Northern Indians " call the Aurora Borealis " Ed- Deer.

4

THE MAKING OF RELIGION

clusion, long unknown to civilised science. They connected the Aurora Borealis with electricity, supposing that multitudes of deer in the sky rubbed the sparks out of each other Meanwhile, even in the last century, a puzzled populace spoke of the phenomenon as 'Lord
!

Indians, making a hasty inference from a trivial phenomenon, arrived unawares at a probably correct con-

The

Derwentwater's Lights.' The cosmic pomp and splendour shone to welcome the loyal Derwentwater into heaven, when he had given his life for his exiled king.

the stroked deer-skin, and the attractive power of rubbed These trivial things were not known to be allied to the lightning, or to indicate a force which man could tame and use. But just as the Indians, by a rapid careless inference, attributed the Aurora Borealis to electric influences, so (as anthropology assures us) savages everywhere have inferred the existence of soul or spirit, intelligence that

Now, purpose in the earlier portion of this essay to suggest that certain phenomena of human nature, apparently as trivial as the sparks rubbed out of a deer's hide in a dark night, may indicate, and may be allied to a force or forces, which, like the Aurora Borealis, may shine from one end of the heavens to the other, strangely Such phenomena illumining the darkness of our destiny. science has ignored, as it so long ignored the sparks from
is

my

amber.

'

Does not know the bond of Time, Nor wear the manacles of Space,'
'

from certain apparently trivial phenomena of human These phenomena, as Mr. Tylor says, the faculty. great intellectual movement of the last two centuries has
in part

simply thrown aside as worthless.' I refer to alleged experiences, merely odd, sporadic, and, for commercial purposes, useless, such as the transference of thought from one mind to another by no known channel of the occur'

sense,

rence of hallucinations which, prima facie, correspond comcidentally with unknown events at a distance, all
'

Primitive Culture,

i.

156.

London, 1891.

INTRODUCTORY
that
is

6

called

*

second sight,' or

*

clairvoyance,'

and other

things even
alleged
facts of

more obscure. Keasoning on these real or phenomena, and on other quite normal and accepted

dream, shadow, sleep, trance, and death, savages have inferred the existence of spirit or soul, exactly as the
Indians arrived at the notion of electricity (not so called by them, of course) as the cause of the Aurora Borealis. But, just as the Indians thought that the cosmic lights were caused by the rubbing together of crowded deer in the heavens (a theory quite childishly absurd), so the savage has expressed, in rude fantastic ways, his conclusion as to the existence of spirit. He believes in
separable souls

peopled with his My suggestion is that, in spite of his fantasies, the savage had possibly drawn from his premises an inference not wholly, or not demonstrably erroneous. As the sparks of the deer-skin indicated electricity, so the strange lights in the night of human nature may indicate faculties which science, till of late and in a few instances, has laughed at, ignored, thrown aside as worthless.' It should be observed that I am not speaking of spiritualism,' a word of the worst associations, inextricably entangled with fraud, bad logic, and the blindest Some of the phenomena alluded to have, credulity. however, been claimed as their own province by spiritists,' and need to be rescued from them. Mr. Tylor writes
' '

wandering men, surviving death, and he has dreams the whole inanimate universe.
of

*

:

The issue raised by the comparison of savage, barbaric, and civilised spiritualism is this Do the Eed Indian medicine-man, the Tatar necromancer, the Highland ghost-seer, and the Boston medium, share the possession of belief and knowledge of the highest truth and import, which, nevertheless, the great intellectual movement of the last two centuries has simply thrown aside as
'
:

worthless

?'

In

Distinguo ! That does not seem to me to be the issue. my opinion the issue is Have the Eed Indian, the
'
:

Tatar, the Highland seer, and the Boston

medium

j
'

(the

6

THE MAKING OF RELIGION
and reasoned

least reputable of the menagerie) observed,

wildly from, and comiterfeited, and darkened with imposture, certain genuine by-products of human faculty, which do not prima facie deserve to be thrown aside ? That That, I venture to think, is the real issue. science may toss aside as worthless some valuable observations of savages is now universally admitted by people who know the facts. Among these observations is the whole topic of Hypnotism, with the use of suggestion for healing purposes, and the phenomena, no longer denied, of alternating personalities.' For the truth of this statement we may appeal to one of the greatest of Continental The missionaries, like anthropologists, Adolf Bastian.^ Livingstone, usually supposed that the savage seer's declared ignorance after his so-called fit of inspiration of what occurred in that state, was an imposture. But nobody now doubts the similar oblivion of what has passed that sometimes follows the analogous hypnotic Of a remarkable cure, which the school of the sleep.
'
'

Salpetriere or Nancy would ascribe, with probable justice, to suggestion,' a savage example will be given later.
'

Savage hypnotism and suggestion,' among the Sioux and Arapahoe, has been thought worthy of a whole volume in the Eeports of the Ethnological Bureau of the Smithsonian Institute (Washington, U.S., 1892-93). Republican Governments publish scientific matter regardless of expense,' and the essential points might have been put more shortly. They illustrate the fact that only certain persons can hypnotise others, and throw light on some peculiarities of rapport} In brief, savages anticipated us in the modern science of experimental psychology, as is frankly acknowledged by the Society for Experimental That many of the so-called Psychology of Berlin. mystical phenomena are much more common and pro'

*

'

'

TJeher

xisychische

Bcobachlungcn

bei
is

Naturvolkern.

Leipzig,

Gunther, 1890. See especially pp. 922-926.

The book

interesting in other ways,

and, indeed, touching, as it describes the founding of a religion, on a basis of Hypnotism and Cbristiauity.

new Eed Indian

INTRODUCTORY

7

minent among savages than among ourselves is familiar to everyone acquainted with the subject. The ethnological ^ side of our inquiry demands penetrative study.' That study I am about to try to sketch. My object

examine some superstitious practices and beliefs of savages by aid of the comparative method. I shall compare, as I have already said, the ethnological evidence for savage usages and beliefs analogous to thoughtis

to

'

'

transference, coincidental hallucinations, alternating personality, and so forth, with the best attested modern examples, experimental or spontaneous. This raises the

question of our evidence, which is all-important. proceed to defend it. The savage accounts are on the level of much anthropological evidence; they may, that But travellers' tales.' is, be dismissed by adversaries as the best testimony for the truth of the reports as to actual belief in the facts is the undesigned coincidence of evidence from all ages and quarters.^ When the stories brought by travellers, ancient and modern, learned and unlearned, pious or sceptical, agree in the main, we have all the certainty that anthropology can offer. Again, when we find practically the same strange neglected sparks, not
'

We

only rumoured of in European popular superstition, but
attested in

hand by respectable modern witnesses, educated and
* '

many hundreds

of depositions

made

at first
re-

sponsible, we cannot honestly or safely dismiss the coincidence of report as indicating a mere survival of savage superstitious belief, and nothing more. can no longer do so, it is agreed, in the case of hypnotic phenomena. I hope to make it seem possible that we should not do so in the matter of the hallucinations

We

provoked by gazing in a smooth deep, usually styled
Ethnologically, this practice is at least crystal-gazing.' as old as classical times, and is of practically world-wide I shall prove its existence in Australia, distribution. New Zealand, North America, South America, Asia, of Africa, Polynesia, and among the Incas, not to speak
*
'
•^

^
|

,

Programme of the Society, p. iv. Tylor, Primitive Culture, i. 9, 10.

8

THE MAKING OF RELIGION
'

The universal idea the middle and recent European ages. To take a that such visions may be clairvoyant.' Polynesian case, resembling the Hawaiian wai harm* When anyone has been robbed, the priest, after praying, has a hole dug in the floor of the house, and filled with Then he gazes into the water, over which the water. The god is supposed to place the spirit of the thief. of the thief was, according to their account, reimage flected in the water, and being perceived by the priest, he named the individual, or the parties.'' Here the statement about the spirit is a mere savage philosophical explanation. But the fact that hallucinatory pictures can really be seen by a fair percentage of educated Europeans, in water, glass balls, and so forth, is now
is
'

'

.

.

.

'

'

experiment, and accepted by opponents, 'non-mystical writers,' like Dr. Parish of Munich.2 I shall bring evidence to suggest that the visions may correctly reflect, as it were, persons and places absolutely unknown to the gazer, and that they may even reveal details unknown to every one present. Such results among savages, or among the superstitious, would Modem be, and are, explained by the theory of spirits.'

confirmed

by frequent

'

science has

still

recognised laws invoke. In the same way I mean to examine all or most of I the so-called mystical phenomena of savage life.' then compare them with the better vouched for modern examples. To return to the question of evidence, I confess that I do not see how the adverse anthropologist, psychologist, or popular agnostic is to evade the following dilemma To the anthropologist we say, The evidence we adduce is your own evidence, that of books of travel in all lands and countries. If you may argue from it, so may we. Some of it is evidence to unusual facts, more of it is evidence to singular beliefs, which we think not As raising a presumpnecessarily without foundation.
' *
:

to find an explanation consistent with we shall not of nature, but spirits
'
'

'

*

Polynesian Researches, ii. p. 240. Hallucinations and Illusions. English edition, pp. 63-70, 297.
Ellis,

INTRODUCTORY

9

tioii in favour of that opinion, we cite examples in which savage observations of abnormal and once rejected facts, are now admitted by science to have a large residuum of truth, we argue that what is admitted in some cases maycome to be admitted in more. No a priori line can here be drawn.' To the psychologist who objects that our modern

instances are mere anecdotes, we reply by asking, * Dear sir, what are your modern instances ? What do you know of " Mrs. A.," whom you still persistently cite as an example of morbid recurrent hallucinations? Name the German servant girl who, in a fever, talked several learned languages, which she had heard her former Where did she live ? who master, a scholar, declaim
!

vouches for her, who heard her, who understood her ? There is, you know, no evidence at all the anecdote is
;

the phenomena are said by him to have been observed "in a Koman Catholic town in Germany, a year or two before my arrival at Gottingen. Many eminent physiologists and psychologists visited the town." do you not name a few out of the distinThis anecdote, a rumour of a rumour guished crowd ? of a Protestant explanation of a Catholic marvel, was told by Coleridge at least twenty years after the possible date. The psychologists copy it,^ one after the other, as a
told

by Coleridge

:

.

.

.

Why

'

'

jump where their leader has jumped. An example by way of anecdote may be permitted. According to the current anthropological theory, the idea of soul or spirit was suggested to early men by their
flock of sheep

experiences in dreams.

They seemed,

in sleep, to visit

remote places

them was
about.
is

This something was the soul or spirit. Now it obvious that this opinion of early men would be confirmed if they ever chanced to acquire, in dreams, knowledge of places which they had never visited, and of facts as to which, in their waking state, they could have no
'

therefore, they argued, something within capable of leaving the body and wandering
;

*

Sir William Hamilton's Lectures, i. 345. Maudsley, Kerner, Carpenter, Du Prel, Zangwill.

10

THE MAKING OF RELIGION

This experience, indeed, would suggest even to Mr. Herbert Spencer, if it occurred problems to him. Conversing on this topic with a friend of acknowledged a philosophical eminence, I illustrated my meaning by was reported to me by the dreamer, It story of a dream. with whom I am well acquainted, was of very recent occurrence, and was corroborated by the evidence of another
information.

the dream was narrated, before its fulfilI am not at liberty to publish the matter details, for good reasons, but the essence of the was this A. and B. (the dreamer) had common interests. A. had taken certain steps about which B. had only a
person, to

whom

ment was
:

discovered.

surmise, and a vague one, that steps had probably been taken. A. then died, and B. in an extremely vivid dream a mass of un(a thing unfamiliar to him) seemed to read known facts, culminating in two definite results, capable These results, by the very of being stated in figures. nature of the case, could not be known to A., so that,

was placed out of B.'s reach by death, he could not have stated them to him, and, afterwards, had assuredly no means of doing so. The dream, two days after its occurrence, and after it had been told to C, proved to be literally correct. Now I am not asking the reader's belief for this anecdote (for that could only be yielded in virtue of knowledge of the veracity of B. and C), but I invite his attention to the psychological explanation. My friend suggested that A. had told B. all about the affair, that B. had not hstened the (though his interests were vitally concerned), and that of curious details, naturally unfamiliar to B., had crowd had been revived reposed in his subconscious memory, and in the dream. Now B.'s dream was a dream of reading a mass of minute details, including names of places entirely unknown It may be admitted, in accordance with the to him. have received all this psychological theory, that B. might information from A., but, by dint of inattention 'the of not marking' might never have been co7ibefore he

malady

from youth upwards. But man has no and impossible.'s dream represented this general Neither asleep nor awake can a man remember what it is impossible for him to have known. was the legend to the point. I see only one escape for psychologists from this dilemma. and this rejection of another class of marvellous tale. because they have always heard them and repeated them in lectures. by way of psychological explanation of the dream. Yet B. or none known to all the psychologists who quote it from Neither. But the general result phenomena of the combined details was one which could not possibly known known at be to A.'s subconscious memory of what he did not consciously know might break Instances of similar mental upon him in his dream. my friend cited Coleridge's legend. However. of living witnesses. truth of Coleridge's legend ? Of course. duly corroborated testimony from living and honourable people.' right to have like clear ideas of the possible Faraday. which cannot be accounted for by the revival of subconscious memory in sleep. could it be all. Coleridge. in lectures ' and manuals.INTRODUCTORY seiously 11 aware of what he heard. nor to B. of one kind of marvellous tale on no evidence. recent events. The dream contained no prediction. before his death . and read and repeated them in books. for the results were now fixed but (granting the good faith of the narrator) the dream did contain information not normally accessible. by psychologists. if true. which means that they have not been familiar with them. about . psychology will accept such unauthenticated narratives. Only a great force of prejudice can explain this acceptance. . because the psychologists know that they are impossible. and yet will scoff at first hand. However. * ' result with perfect accuracy. Oicr marvellous tales are impossible. there is none. as to the German girl and her unconscious knowledge of certain And what is the evidence for the learned languages. are not uncommon. signed and corroborated evidence. though unvouched for. Their marvellous tales are possible. when supported by first hand. Then B.

and. ^ is used by him to reinforce his argument. borrowed from Monboddo. of whom a hallucinatory phantasm appeared to each of his gaol companions. about twenty-six years ago. Guyau. Hans Stanley. Lajng Problems 0/ The admit that their evidence ' ! — : the Future. and given. has no prima facie right to object to our anecdotes of experiences. must either is no better than ours. Guyau actually illustrates the Eesurrection of our Lord by an American myth about a criminal. all psychology. Stanley. except experimental psychology. when possible. if as Coleridge's mythical maid (p. Hamilton has an anecdote. Flint and Mr. vaguely. on a day after his execution on the Non-Keligion ! prodigious fable no hint of reference to authority is Yet the evidence appears to satisfy M. and worst attested of these narratives The still appears in popular works on psychology. whose original researches are well periences. anthropologist and psychologist. Then we have two American anecdotes by Dr. Where it consists of modern statements of personal experience. Our evidence then. Kush. the witnesses have been cross-examined personally. As for the agnostic writer of the Future. which he regards as purely subjective. then. who. our evidence is often infinitely better than much which is accepted by the non- experimental psychologist. we only accept them at first hand. and such is Sir William Hamilton's equipment of odd facts for least credible discussing the unconscious or subconscious.' says Mr. then.' heard it from the subject of the story. and so on. . As evidence. Clearly the psychologist. is based on anecdotes which people tell about their own subjective exMr. except in the exact sciences. ' I have the memorandum somewhere in my ' a papers. Madame de Laval. M. separately and For this successively. known. Moreover. Samuel Laing to an experiment of Braid's No references are given. where it consists of travellers' tales.12 THE MAKING OF RELIGION There are other priori. Galton. instances of weak evidence which satisfies psychologists. who got it from Mr. 10) is set down by Mr. is on a level with that which satisfies the anthropologist. even offered rewards in money for such narratives about visualised rov/s of coloured figures.

it cannot but be curious to note their persistent uniformity in savage and civilised life. omniscient. that the trivial.' that this attitude of hers. rejected. They thus constitute themselves judges ' and practically regard themselves as Science has had to accept so many things once scoffed at as impossible. we show in chapter is My suggestion • ' . if we are only concerned with illusions and fables. as of vv^hat is possible. But. stating the case at the lowest.. ceases to command respect. and in part to justify ourselves in asking any attention for such matters. To make the first of our two main positions clear. we now offer an historical sketch of the relations between Science and the so-called Miraculous in the past. be of considerable importance. shall ' ii. not inconceivably. or must say that they only believe evidence as to possible facts. or unheeded phenomena vouched for by the evidence here defended may.INTRODUCTORY ' 13 good.

to accept Christianity. in the X When We tions. at a scientific test of the supernormal. or reluctant. and by then do not know how the doing something very bizarre. He did not begin queer dubious physical phenomena. if he took certain precau- Research sun. by sending an embassy to ask what he was doing at a given hour on a given day. Howeasy methods of fraud at once occur ever.U THE MAKING OF RELIGION n SCIENCE AND ' MIBACLES' Historical Sketch region is not a new thing under the Saul disguised himself before his conference with the Witch of Endor. is not unlikely to be compared. went much further. the procedure of Croesus. attributed to lamblichus. puzzled among mediums. the king. he made an elementary attempt Croesus. floating hghts. Porphyry sought after a sign of an element of supernormal truth in Paganism. with the usual accompaniments of darkness and His perplexed letter to Anebo. ' . with whose position our Unable. Eelatively scientific also was the inquiry of Porphyry. was relatively scientific. with the reply fraud. oracle found out the right answer. reveal Porphyry wandering odd noises. and and he seems to apparently supernormal human faculties. when he tested the clairvoyance of the oracles of Greece.' with accurate experiments as to the existence of rare. namely at Pagan spiritualistic own ' ' began siances. But he at the wrong end. but various Delphic to the mind.

and. generally. learning. and Glanvil practically ' ' died. ' ' ' ' Cardan. and. F. Wierus. however. the and the author's See Mr. result was to bring on Glanvil a throng of bores he was — worse haunted than Mr. and many others.' in Cock Lane and Common Sense. Ancient Spiritualism. or Suetonius. 1680. 1666).' With Henry More. Glanvil.SCIENCE AND 'MIRACLES' have attained no conclusion except that ' 16 ' ' spirits are deceitful. upon another). Pepys found his arguments not very convincing. Myers's paper on the Ancient Oracles. (circ. preferred ghosts vouched for by classical authority. a more careful examination of evidence came into use. haunted houses. was alarmed by our young gib-cat. tended on the whole to the negative side as regards the wilder fables about witches. Keginald Scot. ' . like Henry More and Boyle. in the marvels of The inquiries of Thyraeus. or brain. • ' ' * — Baxter. 1580) already put forth a form of the hypothesis of telepathy (that ghosts are hallucinations produced by the direct action of one mind. but left the problems of ghosts and haunted houses pretty much where they were before. indeed. laboured to collect first-hand evidence for second The consight. Pepys.' ' Something more akin to modern research began about the time of the Keformation. Lavaterus.* which he mistook for a spright.' a The reply to the laughing scepticism of the Eestoration.' he says and Mr. Le Loyer. Joseph Pliny. Plutarch. Among the marvels of Glanvil's and other tracts usually published together in his Sadducismus Triumphatus will be found letters ' ' which show that he and his friends. and humanity to ask whether there was any reality in witchcraft. for the time. With the Kev. and wraiths. popular belief. and lasted till about The fury for burning witches led men of sense. ghosts. Mompesson's house. while Thyraeus doubted whether the noises heard in haunted houses were not mere hallucinations But all these early writers.R. Bodinus. were very careless of first-hand evidence. fessed object was to procure a 'Whip for the Droll.S. It may be observed that Lavaterus {circ.' Mr.' in Classical Essays. like of the sense of hearing.

sacred digies. In an age of experimental philosophy. but Wodrow. accounts of miracles and proI suppose. clung fondly to the old faith. end of the world. the joy of many an honest ledge. will be found in all histories. Then one of the most acute of philosophers decided that investigation ought never to be attempted.' By a law of nature he means a ' ' ' . and consequently will be useful as long as the world endures. for ever settle the question without examination of facts.' in the field of experience. was fixed on of * Miracles. as an elementary exercise. as a crime. breast.' Hume * by David what he called and he looked for an a priori argument which would Hume in his celebrated essay derided the observation and study Miracles. though an impression of doubt was left on the mind of Addison. and profane.' ' He does not expect. with the wise and learned. In announcing his discovery. and John Wesley. and Cotton Mather (about 1710-1730) were singularly careless and unlucky narratives. Hume amusingly displays the self-complacency and the want of humour with which we Scots are commonly charged by our critics exposure to beginners in : I flatter myself that I have discovered an argument which.' He then defines a miracle as *a violation of the laws of nature. which derided a priori methods. and denying them without examina- X tion. This scientific attitude towards phenomena. Witchcraft ceased to win belief. to convince the Till the ' multitude.16 THE MAKING OF RELIGION attempt to investigate these topics scientifically.' Without saying here what he means by a miracle. this was Hume's great contribution to knowHis famous argument. will. but not to be investigated. and was abolished. in Ghost producing anything like evidence for their stories continued to be told. is a tissue of fallacies which might be given for logic. be an everlasting check to all kinds of superstitious delusions. in 1736. however. Some of the Scottish clergy. Hume argues that experience is our only guide in reasoning. that of refusing to examine them. if just.

in his Miracles and Modern Science. * against every miraculous event.' If there be any experience in favour of the event. testimony of men. did not examine the Jansenist miracles which Hume ' ' ' was criticising. without examination. first. That kind of experience cannot be considered.'' Fortunately. in all history.' Therefore there can be no valid evidence for miracles. any miracle attested by a sufficient number of men. . Now no error of human evidence can be more miraculous than a 'miracle. that experience does not count. in which he contradicted every assertion which he had made in the The italics here are those of Mr. Huxley. in his exposure of Hume's fallacies (in his Life of Hume).' Hume now gives an He says — : example of what he For. unless its falsehood would be more miraculous than the fact. There must be a uniform experience . Alfred Russell Wallace.SCIENCE AND 'MIRACLES' 17 uniformity. not of all experience.' ' Hume added a note at the end of his book. otherwise the event would not merit that appellation. and learning. there is 7iot to be found. A miracle is counter to universal experience. . as to have a great deal to lose in case of their being detected in any falsehood and at the same time attesting facts performed in such a public manner. education. as to place them beyond all suspicion of any design to deceive others of such credit and reputation in the eyes of mankind. and in so celebrated a part of the world. Mr. but of such experience as he will deign to admit while he excludes. therefore no event is a If you produce evidence to what Hume calls a miracle. miracle (we shall see examples) he replies that the evidence is not valid. undoubted integrity. as to render the detection unavoidable all which circumstances are requisite to give us a full assurance in the . no event is counter to universal experience. means by ' ' miracles. as to secure us against all delusion in themselves of such . of such unquestioned good sense. all evidence for experience of the absence of such uniformity. .

even when it reaches his ' ' done Hume . Wallace observes) Having his original assertion that the evidence does not exist.18 THE MAKING OF RELIGION . given in such circumstances as he demands. in whose favour the miracles were said to have been wrought.hso\uteimpossibility. in a kind of omniscience. supported by the civil magistrate. the famous Jansenist. Where shall we find such a number of circumstances. in the eyes of all reasonable people. will alone be regarded as a suffirelation of . and then he produces an example of that very kind of evidence. giving hearing to the deaf. and dismisses all testimony to other experience. though a learned body. this. attested by witnesses of credit and distinction. ever able distinctly to refute or detect them. surely. He takes his stand on the uniformity of all experience that is not hostile to his idea of the possible. ' A them was published and dispersed everynor were the Jesuits. The curing of the sick. There surely never was a greater number of miracles ascribed to one person than those which were lately said to have been wrought in France upon the tomb of Abbe Paris. in a learned age. many of the sepulchre. with whose sanctity the people were so long deluded. he contradicted himself before he had written six pages. before judges of unquestioned integrity. passage just cited indeed. or miraculous nature of the events which they relate ? And this.' Thus Hume first denies the existence of such evidence. and determined enemies to those opinions. and takes refuge in alleging the absolute impossibility of the events which the evidence supports. and sight to the blind. but the a. where cient refutation. agreeing to the corroboration of one fact? And what have we to oppose to such a cloud of witnesses. and on the most eminent theatre that is now in the world. Thus poses as a perfect judge of the possible. miracles were immediately proved upon the spot. he abandons (as Mr. Nor is this all. were everywhere talked of as the usual effects of that holy But what is more extraordinary.

They have even a martyr. ' ' is experimental science of an odd kind. emerged from the miraculous. In 1887 MM.' Hume buttresses and confirms his evidence for the Jansenist miracles. ' . under the eye of Cardinal Noailles. A strong presumption would have been raised against the miracles of Christianity. and now seem in danger of being too readily and too easily accepted. says Hume lightly. In fact. M. by the hypnotised patient. many of them sm-prising. of cataleptic rigidity. Montgeron. the phenomena which occurred at the tomb of the Abbe Paris have emerged almost too far. The phenomena were cases of healing. . yet twenty-two curis of Paris pressed him to examine these miracles But he ivisehj forbore. dence was in their favour). 357. and had they been proved the cause of Hume would have profited enormously. . 2 . and. according to Hume.SCIENCE AND 'MIRACLES* 19 standard of evidence. . Binet and Fere. But Hume applauds the wisdom of not giving his own theory this chance of a triumph. and of insensibility to pain. according to our frequent new experiences. He is remote indeed from Virchow's that what we call the laws of nature must vary In his note. His successor was an enemy to the Jansenists. Uypnotism. is now said to be somewhere in a dungeon on account of his book.' Many of the miracles of the Abbe Paris were proved immediately by witnesses before the Bishop's court at Paris.' Hume adds his testimony to the character of these cures. published in English a popular manual styled Animal Magnetism. to dismiss the most public and well-attested miracles without examination. who wrote an account of the events. ' ' Moll. . . . among visitors to the tomb of the Abbe Paris (1731). Had the cases been judicially examined (all medical evifalse. This ' position ' ' . of the thoughts in the mind of the But as to the phenomena at tlie tomb of the hypnotiser. therefore. These have. of the school of the Salpetriere. Thus it is wisdom. p.' These authors write with great caution about such alleged phenomena as the reading. . The cataleptic seizures were of the sort now familiar to science.

' Amputation of the breast was proposed. was hysterical hysterical oedema. but Madame Coirin. Charcot. in September 1716. All her malady. and began to close up and heal.' Binet and Fere the so- ' miracles ' really occurred. Coirin could turn herself in bed on the 12th the horrible wound was staunched. Mile.' the fell off nipple bodily. in her thirty-first year. and used some earth from the grave. =• work was published in the New Review. chance of a miracle.^ left breast. and all. * its natural proportions. suggestion explains them. January ' Septi^me Demonstration. The breast regained its normal * * ' and ' . Mile. refused her consent.' He certainly cannot explain everything which claims to be of supernatural origin in the faith cure. On August 11. The medical details may be looked for in Dr. 355. Mile. Coirin tried the off ling up.' by The most famous Coirin has been carefully examined by Dr. says Dr. put on a shift that had touched the tomb of Paris. Charcot. ^ A p. We have to learn the lesson of patience. cancer. Cologne. the left leg shrivelOn August 9. Charcot generously adds that shrines. which was due to vaso-motor trouble.' Dr. 1747.' for which he quotes many French authorities and one American. translation of his 1893.' case that of Mile. Paralysis of the left side set in (1718). like Lourdes. La Viriti dcs Miracles.' The paralysed side recovered life ' ' ' ' self-suggestion. 1731. — — . believing the disease to be radically incurable. . ' ' ' Animal Magnetisvi.Coirin had a dangerous fall from her horse. disappeared almost instantaneously. have cured patients in whom lie could not inspire the operation of the faith cure. Charcot's essay or in Her disease was diagnosed as cancer of the Montgeron. By September 3. ' and were worked by 'the imagination.' paralysis.^ Mlle. MM.20 THE MAKING OF RELIGION Paris. Coirin could go out for a drive. they say that in the opinion of ' Abbe That called ' is. Under the physical [psychical ?] influence brought to bear by the application of the shift the oedema. • size.

and by premising that the servant's palsy — call — was ' hysterical. met a native who had dead palsy. which Dr. a cradle possible. * ' * ' ' ' ' was born. Hearne stood beside the man. travelling in suggestion. causes gan' ' ' the grenes. 216) mentions a most suspicious circumstance.' by suggestion d distance (telepathy). The first step in his cure was the public swallowing by a conjurer of a board of wood. I could not detect the deceit." ' If Dr. shrinking of tissues mind. The ' same conjurer had previously swallowed bayonet swallowing. about the size of a barrel-stave.' leaving only the forked end sticking out of the conjurer's mouth. Charcot might have done by swallowing a cradle. The account is amusing. In fact.' somehow. is Hearne denies it (p. and (p. ! Now though The real object of these preliminary feats. Charcot had believed in what the French suggestion mentale suggestion by thought-transference (which I think he did not) he could have explained the ' Say the word. which he also did.' He was dragged on a affecting the whole of one side. ' . healing of the Centurion's servant. paralysis. somehow. to inspire faith. if not cancers. naked as he . Hearne believes that this was mere legerdemain. Neville Maskelyne.' Canada in 1770. and my servant shall be healed.' Of course. is. probably. Than are dreamt of in your philosophy. And what is the mind ? As my object is to give savage parallels to modern instances better vouched for. The Indians explain that the barrel staves apparently swallowed are merely dematerialised by spirits. Lord. But what do we mean by hysterical ? The mind. I quote a singular Bed Indian cure by Hearne.' and so was placed in the magic lodge. Horatio.' twice as wide across as his mouth. 217). cures them. reduced to a mere skeleton.' and. however performed.' Nobody knows.SCIENCE AND 'MIRACLES' I 21 am among the first : to recognise that Shakespeare's words hold good to-day " There are more things in heaven and earth. and deserves the attention of Mr. sledge. notwithstanding I was all attention.

ahve' (p.cle. he had been distinguished for his good nature and benevolent disposition.' Dr. and danced round ' And it is truly wonderful. 220). . . . in fact. * Dr. for three the poor days. regarded by science as a fable ot a fraud. was. (p.' There are So. that he developed almost ' a secondary personality. was entirely free from every appearance of avarice. and covetous wretch ' . . discontented. But the point is that science. . entire making a * sepa- Faith being thus inspired. he was able to move all the fingers and toes of the side that had been so long dead. quarrelsome. 219). that when the poor was taken man from the conjuring house . Russell Eeynolds's paper in British Medical Journal. November 18G9." Hearne does not tell us how his hunter. is not a foe. of course. not in Israel. but after this event he was the most fractious. the conjurer.22 THE MAKING OF RELIGION in the act of Hearne caught the conjurer rate forked end. Charcot adds In every case. caused by idea. Thy faith hath made thee whole..' case of a mira.' the stigmata of St. though paralytic. the fable has become a probable friend to ' A ' parallel ' See Dr. Before that dreadful paralytic stroke. became paralysed by idea. sang. no. Francis. and adds. which the morrow may cause to melt away in the light of its new triumphs. now that blisters and other lesions can be produced by suggestion. cures.' fasting. what is very curious. the strictest truth. I have not found so great faith.. But.' we had always understood. science is a foe to systematic negation.' The present new triumph is a mere coincidence with the dicta of our Lord.... but a * : * ' ' ' systematic negation. wherever it agrees with David Hume. if he had been acquainted with this case. At the end of six weeks he went a-hunting for his family Hearne kept up his acquaintance. Charcot. as there are maladies. blew.. would probably have said that it is of the nature of those which Professor Eussell Reynolds has classified under the head Unluckily. an untutored of ' " ' paralysis ' Indian. dependent on idea.

" But the Church continues to have an interest in the matter.SCIENCE AND 'MIRACLES' 23 ^ " thereby be claimed as a case of hystero-epilepsy. Principles of PsyeJwlogy. Maudsley denied the fact in 1880. James. and weaker must grow the ' Mr. 612. ' ^ . are no longer to be cannot dismissed on a priori grounds as 'mythical. ends its power of carrying facts? Thus considered. but which are now accepted. op. as miracle after miracle is brought within the realm of acknowledged law. The occurrences which took place at and near the tomb of Paris were attested. Then it is admitted readily enough. say from the time of Christ. and evidence quite insufficient to back a claim. therefore. I do not need to be told that Dr. precisely. which once seemed absolutely false. a fact is denied till a welcome interpretation comes with it. when we have to acknowledge that the very same evidence may safely convey to us facts which clashed with our fathers' notions Our of what is possible. and.* marks As so often happens. If so. if it is asked for by some savant who happens m>t to know it. Charcot. not a miracle at all.' now discard evidence as necessarily false because it clashes with our present ideas of the possible. As the class of facts which Hume declined to examine begins to be gradually admitted by science. With each such admission the hypothesis that the Gospel evidence is mythical must grow weaker. proves to be quite sufficient for modern scientific enlightenment the moment it appears that a reputed saint can ' : — We ' ' ' ' negative certainty of popular science. by a But the wisdom which great body of excellent evidence. for example. the thing becomes clear. the kinds of marvellous events recorded in the Gospels. so long as the Church had an interest in making it. I am prepared with the evidence. where. The evidence which could safely convey these now admittedly possible facts. as Hume truly avers. notions of the possible cease to be a criterion of truth or falsehood. James refact. is so far proved to be not necessarily mythical proved to be not incapable of carrying statements probably correct. ii. cit. and our contempt for the Gospels as myths must slowly die.

the policy of all reasonable people.' witness Tennyson and Browning Among orthodox Protestant nations miracles do not happen. He includes mental sugA man can gestion taking place even at a distance. 353-355.' argues that Keligion is doomed. indeed. by a simple tension of his will. are what Hume ' called wise and learned to laugh at. not said Hume. the inventor of the word hypnotism. a disciple of Mesmer. without examination. Guyau.' These marvellous were held to be miraculous. M. for the scientific validity of Dr.' The Inquisition proceeded more fairly than these scientific obscurantists. it appears nowIf this be so. about 1783.' if will can affect matter from a distance.' * accepted by M. 'Poetic genius has withdrawn its services. were subjected to read such persecutions as official science could inflict. Another curious example may be cited. The British Association refused to hear the essay which Braid. as important certainties within their personal knowledge. of course. Now to M. and therefore are not miracles.' My point merely is that certain experts of no slight experience or mean reputation do now admit. in his work The Non-Eeligion of the Future. • P. 93. he said. adays. 2 Pp. but never to ' and advised the investigate. that he was condemned by the Faculty of Medicine. Analogous if not exactly similar events now confessedly take place. Deslon.'24 THE MAKING OF RELIGION declined to make a judicial examination has deprived us of the best kind of record. . Guyau.' The result was to deprive Science of the best sort of record of facts which she welcomes as soon as she thinks she can explain them.' transmit an almost compulsive command. Charcot's theory of healing by idea. Guyau's mind they are facts. obviously the miracles. and could not be.^ Examples of the folly of a jpn'ori negation are common. Braid. Elliotson.' ' ' ' ' ' ' I am not responsible. was ' ' We ' ' * ! ' ' ' facts.' had written upon the subject. of M. exactly the phenomena which Hume asks the wise and learned to laugh at.' ^ But marvellous facts do happen. without any examination of the facts. But as long as they to examine the evidence. and are no longer looked upon as miraculous. and other English inquirers of the mid-century. They were not facts.

for all religions have their miracles. The gazing populace receives. or by the interposition of ' — ' invisible agent. The wise and learned are content to deride the absurdity. and won from that region which Hume and popular science forbid us to investigate. or how far they may The admission of mental affect our views of possibilities ? action. He has just given an example of the equivalent pleasures of dogmatic disbelief. of course.' wise and learned. whatever soothes superstition. of force with people who look on miracles' as= longer 'X phenomena. It may fairly be said that Hume is arguing against men who wished to make so-called miracles a test of the truth of Jansenism.' The wise and learned are applauded for their scientific attitude. us that they Again. operative d distance. at present. But he remains guilty of denouncing some ' We ' ' ' . ideas not current in his day. among friends of the new negative tradition. for example. not to account for them. is to examine such events. without but all ' ' examination.' and Hume's whole purpose is to make the wise and learned imitate the gazing populace by rejecting alleged facts without examiThe populace investigated more than did the nation. Hume has an alternative definition of a miracle a miracle is a transgression of a law of nature by a particular volition of the Deity. Guyau. is. He next argues that the pleasures of wonder make all accounts of miracles worthless. who knows what other may be redeemed from that limbo. Again. personal only to M. if this truth is now estab- lished. and that he could not be expected to answer. Then Religion is a disturbing force . miracles destroy each other. return to Hume. but so.' reply that what Hume calls a miracle may result from the operation of some as yet unascertained law of nature (say self-suggestion). and that our business.SCIENCE AND 'MIRACLES' relations of will tells 25 and matter are not what popular science are. by anticipation. facts We ' * ' This argument is no religions cannot be true.' not as divine evidences to the truth of this or that creed. without informing themselves of the particular facts. manifestly. is irreligion.

Kant was familiar with certain of the works of Hume. the investigation of apparent less scientific No attitude can be than his. Harteville declared to Swedenborg that he had paid the bill. Now.26 THE MAKING OF RELIGION facts. or rather a coffee. and. that he had seen her man. She believed that it had been She paid. asking for information at first hand. Kant interested himself deeply in the As early as 1758 topic. there was a secret drawer behind the side-plank within the cupboard. and the receipt among the other Kant adds Swedenborg's clairvoyant vision. Far from declining to examine the portentous visions of Swedenborg. Madame Harteville. ' ' ' ' _ ' : Gothenburg. containing some reports of stories or legends about Swedenborg's 'clairvoyance. and the missing receipt. as he learned from the ghost. He promised to see what he could do.' In the true spirit of psychical research. however. was dunned by a silversmith for a debt of her late husband's. in a cold-blooded way. and . or men of science. he wrote his first remarks on the seer. three days later. more common among many- According to the humorous wont of things in this world. found the secret drawer. The whole company then went upstairs. Kant wrote a letter to Swedenborg. To the assembled society Swedenborg remarked. therefore asked Swedenborg to use his renowned gifts. widow of the Dutch envoy in Stockholm. The drawer contained diplomatic correspondence. prints one or two examples of Swedenborg's successes. of a great ber 1756). seven months before his decease the receipt was in a cupboard Madame Harteville replied that the cupboard upstairs. Kant. from papers. The seer got the letter. had been thoroughly searched to no purpose. arrived at the lady's house while she was giving a tea. fire at Kant pined to see Stockholm (dated SeptemSwedenborg himself. and spoken to him. but could not find the receipt. the whole question of the marvellous had no sooner been settled for ever by David Hume than it was reopened by Emanuel Swedenborg. Swedenborg answered that. party. whether he had read his Essay on Miracles or not. but he never answered it.' The late M.

and that these points are. on 'Arcana CcBlestia. but as candidates for On page 73 he pleasantly remarks. p. . he 'jocks wi' is far Traume. Kant's irony self know how self-respect deeficulty. at the ransom. Traume eines Geistersehers. Like Scott. he dearly loved a ghost-story like Scott he was canny enough to laugh. I venture to say.' shall understand that all said hitherto is 'Now we Bedlam. to save his and character for canniness. These admis' He does not himpeculiarly Scottish.' and he will not reproach the reader who regards seers not as citizens of two worlds (Plotinus). publicly. by descent.^ tales of second-sight . A Scot himself. As Kant vainly wrote to Swedenborg and others as he vainly spent 11. — The first seventy pages of the Traume are devoted to a perfectly serious discussion of the metaphysics of ' ' superfluous. Yet both would take trouble to inquire. at them and at himself for his interest in them. of 11. admissions about his own tendency to think that he has an immaterial soul.' so Sir Walter was anxious to go to Egypt to examine the facts of ink-gazing clairvoyance. 76. he is in earnest. 'Arcana Coelestia. and. Kant's real and bogles.SCIENCE AND 'MIRACLES' 37 waited eagerly for his book. 'Spirits. scientifically solved. or may be.' At last he obtained this work.' made a somewhat Velut aegri somnia vanae Finguntur species ' sarcastic attempt at a metaphysical theory of apparitions. ' and in But he was disappointed with what he read.' He amuses himself with trying how far he can carry speculations on metaphysics (not yet reformed He makes by himself) into the realm of the ghostly. * is position about all these matters is. Kant confesses that each individual ghost-story found him sceptical. or some day will be. ruinous to Kant at that time. Kant may have heard his motto. whereas the cumulative mass made a considerable impression. almost identical with that of Sir Walter Scott.

is alluded to. and the very decided opinions . on spirit. Kant himself does not know. in his letter re Swedenborg to Mile. topic of spiritual being only important as bearing on hopes of a future life. only assertion. having pleased nobody. and how far they are serious. So ist das Feld dunkler Vorstellungen das grosste in Menschen. Kant ends. of Mysticism . Kant laughs at it. Kant returned to the theme in Anthropologische ' He discusses the unconscious.' on the physics of Halluci' ' He thinks the whole nation. but it is antiquated matter.28 THE MAKING OF RELIGION * sions are eagerly welcomed by Du Prel in his Philosophy ' but they are only part of Kant's joke. (pp. de Knobloch]. like Scott in his Demonology. and as ignorant as when he began. There is in it no evidence. As for Swedenborg's so costly book. and. and thinks it would be useful to posterity if some one would investigate them while witnesses are alive and memories are fresh. As speculation.' ' ' ' possessed of anthropology are epileptic patients. or sub-conscious. science will not discuss them. all is in the air. Kant asks for psychical research. he scouts the Highland second-sight. which. till Sir William Hamilton lectured. 89-93). Didaktik. they would transTraume. This reference to Swedenborg is remarked upon by Schubert in his preface to the essay of Kant. the almost uncertainty of Kant when he had to deliver a judgment on the phenomena described by himself and as ' * ' to which he had made inquiry [i.' and as in such matters the learned and unlearned are on a level of ignorance.' He has a chapter on The Divining Faculty He will not hear of presentiments. 52).' late and publish Kant's first seventy pages of Something like telepathy. He points out that it is interesting to compare the circumspection. but the idea is as old as Lavaterus at least (p. seems to have been an absolutely unknown topic to British psychologists. In fact. The unlike Hegel. He then ' repeats the Swedenborg stories.e. even discarnate. Mystics (Swedenborg) are victims of Schwdrmerei. If spiritualists knew their own business. by citing cultivons notre jardin. he says. Kant has a good deal to say. action of spirit.

.' The Schellings were interested Kitter thought he p. It were superfluous to tell again the familiar story of Mesmer's performances at Paris. or coal. Siderism. and had already of Mesmer. and no facts are given to him but the book of the Prophet Emanuel. Puysegur. Kant had (1766) heard rumours of healing by magnetism.' vue a distance. and of the alleged effect of the magnet on the subject was in the air. Vincent's Elements of Hypnotism. Wallace. tific study in France to a somnambugreat degree.' speaks as if Eitter had made experiments in telepathy. On the whole Kant is interested.' lucidity. He wants facts. Modern manuals. ' . in his ' in Germany. and he also believed that he had witnessed cases of ' clairvoyance. sections 35-37. on the dowser. The won the attention ' These things would now be explained by 'unspace. But. This gentleman was persuaded that instances of thought-transference (not through known channels of sense) occurred between the patient and the magnetiser.SCIENCE AND 'MIRACLES' 29 he expressed forty years later on Swedenborg and his The companions [in the work cited. opinion in paragraph 35 is a general one as to mystics. conscious suggestion in the more sceptical schools of The Eevolution interrupted scienpyschological science.) had detected a new force. in which the patient apparently beheld places and events remote in * ' ' ' human frame. but despairing. ' preface to Hegel's Philosophie des Geistes. 1808) is a Report undertaken for the Academy of Munich. He may have done so.' Hitter doings of an Italian water-finder.' Mr. but lism (the hypnotic sleep) and magnetism were eagerly ' ' ' ' ' examined and speculations. but water. or ' ' ' ' * gives details of seventy-four experiments in dowsing for He believes in the faculty. but his Siderismus (Tiibingen. metals. as it happened. There is no other mention of Swedenborg]. While Mesmer's theory of magnetism was denounced by contemporary science. the discovery of the hypnotic sleep was made by his pupil. (Compare Mr. order of facts was just about to solicit scientific attention. a new. 34. about whom Kant had information. or a ' revived. for are apt to overlook these German researches some reason.

Perhaps we may partly elucidate it by a similitude of Mr. and Jung Stilling became an early spiritualist and full-welling fountain head of ghost stories. Suppose we compare the ordinary everyday consciousness of each of us to a spectrum. Frederic Myers. knowledge may be acquired of things which are out of the view of the consciousness For example (for the sake of argument let us admit it). Beyond the range of sight there may be imagined a lower or physiological end for our ordinary consciousness. the faculty temperamental and useful. and by way But he did not regard the clairvoyant of illustrations. Owing to his use of a terminology. beyond the view of ordi- nary everyday consciousness.190). all peculiar his own. or the Devil. of every day. affect physiological processes to which the ordinary consciousness for example. examined hundreds of cases of the so-called Divining Eod. Digestion. when it is sugis blind — gested that a blister must be raised. or vue a distance. in the hypnotic condition. ex hypothesi. at Milan. He describes his precautions to avoid vulgar fraud. or scientific language. ment makes it certain that a patient. THE MAKING OF RELIGION * He talks not in * psychic explanations. by raising a blister. at the upper end of the spectrum. is an obvious example. but he took no precautions He reckoned against unconscious thought-transference. 170. about 'electricity' (pp. can consciously. . Amoretti. so long as it But hypnotic experiis healthy. is unaware of many physiological processes which are eternally going on within us. Probably the most important philosophical result of the early German researches into the hypnotic slumber is to be found in the writings of Hegel.30. unknown and remote people and places may be seen and described by clairvoyance. or at least purposefully. consciousness (or whatever we call it) which. ' ' ' ' : of course. whose ends towards each extremity fade out of our view. it is extremely difficult to make Hegel's meaning even moderately clear. Now Hegel accepted as genuine the facts which we here adduce merely for the sake of argument. Again (granting the facts hypothetically and merely for the sake of argument).

though it may see for Jeanne d'Arc at Valcouleurs a battle at Eouvray. a hundred leagues away. or even by time. merely indicate that the ideal. but it was another man in the next bed who was dead. Max Dessoir. which springs from the great soul of nature. however. qui voit taut de choses. Psychology. is not a . he placed it at the lower end. .' But that lower end. The somnambulist and clairvoyant see without eyes. end ' sublime mental phase. But perhaps the question here at issue may be elucidated by some remarks of Dr. On the contrary. Her brother was at the time in the hospital. as occupying what we style the upper end of the psychical spectrum. It is thus impossible to make out whether what the clairvoyants really see ' ' ' preponderates over what they deceive themselves in.' The phenomena of clairvoyance. that * ' * ' ' in ordinary self-possessed conscious life there are traces of the 'magic tie.' 'especially between female friends of delicate nerves. We ' Hegel accepts the clairvoyance of the Pucelle.' which. and capable of conveying general truths. perhaps. in Hegel's material is really opinion. ' Hegel's upper ' loses itself in light the lower end. out date or source) a case of a girl in Germany who saw her brother lying dead in a hospital at Valladolid. has proved that in every conception and idea an image or These mental images group of images must be present.' to whom he adds husband and He gives (withwife.' Time and space do not thwart the consciousness at Hegel's lower end. it may seem superfluous to dispute as to whether they are attained by the lower or the higher stratum of our consciousness. Hegel admits. is as much as we can ask from them. are the recrudescence or recurrence of perceptions.SCIENCE is AND 'MIRACLES' 31 untrammelled by space. does not communicate any lofty philo' sophic truths. he says. and carry their visions directly into regions where the waking consciousness of orderly intelligence cannot enter (Wallace). as La Fontaine's shepherd says.' As long as the facts which Hegel accepted are not officially welcomed by science. and members of the same family.

in which hallucination is checked by competing memories and new sensations. Ferrand's metaphor. though of course more faintly. dog. or tree once suggested to the hypnotised patient. Dessoir's opinion these revived mental images would reach the height of actual hallucinations (so that the man.' Now. the main trunk of our psychical existence. Dessoir's theory this condition of hallucination is man's of other ' ' Our original and most primitive condition. or tree would seem visibly present) if other memories and new sensations did not compete with them and check their development. or a man. vi. who supposes ' See Dr. before the enormous competition memories and new sensations set in. and close it again. This is also the opinion of Hegel. in Das Doppel Ich. to use Mile. does become an actual The hypnotised patient sees the absent hallucination. Our normal present condition. but it is not a higher. vol. Proceed- ings. Dessoir. whenever the mind informing this body had the conception of green (and it could have no other) it would also have an hallucination of green. Open the sense of sight to receive a flash of green colour. natural tendencies. object which he is told to see. would thus be a state of hallucination. as quoted by Mr. the sleeper sees things not really present. but with all its channels of sensation hitherto unopened. Hallucination represents primitive. Apparently. 213. hving. primitive state. is a suppression of our original. a human body. and therefore the idea of a man. or a dog. thus ' Annihilating all that's made.32 THE MAKING OF RELIGION see a tree. rather a lower state of spiritual activity than the everyday practical unhallucinated consciousness. and whenever we have before our minds the conception or idea of any of these things the original perception of them returns. i . Myers. To a green thought in a green shade.' In Dr. in sleep or hypnotic trance the competition of new sensations and other memories is removed or diminished. But in Dr. dog. Suppose.

His theory. The Berlin. first of all call But such verification would be superthose on whose account it was called for. it will be observed. believed in the fact of clairhe voyance (though deeming it of little practical use) accepted telepathy (* the magic tie ') . facilitate The facts. takes the facts as given. things long past. vol. He does not try to establish the facts but to establish. since ' : they the inquiry for themselves by declaring the narratives. and they have even denied what they have seen with their ovni eyes. he accepted interchange of sensations between the hypnotiser and the hypnotised . PhilosopJiie des Oeistes. is of the opposite opinion. . examples ajid much of the philosophising are in the Zusdtze. ' D . unlike The intuitive soul Kant. not translated in Mr. hallucinated self within us does relative reality of the present original fundamental Self. it might seem. at all events. ' ' ' interest later. to be mere deception and imposture. vii. Wallace's version. * powers and actions at a distance. like Sir David Brewster.SCIENCE AND 'MIRACLES' S3 our primitive mental condition to be capable of descrying Mr. preside over primitive. even in Scottish second-sight. This will prove of . like Hegel's.' such as clairvoyance but he believes in hypnotisation at a distance. Their a priori conceptions are so rooted that no testimony can avail against them. infinitely numerous though they be. as we saw. and the old Dr.' and reported under their own hands. objects remote in space and time. it beholds oversteps things remote. Myers.' The pendulum of thought has swung back a long way from the point whither it was urged by David Hume. he believed in the divining rod.' or throwing back to some very remote ancestral condition.' the conditions of time and space. Oxford. and things to come. is that of atavism. as to the relative dignity and everyday self. Hegel. or . Dessoir refrains from pronoimcing a decided opinion as to whether the original. ' * ' Hegel remarks fluous to for verification. Hegel. 1845. 179. Werke. and accredited by the education and character of the witnesses. and. 1894. and works them into his general theory of the Sensitive Soul {filhlende Seele).

and the causes of the hypnotic condition. for the Report was favourable even to certain of the still disputed phenomena.' of new faculties. was presented in 1831. the agent in hypnotic cases was believed to be a kind of efflux of a cosmic fluid from the There was a magnetic magnetiser to the patient.' The Academy did its best to suppress this Report. in accordance with a survival of the theory of Mesmer. and this Report was Later.' distinction between mesmerism and hyptaken in popular language. which attests the phenomena that Hegel accepted. Hypnotism. implies no such theory. * ' ' ' connection.' says Mr. phenomena still disputed. is the first business of Psychical Theorising comes later. Vincent.84 at least to THE MAKING OF RELIGION examine them.' as we say now. and failed. Six years later (1837). also the production of great changes in the physical economy. At that time. that sleep could be produced without suggestion. * ' witnessed the long dispute over the existence. The Academy lacked the courage to publish it.' No person acted on both Committees. a Committee reported against the pretensions of a certain Berna. a number of people tried to read a letter accepted. Report (1831) attested the development.' such as insensibility. a magnetiser. in a box. The years which have passed between the date of Hegel's Philosophy of Mind and our own time have Research. ' ' ' .' such as clairvoyance and intuition. The Report on Animal Magnetism. under 'magnetism.' as will preThe Academy's sently be seen.' as it was then styled. and over the Thus the reality and limitations of the phenomena. and sudden increase of The Report declared it to be demonstrated strength. mesmerism is a word implying this theory of magnetic or other unknown personal influence. Sleep has been produced in circumstances in which the persons could not see or were ignorant of the means employed to Though no is notism * ' * ' ' * ' ' ' ' ' produce it. settled This. though the term was not then in use. Academy of Medicine in Paris appointed a Committee to examine the subject in 1825. the nature.

though it might be more logical to say that it settled the pretensions of the competitors on that occasion. Braid. therefore the question of magnetism was definitely closed. nor did the patients know which of their fingers ' was to become rigid and incapable of pain. the study has been. Wide differences of opinion still exist. made a number of experiments in which no suggestion was pronounced. discovered that the so-called 'magnetic could be produced without any magnetism. hypnotism became all but respectable. and remains. This occurs. We is have often to regret that scientific eminence not always accompanied by scientific logic. and encouraged them to expect to go to sleep. devoted himself to the topic. It is not even absolutely certain that the exercise of the stranger faculties for instance. Seeming to cease to be mysterious. because certain persons did not satisfy the expectations raised by their preliminary advertisements.' ' though how is suggestion produces the astonishing effect another problem. He called his method Hypnotism. The late Mr. that the production of ansesthesia and rigidity are the results merely of suggestion and expectancy. Elliotson. as to its physiological concomitants. charlatans and dupes take it up. and is explained by suggestion. Where science neglects a subject.' a term which begs no question. however. Dr. till Thackeray's friend. Gurney. A hypnotised patient is told that the middle ' ' . In England. and was being used in surgical operations.' He sleep made his patients stare fixedly at an object. He was persecuted as doctors know how to persecute but in 1841. ' * ' — — ' * ' finger of his left hand will become rigid and incapable of sensation. of Manchester. rather suspect. and as to the limits of the faculties exercised in or out of the slumber. In England animal magnetism had been abandoned to this class of enthusiasts.SCIENCE AND 'MIEACLES' * 86 the question with regard to clairvoyance . as to the nature of the hypnotic sleep. The Academy now decided that. while on the Continent hypnotism is used both for healing purposes and in the inquiries of experimental psychology. till it was superseded by chloroform. n 2 The .

Other people's hands. voyance and phrenology were Elliotson's constant stock * ' * in trade. vol. including those now universally accepted by Continental and scarcely impeached by British science. p. and the insensibility was tested by a strong electric The effect was also produced witJiout passes. * ' willing occurred. and it. Janet and Gibert also produced sleep in a cessful. no effect if he did not will. ii.' (Phrenology was also Braid's stock in trade.. 201-207. by willing it. Vincent says that clairtreated by popular science. S. produced no effect.) * It is a matter of congratulation to have been so soon delivered "a mass ' of * from what Dr. ." Clairvoyance is ' Proceedings. The lookers-on selected the finger. and expectancy. If he did not ' ' will * ' ' Experiments in transferring taste. Elevients of Hypnotism. cayenne pepper. 57. the operator merely pointing at the selected finger. on the other made passes above the finger patient's hands were thrust side of which the hypnotist which was to become rigid. mesmeric hypothesis of some specific influence in the They cannot very well be explained by sugoperator.' Here is an example of the mode in which these phenomena are Mr. The rarer facts. as of salt. were also sucDrs. current.R. 'still go through the hollow form of taking place. from operator to subject. the result.' nor was his willing successful if he did not bring his hand near that of the patient. pp. have been noisily rejected again and again on Hume's principles. of selected by a system of drawing lots. nothing nor did anything occur if he willed without The proximity of the operator's hand produced pointing. sugar. 390-392.P. similarly situated. examining them. because all the facts.^ rather point to an element of truth in the old course. as Mr. Gurney remarks. But these facts and facts of gestion clairvoyance and thought-transference will be rejected as superstitious delusions by people who have not met them This need not prevent us from in their own experience. at hours which were These facts. woman at a distance.86 THE MAKING OF RELIGION through a screen. Lloyd Tuckey has well called ^ superincumbent rubbish.

again. be as fortunate in the long run as meteorites. clairvoyance. or as the more usual phenomena of hypnotism. ' ' . . Now weapons as impostures. It is rather rash to give a decided opinion.SCIENCE AND 'MIRACLES' part of a 37 mass of rubbish. and telepathy may. upon which it would be perhaps rash to give any decided ' : All these strange psychical conditions preopinion. that in hypnotism there is nothing at all but fraud and malobservation. thought-transference. Vincent thinks it rash to give any decided opinion. regard the phenomena as frauds or fables of superstition. ' little . which. not inconceivably. ' Possibly Mr. and clairvoyance. Mr. ' ' is rubbish. meteor' : and of nature. at Ogham inscriptions.' This brief sketch shows that science is confronted by certain facts. they are doubted by others by others. Admitted by some men of science. or lately maintained. In years to come it may be that ' ! more than sober fooling (p. Vincent says There are many interesting questions. 7nay his . and interwove with general philosophy. are denied.' one page presents problems of great interest ten pages later. Hume dismissed as incredible miracles. such as telepathy. in his time. It is only Lord Kelvin who now maintains. and then to say that it is rash to do so. like the more ordinary facts of hypnotism. and. Vincent only means that Elliotson's experiments. beneath the contempt of the wise and learned. at palaeolithic The scientific world » laughed. with the sisters Okey. after offering a decided opinion that clairvoy. . mena which Hegel finally ites. who inspire popular tradition. are still matters of dispute. Mr. But it is plain that these phenomena. also see that the stranger and rarer pheno- ance We accepted as facts. thought-reading. were rubbish.' and are only omitted because they have not a sufficient bearing on the normal states of hypnosis. Thus what was ' rubbish in . on page 57. . 57). On page 67. But whether the sisters Okey were or were not honest is a question on which we cannot entor here. or freaks nobody has any doubt on these matters. be admitted by science. . not so long ago. while most of the journalists and authors of cheap primers. sent problems of great interest.

. by the guides of popular opinion. because disputes of their supposed relation to the Origin of Eeligion. if they contain any affirmative instances. are denounced as superstitious. as to these alleged facts are noticed here.38 THE MAKING OF RELIGION only some similar belated voice will cry that in thoughttransference there is nothing but malobservation and fraud. At present the serious attention and careful experiment needed for the establishment of the facts are more com- mon among French When than among English • men of science. published. these experiments. Examples Meanwhile the of this method will be later quoted.' or criticised after what we must charitably deem to be a very hasty glance.

and against civilised notions and scientific theories unconsciously read into barbaric customs. imposture. hampered by fable \ ' | ' which we find the lowest known races. and usages. Man. Anthropology has herself but recently emerged from that limbo of the unrecognised in which Psychical Kesearch is pining. in the necessary absence of historical testimony as to times far behind the lowest known savages. and many of its conclusions.stage of jc ultur e in .' British Association would reject a paper on clairvoyance as a vain dream based on old wives' fables. must be hypothetical. "Consequently the matter on which anthropology works is* fluctuating the evidence on which it rests needs the most( sceptical criticism. | ondoyant et divers. rites. or on hysterical Undeniably the study of such themes is and fraud. we have reckoned Anthropology. and watched. man) cannot be secluded from disturbing influences. is the subject alike of anthropoMan (especially savage logy and of psychical research. like the materials of a chemical experiment in a Nor can jnan be caught in a 'primitive' laboratory.' against European misunderstandings of savage ideas. traditions. Pleasantly enough. . state intellectual beginnings lie very far behind the h^s : . just as anthropology has to be ceaselessly on its guard against travellers' tales. The British Association used to reject anthropological papers No doubt the as 'vain dreams based on travellers' tales.89 III ANTHROPOLOGY AND RELIGION Among the various forms of science which are reaching and affecting the new popular tradition.

the outcast. or even Hume and Voltaire. apt to find himself in odd conipany. Millar. Spiritualists. Eitter. and Frazer. As pioneers these writers answer to the early mesmerists and magnetists. Amoretti. Bound anthropology. Occultists. Janet. and to seek reason where there was none. Eichet. The acceptance. as the Arkites and Lost Tribesnien haunted the cradle of of Science. people of one wild idea. unstaked waste of Science. in each case. in the history of Psychical Eesearch. Anthropologists were said to gloat over dirty rites of dirty savages.40 THE MAKING OF RELIGION For these sound reasons official science long looked askance on Anthropology. had been anticipated by the less systematic students of eighteenth century Goguet. de Brosses. Bastian. or as Gurney. Max Miiller. as Lubbock. menacing figures of Esoteric Buddhists. Christian Scientists. the pariah ' is. and the Ten Lost Tribes that kept turning up in the most unexpected places. Spencer. in the later works of Mr. phallus worship. they outlaws. it. Elliotson. Myers. Tylor. Lafitau. Boulanger. indeed. perhaps as a were often broken men. the echo of the old complaints. Gregory. of palaeolithic weapons as relics of human culture. in the unofficial. and. Darwin. They were on the same track. To the scientific mind. But the earlier students were less careful of method and the evidence. Her topic was full of illustrations of the Modern writers on the theme doctrine of Mr. Her followers were not reresult of garded as genuine scholars. Anything you We stumbling block _^of _ anthro- . The exiled.' intellectual this contempt. and Astrologers. anthropologists or ethnologists were a horde who darkly muttered of serpent worship. Puysegur. hover odd. and method in the madness. after long ridicule. Fontenelle. Dessoir. Arkite doctrines. the camp-fire of Psychical Eesearch too. Satanistes. — Evidence pology^ ! that still was t he hear. probably helped to bring Anthropology within the sacred circle of permitted knowledge. Mayo. and Von Schrenck-Notzing. But there was found at last to be reason in the Evolution was in thing.

Or suppose you want to show that they have no religious ideas at all .^ ' ' we can of the institutions in to * Primitive Culture. ' for in this way. and Religion. How can you pretend to raise a science on such foundations. is T30und to "use his best judgment as to the trustworthiness of all authors he quotes. 9.' E vidence must Jbe_coIIected. your theory is that savages possess broken lights of the belief in a Supreme Being. i. or who are themselves prejudiced by one or other theory or bias. Tylor then adduces 'the test of recurrence.ANTPIEOPOLOGY AND RELIGION please. a Jesuit in Brazil.' of undesigned coincidence in testimony. I may be permitted to refer to Reply to Objections in the appendii my Mijth. agree in describing some analogous rite or myth in these diverse lands and ages. and. A wrriter. Origin of Ranks. or they answer at random. as Millar had already argued in the last century. you can find evidence for that also. the most important facts of ethnography ' Mr. if possible. we cannot set down the coincidence to chance or fraud. ii. tested^ as " rep jnlbny o ther branc h of inqu iry. Max Miiller says. a Wesleyan in Fiji. travel. of course. Ty lor h as lied.' Mr. as regards our present theme. one may add a police magistrate in Australia. sifted. or have never paid any attention to the subject ? To all these perfectly natural objections Mr. you may find among your useful savages. a trapper in Canada. Your testimony is often derived from observers ignorant of the language of the ' are vouched We may obscure.' add that even when the ideas of savages are often detect them by analysis which they are expressed. You can find evidence for that. to obtain several accounts to certify each point in each locality. or deliberately conceal their most sacred institutions. 10. vol. pencil in hand. Ritual. ' . Suppose. Now. and (in regard to some anthropologists) his You have but to skim a few books of criticism is just.^ If a mediaeval Mahommedan in Tartary. 41 people whom they talk about. and pick out what suits your case. a Presbyterian in Central Africa. especially as the savage informants wish to please or to mystify inquirers.

omits all his essential information about the Australian Supreme overlooking the copious and conclusive evidence as to their ethical religion charges the Australians with having merely a non-moral belief in casual spirits. Spencer cited Sir Samuel Baker for savages without even a ray of superstition or a trace of worship. in certain instances (which will be adduced) has been the occasional error of Mr. and this implication Mr.' carefully recorded years before Sir Samuel's 'rash denial. twelve years before Mr.^ Mr. or better observed. while Mr. relying on a We single isolated sentence in Brough Smyth.' But it would be well to advise the reader to consult Koskoff's confutation of Sir John Lubbock.' Sir John Lubbock has given many of these. Huxley. Cf. had demolished Sir Samuel Baker's assertion. Contradictory instances must be ' ' ' ' supports by proofs that among various savages religious ideas do not exist. i. Yet this. of Social. Spencer wrote. pp. Mr. Tylor. Spencer opens his Ecclesiastical Institutions by the remark that the implication [from the reported absence of the ideas of belief in persons born deaf and dumb] is that the religious ideas of civilised men are not innate (who says they are ?). Spencer. which makes against it. The godless Dinkas have *a good deity and heaven-dwelling ' ' creator. Mr. quotes a good authority as saying the precise reverse of what he really does say.' show later that Mr. and to ignore evidence. and ' * Mr. p. unfortunately. however Princip. 672. quoted by Mr. 423. have also to show that Mr. Huxley and Mr. Huxley — — We ' ' Spencer. Spencer.42 THE MAKING OF RELIGION Thus anthropological. Tylor's masterly statement. and so shaken it as regards the Latukas. Primitive Culttire. 417-425.^ as regards many tribes. Op. Being. must be submitted to conscientious processes Nothing can be less scientific than to snatch up any traveller's tale which makes for our theory. under the dominance of his theory. 673. Spencer • of testing and sifting. i. . Spencer. hunted for sedulously. 304. 424. like psychical or any other evidence. and inadvertently. Ecclesiastical Institutions. or later. cit. perhaps earlier.

except Herr Bastian's very meagre tract. this question is not otiose. This is ungenerous. Tylor. the censures of Mr.ANTHHOPOLOGY AND RELIGION 43 If the facts not fitting their theories are little observed authorities so popular as Mr. as we shall see. Spencer . Herbert Spencer. ' Published for the Berlin Society of Exporimeutal Pdycliology. not war with hasty mdgarisateurs and headlong theorists. fairies among the cinders of the hearth. if these things are done in the green tree. Enough has been said to show the position of an- thropology as regards evidence. none the less. or not. Tylor. if he confines his observations to certain anthropologists. * Tiber psychische Beobachtungen bei Naturvolkern. IG'JO. at least. regards it as a matter of indifference. Tylor's monumental Primitive Culture. Max Miiller are justified. It is mainly for this reason that the arguments presently to follow are strung on the thread of Mr. I am unacquainted with any work devoted by an anthropologist of renown to the hypnotic and kindred practices of the lower races. vix aut ne vix quidem. as the records of anthropology are rich in unexamined materials of psychical research. by if instanti<B contradictorice are ignored by them. or left vague . Leipzig. Mr. the savage side of psychical phenomena. Anthropology adopts the airs of her elder sisters among the sciences. a mass of scattered information on this topic. Huxley. Tylor's truly learned and accurate book. or. Giiather. Huxley and Mr. and is as severe as they to the Cinderella of the She must murmur of her family. and dance with provincial mayors at the festivities of the British Association.' ' possess. and to prove that. like other anthropologists. Psychical Eesearch.' Mr.' Though but recently crept forth. from the chill shade of scientific disdain. Primitive Culture. Mr. Now. in works of travel. and in Mr. are facts of actual experience. . to decide whether the parallel ' We ' supernormal phenomena believed in by savages. Mr. w^e may But we need easily imagine v^hat shall be done in the dry. and unfortunate. as a matter beyond the scope of his essay. while they go forth to the ball. however. and said to recur in civilisation.

let us say. thought-transference. uninjured in the flames. is just what does not seem to be proved. as we shall show. have not hitherto investigated such things as the gists ' Fire. Religion will have been. belief in which is given as one of the origins of religion. Now. in part. to examine. A. be. the evidence for the actual existence of those ' ' ' alleged unusual and supernormal phenomena. erroneous. if the super- normal phenomena (clairvoyance. As this is the case. the alleged facts are not merely dramatically strange. they are not " in merely extraordinary and striking. phantasms of the dead. anthropology has taken for granted that the Supreme Deities of savages are envisaged by them as * spirits. To put it less trenchantly.' S. Balfour.' This. That origin anthropology explains as the result of early and fallacious reasonings on a number of biological and psychological phenomena. on an- thropological grounds. constructs. The world-wide savage practice of divining by hallucinations induced through gazing into a smooth deep (crystal-gazing) has been studied. both normal and (as is alleged by savages) supernormal. I think. J. Proceedings. rialists who reject the supernormal phenomena will also. perhaps inconsistent with materialism in its present dogmatic form. first. like the Three Holy Children. As we shall see. vol. p. incomplete. in some But the inferences drawn by matedegree. Next. by ' . To make this examination.44 THE MAKING OF RELIGION their followers and and popuiarisers. and perhaps more accurately.walk of savages. in the ethnographic field. and others) be real matters of experience. President's Address. developed out of facts. 1894). paradoxical as the statement may appear. phantasms of the dying. These reasonings led to the belief in souls and spirits. the Science of Man. 8.P. it might seem to be the business of Anthropology. but they are "odd the sense that they will not easily fit in with the views which physicists and men of science generally give us of the universe in which we live (Mr. anthropolois almost a new labour. among other things. x. a theory of the Origin of Keligion. perhaps. the inferences drawn from them by early savage philosophy may be.E.

what neither anthropology nor psychical research nor psychology has done to put the savage and modern phenomena side by side. to the use of the marvels in modern times. repose on a basis of real observation of actual phenomena. The veracity of messages uttered by savage seers when (as they suppose) possessed or inspired has not been criticised. He has not suppressed the existence of these barbaric parallels But his interest to our modern problems of this kind. also mean the My way only : — ' ' We . ' The * physical phe- nomena which answer among savages divining rod.' and to have only been glanced ' ' ' spiritist at. By religion we mean. and not dependent on a material mechanism of brain and nerves. These researches. therefore. for the purpose of this argument. Such evidence as we can give for the actuality of the modern experiences will.' and when he has displayed the survival of that belief in later culture. the belief in the existence of an Intelligence. or Intelligences not human. powerfully control men's fortunes and the nature of things.ANTHROPOLOGY AND RELIGION ' 45 ' no anthropologist. especially as they bear on the prevalent anthropological theory of the Origin of Keligion. Tylor. and ' psychical France. An exception among anthropologists is Mr. which may. however darkened by fraud and fancy. have escaped critical analysis and comparison with their civilised counterparts. so far as it goes. all In short. He does not ask Are the phenomena real ? he is concerned only with the savage philosophy of the phenomena and with its relics in * ' ' * ' modern spiritism and religion. or may not. purpose is to do. are within the anthropological province. Anthropology is concerned with man and what is in man humani nihil a se alienum putat. America. Germany. for lack of detailed information. by of 6hauche. raise a presumption that the savage beliefs. the savage paral' lels to the so-called discussion in phenomena now under England. and probably cannot ' ' ' ' be. Italy. in them practically ends when he has shown that the phenomena helped to originate the savage belief in spirits. however erroneous.

an element so far kindred to these Intelligences that it can transcend the knowledge obtained through the known bodily senses. of course But if religion. may yet have been refined. or non-theist. in man. religion would have a To the Theist. or ' fore religion is divinely preordained. all derived beliefs from it must be ' . If they arose in actual communion (as in the theory of the they could be proved to arise in an unanalysable sensus numinis. even granting that it arose out of primitive — — that nothing actual religion is corresponds to its and false hypotheses. in essentials. religion is true. therefirst at least did. understood among men. if with Deity the Hebrew Scriptures). through a multitude of causes. therefore. or at least a necessary source. the inference that untrue hypothesis is very easily drawn. divine. that 'if the primitive belief (in ghosts) was absolutely false. fallacies. I am happy to find that he has anticipated me here. perhaps. and illusions. our religion. within its limits. Opponents will fallacies urge. it might be argued. fashioned to explain facts misconceived. be the latest evolutionary form of a series of mistakes. beliefs at present (though not necessarily in their origin) appear chiefly as the faith in God and in the Immortality of the Soul. as science has been. as now ments on that blunder. In the same way. then. the origin of two beliefs. if possible. logical. to trace. into an approximate truth. for all our science itself is the result of progressive refinements upon hypotheses originally erroneous. though very far from being exhaustive of the truth. though not in accidental details. Spencer both as to facts and their interpretation. what is inevitable cannot but be divinely ordained. Frequently as I am compelled to differ from Mr. and its present form only the result of progressive but unessential refine- atheist. if its germ be a blunder. and These two possibly survive the death of the body. The draws no such inferences. he says. The inference is not.46 THE MAKING OF RELIGION additional belief that there is. may these It is important. Yet our science is true. or even in a perception of the Infinite' (Max Miiller).

Primitive Culture. But it prevents us from positing the existence of such creedless races. that the power which manifests itself in consciousness is but a differently conditioned form of the power which manifests itself beyond consciousness. * ' modern Christianity which run back through says: are We opportunity of observing. out of their own mouths.ANTHEOPOLOGY AND RELIGION absolutely false.' In fact. from blank unbelief into even the ' minimum man's development or most rudi- * Ecclesiastical Institutions. He disproves. one element. at any time. we find that he begins by dismissing the idea that any known race of men is devoid of religious conceptions. we find Mr. saying much the same thing as the priests. Spencer in ' replies : A germ the primitive conception —the truth. chapter xi. As a minimum definition of religion he gives 'the belief in spiritual beings. in short. Spencer does. like Faust as described by Marguerite. in any have thus. 837-839. historically.' which appears 'among all low races with whom we have attained to The existence of this thoroughly intimate relations. the whole creation moves. Spencer.' He 'The thoughts and principles attached to intellectual clues far prae-Christian ages to the very origin of human civilisation. 421. ^ So far we abound in perhaps even of human existence. one law. Of course. And one To which far-off divine event.' belief at present does not prove that no races were ever. Tylor's sense. namely.' 47 of trutli Mr. i. as a demonstrated fact. I allow for a but not quite in the same way. the allegations of several writers who have made this exploded assertion about 'godless of tribes.* Coming at last to Mr. destitute of all belief. much larger germ of truth in the origin of the ghost was contained * ' But we can both say theory than Mr. Tylor. . the ultimate form of the religious consciousness is (will be ?) the final development of a consciousness which at the outset contained a germ of truth obscured by multitudinous errors.' Mr.' ' ' ' ' ' One God. no age.

of which beGiven lief is the theory. includes the belief in souls and in a future state.' ' ' In Mr. Its spirits do not make for righteousness. Animism. implicitly if not explicitly and consciously held. but we may its * ' * provisionally observe. is a tabula rasa. no race whose mind.' and does not Mr. in lower (and earlier) forms.48 THE MAKING OF RELIGION can only theorise and make of belief. has scarcely any connection with ethics. This Animism. in controlling deities and subordinate spirits. early man may have half-consciously extended his own sense of personal and potent and animated existence to the whole of nature as known to him. Not only animals. however. but vegetables and inorganic objects. may have been looked on by him as persons. Tylor gives the name of Animism. What the ' what Mr. though mentary form We more We Spiritualism is still less desirable. in passing.' This is a side issue to be examined later. having been usurped by a form of modern superstitiousness. as to faith. but ' ' ' he calls it Ghost Theory. that the ethical ideas. Tylor calls Animism Mr. To the earliest faith Mr. and from the myths of savages. is chiefly concerned with Animism an ancient and world-wide philosophy. as in Mr. Mr. which were instituted by and are performed in But this topic honour of the gods of their native belief. such as they are. The child (perhaps merely because taught ' This theory is believe in. then. Mr. Tylor's opinion. like what he felt himself to be. by Animism. that all things whatsoever are animated and are personalities. and worship is the practice.' . as ' Tylor does not mean the alleged early theory.' Judging from the behaviour of little children. Spencer believes in. as the earliest form and minimum of religious faith. *in its full development. even of Australian blacks are reported to be inculcated at the religious mysteries (Bora) of the tribes. or less plausible conjectures as to the first rudiments find of human faith in God and in spiritual beings. Huxley's.' Animism. or the belief in spiritual beings. a term not wholly free from objection. what is the origin of Animism ? It will be seen that. Spencer calls Animism. Tylor. must be reserved for our closing chapters.

Thus one of the Kurnai announced that his Yambo. . one might be able to communicate with the ghosts. and death ? * makes the difference between a what causes waking. Tylor investigates. It is spirits.' or clear vision.' These facts prove that a race of savages at the bottom of the scale of culture do take a formal distinction between normal dreams in sleep and waking hallucinations a thing apt to be denied. is the origin of Animism ? It arose in the earliest traceable speculations on two groups of biological * problems. 'Animism. could go out during But while any sleep. in fact. 191-195. xiii. and see the distant and the dead. Tylor most properly takes a distinction between sleeping dreams and waking The distinction is made even 'visions. and all objects are persons in early mythology. Kulin of Wimmera Eiver a man became a wizard who. had seen his mother's ghost sitting at her grave.' ghosts.' * (1) What is it that living body and a dead one trance.' or the origin of that hypothesis. Howitt. may conceivably have existed among early men. — Thus Mr.ANTHROPOLOGY AND RELIGION 49 to do so) beats the naughty chair. of such highly deficient proved by giving examples ' * ' * * Primitive Culture. 150). it was only the wizards who were able to do so in ' * ^ * ' ' ' ' ' waking hours.' * ' which Mr.' by the blacks of Australia. before they developed the hypothesis of souls. Journal of Anthropological Institute. i. What are those human shapes which appear in (2) dreams and visions ? Here it should be noted that Mr. or soul.' instead of I saw This could only be ('Principles of Sociology. But this feeling. ^ as a boy. then. Herbert Spencer offers the massive generalisation that savages do not possess a language enabling a man to say I dreamed that I saw. What. 428. E . disease.' (or feigning to A wizard.' p. during sleep. is a person susceptible be susceptible) when awake to hallucina' Among the tory perceptions of phantasms of the dead. rather than theory. sleep.

in his He early speculations about the life and the soul. Eeflectiug on these things.' or any glossary of any savage language.* there occur ideas as subtly metasavage speculations Moreover.' and the substantive languages Nothing. that the savage pondered. Scott's Dictionary of the Mang'ayija Language. I am unaware that spontaneous somnambulism among savages has been studied as it ought I have demonstrated. We (insomnium.50 THE MAKING OF RELIGION In many languages. then. s. whose apparently telepathic crystal pictures are discussed later (chap. who sees ghosts when awake is marked out for a wizard. Lota. Spencer does not do.v.' and the consequent confusion of dreaming and waking experiences. * Again. have the verb 'to see. At the same time the vividness of dreams among certain savages. as we and Mr. Spencer illustrates from the confusion of mind in dreamy children. the earliest ' savage reasoners ' The curious may consult. ' . They. the crystal-gazer. are much more addicted to somnambulism than groMTi-up people. was introduced to a crystal just because she had previously been known to be susceptible to waking and occasionally veracious hallucinations. hvirvtov). are certain facts.). that the Australians take an essential distinction between waking hallucinations (ghosts seen by a man when awake) and the common hallucinations of slumber. v. Wilson says the same of some negroes. that very low to be. included in his materials the much more striking and memorable experiences of wakmg hours. which Mr. for savage words for dreams. bo easily forgotten as they are. Tylor agree in holding. and Mr. even the Australian physical as those of Hegel. Anybody can have these the man . however. we know. prevents a man from saying I sleep. as recorded in Mr.' Mr.' ' ' sav7 in sleep ' have shown too. It was not only on the dreams of sleep. can and do draw an essential distinction between savages sleeping and waking hallucinations. Im Thurn's Indians of Guiana.

more clever than bees. He may be right in his opinion. separable soul. Tylor thinks. i. so early bees. the step to the belief in a surviving separable soul.' or 'ghost-soul. perhaps. had evolved the hypothesis of this conscious. (which leaves (2) him temporarily also possesses a in their visions ' in sleep. powerful. when we remember that Mr.' like a celebrated writer on Chinese metaphysics. Tylor is theorising about savages in the dim background of human evolution.' When the earliest reasoners. we may say. film. able to act on the bodies of other men. savages whom creature. finally in death) that man phantom (which appears to other people and dreams). and things. its original owner being long forgotten. savages far behind Australians and Bushmen (who possess Gods). may have evolved the system of hexagonal cells. as Mr. In the same way. that had never been human at all.' yet conscious. yet also manifesting physical power. capable of surviving the death of the body. The savage philosopher ' would then combine his information. only le premier pas qui coute. we must admit that he credits them with great ingenuity.' The result would be an apparitional ' ' soul.' as manifestations of one and the same soul. or shadow. to conceive of souls. Cult. He would merely combine the life and the phantom. A powerful ghost of a dead man might thrive till. ' This modern ' Prim. it became a God. Again (souls once given) it would not be a very difficult logical leap. beasts. and strong powers of abstract reasoning. and only an early fish of genius could first have hit ghost-soul would be a highly accomplished 'a vapour. It is. 429. in an age and in mental conditions of which we know nothing historically. it was not difficult for them to develop the rest of Eeligion. K 2 . of leaving the body.' we know nothing of by experience. mostly invisible and impalcapable pable.' existing and appearing after the death of the body.ANTHROrOLOGY AND RELIGION would decide : 61 (1) ' that man ' has a ' ' life . or spirits. Nevertheless. just as primitive men were keen reasoners.

'^ theory of early man by the little child's idea that chairs. Mr. again. 286. sticks. Cult. 285.62 THE MAKING OF RELIGION killing a fly on the plan. may doubt. nothing can be more certain than that. because wholly out of the missionary's line of duty and reflection. all things being animated to his mind) and (2) with those human shapes which appear in dreams and visions'? 'The ancient We — ' : ' * ' Privi. all things. or even as some Biblical critics. to suppose that all things. then. universally. now hereditary. hefore he identified Life (1) with 'that which makes the difference between a living body and a dead one (a difference which. In such matters the savage mind well represents the ' * . to his mind. 428. so the earliest reasoners this theory of To savages I have appear to have been as logically gifted as the lowest savages now known to us. in this way. corpse is not animated. and wooden horses are actuated by the same sort of personal will as nurses and children and kittens. . and then transfer souls to sticks. he did not draw. i. « Ibid. 'that which makes the difference between a living body and a dead one. . Therefore a corpse is not a thing (within the meaning of my General Law)' ? How. as. later. But if he did think all things animated a corpse. Tylor's hypothesis. childish stage. certainly not derived from missionary sources. that they possess souls. A thing else. We shall find. if primitive man came. were animated. by reasoning on souls. of water at it. to him. » Ibid. they don't think so because they have heard. they first conceived the extremely abstract idea of Life. Tylor illustrates this universally.' ^ Now. the more difficult to early man. was just as much animated as anyDid he reason All things are animated. however. By Mr.' This highly abstract conception must have been. . ex hypothesi. did early man conceive of Life. 285. As early beasts had genius. astonishing examples of savage abstract speculation. i. i. by blowing metaphysical genius in very low no objection to ofifer. are 'animated. or discovered. if children think sticks are animated.

enduring. he conceives. before he first envisaged it in material terms as breath. before the idea of separable soul was developed. early man excogitated (by the hypothesis) the abstract idea of Life. Tylor has thus modern civilisation. a life and a phantom. His reasoning appears to have proceeded from the more abstract (the idea of Life) to the more concrete. perhaps owing to our own want of capacity. with their parallels in man. intelligent souls or ghosts. facts in that mass of experiences from which savages constructed their belief in separable. These supernormal phenomena.' as far as one makes out. to him.' He next decided that mere breath or shadow was not only identical with ' ' ' ' abstract conception of Life. which can survive the death of the body. which Mr. but could also take real and full-bodied as. then clothed in the very aspect of the real the more on forms as (whether we follow his logic or not) provided man with a theory of active. At this theory early man arrived by speculations on the nature of life. at least if savages arrived at the theory of universal animation as children are said to do. which . are.' But everything was supposed to have *a life. are the hallucinations of dream or waking vision. Spencer calls Animism and does not believe in. whether real or illusory. the foundation of religion.' But our author by no means leaves out of sight the effects of alleged supernormal phenomena believed in by savages. While we are. puzzled by what seem to be two kinds of early philosophy (1) a sort of instinctive or unreasoned belief in universal animation.ANTHROPOLOGY AND RELIGION 63 savage philosophers probably reached the obvious inference that every man had two things belonging to him. "We are dealing here quite conjecturally with facts beyond our experience.' or shadow. intelligent. Mr. separable souls. (2) the reasoned belief in sepa- — ' ' rable and surviving souls of men (and in things). In any case. to the life first shadowy and vaporous. and on the causes of phantasms of the dead or living beheld in 'dreams and visions.

i.' ' still meditate and how far the result is — Now. life unknown modern thinkers on and the soul were existing on the same psychical plane as we ourselves. but takes none between modem savages and the remote founders of : religion. a word. Tylor attributes to the lower races. or. gesture. Tylor difficulty. Later we shall ask what may be presumable psychical differences between modern savages and the datelessly distant founders of the beHef in souls. narcotics. and even to races high above their level. Fasting we do not practise voluntarily. the psychical conditions in which. in this regard. decided that ghosts are not seen by imaginative people. whose imagi* nation passes on such slight excitement into positive is rather the rule than the exception among uncultured and intensely imaginative tribes. Thus Mr.' Most such favoured persons whom I have known were steady. Spencer believes and Mr. we ' morbid ' a matter for psychologists and pathologists to determine. according to Mr. or disease. whose minds may be thrown off their balance by a touch.64 THE MAKING OF RELIGION in.' ^ I find evidence that low contemporary savages are great ghost-seers. unexcitable people. . Mr. unimaginative. fasting. an unaccustomed noise. at greater length. as Between modern savages and ourselves. bed of his recently lost father on purpose to see his ghost. morbid ecstasy. remote. and. calls * Animism ' — we must seem also note another it Mr. he takes certain differences. Mr. brought on by medita' ' said as to possible or may is tion. I cannot quite accept Mr. nor would we easily accept evidence from an Englishman as to ' Primitive Culture. Tylor. at least. savages. too. Tylor may to be taking for granted that the earliest. Tylor's psychology of the modern ghost-seer.' now examine. excitement. after sleeping in the experience. contemporary 7iot ' ' We savages differ from civilised men. a hallucination. 446. again. Tylor observes The condition of the modern ghost-seer. with just one odd Lord Tennyson.

by 'devil-dances.' For our purpose the induced trances of savages (in whatever way voluntarily brought on) are analogous to the modern induced hypnotic trance. in their normal state. About with fancies. followed by gorges of Europeans and their lack of artificial light. the point of psychical condition.^ They can be more easily hallucinated in their normal waking state by suggestion.' at We ' the age of puberty. but in moral gods. Any supernormal acquisitions of knowledge in these induced conditions. Die Bcobachtung narcotiscJier Mittel filr den Hypnotismiis. among savages. beyond all doubt. x. their intervals of hunger. 30G-315. with those of excitement. however. do not differ from known savages in being able to bring on non-normal psychological conditions. Dr. as they were on all Eed Indian boys and girls in the medicine-fast. and S. .E. far behind the modern savages. combine to make savages more apt to see what is not there than are comfortable educated white men. But the savages who ex hypothesi evolved the doctrine of souls lie beyond our ken. by other methods than theirs. among whom we find belief not only in souls and ghosts. Further. or some of them. like those of Cotton Mather. But Mr. as a rule. The visions of disease we should set aside. and such experiments are not made on all of us. as a rule. In all that he says on this point. Mr. Tylor is writing about known savages as they differ from ourselves. known savages. ' * Primitive Culture. Once more.P. Von Schrenck-Notzing.'^ See. for instance.ANTHROPOLOGY AND RELIGION 66 the veracity of voluntary fasting visions. but we produce these. are more suggestible than educated * ' at least. Proceedings.' produced.' Narcotic and alcoholic visions are not in question. 292. would be on a par with similar alleged experiences of persons under * hypnotism. ' The civilised man. ' L S15. i. is capable of being enfantosme.299. Tylor goes too far when he says where the savage could see phantasms. the civilised man has come to amuse himself food.

self-possessed human being of civilisation. And the more firmly a philosopher believes in the Darwinian hypothesis. Tylor. or by the flickering light of analogy. The terror of dogs in haunted houses and of horses in passing haunted scenes has often been reported. pp. whom Eumaeus could not see. educated. What kind of creature was man when he first conceived the germs. and in the ants' modes of acquiring and communicating knowledge to each other) which are mysteries to us. 406. when we write about these faroff founders of religion. we guess in the dark. the less. are ' ' classical is.66 THE MAKING OF RELIGION the psychical condition of the savages who worked out the theory of souls and founded religion we necessarily know nothing. 408. of Eeligion ? All is guess-work here ! "We may just allude to Hegel's theory that clairvoyance and hypnotic phenomena are produced in a kind of temporary atavism. and the dogs which crouched and whined ' ' ' before Athene. can he suppose himself to know about the twilight ages. was a product of an earlier day and earlier mental condition than ours. clairvoyant] faculty or soul is a disease when it becomes a state of the self-conscious. The lower animals have faculties (as in their power of finding their way home ' through new unknown regions. If there be such experiences as clairvoyance. telepathy. des Oeistes. instances. that we know little more about the mental condition and experiences of the early thinkers developed the doctrine of Souls than we know about the mental condition and experiences of the lower animals. . ' * ' * ' ' Phil.' ^ Second sight. these unknown ancestors of ours may (for all that we can tell) have been peculiarly open to them. or who received the light. and therefore peculiarly apt to believe in separable souls.' Hegel thinks. or throwing back to a remotely ancient ' ' condition of the 'sensitive soul' {fiihlende Seele). The weakness of the anthropological argument here we must repeat. between the lower animal and the fully evolved man. and is alluded to briefly by Mr. Balaam's ass. he must admit. and so on. The * sensitive [unconditioned. In fact.

scious life of the spirit. If early men were ever in a condition in which Now. has arrived. See. That telepathy they are deliberately cultivated by modern savages we The Indian foster-mother of John Tanner used. 78. indeed. Dr. Balfour's Presidential Address to the Society for Psychical Kesearch.AT^TIIROrOLOGY AND RELIGION Approaching 67 this almost untouched subject the early condition of man not from the side of metapsychical physical speculations like Hegel. following. it may be said. J.' in which we moderns now live. not unsuccessfully.' ' that the remote and unknown ancestors developed the doctrine of souls had not yet spread far from 'the main trunk of our psychical In that case existence.' 'fundamental. too. suppose of ours who first and clairvoyance (granting their possibility) were prevalent. of Berlin. so that she became clairvoyante as to the know. M. one might expect that faculties so useful would be developed in the struggle for existence. (at least. but came to practise the same art. Dessoir's theory) their psychical experiences would be such as we cannot estimate. according to Dr.' and 'hallucination represents. But the most telepathic human stocks. to have been the most successful whereabouts early See also Mr. New York. at least in its nascent condition. A. an English boy. at somewhat similar conclusions. 'seems to rest upon a substratum of reflex action of a Our actual modern condition is not hallucinatory type. ceteris paribus. Proceedings. which he dictated on his return to civilisation. as we This fully consaw. Taine. out of our calculations.^ His reminiscences. himself. yet cannot leave. but with the instruments of modern psychology and physiology. 139. . 100. Taine. 1830. vol. were certainly not feigned in the interests of any theories. Tanner. '^ Tanner's Narrative. the main trunk of our psychical — — * existence. ought. to suggest herself into an hypnotic condition. Max Dessoir. when food was needed. was sceptical. x. caught by the Indians. ' i. of game.' far from constant hallucination. as a possibility influencing religion. De V Intelligence.

The knowledge of our nescience as to the psychical condition of our first thinking ancestors may suggest hesitation as to taking it for granted that early man was on our own or on the modern savage level in psychical earliest ' We ' ' Even savage races. attribute superior psychical knowledge to neighbouring tribes on a yet lower level of culture than themselves. in considerable nothing. Tylor could not possibly have anticipated this line of argument. Dr. They may have had experiences tending towards a belief in spirits. Psychical planes had not been invented . and this historical ignorance inevitably besets all anthropological speculation about the origin of religion. a priori.' of which we can tell are obliged to guess. . Tylor justly says. Mr. There may be more ways than one relative humility : there Tylor's way. Mr. hypnotism. in his 'Description of the Western Islands of the famous Highland second sight Scotland.'' ' ' ' ' He Primitive Culture. as Mr.58 in the THE MAKING OF RELIGION struggle for existence. i. or that these did not influence his thoughts on animism. It is an example of the chameleon-like changes of man knew no more science (even of science falsely so called if you please) that when he wrote his book. had not been much noticed in England. 143. Tylor did not ' ' ' ' ' ' saw very ignore this revival of savage philosophy. in 1871. Tylor says.' wrote-^of that ceasing to be believed it has ceased to exist. really we know nothing of the psychical state of the cetera were not paria. But Spiritualism was flourishing. the Lapp yields to the superior pretensions of the Samoyeds. earliest We explaining this Hegel's way and there is Mr. We may infer that the state not being But precisely the best for the practical business of life. cannot be certain. that the is of of supernormal or apparently supernormal experiences than we commonly do. Seventy years ago. well that the end of the century was beholding the partial rehabilitation of beliefs which were scouted from 1660 to 1850. The Finn esteems the Lapp sorcerers above his own . the clairvoyant men. as Mr. ignorance of the actual conditions. with its problems. Macculloch. experience.

preface.' and with no reference to rapping spirits. not from the point of view of hold spiritualism. Tylor attracted to this subject (Psychical Research) my love of fair play in Science. ' ' ' ' . should be discussed on their merits. Tylor. * The Will to Believe. Tylor on the causes of the origin of religion are now criticised. Mr. attributes the revival of interest in this obscure class of subjects to the influence of Swedenborg. p. But interest has chiefly been aroused and kept alive phenomena of hypnotism. educated students. Professor of Psychology in the University of Harvard.' to a direct revival from the regions of savage philosophy and peasant folklore. Macculloch was mistaken in his facts. / ' We As spiritualism is often used in opposition to 'materialism. The ideas of Mr. and under far better circumstances of This fact he ascribes generally learning and prosperity. It is true. as we have seen. William James.ANTHROPOLOGY AND RELIGION ' ' 69 Second Dr. writes : *Iwas some years ago by Mr.' a revival brought about in great To-day things have part by the writings of Swedenborg. * ' is not incapable of appreciating this attithe so-called spirit manifestations.' Mr.' ^ tude. modern by the among Thus Mr. really scientific. as has been shown. and it has recently been investigated in the Journal of the Caledonian Medical Society. The interest is now. has never ceased to exist (or to be believed to sight exist). Tylor himself says that it has been reinstated in a far larger range of society. but of experimental psychology.' Nothing can be more remote from the logic of Hume. The students now interested in this whole class * ' ' * of alleged supernormal phenomena are seldom believers in the philosophy of Spiritualism in the American sense of the word. altered. xiv.' he says.' and the investigation Even ' would seem apt to throw light on some most interesting psychological questions. that Swedenborg attracted the attention of Kant.' the modern belief in that class of intelligences may here be called spiritism.

the in the sunlight does not resemble the phantasm in a dream. Mr. he well knowing that the Manes of the said kinsman were elsewhere. i. pp. the spiritus seeks the stars. 21-51. The confessedly symbolical character of the phrase. are next presented with a crowd of cases in which is man that very probably there exist human faculties of unscope that these conceivably were more powerful and prevalent among our very remote ancestors who founded religion that they may still exist in savage as in civilised races. if they did not originate. breath. But the word in the latter case would react on the thought. . of course we do not know. Subdivisions and distinctions were then recognised. till the Eoman inhaled (as his life?) the last breath of his dying kinsman. breath (spirihis). de Nicaraqiia. on one side. with life. Tylor next examines the savage and other names for the ghost-soul. the doctrine of separable souls.60 THE MAKING OF RELIGION regarded as equivalent to his life. 'the responsible moral soul. Citing Oviedo. and he gives cases in which the shadow of a known . or personal life-phantom {wraith).' proves that to the speaker life was not heart or breath.' the Karen kelah. 433.* Whether the earliest thinkers identified heart. it is not precisely the heart. but that in them which makes them live. or whether they consciously used words of material origin to denote an immaterial conception. and not to be inhaled. and the Karen thah. as of the Egyptian Ka. were combined and identified by early thinkers. 432. The Eoman umbra hovers about the grave.* a phrase found among the natives of Nicaragua in 1528. however. while breath and heart were used as symbols of that in men which makes them live. Of course. The two. . the double. the circumstance is important. shadow. If they do exist.' but that these terms were known to be material word-counters for the conception of life.' on the other. in view of the fact that modern ideas rest on a denial of their existence. such as shadow (umbra). shadow * ' ' ' * ' ' ' We ' Primitive Culture. the manes go to Orcus. and that they may have confirmed. Hist.

wandered out of the body to the distant scene. his more gifted ancestors) would have other grounds for (or his theory of the wandering soul than any ground presented by normal occurrences. while the seer. the modern savage sleep.ANTHROPOLOGY AND RELIGION 61 sickness or lethargy is ascribed by savages to the absence This idea of the patient's spirit. in favour of the * clairvoyant Now. or hypnotic If so. for the sake of argument. that a person. or seer. and the savage's theory of the spirit will be. soul. at least in part. through channels of sense. based on other than normal and every-day . unknowable. an unverified theory. or of one of his spirits. or one of his souls is thought to go forth to distant places in quest of information. priest. to him unknown. Again. of migratory spirit is next used by savages to explain His certain proceedings of the sorcerer. The savage and. But still. Was this belief in the wandering abroad of the seer's spirit a theory not only false in its form (as probably it is). shadows. in the struggle for existence. Probably. obtains in trance information about distant places or events. for the sake of argument. will explain this by saying that the seer's soul. suppose that the seer did honestly obtain this information in trance. or any other condition. remains lethargic. or spirit. at present. Tylor's where a critic may ask. ce qu'un vain peuple pense under the new popular tradition. perhaps. savage or civilised. Say. This is. shadow. ordinary dreams. he lost more by being ! lethargic than he gained by being we touch the first point in Mr. but also wholly unbased on experiences which might raise a presumption theory. here existence of ' phenomena really super- normal ? By supernormal experiences I here mean such as the acquisition by a human mind of knowledge which could not be obtained by it through the recognised channels of sensation. It will (granting the facts) be impossible to aver that there is nihil in The soul will be not intellectu quod non prius in sensu. and so forth. lethargy. in human nature there would be (if such things occur) a potentiality of experiences other and stranger than materialism will admit as possible.

as to how far the logic of a savage might or might not go on occasion. a scientific reasoner might be expected to ask: 'Is this alleged acquisition of knowledge. shadow. however rare. a real process. if it is. However. and also capable of But it will give the existing after the death of the body. after discounting possibilities of falsehood and collusion. capable of voyaging. of course. we cannot reason. trance— is not the sole origin of his theory. Tylor's hypothetical early reasoner might decline to believe that his own or a friend's soul had been absent on an expedition. He might then have examined modern narratives of similar performances among the civilised. it was easy for him to examine travellers' tales about savage seers who beheld distant events in vision. Mr. a priori. In any case. and appears as . and to allow them what weight he thought proper. not through the ordinary channels of sense. about events remote in space. THE MAKING OF RELIGION That condition in which the seer acquires information. Tylor. unless it brought back information not normally to be acquired. savage a better excuse for his theory than normal experiences provide and will even raise a presumption that reflection on mere ordinary experiences —death. Tylor's theory needs modifications. justify the savage's theory that the soul is a separable entity. For a savage so acute as Mr. . and there must be an region to investigate. not otherwise accessible. ' * ' X races. we must obviously increase our list of the savage's reasons for believing in a soul : we must make his reasons include psychical experiences. which are abundant. it will not. But his manner of dealing with them is With his unequalled knowledge of the lower peculiar. a thing in rerum natura ? Because.' If such an experience be in rerum natura. is what the mesmerists of the mid-century called ' travelling clairvoyance. while the character of the savage's reasoning becomes more creditable to the savage.62 facts. It is obvious and undeniable that if the supernormal acquisition of knowledge in trance is a vera causa. These considerations did not failto present themselves to Mr.

John's Eve. And we are inclined to hold that an examination of the mass of evidence to which Mr.ANTHROPOLOGY AND RELIGION better at 63 bottomed than we had been asked to suppose. ' . not of a normal and ordinary kind.' wrong interpretations have been put upon them by The real Jung-Stilling. but Mr. Tylor does not examine this large body of evidence all. St. But we are not absolutely so sure that in this aspect the theory is not based on actual experiences. by ( is. Do We ' Primitive Culture. If so. as on St. or by anyone else. 43. if it explains the supernormal acquisition of knowledge. not only as to the origins of the savage theory of spirits. and quoting Mr. Tylor offers here so slight an allusion will at least make it wise to suspend our judgment. as it is assuredly of savage origin. too. such events occur among lower and higher question races. 440. Citing Stilling after Dale Owen. the savage philosophy and its supposed survivals in belief will appear in a new light. Mark's Eve. i. p.Stilling.' Modern Europe has indeed done so. when it takes the form of a theory of wandering spirits. * He : ^ * ' . Tylor also adds folk-lore practices of ghost-seeing. have fallen into a swoon. but as to the materialistic hypothesis of the absence of a psychical element in man.' is probably untenable. as far as folk-lore goes. is in point. examination. does not offer us the details of his merely writes in this place A typical spiritualistic instance may be quoted from Jung. longing to see absent friends. who says that examples have come to his knowledge of sick persons who. * closely enough to the lines of early philosophy. Alfred Kussel Wallace's Scientific Aspect of the Supernatural. or the hallucinatory appearance of a distant person to his friend by a theory of wandering But facts do not cease to be facts because 'spirits. merely remarking that or.' Jung-Stilling (though he wrote before modern Spiritualism came in) is not a very valid authority there is plenty of better evidence than his. But Mr. Tylor passes modern Europe has kept it by. during which they have appeared to the distant objects of their affection. beyond explanation by fraud and fortuitous coincidence ? gladly grant that the belief in Animism. Mr. savages. at least.

a faculty of acquiring has no rapport with our normal faculties of that kind. But one may be permitted to quote the opinion of M. It is not cited because M.P. a faculty attributed by savage philosophers to the wandering soul. Instances tending to raise a presumption in favour Eichet's idea may now be sought in savage and « civilised life. Charles Eichet. persons.64 THE MAKING OF RELIGION I may seem to have outrun already the Hmits of It may appear absurd to surmise permissible hypothesis. v. 167. Eichet is a professor of physiology. but because he reached his conclusion after six years of minute experiment. . a faculty for acquiring information not accessible by the known channels of sense. S. that there can exist in man. at He ' says : There exists in certain certain knowledge which moments. Professor of Physiology in the Faculty of Medicine in Paris. savage or civilised.R.'* of M. Proceedings.

Darker Superstitions of Scotland. beyond the reach of chance coincidence to explain. is awake. F ." (October 2.' No includes what is technically styled dissociation. not through normal channels of sense. and being taken. Graham Dalzell. p. whereby knowledge of remote events may be As the acquired. 481. and seen standing at her own house wall in a trance. she could not give answer.65 IV *OPENINa THE GATES OF DISTANCE' *To open the Gates of Distance' is the poetical Zulu phrase for what is called clairvoyance. This. " If our boat be not lost. is the result of a faculty of undetermined nature. say in the petit mal of epilepsy. however. but stood as bereft of her senses. the husband of Jonka Dyneis was in danger six miles from her house in his boat. p. is whether any such visions convey actual information not otherwise to be acquired. 232. A Scottish example. Jonka was found. or vue a distance. Isiyezi is a state in which a man becomes insensible. and when she was asked why she was so moved. Religion of the Zulus. but still sees things slightly which he would not see if he were not in a state of Zulus say ' : He The Zulu description of isiyezi ecstasy {nasiyesi).' psychologist or pathologist will deny that visions of an hallucinatory sort may occur in dissociated states. if it exists. 1616. from the records of a court of ' ' At the moment law.)^ when ' ' ' ^ Callaway. The question. she answered. she was in great hazard. exactly illustrates the Zulu theory.

who. * Williams mentions second sight in Fiji. these having been sent by their medicine-man. ' * ' . November 1894."* it may be pointed out that they are related among savage tribes. Aulus Gellius.66 THE MAKING OF RELIGION of The belief in opening the Gates of Distance is. to find anything like attested cases of successful clairvoyance among savages is a difficult task. Mr. like Scheffer.. very widely diffused. 147-149. is. as when Captain Jonathan Carver obtained from a Cree medicine-man a true prophecy of the arrival of a canoe with news next day at noon or when Mr. Prods de Jeanne d'Arc. however.I. for we cannot crossexamine the witnesses. on which Mr. but gives no examples. of course touch. and compare Scheffer. Dio Cassius. was met by Indians of the very band he was seeking.A. stated . J. not as evidence to facts. xv. Mr. ^ See Shamanism in Siberia. while the faculty is the stock in trade savage seers in all regions. to Plotinus. Ixvii. Tylor does not If so.. or. to many Saints. or are afraid of seeming superstitious if they give examples. if they do give examples. Are any of the stories true ? would confirm in the mind of the savage his theory they of the wandering soul. travelling with two voyageurs on the Copper Mine Eiver.^ to to to of question. The gift is attributed course. and cavalier : 'Without discussing on their merits the accounts of what is called "second sight. The article is very learned and interesting. Crespet. pp. De la Haine du Diahle. See good evidence in Ker of Kerslaiid's Memoirs. 18. of Tyana. the narratives are omitted by modern writers The must therefore make our own to be noted that the stories of successful savage clairvoyance are given as illustrations merely.^ it is We researches.' J. Even where travellers. are accused of having sunk to the degraded level of Zulus or Eed Indians. Tylor dismisses the topic in a manner rather on savage divination. Apollonius Catherine de' Medici. on enquiry. have told about their own experiences. to the Eev. Mason Brown.' and Jeanne d'Arc. Peden. White men either scout the idea. Now.

at least. 362 Atlantic '^lonthly. which description was repeated to General Brown by the warriors before they saw his two companions. F 2 ' New ' ' . Mr. raise a presumption that the savage's theory has a better foundation than Mr. because they may. so alien. or are such experiences only ignored and put aside without serious consideration ? They science. however exact. I ' what we complain of the alleged aside without serious consideration. are so revolting to the laws of exact had almost said. statements supported by unquestionable testimony. Tylor cites Dr." in our opinion. 269. attire. Oddly enough. July 1866. Yet is this true. the merits of stories of second sight need discussion. at a great distance. if well attested. and heard them ' talk on their ' journey. 28l>. bade his emissaries seek three whites. to the experience of our lives. are not slaves to the idea that the laws of exact science must be the only laws at work in the world. i. Tylor does not say so. Carver's case is given under the head Possession later.' put We. Tylor supposes.' To return to actual examples of the alleged supernormal acquisition of knowledge by savages Dr. and personal : ' appearance he minutely described. Brinton'a Myths of the World.' says Dr. * ' There are. 447. " Journal Historique. The reference in the recent edition is p. Brinton gives an example from Charlevoix and General Mason Brown's anecdote.^ In General Mason Brown's instance the medicine-man. which ought not to be passed over in silence. arms. Tylor has certainly not improved the story in his condensed version. Now. p. Dr. Dr.' Mr. though Mr. Brinton (from whom he borrows his two anecdotes) is more or less of our opinion. does not pretend to have That is exactly : facts are * * ' discovered all 'laws. .'OPENING THE GATES OF DISTANCE' that " he 67 saw them coming. Science. whose horses. Brinton of 'the accuracy of this in every particular.' General Brown assured Dr. p. Brinton. and yet I cannot but approach them with * ' ' hesitation. Brinton refers to many tales * ' Primitive Culture.

and I had agreed to wait for them on the NorthEast border. Mr. He was obliged to proceed to the Zulu country to meet Kaffir elephant-hunters. instead of the " spiritual telegraphic news " which I expected him to get from his " familiar. * After waiting some time. and at last. and his book. and would travel through it.' by Mr. and some will be found in 'Among the Zulus. telling him that if he obtained that information from me he might easily substitute some news which he may have heard ' . the nearest point I could go to with safety. — fillip I felt inclined to give it up. the time for their return having arrived. out of curiosity and pour passer le temps. * I my I reached the appointed rendezvous. and becoming very uneasy about them. * — — from others. brought up from boyhood in familiarity with the Zulus. Leslie was a Scottish sportsman. as I thought I might receive some rambling statement with a considerable dash ." To this he answered " I told you I did not understand white men's ways but if I am to do anything for you it must be done in my way not yours. I did go." said he. contains writes : much interesting matter. privately printed. after some persuasion and promise of liberal payment. " I cannot " and I know tell anything about white men. but could not gain the slightest intelligence of my people at the kraal. impressing upon him the fact that it was not white men but Kaffirs I wanted to know about. he at last consented. They were hunting in a very unhealthy country. even although his body should lie before me. one of my servants recommended me to go to the doctor. David Leslie (1875)." However. His knowledge of their language and customs was minute." On receiving this * : nothing of their ways.68 THE MAKING OF RELIGION such as these. saying "he would opeii the Gate of Distance. To this I demurred." His first proceeding was to ask me the number and names of my hunters. I stated what I wanted information about my hunters and I was met by a stern refusal.

I conceded this point also. into each he cast a small stone. The next " This man (again de" has been killed an elephant. Leslie could discover no explanation. they would not pass that way. Then he seemed to wake. shouting. It was scarcely within the bounds of possibility that this man could have had ordinary intelligence of the hunters they were scattered about in a country two hundred miles away. according to Callaway. or non-success being equally so. He gives another example." 'To the next fire as before: "This man" (correctly " has killed four described) elephants. Mr. and otherwise satisfied him. nor was any suggested by friends familiar with the country and the natives whom he consulted.' which emitted a curious sickly odour and thick smoke. . but as they would not expect to find me waiting on them there so long after the time appointed. : : . and said man has died of the fever. but your scribing him) by gun is coming home. and that in three months they would come out. and what they were doing. . and your gun is lost.' ' ." and so on through the whole. the name to which the stone was dedicated then he ate some " medicine. it being easy for anyone who knew anything of hunting to give a tolerably correct idea of their motions. during all which time his limbs kept moving. eaten by seers. However.' ' Probably impepo. as he did so. looked at the stone " This attentively. described the man faithfully. A parallel which may be explained by 'suggestion. went to one of the fires.'OPENING THE GATES OF DISTANCE' 69 of truth. ' I took a particular note of all this information at the utter amazement it turned out correct in time." and fell over in what appeared to be a trance for about ten minutes. and to my every particular." and then he " described the tusks. raked the ashes about. I was told where the survivors were. the men being minutely and correctly described their success * — . The doctor then made eight little fires that being the number of my hunters on each he cast some roots.

70

THE MAKING OF KELIGION

* case from Central Africa will be found in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute,' November 1897, p. 320, where private information,' as usual, would explain the
'

singular facts.

The Zulus themselves

lay claim to a kind of clair-

voyance which looks like the result of intense visualising power, combined with the awakening of the subconscious memory.^ There is among black men a something which is divination within them. When anything valuable is lost, they look for it at once; when they cannot find it, each one begins to practise this inner divination, trying to feel where the thing is for, not being able to see it, he feels internally a pointing, which tells him if he will go down At length to such a place it is there, and he will find it. it says he will find It at length he sees it, and himself approaching it; before he begins to move from where he is, he sees it very clearly indeed, and there is an end of
*
;

;

doubt.

That sight

is

so clear that

it is

as

though

it

was

not an inner sight, but as if he saw the very thing itself, and the place where it is so he quickly arises and goes to the place. If it is a hidden place he throws himself into it, as though there was something that impelled him to go as swiftly as the wind and, in fact, he finds the If it thing, if he has not acted by mere head-guessing. has been done by real inner divination, he really sees it.
; ;

But

if it

is

done by mere head-guessing and knowledge

that he has not gone to such a place and such a place, and that therefore it must be in such another place, he generally misses the mark.'

Other Zulu instances will be given under the heads Possession and Fetishism.' To take a Northern people In his History of the ^ Scheffer describes mechanical modes of divinaLapps tion practised by that race, who use a drum and other These modes depend on mere objects for the purpose. traditional rules for interpreting the accidental combina'
'

'

'

:

'

'

Callaway's Religion of the Amazulu, p. 358.

^

Oxford, 1G74.

'OPENING THE GATES OF DISTANCE'
tions
of
lots.

71

But a Lapp confessed to Scheffer, with he could not help seeing visions, as he proved by giving Scheflfer a minute relation 'of whatever particulars had happened to me in my journey to Lapland. And he further complained that he knew not how to make use of his eyes, since things altogether distant were presented to them.' This Lapp was anxious to become a Christian, hence his regret at being a rare and valuable Torfaeus also was posed by example of clairvoyance. the clairvoyance of a Samoyed, as was Kegnard by a Lapp
tears, that
' '

seer.^

The next
examples,
is

case

is

merely given for purposes of
'

of old date, and, like the other savage illustration.

25« Leitre}

* *'

Suite des Traditions des Sauvages."
'

Au

Fort de la Riviere de
ce
14.

St.

Joseph,

"Des Jongleurs Vous avez vu a Paris Madame de Marson, & elle y est encore voici ce que M. le Marquis de Vaudreuil son Gendre, actuellement notre Gouverneur General, me raconta cet Hyver, & qu'il a 5911 de cette
. .

*

"

Septembre 1721.

.

;

Elle Dame, qui n'est rien moins qu'un esprit foible. un jour fort inquiette au sujet de M. de Marson, son Mari, lequel commandoit dans un Poste, que nous avions en Accadie et etoit absent, & le tems qu'il avoit marque
etoit
;

pour son retour,
*

Une Femme

etoit passe.

Sauvage, qui vit

Madame

de Marson en

Comme elle marqua, avec un chapeau gris sur la tete. s'apper9ut que la Dame n'ajoutoit point foi a sa prediction, au jour & a I'heure, qu'elle avoit assignee, elle retourna chez elle, lui demanda si elle ne vouloit pas venir
voir
arriver

peine, lui en demanda la cause, & I'ayant apprise, lui dit, apr^s y avoir un peu reve, de ne plus se chagriner, que son Epoux reviendroit tel jour et a telle heure, qu'elle lui

son Mari,
*

&

suivre, qu'elle I'entraina
'

au bord de

la pressa de telle sorte la Eiviere.

de

la

Voyages.

From

Charlevoix, Journal Historig^iie, p. 362.

72

THE MAKING OF RELIGION

*A peine y etoient-elles arrivees, que M. de Marson parut dans un Canot, un chapeau gris sur la tete; & ayant appris ce qui s'etoit passe, ass^ra qu'il ne pouvoit pas comprendre comment la Sauvagesse avoit pti s9avoir I'heure & le jour de son arrivee.'
It is unusual for European travellers and missionaries to give anecdotes which might seem to confirm the delusions of benighted savages.' Such anecdotes, again, are among the arcana of these wild philosophers, and are not readily communicated to strangers. When successful cases are reported, it is natural to assert that they come through Europeans who have sunk into barbarous superstition, or that they may be explained by fraud and collusion. It is certain, however, that savage proficients believe in their own powers, though no less certainly they will eke them out by imposture. Seers are chosen in Zululand, as among Eskimos and Samoyeds, from the class which in Europe supplies the persons who used to be, but are no longer the most favourite hypnotic subjects, abnormal children,' epileptic and hysterical. These are ^ subjected to a long and methodical course of training.' Stoll, speaking of Guatemala, says that certainly most of
' * '
'

the induced and spontaneous phenomena with which we are familiar occur among savages,' and appeals to travellers
observations.^ Information is likely to come in, as educated travellers devote attention to the topic. Dr. Callaway translates some Zulu communications which indicate the amount of belief in this very pracfor
tical

and sceptical people.
be quoted

Amusing
later,

illustrations of their

under 'Possession,' but they do accept as seers certain hysterical patients. These are tested by their skill in finding objects which have been hidden without their knowledge. They then behave much like Mr. Stuart Cumberland, but have not the advantage of muscular contact with the person who knows where the hidden objects are concealed. The neighbours even deny that they have hidden anything at all. When
scepticism will
'
'

Bastian, Vebcr psych. Beobacht. p. 24.

*

Op.

cit.

p. 26.

'OPENING THE GATES OE DISTANCE'

73

they persist in their denial ... he finds all the things that they have hidden. They see that he is a great inyanga (seer) when he has found all the things they have conNo doubt he is guided, perhaps in a supercealed.' sensitive condition, by the unconscious indications of the
excited spectators. The point is that, v^hile the savage conjurer will doubtless use fraud wherever he can, still the experience of low races is in favour of employing as seers the class of people who in Europe were, till recently, supposed to make

the best hypnotic subjects. Thus, in West Africa, the presiding elders, during your initiation to the secret society of your tribe, discover this gift [of Ebumtupism, or second " a witch doctor." Among sight], and so select you as the Karens, the Wees,' or prophets, are nervous excitable
*
'

^

*

'

* men, such as would become mediums,' as mediums are Mr. Tylor. diagnosed by In short, not to multiply examples, there is an element of actual observation and of bona fides entangled in the trickery of savage practice. Though the subjects may be

because of the physical phenomena of convulsions which they exhibit, and which favourably impress their clients, they are also such subjects as occasionally yield that evidence of supernormal faculty
selected partly

which is investigated by modern psychologists, like Eichet, Janet, and William James. The following example, by no means unique, shows the
view taken by savages of their own magic, after they have become Christians. Catherine Wabose, a converted Eed Indian seeress, described her preliminary fast, at the age of
puberty. After six days of abstention from food she was rapt away to an unknown place, where a radiant being welcomed her. Later a dark round object promised her the gift of prophecy. She found her natural senses She first exercised her greatly sharpened by lack of food. powers when her kinsfolk in large numbers were starving. A medicine-lodge, or tabernacle as Lafitau calls it, was
' ' '

'

Miss Kingsley, Travels in West Africa, p. 460. Primitive Culture^ ii. 131 Mason's Burmah,
;

p. 107.

74

THE MAKING OF KELIGION

built for her, and she crawled in. As is well known, these lodges are violently shaken during the magician's stay within them, which the early Jesuits at first attributed to muscular efforts by the seers. In 1637 Pere Lejeune was astonished by the violent motions of a large lodge, tenanted by a small man. One sorcerer, with an appearance of candour, vowed that a great wind entered boisterously,' and the Father was assured that, if he went in himself, he would become clairvoyant. He did not make the experiment. The Methodist convert, Catherine, The gave the same description of her own experience
'
'

:

lodge began shaking violently by supernatural means. I knew this by the compressed current of air above, and the noise of motion.' She had been beating a small drum and singing, now she lay quiet. The radiant * orbicular spirit then informed her that they must go
'

'

' The short-sighted you are This advice was taken and crowned by instant success.' Catherine's conversion was established her reputation.^

westwards

for

game

;

how

'

!

up to by a dream of her dying son, who beheld a Sacred Figure, and received from Him white raiment. Her magical songs tell how unseen hands shake the magic They invoke the Great Spirit that lodge.
led
*

Illumines earth Illumines heaven

!

Ah, say what Spirit, or Body, is this Body, That fills the world around, Speak, man, ah say What Spirit, or Body, is this Body ?
'

the is like a savage hymn to Hegel's fiihlende Seele are reminded, too, of all-pervading Sensitive Soul. There is no limit the doctrine of the Sanscrit Upanishads ^ to the knowing of the Self that knows.'
It
'
:

We

:

Unluckily Catherine was not asked to give other examples of what she considered her successes. Acosta, who has not the best possible repute as an
'

*

Schoolcraft, i. 394. Briuton's Religions of Primitive Peoples, p. 57.

'OPENING THE GATES OF DISTANCE'
authority,

75
*

informs us that Peruvian clairvoyants

tell

what hath passed in the furthest parts before news can come. In the distance of two or three hundred leagues they would tell what the Spaniards did or suffered in their
civil wars.'

To Du Pont,
him
so.'
'

true oracle of the

coming

in 1606, a sorcerer 'rendered a of Poutrincourt, saying his

Devil had told
tory, of

case, from a scientific laboraknowledge apparently acquired in no normal way, by a person of the sort usually chosen to be a prophet, or wizard, by savages.

We now give a modern

Professor Kichet writes
'

^
:

July 2, 1888, after having passed all the laboratory, I hypnotised Leonie at 8 p.m., and while she tried to make out a diagram concealed in " What has an envelope I said to her quite suddenly " Leonie knows M. Langlois to M. Langlois? happened from having seen him two or three times some time ago in physiological laboratory, where he acts as my assistant. "He has burnt himself," Leonie replied. "Good," I " On the left " and where has he burnt himself ? "

On Monday,

day in

my

:

my

said,

hand. It is not fire does he not take care
" colour," I asked,
is

:

is not red, it is the skin puffed up directly."
;
*

the stuff which he pours out ? It brown he has hurt himself very much

I don't know its name. it is Why when he pours it out? " " Of what " "

Now, this description is admirably exact. At 4 p.m. that day M. Langlois had wished to pour some bromine He had done this clumsily, so that some of into a bottle. the bromine flowed on to his left hand, which held the
and at once burnt him severely. Although he at once put his hand into water, wherever the bromine had touched it a blister was formed in a few seconds a blister which one could not better describe than by saying, " the skin puffed up." I need not say that Leonie had not left my house, nor seen anyone from my laboratory. Of this I am absolutely certain, and I am certain that I had not
funnel,

'

Purchas, p. 629.

*

S.P.Pt. Proceedings, vol. vi. 69.

76

THE MAKING OF RELIGION

mentioned the incident of the burn to anyone. Moreover, was the first time for nearly a year that M. Langlois had handled bromine, and when Leonie saw him six months before at the laboratory he was engaged in experiments of quite another kind,'
this
\

Here the savage reasoner would infer that Leonie's had visited M. Langlois. The modern inquirer will probably say that Leonie became aware of what was This supranormal passing in the mind of M. Kichet. way of acquiring knowledge was observed in the last century by M. de Puysegur in one of his earliest cases of somnambulism. MM. Binet and Fere say It is not
spirit
'
:

yet admitted that the subject

is able to divine the thoughts of the magnetiser without any material communication while they grant, as a minimum, that * research should
'

;

be continued in this direction.' They appear to think that Leonie may have read involuntary signs in the This is a difficult hypothesis. aspect of M. Kichet.
^
'
'

Here follows a case recorded in his diary by Mr. Dobbie, of Adelaide, Australia, who has practised hypnotism for curative purposes. He explains (June 10, on several 1884) that he had mesmerised Miss occasions to relieve rheumatic pain and sore throat. He found her to be clairvoyant.

The following is a verbatim account of the second time I tested her powers in this respect, April 12, 1884. There were four persons present during the seance. One of the company wrote down the replies as they were
'

spoken.
T^^

Her father was at the time over fifty miles away, but did not know exactly where, so I questioned her as " Can follows you find your father at the present moment?" At first she replied that she could not see " him, but in a minute or two she said, Oh, yes now I can see him, Mr. Dobbie." "Where is he?" "Sitting
*

we

:

;

'

Binct and F6rc, Animal Magnetism, p. 64.

holding a half-crown in my hand. Dufay and Azam. was a new one. fraud. Professor Richet. . and was perfectly astounded when told by his wife and family what he had been doing on that particular evening and. " " Whom "To read them. he frankly admitted that my clairvoyant was perfectly correct in every parHe also informed us that the book referred to ticular. Drs. L." Here she paused " said. malobservation. pp.' letters Can you it. p. to which she replied. ' ' . a little to think. and there are a lot of " " " What is he doing ? Writing people going in and out. Well. 35G . "It is a shilling. vol. 66. clairvoyance will be found in the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research." seemed as though she could see what was happening miles away easier than she could see what was going on in the room. the newspaper." I now stood behind her. vii. or tell me the name of the author ? She read. 30. I may add that the letter in due course appeared in the paper and I saw and handled the book. he is writing to the " " You said there was a book (naming a newspaper). in each case. ." (giving the full surname of the author). of cases of so-called ' A number ^ ' * ' Vol.' As the authors of these essays remark." is a letter. although previous to that date he was a thorough sceptic as to clairvoyance. Sidgwick. and I then said to her. 407. p. "Is it any effort or trouble " " I have to you to travel in this way ? Yes. so that there was no possibility of his daughter guessing that he had the book before him. and there is a book in front of him. vi. and asked her if she could tell me what I had It in my hand. even after discounting." tell me what book it is ? "It has gilt on "Can you " . She answered several minor questions re the furniture in the room. I declare. Mrs.'OPENING THE GATES OF DISTANCE' 77 at a large table in a large room. " W. W. or pronounced slowly. which he had purchased after he had left his home. Her father returned home nearly a week afterwards." " AB he writing to ? and laughingly there.

78 THE MAKING OF RELIGION of cases can seldom justify either the savage theory of the wandering soul (which is not here seriously proposed) or Hegel's theory that the fiihlende Seele is unconditioned by space. Tyler observes that the examples prove a little too much. funerals are not uncommonly seen where no funeral is taking place it is then alleged that a real funeral. or results. I give.' merely a local term covering examples of what is called * clairvoyance '^views of things remote in space. ' common phenomena of To these instances had aheady been suggested by the dreaming.* Even the savage cannot account for this experience by the wandering of the soul in space nor do I suggest any explanation. where I have myself collected many recent instances. . if thought transference be a fact. The belief and hallucinatory experiences are still very common in the Highlands. the apparent clairvoyant may only be reading the mind of a person at a distance. premonitions of things future. but for such phantoms as demon dogs. when successful. and for still more fanciful symbolic omens. the residue however. dogs but wandering lights. hallucinations of sight that coincide with some notable event.' This is perfectly I have found no cases of demon true. Again. soon afterwards occurred. would naturally suggest to the savage thinker the belief in the wandering soul. For. one or two instances. * of knowledge acquired otherwise than by the recognised channels of sense we might add the Scottish tales of 'second That phrase is sight. are This is obviously certainly regarded as tokens of death. the lights being real phenomena misconstrued. ' . and so on. They are published in the Journal of the Caledonian Medical . Mr. On the hypothesis of believers. Such refraction of events As often rises ere they rise. the percipients somehow behold . they vouch not only for human apparitions. corroborate it if it a superstitious hypothesis. however. The and misreporting. similar and similarly situated. probably of meteoric or miasmatic origin.

He once told me that when he first went to Skye he scoffed at the idea of such a power as second sight being genuine. had to do duty for him. who had gone to live and work near Dunkeld. and was considered rather annoying than agreeable to the possessors of it. As my father expressed it. hastily filling in the papers. that he was compelled to confess that some folks had." ' Here follows a funeral ' : typical example of the vision of a session clerk at Dull. and my grandfather. and its fits came on within doors and without. and at whatever employment the votary ' might chance to be engaged. to get some papers filled up. this faculty was " neither voluntary nor constant. which . of his father. but he said that.' 1897. a minister in the island of Skye. my grandfather went out to get the key of the churchyard. apparently at least. after having been there for ' as a clergyman. when suddenly all three saw through the window a From their funeral procession passing along the road. he had been so often consulted beforehand by people who said they had seen visions of events which subsequently occurred. clergyman there at One fine summer the time. The gift was possessed by individuals of both sexes. Alastair Macgregor. by Dr. the un- some years my fortunate faculty. sitting and standing. a small village in PerthiU. to father's knowledge. dress the bulk of the mourners seemed to be farm labourers shire.'OPENING THE GATES OF DISTANCE* 79 Society. no doubt attending to the papers. in exact accordance with the form and details of the vision as foretold. grandfather was with the couple in the session clerk's room. The was My — indeed the young woman recognised some of them as natives of Dull. and. as they were going to be married. on the authority of the MSS. about 7 o'clock. Kemarks w^ere naturally made by my grandfather and the young couple about the untimely hour for a funeral. at night and by day. a young man and woman came evening.

in the phantom cortege. . The facts were that a boy. unembellished by superadded imagination. exactly a week previously. he went to the manse by a short cut. a native of Dull. " " opportunity of noting down the minutiae of the warning or "vision" directly it was told him. had got gored by a bull at Dunkeld. who were as amazed as my grandfather Well. Not a soul was there except the young couple. and the prediction was nounced before the event. The young woman knew some of them personally. but they of course denied all knowledge of the affair. he was able to note down sound facts. training. grandfather and the young couple recognised several of the mourners as being among those whom they had seen out of the session clerk's room. previous to his theological. the procession could not get into God's acre. Having had the advantage of a medical. this time in reality. as. * was an- or "vision they usually consulted my father as to what could do to prevent the coming disaster befalling they In this way my father had the their relatives or friends.' ! * — — My I give another example. Wondering how it was that he had received no intimation of the funeral. and was so shockingly mangled that his remains were picked up and put into a coffin and taken without delay to Dull. got the key. having been then in Dunkeld. and related to them what she had seen. and hurried down to the churchyard gate. Entering into this method of case-taking with a mind perfectly open. as well as visual. of course. except The parishioners in Skye were evidently largely imbued with the Bomanist-like belief in the powers of intercession " vested in their clergyman so when they had a " warning " . where.80 THE MAKING OF RELIGION was kept in the manse. A grave was dug as quickly as possible the poor lad having no relatives and the remains were interred. without the key. because the experience auditory. at the same hour in the evening of the same day in the following week the funeral. arrived quite unexpectedly. he expected to find the cortege waiting.

but one month afterwards the realisation occurred only too true. we may glance at visions which are provoked by various Dr. ran to his assistance. on catching the lamb was pulled by it to the edge of one of the very picturesque but Too late realising exceedingly dangerous rocks at Uig. his critical position. when he saw the lad's danger.'OPENING THE GATES OF DISTANCE' for a slight 81 touch of scepticism. says concerning the Lapps. he was greatly surprised how very frequently realisations occurred in conformance with the minutiae of the vision as exactly detailed in his note-book. and went off to Uig. contributing knowledge of things remote or even future. Finally. fell over into the ravine below. Almost the first case he took (Case X." As her son lived several miles from to discover ' — )4 Uig. and the fisher lad ran headlong after it. instead of going out in his boat." but going with such an impetus he was unable to bring himself up in time. of course. Case X. She heard her son exclaim in Gaelic. along with the lamb. the son one day. he exclaimed. in Skye. ran away. thought he would take a holiday inland. and to admit that some people had undoubtedly the uncanny gift. who had warned him against having anything to do with sheep or lambs. The farmer. Macgregor's remarks on of the visions is G . he was compelled to discard his scepticism. Unknown to his mother. and. but was only in time to hear him cry out in Gaelic before disappearing over the brink of the This was predicted by the mother a month precipice. and not looking where he was going. and was. killed on the spot. realisation seemed to my father very unlikely. ** This is a fatal lamb for me.) was that of a woman who had one day a vision of her son falling over a high rock at Uig. and was a fisherman. '* This is a fatal lamb for me. In addition to visions which thus come unsought. bef ora Was this simply a coincidence ? ' unwelcome nature the involuntary and borne out by what Scheffer. where a farmer enlisted his services in One of the lambs separating some lambs from the ewes. as already quoted. with a sheep or lamb.

and the provisional conclusion appears to be that savages have observed a psychological circumstance We which has been ignored by professed psychologists. and which. about the authenticity of which we. need only be alluded to as too familiar for quotation. then add facts of modern experience. In modern life the self-induced ' trance is common we recur later. does not hypothesis. it will be observed. entertain no doubt. The examples in the Old Testament.82 THE MAKING OF RELIGION methods. and by races in every condition of culture. been previously observed. The width of its range in savage races has not. and it keeps on arising.' Fasting is also practised. certainly. or trance is induced by various kinds of self-suggestion or auto-hypnotism. our evidence proves that precisely similar beliefs as to man's occasional power of opening the gates of distance have been entertained in a great variety of lands and ages. we believe. seers whirl in a wild dance till they fall senseless. In the following chapter we discuss a mode of hallucinations which has for anthropologists the inducing interest of universal diffusion. among mediums * ' —a subject to which So far. and in the Life of St. ' fit into the ordinary materialistic .' The alleged experiences are still said to occur. and have been investigated by physiologists of the eminence of M. Drugs (impepo) are used. The question cannot but arise as to the residuum of fact in these narrations. personally. Coluviba by Adamnan. Eichet.

the priest looks for a vision of the thief who has carried off stolen goods. the instinctive knowledge existing implicitly in the patient's subconsciousness is thus brought into the range of his ordinary consciousness. In modern language. and Australian savages employ a ball of polished stone. 457). find the habit of looking into water. from a correspondent in Australia. while Maoris use a drop of blood (Taylor).' I have already given. Ellis's hole being dug in the record of the Polynesian case. in the Introduction. into which the seer puts himself to descry the results of an ' ' expedition. with a photograph of the stones.88 V CBYSTAL VISIONS. floor of his house. Lejeune's Red Indians make their patients gaze into the water. savage ' ' We vessel. 0^2 . cited in Civitas Dei. Egyptians use ink (Lane). The Polynesian theory is that the god carries the spirit of the thief over the water. in which they will see the pictures of the things in the way of food or medicine that will do them good. usually in a preferably a glass vessel. and filled with water. Eomans (Varro. iii. among Red Indians (Lejeune). A ' Information. In 1887 the late Captain J. Africans of Fez (Leo Africanus) . in which it is reflected. of the U. Bourke. West Maitland. various forms of crystal-gazing are the most curious.S. T. SAVAGE AND CIVILISED Among whence methods of provoking hallucinations knowledge may be supemormally obtained.

460. in / ' visited the the interests of the Ethnological Bureau. 69.' Captain Bourke appears never to have heard of the modern experiments in crystal-gazing. ' — . Maoris. . 1887-88. ii. which heaven when it thunders. par le Sieur de Flacourt. one of these jossakeeds. it could render visible the apparition of a person who has bewitched another. — * * ' ' * ' ' ' Eeport Ethnol. or rhomhos of wood which. p. Erminie Smith supplies inforPlaced in a gourd of water. Mrs. as it does the flint instruments called bolts in many countries. Captain He Bourke presented him with a still finer crystal. which ^ I suppose to be basalt. On a second trial he was successful. * Fitzroy. p.' The kindness of Monsieur Lefebure enables me to give another example from Madagascar. except that by looking into it he could see everything he wanted to see. which he greatly valued. Apaches He learned that one of the chief duties of the medicinemen was to find out the whereabouts of lost or stolen property. lis ont Cavalry. Australians. that is. 389. ii. causes a strange windy roar in their mystic ceremonies. The wide use that of of the rhombos was known to Captain Bourke the crystal was not. being whirled round. Lorsqu'ils squillent. Captain Bourke also discovered that the Apaches.^ Flacourt. could not give me an explanation of its magical use. but got only an indistinct view of her face.paclies may ' Captain also bo consulted. vol.' Of course the rain reveals the thundercrystals. 'L'Histoire de la grand lie Madagascar. Bourke's volume on Tlie Medicine Men of the A.84 THE MAKING OF EELIGION an original and careful observer.' She gives a case in European times of a medicine-man who found the witch's habitat. turndun. like the Greeks. mation about the crystal. divine by crystals. vol. possessed a magic quartz crystal.' One may add that treasure-seekers among the Huille-che look earnestly for what they want to find into a smooth slab of black stone. use the bull-roarer. and many other a piece races. describing the Malagasies. Africans. p. Na-a-cha. For the Iroquois. Bureau. Adventure. says that they squillent (a word not fall from in Littre).

Veue de deux Navires de France predite par lea Negres. 12. 1G61. in early Councils. &c. 76. and others aboard. it anthropologists have paid no attention to the was of course familiar to later Europe.CRYSTAL VISIONS. VII. . . within which he beheld a figure piece of an Indian in the following shape. Christoval de Molina.Victorian spiritualists. Maoris. The apparition The Inca then vanished.it Simon's Memoirs the modern mesmerists (Gregory. ^ J. Dr. 86. before their return to France. like the Spanish fleet. p. Hurons. and doctors. ' . also find the practice in Greece (Pausanias. while the crystal remained.' Here. SAVAGE AND CIVILISED line 86 de ces pierres au coing de leurs tablettes.I. in Madagascar. on the other side of the continent among the Huille-che. Callaway gives the Zulu practice. in Eome (Varro). earliest of the ships did not arrive till August 11. xxi. Aubrey. in Siberia. . in condemnations of specularii. whom she had The seen. episcopal under James VI.' also officers. Yupanqui. November 1894.' Shamans of Siberia and Eastern Kussia employ the same method. On July 15 a Malagasy woman viewed. we find the belief that hallucinations can be induced by one or other form of crystal-gazing. the Eegent d'Orleans in St. and in India. among Apaches. were 'not in sight. in Madagascar. p. and so to Dr. avant que Ton en peust SQavoir des Nouvelles. and they say that he afterwards saw qu'elle a ' ^ ' .' Probably they used the crystals as do the Apaches. in ^ We Egypt. Though subject. then. p. 12). 311. This is assuredly a wide range of geographical distribution. whether in her crystal or otherwise. is As he came up to a fountain he saw a very curious. two French vessels which. in Fez. Eyckov is cited Zhurnal. in ancient Peru. ch. took care of it. Mayo) and the mid. p. disans la vertu de faire faire operation a leur figure de geomance. 156. ^ The case of the Inca.A. ' Rites and Laws of tlie Yiicas. Dee. everything he wanted in it. Iroquois. Australian black fellows.. Religion of the Amazulu. Paris. of crystal fall into it. explained . where the chief The sees what will happen by looking into the vessel. and in Polynesia.. who. Miss X ' ' has traced among early Christians. as usual.

to her eyes in ink. when a crystal.' Till this lady examined the subject. possibly telepathic or clairvoyant. sane and healthy. from the subconscious strata ' (a) consciously Objectivation of ideas or images in the mind of the percipient . but by the nature That adaptive memory did not later alter the narratives. only by the characters of of the circumstances. as will be shown later. can see vivid landscapes. any reader wishes to make experiments.^ drew attention to this subject. or she. or ' ' arising thus. as originally told. and figures of persons in motion. Visions. practically to drowsiness. signifying nothing. v. Miss made experiments. I now offer a series of experiments with a 2. S. in glass balls and other vehicles. and thus only. or no reason. Drs. within less than a week.86 THE MAKING OF RELIGION * the phenomena. or nobody if we except two professors of chemistry and physiology. this is rather a usual person ill in bed. he. by ' spirits. v. not glass ball. in which knowledge was apparently acquired in no ordinary way. because they were reported to me. Gregory and Mayo. when I was not present. 505. should not be astonished if the fu-st crystal figure represents the sheeted dead. experiSince Miss ments have proved beyond doubt that a fair percentage of people. the class which would be so useful to a priest or medicine-man asked to discover things lost. in their prehistoric way. are of very slight interest. like X George Sand. except in cases specially noted. (&) unconsciously 3. Proceedings. : child. 486. .' But he speaks by conjecture. are 1. I feel certain. Parish attributes to dissociation. Of the absence of fraud I am personally convinced. nobody had thought of remarking that a belief so universal had probably some basis of facts. The hallucinations which appear Bevived memories . Op. precisely as they are now given. beginning by accident. and without having witnessed experiments.' The examples given of the last class. cit.E.' or a For some reason. all concerned. ^ See Miss X's article.P. This faculty Dr. or — — * X ' coming under my own observation. implying ^ acquirement of knowledge by supernormal means. ' ' If ' prelude.

to say that success was invariable. by a looker-on. We cannot tell what indications may be accidentally given in experiments in thought transference. in these cases of crystal-gazing. and was present when she first looked into it. I was more inclined to be convinced. Here one should first consider the arguments against accepting recognition of objects merely described by another person. Again. but. There may be abundance of better evidence. The crystal-gazer may know the inquirer so intimately as to have a very good guess at the subject of his meditation. which were sufficiently corroborated. knowing the persons and circumstances. but familiar to them. These experiences do seem to me to be good * ' indeed. the detail was too copious to be conveyed. with a full-length portrait of a There were. those of which the agent (or person scried for) was consciously thinking. She was innocent of psychical studies. I got a glass ball. W. but not always. examples of what is called ' thought transference ' usual. the interior of a house.CRYSTAL VISIONS. and is. in a wink or a cough. (living as she was. Grace is very deeply seated in that mystic entity. and personally was. my subconscious self. I think. but it is natural and . one or two other person unknown. But the examples will illustrate the various kinds of occurrences. I remember. a man is likely to be thinking ' ' ' ' . among strangers) developed a power of seeing persons and places unknown to her. SAVAGE AND CIVILISED 87 Early in the present year (1897) I met a young lady who told me of three or four curious hallucinatory ex- own. She saw. But she presently fancy pictures of the familiar kind. G. But. But I doubt if Dr. and being present once at what seemed to me a crucial example. to myself. I never before could get out of a level balance of doubt on that subject. in perfect health the pale cast of thought being remote from her. I do not mean I thought of Dr. The scries w^hich came right were sometimes. Grace. This attitude appears. periences of her . a balance which now leans considerably to the affirmative side. illogical. and the scryer saw an old man crawling along with a stick.

Kelly (1736). for she could not know (normally) when about to be shown a glass ball. myself included. . The complex of coincidences. I may say that the crystal-gazer was among strangers. were the exceptions. biases the inquirers. These fit the men or women intended. or may be too credulously recognised. I was writing a story of which may give the hero was George Kelly. at an enormous rate. she now saw for Nor could she have studied their histories time. or desire to credulity. purely fanciful sketch. and in each case were marked by is that minutely particular details. whom We ' the Government description of Mr. my down It to my hero him five But I knew beforehand that Mr. that she was left of a man. the all of whom. Kelly was a feet ten. exactly tallied with and teeth. but The descripthey also fit a crowd of other people. I found Moidart. except that I made eyes. however. too. nor men for women. or see family resemblances in the most rudimentary doughTake descriptions of persons in a passport. faced babies. or in a proclamation sketching the personal appearance of a criminal. one of the Seven Men of A year after composing my tale. an example. familiar in the scryer's descriptions.88 of THE MAKING OF RELIGION a woman. tion given by the scryer then may come right by a fortuitous coincidence. these choices out for men.' or home. so the field of In answer to the first objection The second objection is met she would meet. could not be attributed to chance selection out of the whole possible must remember. of such hits increases. clergyman his curious career proved him to be a person of great activity and geniality — and he was of Irish birth. the odds Of such mere luck I against accidental conjecture. about six feet. the circumstance that ladies were not usually picked by Indeed. first she beforehand.' whereas the Government gave ' . recognise something In the same way we know how people recognise faces in the most blurred and vague of spiritist photographs. and face. and a woman conjecture is limited. and makes them anxious to oblige. that a series field of conjecture. A third objection or the love of strange novelties.

The lady asked me if the vision were distinct enough for me to recognise a likeness in the son's photograph next day she laid several photographs before me. likeness to my ' vision ! The inquirer verbally corroborated all the facts to me. * • n. Her face is very much wrinkled. : 'I. equally correct.CRYSTAL VISIONS. especially at the She is sides of her eyes. is — Alady one day asked me to scry out a friend of whom an ." and the lady said that I had accurately described her friend's mother instead of himself that it was a family that the mother must dye her hair. wearing a little white shawl with a black edge. as one may call of the crystal-gazer. In front of the house was a field of thick I . ! . a little house appeared with five or six (I forget now the exact number I then counted) steps leading up to the door. within a week. She has a prominent nose and nut-cracker chin. and she was eighty-two years old. On the second step stood an old man reading a newspaper. The first occurred the day after she She writes got the glass ball for the first time. could not vision. . joke she would think. as if she were always smiling. on her face. but leaned to a theory of electricity.' when so much was known suggest any powers beforehand aboat the person guessed at. Almost immediately I exclaimed " Here old lady looking at me with a triumphant smile old.' She has read and confirms this account. I now give cases in the experience of Miss Angus. although land was still visible in the dim distance. SAVAGE AND CIVILISED Even a dozen such ' 89 guesses. That vanished. She asked she might look into my crystal. whom if — One afternoon I was sitting beside a young lady had never seen or heard of before. and. But ! she can't be old as her hair is quite brown although her The picture then vanished. face looks so very very old. . without the slightest hesitation I picked him out from his wonderful . it was so brown. and in a moment. as suddenly. and while she did so I happened to look over her shoulder and saw a ship tossing on a very heavy choppy sea.

and. and it was then confirmed to me. saying it was very unsatisfactory. for there. by the other ' The next account * is III. I could not make out who they were. Miss Angus. heard of the death of the father-in-law of one of my . the young lady told me I had vividly described a spot in Shetland where she and her mother were soon going to spend a few weeks. may be invoked. She said at once." Without saying any more Miss Angus still kept looking. lady. Both ladies had hitherto been perfect strangers to 1897). — by another lady. In Shetland the sheep. . She again confirms it (December 21.90 THE MAKING OF RELIGION stubbly grass where some lambs. The old man was the schoolmaster. after some time. — gave up. but were grazing.. At the time I saw this I was staying with On Sunday we cousins. " I see a bed with a man in it looking very ill and a lady in black beside it. they were more like very small sheep When the scene vanished. time both she and the other lady said Shetland (which I have restored). like the ponies. I saw stretched out in bed an old man apparently dead for a few minutes I could not look. ' I heard of this case from Miss Angus within a day or two of its occurrence.' but at the rently. after doing so for a short time. although I saw a room with a bright fire in it and a bed all curtained and people coming and going. appaIn her MS. of course. as will be seen from the following which I now relate as exactly as I can remember. so I returned the crystal to Miss Angus. . Fortuitous coincidence. Miss Angus writes Skye. I received quite a shock. I asked my friend. . and on her passing the ball back to me. Writes Miss Rose My first experience of crystal gazing was not a pleasant one. are small. with the request that she might look for me. say Miss Rose. I was going to say. and. and on doing so once more there appeared a lady in black and out of dense darkness a long black object was being carried and it stopped before a dark opening overhung with rocks. to allow me to look in her crystal. perfectly clearly in a bright light. verbally. I asked to have one more look. each other.' . and it was a Friday evening. as.

but immediately laid it down again. I once more saw the curtained bed and some people. and said she would never look in it " Oh ! here is saw he was ! ! ! ! Soon. SAVAGE AND CIVILISED cousins . as from her (December 1897). Then she described lady in black became quite distinct. or attempt to reconcile recollections. in one respect. In a very short time she called out. about him when looking in the crystal. and the scene at once came back again. She called again on Sunday (this had been on Friday) with her cousin. and we teased her about being afraid of the crystal. she put the ball down and would not look at it again. the man is dead She got quite a shock. with a man in it looking very ill [I dead. * I a bed. When she saw this.CKYSTAL VISIONS. I originally received now At a recent experience of gazing. I may also say I did not recognise in the features of the dead man those of the old gentleman whose death I mention. several people in the room. and immediately exclaimed. for the first time was able to make another see what I saw in the crystal. " Oh I see " the bed too But. so she said she would just look in it once more. the again. and slowly. they heard that the cousin's . I won't look. and there is a lady dressed in black sitting beside the bed. without consultation.* but my thoughts were not in the give Miss Angus's version of this case. from what Miss Angus writes. Miss Rose called one afternoon. and begged me to look in the ball for her. curiosity prompted her to have one more look." I did not recognise the man to be anyone I knew. It differed. from a person present at the scrying. " No. I had previously received an oral version. On looking again on Sunday. as the bed with the avrful man saying. so I told her to look. I did so. 91 of course I knew the old gentleman was very least ill. and said they were carrying something all draped in black. oh take it away. She took the ball. Her version is offered because it is made independently. but refrained from saying so]. from a misty object at the side of the bed. however. in it is ' When there again " ! they went home.

Andrew Lang. who now saw him for the second time only. is not illustrated here. who had already seen two cloudy visions of faces and people. Miss Angus's own account follows she had told me the story in June 1897.92 THE MAKING OF EELIGION show he had father-in-law had died that afternoon. 1897. called out. and during luncheon the conversation turned upon crystal balls and the visions The subject that.' . and the coincidence. I was lunching friends the Anguses. as I thought his would be a striking and peculiar personality. doubtless. ! My recalled. but it's not an officer. the corpse being unrecognised. March — ? 1897.* 'Clairvoyance.' but to . although we all knew he had not been well. ' IV. The witness ' Sunday afternoon. . whom he had befriended in a severe illness. a slight acquaintance of Miss Angus's. and also me my because I felt know of his existence. and presently Miss Angus. by some people. never been in our thoughts. and glitters all over why. sure that Miss Angus could not possibly I fixed my mind steadily upon friend.'" excitement on hearing this was so great that I ceased to concentrate my attention upon the thought of my friend. no one suggested him his name was never mentioned in connection with the vision. accidental. can be seen in them. — December : 2. " Now I see a man on a horse most he is distinctly dressed most queerly. I fixed mind upon a friend. and then to try and see if she could conjure vision of any person of whom I might think. arose owing to Miss Angus having just been presented with a crystal ball by Mr. but better known to her family. I asked her to with my let up a see it. ' It is not implied that the pictures on Friday were Probably Miss Hose saw what Miss Angus had seen by aid of suggestion.— On Thursday. and the vision faded away and could not afterwards be my — . 'prophetic.' gives the name of the trooper. a young trooper in the [regiment named]. The next case is attested by a civilian.. it's a soldier a soldier in uniform.' of course. owing to his uniform..

's forehead to " will her. and one evening mention was made of a crystal ball. and next in that of Miss Angus. but too indistinctly for me to recognise anyone. only a soldier . a son of a crofter. of a young boy. and knew almost nothing about him or his personal friends. interested. in quite . and who is a trooper in the which would account for the crowd of people round him in the street " ' ! The next case is given. I remember saying. and. SAVAGE AND CIVILISED 93 * Shortly after I became the happy possessor of a " " I managed to convert several very decided crystal " sceptics. The other lady writes : ' V. Miss A. until suddenly a man on horseback came galloping along. to look in it. took the crystal. —I met Miss A. I I. " I can't describe what he is like. first in the version of the lady who was unconsciously scried for. if possible. it's a soldier in shining armour. tell her what was happening to a friend of hers. but it's not an " Two friends who were in the officer. up a book and went to the was suddenly very much an agitated way. but he is dressed in a very queer way in something so bright that the sun shining on him quite dazzles me. who was so determined to baffle me. and our hostess asked Miss A. and out of this mist gradually a crowd of people appeared. for the first time in a friend's house in the south of England.CRYSTAL VISIONS." not believing in this. ! — ! ! room said Mr. in I am deeply my ! ! whom in London. describe startled to hear Miss A. and attention was drawn from the ball by hearing him call " It's wonderful it's perfectly true I was thinking out. the day before. which immediately became misty.. he said he would think of a friend it would not be possible for me to describe * I had only met Mr. and I can" not make him out As he came nearer I exclaimed. 's excitement was intense. *' Why. took other side of the room. * One was with a Mr." and I will here give a short account of my experiences v^^ith two or three of them. ' I took up the ball. and our hostess put her hand on Miss A.

to influence me a friend in Brighton.. left us to our folly. It really was a most wonderful revelation to me. while I. and then was lost In a moment we all seemed to feel as if something had happened. Soon a rider came past. dressed His horse ambled past. who was present. young. as it was Our hostess. and in some strange crystal. and. in a scornful manner took up a book. head crossing to the other side of the room.. Soon. and again my anxiety was . ' ! way I felt I was in it. two or three men approached. November 23. ! Another case was a rather interesting one. has strange "magnetic" powers.94: THE MAKING OF RELIGION a scene that had most certainly been very often in my thoughts. which had never happened before. and carried him past before my eyes. when I looked in the I saw a crowd of people. She accurately described a race-course in Scotland. nodded to sight. Miss H. should have affected her.' Miss Angus herself writes * : how was doing her best 'Miss . of course. ' to those he knew in the crowd. was very much annoyed that she had not been able to influence Miss A. and she was evidently going through the same doubt and anxiety that I did at the time as to whether he was actually killed or only very much hurt. however. who had appeared so very indifferent. and I went through great agony of suspense trying to see what seemed just beyond my view. and felt quite sure of success with me and the ball. as I somegot inside the thoughts of oiie lady while another Another lady. the very first time I had seen a crystal. and we all seemed to be waiting for something. but of which I had never mentioned a word. especially when Miss insisted on hand and putting her other hand on my foreholding my Miss H. laughed at the whole thing. and he smiled and for racing. and an accident which happened to a friend of mine only a week or two before. 'In a very short time I felt myself getting excited. — 1897.

L. SAVAGE AND CIVILISED intense to discover life 95 if he were only very badly hurt or if All this happened in a few weve really extinct. and Miss Angus reported nothing but a view of an empty ball-room. later.] * — VI. The gentleman made another effort. had laid aside her book. and had brought it all back in a most vivid glass ball. she proposed to look in the glass for a scene or person of whom he was to think.CRYSTAL VISIONS. 1897. and about 10. I may briefly add an experiment of December 21. moments. * By this time came forward — manner. He called up a mental picture of a ball at which he had recently been. Then she saw him carried on a She seemed. however. He dined with her family.15 to 10. after she had concentrated her thoughts so hard. face. The other lady was rather disappointed that.30 p. but. within a few days of the occurrence. as we were strangers to each other. she said. and remembered his partner with — . Her version was that she first saw a gentleman rider going to the post and nodding to his friends. a stranger to all the persons. by Miss Angus. to be stretcher through the crowd. but long enough to have left me so agitated that I could not realise it had only been a vision in a Miss H. and felt somewhat agitated. mentioned to me in Scotland by another lady. she had never mentioned. A gentleman had recently come from England to the Scottish town where Miss Angus lives. The fact actually present. and of a young The lady's lady to whom he had there been introduced. with polished floor and many lights.' [This anecdote was also told to me. he could not clearly visualise. of the accident was. I should have been influenced instead by one who had jeered at the whole affair. and told me that I had accurately described a scene on a race-course in Scotland which she had witnessed just a week or two before a scene that had very often been in her thoughts. and quite startled. She also said I had exactly described her own feelings at the time. A.m.

30). and the other topics illustrated by Mr. Miss Angus then described another room. or shaken. not a ball-room. in a high-necked white blouse. as the people in these experiments were. and height with Mr. figure. which. chromatic audition. under an incandescent gas lamp with an unshaded glass globe. tallied The description of the features. and had only been seen once by Mr. but he had never 's recollection seen this Geraldine of an hour except in ball dress. and the lady of the crystal . Mr. — — ' . and her reply corroborated the crystal picture. In this affair of the envelopes the inquirer was a ' ' . nobody is apt to be convinced. inclose in an envelope. Galton's interesting researches. or writing letters. She was entirely unknown to Miss Angus. comfortably furnished.96 THE MAKING OF EELIGION some distinctness. Indeed. and Mr. He and Miss Angus noted the time by their watches (it was said that on the first opportunity he 10. . was clearly not of a nature to establish a test The inquirer was to write down. On December 22 he met her at another dance.' views of coloured numerals. this could in no way prove absence of collusion. after all. Of course. unless he is himself the inquirer and a stranger to the Eviseeress. without communication between the inquirer and the crystal-gazer. a statement of his thoughts Miss was to do the same with her description of the Angus picture seen by her . dence interesting to them and. to others who know them can thus be procured. in which a girl with brown hair drawn back from her forehead. picture corroborated all this in writing. as the two parties might arrange privately beforehand what the vision was to be. was reading. She had been writing letters. and attired in a high-necked white blouse. under a bright light in an unshaded glass globe. in a secondary degree. I now suggested an experiment to Miss Angus. and for sceptics. but strangers are left to the same choice of doubts as in all reports of psychological experiences. and these documents were to be sent to me. would ask the young lady how she had been dressed and how employed at that hour on December 21.

CRYSTAL
Mr. Pembroke,

VISIOx^S,

SAVAGE AND CIVILISED
just

97 ac-

who had

quaintance, and was but a sojourner in the land. He wrote, before knowing what Miss Angus had seen in the
ball:

made Miss Angus's

'VII.— On Sunday, January 23, 1898, whilst Miss Angus was looking in the crystal ball, I was thinking of my brother, who was, I believe, at that time, somewhere between Sabathu (Punjab, India) and Egypt. I was anxious to know what stage of his journey he had
reached.'

Miss

Angus saw,
:

and

wrote,

before

telling

Mr.

Pembroke
*

long and very white road, with tall trees at one on the other, a river or lake of greyish water. Blue sky, with a crimson sunset. A great black ship is anchored near, and on the deck I see a man lying, apparently very ill. He is a powerful-looking man, fair, and very much bronzed. Seven or eight Englishmen, in very hght clothes, are standing on the road beside the
side
;

A

boat.
'

January
'

23, 1898.'

* great black ship,' anchored in a river or lake,' the Suez Canal, where, in fact, Mr. naturally suggests Pembroke's brother was just arriving, as was proved by a letter received from him eight days after the experiment was recorded, on January 31. At that date Mr. Pembroke had not yet been told the nature of Miss Angus's crystal picture, nor had she any knowledge of his brother's

A

whereabouts.

In February 1898, Miss Angus again came to the place where I was residing. We visited together the scene of an historical crime, and Miss Angus looked into the
the incivisualise It was easy for her to glass ball. dents of the crime (the murder of Cardinal Beaton), for they are familiar enough to many people. What she did
'
'

see in the ball

was a

looking thirty-five,'

about forty, but tall, pale lady, with hair drawn back from the brows,
'

H

98

THE MAKING OF RELIGION

standing beside a high chair, dressed in a wide farthingale The costume correof stiff grey brocade, without a ruff. sponds well (as we found) with that of 1546, and I said, to whom Miss Angus's I suppose it is Mariotte Ogilvy historical knowledge (and perhaps that of the general public) did not extend. Mariotte was the Cardinal's lady-love, and was in the Castle on the night before the mm'der, according to Knox. She had been in my mind, whence (on the theorj'^ of thought transference) she may have passed to Miss Angus's mind but I had never speculated on Mariotte's costume. Nothing but conjecture, of course, comes of these apparently retrospective pictures though a most singular and picturesque coincidence occurred, which may be told in a very different connection. The next example was noted at the same town. The lady who furnishes it is well known to me, and it was verbally corroborated by Miss Angus, to whom the lady, her absent nephew, and all about her, were entirely
'
'

;

'

'

;

strange.

VIII. I was very anxious to know whether my nephew would be sent to India this year, so I told Miss Angus that I had thought of something, and asked her to
*

look in the glass ball. She did so, but almost immediately turned round and looked out of the window at the sea, and said, " I saw a ship so distinctly I thought it must be a reflection." She looked in the ball again, and said, "It is a large ship, and it is passing a huge rock with a lighthouse on it. I can't see who are on the ship, but the sky is very clear and blue. Now I see a large building, something like a club, and in front there are a great many I think it must be people sitting and walking about. some place abroad, for the people are all dressed in very light clothes, and it seems to be very sunny and warm. I see a young man sitting on a chair, with his feet He is not talking to anyone, straight out before him. but seems to be listening to something. He is dark and and his eyebrows are dark and slight, and not very tall
;

very distinctly marked."

CRYSTAL VISIONS, SAVAGE AND CIVILISED
'

99

I had not had the pleasure of meeting Miss

Angus

and she knew nothing whatever about my nephew ; but the young man described was exactly like him, both in his appearance and in the way he was sitting.'
before,

be appealed to. with India. It is not maintained, of course, that the picture was of a prophetic character. The following examples have some curious and unusual features. On Wednesday, February 2, 1897, Miss Angus was looking in the crystal, to amuse six or seven people whose acquaintance she had that day made. A gentleman, Mr. Bissett, asked her what letter was in his pocket.' She then saw, under a bright sky, and, as it were, a long way off, a large building, in and out of which many men were coming and going. Her impression was that the scene must be abroad. In the little company present, it should be added, was a lady, Mrs. Cockburn, who had considerable reason to think of her young married daughter, then at a place about fifty miles away. After Miss Angus had described the large building and crowds of men, some one asked, Is it an exchange ? It might be,' she said. Now comes a man in a great He has a broad brow, and short, curly hair hurry. The face is very hat pressed low down on his eyes. Mr. and Mrs, serious but he has a delightful smile.' Bissett now both recognised their friend and stockbroker,

In

this case

thought transference
of her

may

The lady was thinking

nephew

in connection

'

'

'

*

*

^

;

;

whose

was in Mr. Bissett's pocket. which interested Miss Angus, passed away, and was interrupted by that of a hospital nurse, and of a
letter

The

vision,

lady in a peignoir, lying on a sofa, with hare feet? Miss Angus mentioned this vision as a bore, she being more interested in the stockbroker, who seems to have inherited what was once in the possession of another stockbroker the smile of Charles Lamb.* Mrs. Cockburn, for whom no pictures appeared, was rather vexed, and privately

*

'

^

Miss Angus could not be sure of the colour of the hair. The position was such that Miss Angus could not see the face of the

lady.

H

2

100

THE MAKING OF RELIGION

expressed with freedom a very sceptical opinion about the whole affair. But, on Saturday, February 5, 1897, Miss Angus was again with Mr. and Mrs. Bissett. When Mrs. Bissett announced that she had thought of somebeside thing,' Miss Angus saw a walk in a wood or garden, Here was a lady, very a river, under a brilliant blue sky. well dressed, twirling a white parasol on her shoulder as she walked, in a cm-ious stumpy way, beside a gentle* '
'

man

such as are worn in India. He was had a short neck and a straight nose, broad-shouldered, and seemed to listen, laughing, but indifferent, to his obviously vivacious companion. The lady had a drawn
in light clothes,
*
'

face, indicative of

ill

health.

Then followed

a scene in

which the man, without the a number of Orientals busy

lady, was looking in the felling ot

on

at

trees.

Mrs. Bissett recognised, in the lady, her sister, Mrs. Chfton, in India above all, when Miss Angus gave a realistic imitation of Mrs. Clifton's walk, the peculiarity Mrs. of which was caused by an illness some j^ears ago. and Mr. Bissett also recognised their brother-in-law in the gentleman seen in both pictm-es. On being shown a portrait of Mrs. Clifton as a girl, Miss Angus said it was A photograph done recently, like, but too pretty.' of the crystal however, showed her the drawn face

'

*

'

picture.'

Next day, Sunday, February 6, Mrs. what was not usual a letter from her

Bissett received, sister in India, Mrs. Clifton, dated January 20. Mrs. Chfton described a place in a native State, where she had been at a great She added function,' in certain gardens beside a river. that they were going to another place for a certain and then we go into camp till the end of purpose, February.' One of Mr. Clifton's duties is to direct the clearing of wood preparatory to the formation of the camp, as in Miss Angus's crystal picture.^ The sceptical

'

'

I
I

^

saw the photographs. have been shown the

letter of

January 20, which confirmed the
for official purposes
letter of

evidence of the crystal pictures. The in which Mr. Clifton was concerned.
corroborates.

camp was formed

A

February 9 unconsciously

CRYSTAL VISIONS, SAVAGE AND CIVILISED

101

Mrs. Cockburn heard of these coincidences, and an idea occurred to her. She wrote to her daughter, who has been mentioned, and asked whether, on Wednesday, February 2, she had been lying on a sofa in her bed-room, with bare feet. The young lady confessed that it was indeed so and, when she heard how the fact came to be known, expressed herself with some warmth on the abuse of glass balls, which tend to rob life of its privacy. In this case the prima facie aspect of things is that a thought of Mr. Bissett's about his stockbroker, dulce
' ;

ridentem,

somehow
of the

reflected itself into
ball,

by way

glass

Miss Angus's mind and was interrupted by a

thought of Mrs. Cockburn's, as to her daughter. But how these thoughts came to display the unknown facts concerning the garden by the river, the felling of trees for a camp, and the bare feet, is a question about which it is
vain to theorise.^ On the vanishing of the jungle scene there appeared a picture of a man in a dark undress uniform, beside a Wooden huts, as great bay, in which were ships of war. in a plague district, were on shore. Mr. Bissett asked, He looks as if he had What is the man's expression ? been giving a lot of last orders.' Then appeared a place like a hospital, with five or six beds it is no, berths a ship. Here is the man again.' He was minutely described, one peculiarity being the way in which his hair grew or, rather, did not grow— on his temples.
'
' *

'

:

Miss Angus now asked, Where is my little lady ? meaning the lady of the twirling parasol and staccato walk. Oh, I've left off thinking of her,' said Mrs. Bissett, who had been thinking of, and recognised in the officer in undress uniform, her brother, the man with the singular hair, whose face, in fact, had been scarred in that way by an encounter with a tiger. He was expected to sail from Bombay, but news of his setting forth has not
* '
'

'

The

incident of the feet occurred at 4.30 to 7.30 p.m.

The

crystal

was about 10 p.m. Miss Angus had only within the week made the acquaintance of Mrs. Cockburn and the Bissetts. Of these relations of theirs at a distance she had no knowledge.
picture
*

102

THE MAKING OF RELIGION
moment when
this is
'

been received (February 10) at the
written.^
*

In these Indian cases, thought transference may account for the correspondence between the figures seen by Miss Angus and the ideas in the mind of Mr. and Mrs.
Bissett.

But the hypothesis

of

thought transference,

would cover the wooden huts at Bombay (Mrs. Bissett knowing that her brother was about to leave that place), can scarcely explain the scene in the garden by the river and the scene with the trees. The incident of the
while
it

bare feet

may

be regarded as a fortuitous coincidence,

since Miss Angus saw the could not describe her face.

young lady foreshortened, and

In the Introductory Chapter it was observed that the phenomena which apparently point to some unaccountsupernormal faculty of acquiring knowledge are These anecdotes illustrate the triviality but the facts certainly left a number of people, wholly unfamiliar with such experiments, under the impression that Miss Angus's glass ball was like Prince All's magical These experiments, telescope in the 'Arabian Nights.'^ however, occasionally touch on intimate personal matters, and cannot be reported in such instances. It will be remarked that the faculty is freakish, and does not always respond to conscious exertion of thought in the mind of the inquirer. Thus, in Case I. a connection of the person thought of is discerned in another the mind of a stranger present seems to be read. In another
'

able

trivial.'

;

;

case (not given here) the inquirer tried to visualise a card for a person present to guess, while Miss Angus was asked
to describe an object
'

which the inquirer was acquainted

The real names are in no case given in this account, by my own desire, but (with permission of the persons concerned) can be communicated
privately.

have seen a photograph of this gentleman, Major Hamilton, which with the full description given by Miss Angus, as reported by Mrs. All the proper names here, as throughout, are altered. liissett. This account I wrote from the verbal statement of Mrs. Bissett. It was then read and corroborated by herself, Mr. Bissett, Mr. Cockburn, Mrs. Cockburn, and Miss Angus, who added dates and signatures. ^ The letters attesting each of these experiments are in my possession.
I
tallies

CIIYSTAL VISIONS,

SAVAGE AND CIVILISED

103

with, but which he banished from his conscious thought. The double experiment was a double-barrelled success. It seems hardly necessary to point out that chance coincidence will not cover this set of cases, where in each ' guess the field of conjecture is boundless, and is not even narrowed by the crystal-gazer's knowledge of the persons for whose diversion she makes the experiment. As muscle-reading is not in question (in the one case of contact between inquirer and crystal-gazer the results were unexpected), and as no unconsciously made signs could convey, for example, the idea of a cavalry soldier in uniform, or an accident on a race-course in two tableaux, I do not at present see any more plausible explanation than that of thought transference, though how that is to account for some of the cases given I do not precisely understand.
'

*

'

personal very useful this faculty of crystal-gazing must be to the Apache or Australian medicine-man or Polynesian priest. Freakish as the faculty is, a few real successes, well exploited and eked out by fraud, would set up a wizard's That a faculty of being thus affected is reputation.
belief in the

Any one who can
good

accept the assurance of

my

faith of all concerned will see

how

genuine seems proved, apart from modern evidence, by the world-wide prevalence of crystal-gazing in the ethnoBut the discovery of this prevalence graphic region. had not been made, to my knowledge, before modern instances induced me to notice the circumstances, sporadically recorded in books of travel. The phenomena are certainly of a kind to encourage the savage theory of the wandering soul. How else, thinkers would say, can the seer visit the distant place or person, and correctly describe men and scenes which, in the body, he never saw ? Or they would encourage the Polynesian belief that the spirit of the thing or person looked for is suspended by a god over the water, crystal, blood, ink, or whatever it may be. Thus, to anthropologists, the dis*
'

covery of crystal-gazing as a thing widely diffused and still flourishing ought to be grateful, however much they

Pembroke The scry of January 23 repre(p. who had any success in telepathic crystal-gazing. Mr. as his letter shows. He was. but not by sea. See Appendix C. left Bombay. as in the crystal-picture.^ may blame my no ground in the glass is far from The faculty of seeing fancy pictures uncommon. Starr. I have only met with three other persons besides Miss Angus. at Moses's Wells. two of them men. adds Cherokees. suppose that crystal-gazing will ever be of practical service to the police or to persons who have lost articles of portable property. But I have no objection to experiments being made at Scotland Yard. 109.104 THE MAKING OF RELIGION to I may add that I have childish credulity. In correcting revises (March 16). on the other hand. Aztecs. from January 25 to January 26. . 105) wrote from Cairo on January 27. 110). and Tonkaways to the ranks of crystal gazers. an American critic. ' • ' ' ' ' ' ' ' sented his ship in the Suez Canal. Major Hamilton (pp. indeed. in quarantine at Suez. I learn that the brother of Mr.

But it seems better first to consider the alleged supernormal phenomena which may have led the savage reasoner to believe that he was not the only owner of a separable soul : that other people were equally gifted. or god. was volatile. Perhaps we ought next to study cases is supposed to be conspirit. in which knowledge is believed to be acquired through no known channel of sense. ghost. which a savage dreamer or seer would feel after a dream or vision in which he visited remote places. or in trance. had the faculty of sending their souls a journeying. if it is to visit distant places and collect information. savage or civilised. as of separation. or by aid of gazing in a smooth surface. whether of the nature of clairvoyance simple. or in dreams. But some of what The experience he would take to be visits from the spirits of others. sense. in which the dreamer seemed as well as he. or through second sight. Now. ordinary dreams. must leave the body. The soul. it would be argued. and must so far be capable of leading an in- dependent life. would be needed before he recognised that other men. and speaking out of his lips. . would confirm if they did not originate the belief in the separable soul. at least.108 VI ANTHROPOLOGY AND HALLUCINATIONS We have been examining cases. would satisfy him that his soul. All such instances among savages. of 'possession. taking up its abode in a man.' when knowledge veyed by an alien soul.

Scott for the Mang'anza. voluntarily or involuntarily. what fortuitous coincidence can explain. indeed. Thus they do must discriminate between sleeping and waking. Tylor's contention that savages (like some children) are subject to the difficulty which most of us may have occasionally felt in deciding to Thus. Callaway illustrates this for the Zulus. and Mr. and of persons in bad health such as Nicolai and Mrs. Socrates^ Pascal.106 THE BIAKING OF RELIGION see persons who were really remote. were by some attributed to lunacy in these famous — . had been written about hallucinations. The hallucinations of persons of genius Jeanne d'Arc. we may assume. Much. oddly enough. were not. It is part of Mr. the distinction rience on the whole. But men. When Mr. the study of the occasional waking hallucinations of the sane and healthy was in its infancy. One the lowest savages of our acquaintance. have hit on our theory. so besotted as not to take a great ' Did ' this really practical distinction between sleeping and waking expeAs has been shown. in the mind of an early thinker. for to be easily forgotten is of the essence of a dream. project his spirit on a journey. could not but tell more with the early philosopher than a score of dreams. or did I dream it ? dreams would offer to the early thinker some ordinary evidence that other men's souls could visit his. but these were mainly the chronic false is made by clear ' We perceptions of maniacs.' Dr. dreams go by contraries. at the assumed stage of thought. in a certain ratio. would supply to the savage reasoner a certain amount of affirmative evidence. accessible. Luther. the savage theory that a man at a distance may. therefore examine waking hallucinations in the field of actual experience. and on such recent evidence as may be If these hallucinations agree. of drunkards. then such hallucinations would greatly strengthen. and be seen where he is not present. on the other hand. as he believes that his can visit them. Savages. happen. Tylor wrote his book. with real beyond but unknown events. hallucination. A. of the waking presence of a person really absent. indeed.

Do not hallucinations of the sane. suggest no reasonable inference as to the continued existence of the dead. they were dispeople. the new studies have raised the perhaps insoluble question. ghosts are shown to be. First. This is still practically the hypothesis of Dr. if all this were accepted.' but merely an hallucination. Two results have followed. and many other writers. sober. coincide more frequently than mere luck can account for. represent a living person who is not present. Dr. ' ' * ' .ANTHROPOLOGY AND HALLUCINATIONS 107 people. on that of the person who has the hallucination. In the meantime the reader who has persevered so far is apt to go no further. is not a space-filling ghost. Mr. and discussed by Professor James. is modern. prima facie. Galton. it would be the next step to ask whether hallucinations representing the dead show any signs of being caused by some action on the side of the That is a topic on which the little that we departed. Parish. as we shall see later. That connection would be provisionally explained by some not understood action of the ' ' ' I ' ' mind or brain of the person in the crisis. representing the living. Parish. Telepathy. then hallucinations. and mentally sound If these were known to occur. Such an appearance can. Gurney. then. with the death or other crisis of the person apparently seen ? If this could be proved. But in the last twenty years the infrequent hallucinations of the sane have been recognised by Mr. among healthy. . perhaps. by parity of reason the appearance of a dead person is on the same level. On the other hand. Of course. Galton had recognised the occurrence of hallucinations once in a life. The prejudice against wraiths and ghosts is very strong but. when not illusions caused by mistaking one object for As these most frequently another. have to say must be said later. a relation of cause and effect between the hallucination and the coincident crisis. missed as dreams of an unconscious sleep. This is no new idea only the name. our innocent phantasms are neither (as we understand their nature) . then there would seem to be a causal nexus. Scarcely any writers before Mr.

point out that such hallucinations. Nothing was wrong at home. (2) on his motor nerves.' unknown death That belief of physiologists and psychologists). with inexplicable misery (though wmning his match) that he apologised to his opponent and walked home from the ninth hole. a voice or (4) may render itself as a phrase heard. We my own was suddenly so overwhelmed. a figure seen or an idea. Probably friend of some real ground of to his mind and expressed itself in his emotion. (1) the emotional effect is. . whatever else may be said about them. at once is ' * ' spiritual no such of that person at a distance are 'pure the question to which we recur later. but the logically inconceivable entities which were at once material and and space-filling. People rarely act on such Thus a impressions. are often wrong. as a touch felt. then the effect may take place (1) on B's emotions. at golf. and that the alleged coincidences of a phantasm of a person with the is ' ' ' ' * ' . Kant broke the edges of his metaphysical tools against. may all have had a sudden fit of gloom which we could not explain. urging him to some act (3) or may translate itself into his senses. But one may illustrate what did look like a coincidence by the experience of the same friend. Of these. exist in a regular rising scale of potency and perceptibility. of course. The only real objections are the statements that hallucinations are always morbid (which is no longer the universal non-material. He inhabited. the vaguest. are familiar facts of experience.108 THE MAKING OF RELIGION ghosts nor wraiths. and. In the meantime. which. when they do.' There difficulty about hallucinations. that there is some not understood connection of cause and effect between the death or other crisis at one end and the perception representing the person affected by the crisis at the other end. the defenders of the theory. as a apprehension had obscm'ely occurred . flukes.nd gloom. Suppose that A's death in Yorkshire is to affect the consciousness of B in Surrey before he knows anything about the fact (suppose it for the sake of argument). not these phantasms. or other effects on the percipient. producing a vague 7}ialaise a.

^ See Phantasms of the Living and ' A Theory of Apparitions. They also learned that the girl's sister had arrived at the house. to touch. a flat in a house belonging to an The hall was covered by a kind of glasa acquaintance.' with all their ' The lady. immediately after the accident.. had appeared.E. by the student. and as they travelled home the country lady was beset with an irresistible conviction that someOn thing terrible had occurred. Henry James and Mr. Not to trouble ourselves (3) with voices. . gave me the the servant's sister has been lost sight of. S. it is difficult to deny that there is a prima facie case for inquiry. not to her children. that for some reason unknown he was wanted there. and hearing.R. was not an hallucination. by Messrs. their house they found that one of their maids reaching had fallen through the glass roof and killed herself. these narratives of coincidental hallucinations in every degree have been collected from witnesses at first hand. all known to me. sight. who represented the owner of the house. her husband. ' ' Proceediiigs.^ Cases in which a person feels urged to an act (2) are also recorded. and the lawyer. unsummoned. at crisis. up to a kind of vision of a person or scene. Gurney and Myers. ii. Neville Maskelyne of the Egyptian Hall. but an emotional effect simultaneously reaching the consciousness of three persons.P. which he could not resist. The lawyer. 122. ' ' As some hundreds of once.. Two others are offered by Mr.P. S. Indeed. over part of its extent. ii.' . then. the lawyer's in our anecdote is such an instance. and usually personally crossquestioned. 123. too. often personally known. vol. explaining that she was driven to come by a sense that something dreadful had happened. followed by a me^ital..' Here. with his wife. He was staying in the roof. from a conviction. story in writing ^ See three other cases in Proceedings.^ There is here no question of 'spirits. J. coinciding with a distant unknown ' are traced from a mere feeling that somebody is in the room. and coinciding with an unknown crisis. or 7nind's eye picture of a person dying at a distance.' hallucinations of sight.ANTimOPOLOGY AND HALLUCINATIONS 109 young married man. and so on to hallucinations appealing.

' It is. and are by no means rare. by examination or reflection. and excitement ' ' of the objective reality educated modern. or to everyone. but it is nothing systematic. and to some persons.' is his presence. it is true. Tylor.no THE MAKING OF RELIGION ' ' physical and metaphysical difficulties. of one mind on another at a distance. who treats of hallucinaother experiences which led early savage thinkers to believe in ghosts or separable souls. in the ethnohallucination. exhaustion. the phantom has the characteristic quality of not being visible to all of an assembled company. and perhaps not nor and perceived by others who are present. has an hallucination of a friend's objective. in his * ' ' facts which is but which is not. such influence translating itself into an An inquiry into this subject. once in a life-time. Tylor observes. asserts that in civilised countries a rumour of some one having seen a phantom is enough to bring a sight of ' . Mr. Tylor has something to say.' Mr. As Professor William James behold ' human spectres. is to lay down an explanation of remarks. * Sometimes. Mr. may be new but involves no graphic We * superstition. a perfectly rational and intelligible product of early science. till he finds out his mistake. but not always. are difiicult to account for. too. indeed. our usual modern explanation. cause savages to Sickness. indeed. the origin We now return among tions of religion. nor excited.' in believe.' and he adds to assert or imply that they are visible sometimes. rational has later science produced any intelligible explanation of collective hallucinations. which they nor exhausted.' such solitary hallucinations of the sane and healthy. believes that it is friend in flesh and blood. he. and modern fields. As to the causes of hallucinations in general. shared by several persons at once. not sick.' to Mr. in its nature unknown. But if an ' ' * Principles of Psychology. only provisionally posit the possibility of an influence. Tylor. Nor is there any and desire to shirk the fact that many presentiments hallucinations of the sane coincide with no ascertainable fact.

' Hegel's magical tie. But we may believe in such deathwraiths.' or hallucinatory appearances of the dying. and when I did not know (nor did I learn till long after) that it was the right and usual phantom to see. on the mind of the person who perceives the wraith. certainly. p. again. spirit corresponds to. * ex? a properly receptive state. that the dead man's is actually present to the percipient. when I was in good health. and thus to the early philosophy of Animism. Mr. the animistic philosophy of the savage.' make should have seen several phantoms in several haunted But the only thing of the sort I ever houses.' which never caused expectancy * * * properly receptive a circle. may believe without pretending to explain.ANTimOPOLOGY AND riALLUCINATIONS it 111 to others whose minds are this is state. Tylor treats of waking hallucinations in much the same manner as he deals with travelling clairvoyance.' * does not study them in the field of experience.' I in in a ' them to see phantoms. without being either savages or spiritualists. the hallucination of a person's presence. 333. If this be so. modern spiritualistic theory.' saw occurred when I was thinking of nothing less.' But arguing ' properly receptive state pectant attention.' Mr. in a more or less perfect hallucination. important as we think it would be. but with his theory that hallucinations. . in space. among other causes. overwork.' He not concerned with the truth of the facts. or we may advance the * He is ' ' ' * ' * ' • We theory of Telepathy. something symbolised in the word shadow. the truth of the stories of ' ' ' Studies in Psychical Research. Now.' breath or The (spiritus). say at the moment of his death at a distance. would suggest to a savage that something of the dying man's.' according to which the distant mind somehow impresses itself. and is derived from. for they saw none. or even if no explanation be offered. What is 'a If illness. Podmore remarks that various members of the Psychical Society have sojourned in some of them in a state of various haunted houses.' and nervous excitement. would naturally give rise to the belief in spirits. had come to say farewell.

with Animism in its hallucinatory origins. Tylor says ' : can here only specify without arguing on them. Cult. quantum valeat. is warranted by human experience. . 450. Leaf This. narrated to him. then there would be a presumption in favour of some unknown a proper theme for anthropology. On what does he suppose that the belief of the savage is based ? Do his experience and their belief coincide by pure chance ? ' ^ Ibid.' erroneous but if the occurrence of such coincidental fectly appearances as Mr.' As to hallucinations coincident with the death of the Narratives of this person apparently seen. Prim. that Mr. But Totemism can hardly be quoted as evidence for Darwinism. of savages as to hallucinations of their own. at least. — Mr. at least. by proving the existence of a great monkey kinship. perhaps. Mr. will confirm.' True. not facts of personal ' ' experience. that Darwinism may have done something for Totemism. the modern they are abundantly in circulation. view is that nothing but dreams and visions could have ever put into men's minds such an idea as that of souls * : ^ The idea may be perbeing ethereal images of bodies. Tylor gives three anecdotes. 449. as pointing Then the evidence to a new region of psychical inquiry. coincident with the death of their absent friends. not with the hallucinations themselves or with the evidence class I * ' for their veridical existence. and all degrees of culture. the evidence of many modern observers in all ranks of life. by the seers. To a believer in coincidental hallucinations. Tylor tells us about could be shown to be too frequent for mere chance to produce. It is with that opinion.112 THE MAKING OF RELIGION coincidental apparitions becomes important. the alleged parallel experiences of savages must yield some confirmation to hia own. has argued on the other side. Tylor is concerned.' though the opinion that an is really hallucination of a person must be his spirit such a survival. seems to myself a not illogical argument. faculties in our nature .' hallucinations themselves can scarcely. ^ Now. be caJled * survivals from savagery. in two cases. of phantasms of the living beheld by them (and in one case by a companion also) when the He adds My own real person was dying at a distance. but Darwinism and Totemism are matters of opinion. Mr. i. from Lord Brougham to an old nurse. i. His belief. he thinks.

but the form became dim and vanished. Mr. and saw bending over me the well-known form of my uncle. offering it at full from the original. in addition to his three instances in civilised life.ANTHROPOLOGY AND HALLUCINATIONS The in 113 hallucinations of which we hear most are those sees the phantom of another person. while they were seated in the expedition. has not seized his If the face of the absent person is seen. If the figure is very shadowy. vol. seen but two ghosts. the figure of a relative who had been left ill at home was seen to approach. is in or near the hour of death. F. communicated to me by Mr.' turn to his savage instance. alludes to one in savage life. whom I supposed to be at the Bay of Islands. 450. Tregear. p.. and then learnt that he had died about the time he was said to have been seen. I was a boy at school in Auckland. unknown to him. Cult. with references to other cases.G. Tylor. When they returned to the village they inquired for the sick man. and vanished immediately on their making an exclamation of surprise. p. I spoke to him. The next mail brought me the news of his * ' A Prim. and its face is not seen.' * Among ' * : ' I now give Maori cases.E.' The following statement is from the mouth of an eyewitness A party of natives left their village. who. death. 140. on a pig -hunting One night. the omen prey. I . Shortland) it is always ominous to see the figure of an absent person.^ length which a person We the Maoris (says Mr.S.' I have very intelligent Maori chief said to me. open air around a blazing fire. I looked up. author of a Maori Comparative ' Dictionary. ' From Shortland's Traditions of New Zealand. with the intention of being absent some time. i. The apparition appeared to two of the party only. and one morning was asleep in bed when I found myself aroused by some one shaking me by the shoulder. forewarns the beholder that he is already dead. although he may ere long be expected.

" ' replied. Francis Dart Fenton. when the incident occurred. 1860.' ' ' March 25.' vol. In 1852. the native stopped suddenly. said. he had gone into the house of a missionary. and saw a man standing between me and the window. Phantasms of the Living. Captain J. p. and I saw no ghost or spirit not even when my father and mother died. He came from Tihorewam. death. I had not expected to hear of my uncle's death. no people within miles of them. . ' "What do you . and said. " Oh " friend He turned romid. ch. a vast swamp. said. when a dark shadow fell across my book. cross-cutting "What are you come for?" looking in the direction of ' Two — Frank. Mr. Then one day I was sitting reading. mean?" The ii. from whom we received it. formerly in the Native Department of the Government. ! — Ihaka. and I saw my other uncle. E. were engaged cutting timber for the Eev. Frank " I brother. New Zealand. Frank Philps and Jack Mulholland. H. However. am not speaking to you I am speaking to He my Frank "Where is he?" native Gurney and Myers. As usual. Crosse. Maunsell at the mouth of the Awaroa creek a very lonely place. That is all I myself had seen of spirits. and I called out to him. sawyers. v. and I was absent in each case.' One more Maori example may be ofifered ' : From Mr. about six miles off. a tree.114 THE MAKING OF RELIGION Years passed away. Cork. and he (with several white people) was poisoned by eating of a pie made from tinned meat. a village on the other side of the As Frank and the native were river. they had a Maori with them to assist in felling trees. I looked up. He gave the account in writing to his friend. for I had seen him hale and strong a few hours before. Fenton was engaged in forming a settlement on the banks of the Waikato. the tin having been opened and the meat left in it all night. I saw from his figure that he was a Maori. 657. Auckland. of Monkstown. The form faded away as the other had done. His back was turned towards me.

I ^ Mr. Darwin also mentions this case. and it is quite Incidents of true. Late Chief Judge. on board the Beagle. a coincidental audi- have found no other savage cases quite to the point. as the lawyers say. Bynoe that in the night some man came to the side of his hammock and whispered in his ear that his He fully believed that such was the father was dead. or of lack of records. Fenton writes : his authority for this ' December 18. he arrived at the landing-place. cf. travellers usually pooh-poohing the benighted > The Adventure and ' ' ' Beagle. valeat quantum. this sort are not infrequent among the Maoris. and reminded him that he had left him quite well on Sunday (five days before). but it may be so meagre by reason of want of research. the parties concerned well. and there had been no communication since. His brother had just died. What do you want?" (to the other Maori). While at sea. undeniably. speaking of a Fuegian brought to England).' iii. * I knew all *F.' tory hallucination.ANTHROPOLOGY AND HALLUCINATIONS replied. Mr. I knew When him well. but got into his canoe and pulled across. The Maori . . 1883. del : ' ' * ** . D. but laid down the saw and " I shall go across the river said. 115 "Behind you.' and he was perfectly right.' In answer to inquiries as to narrative. Bennett of the dream.' Here is a somewhat analogous example from Tierra Fuego Jemmy Button was very superstitious (says Admiral Fitzroy.Z. 181. 204. I 2 . ^ Fenton. a puir show for Kirkintilloch.' a meagre collection of savage death-wraiths." he said one morning to Mr. spoke no more. 'He reminded case." 'Frank laughed at him. my brother is dead. Native Law-Court of N. . he met people coming to fetch him. Frank looked round and saw nobody. ' This is. The native no longer saw anyone.

the accidental opening of a door. It will be seen later that neither grief nor amatory passion (dominating the association of our ideas as they do) beget many phantasms. it is obviously necessary to reject all evidence of people who were ill. where one man thinks he sees something. again. and in an unperturbed state of mind. in asking questions as to the proportion between phantasms of the living which coincide with a crisis in the experience of the person seen. Tylor's anthropological work. as far as we know. Once more. as we have seen. Again. expectancy. Yet collective hallucinations. the effect is far less common than the cause. and those which do not. or of the place where the sound now heard used once to be familiar. hallucination or. are to another is ' ' * ' . Our business.' though. at least. not usually visionary. they are. or fearing to seem superstitious if they chronicle instances. Waiting for the sound of a carriage you may hear it often before it comes. you taking other sounds for that which you desire. collected thirteen cases of an hallucinatory appearance of one person who was expecting his arrival. undeniably. There remains a normal cause of subjective hallucinaThis appears to be a real cause of tions.116 THE MAKING OF RELIGION superstitions of the heathen. In filling up the lacuna in Mr. in an inquiry embracing 17.E.P. And it stands to reason that savages. the S. of illusion. healthy. and nervousness. which are shared by several persons at once. or anxious. sane. However few the instances. may touch the brain into originating an hallucination of a person passing through the door.' will be readier than we are to think they see something too. however. or overworked. a noise of a familiar kind in an unfamiliar place. exact parallels to those recorded in civilised life. might doubtless cause an hallucination to a person who felt uncomfortable in a house with a name to be haunted.000 people. or in poignant grief at the time of the hallucination. is with the false perceptions of persons trustworthy. Expectancy. All these sorts of causes are undoubtedly more apt to be prevalent among superstitious savages than among educated Europeans. it very conceivable that a trifle.

Phantasms of the Living. are abundant in modern times. Mr. the mystery is increased. 116. the visions of Jeanne d'Arc. Tylor says istic theory specially insists on cases of apparitions.ANTHROPOLOGY AND HALLUCINATIONS 117 When may note that. once. than ought to occur. Prim. narratives well attested. among the expectant multitudes who looked on while Bernadette was viewing the Blessed Virgin at Lourdes. he remarks truly. not one person. find in experie7ice that ' "^ apparitions of his friends were their deaths ? And. Gurney and Myers's two large volumes.' and to the S.E. Cult. often see phantoms of That is the case. of course. Eeport of Census of 'The spiritualHallucinations' (1894). Tylor observes. if so. there is no excitement.' But visionaries. living persons when nothing occurs. strained condition of expectancy.' Did early man. is asserted to have In both cases all shared. where the person's death corresponds more or less nearly with the time when some friend perceives his phantom. * be said that they worked their stories into conformity. i. only one person.P. Again. in fact the origin of his belief that an hallucinatory appearance of an absent person sometimes announced his death ? ' connected in fact with was that discovered connection ' ' It will. so abundant that one need only refer the curious to Messrs. Man. the conditions said to produce collective hallucination were present in the highest degree. however superstitious or hysterical. ' ' : We Even if they occur when all are in a especially puzzling. Yet no collective hallucination occurred. then. and he on doubtful evidence. intellectual condition. Narratives about hallucinations coincident with a death. and the question arises whether more such phantoms are viewed {not by * visionaries ') in connection with the death or other crisis of the person whose hallucinatory appearance is perceived. as yet in a low appearances. if there be no connection of some unknown cause between deaths and As Mr. pretended to share the vision. came to associate in thought those things which he found by experience to be connected in fact. . it is odd that all see them in the same waij} Examples will occur later.

but on many other occasions. owner believed to be dying ? ' when the wraith is seen.118 THE MAKING OF RELIGION ' belief exists in New Zealand we saw. and sat mute She ran to bring witnesses. even if she fabled. 186. Tylor himself. not at death only.' ^ exposed to the of his enemies. All these are much more frequent conditions. the Society for Psychical Eesearch has attempted a little census. is the Are the things bound to be connected in fact ' ? well known. A Maori chief was long absent on the war-path. return the phantasm was no longer visible. Why. as. or magic detached soul. 268. when a hunter incautiously went to ' ' In this case the hunter is But the Murup. seemed good legal evidence of his decease. is the cause of the belief that a phantom of a man is a token of his death? On the theory of savage philosophy. hold that * the Murup [wraith] of an individual could be sent from him by magic. as explained by Mr. trance. The woman soon afterwards married again. New Zealanders. cit. o}}. i. in a sufficient ratio of cases to provoke remark. then. then. an Australian tribe. Why. in dream. than the fact of dying. as she had acted on what. to a Maori mind. one of many such relations. then. and find confirmed by this instance. is the phantasm supposed by savages man's soul to announce death ? Is it because. . a That the may leave his body and become visible to others. but on her by the hearth. — philosophy. for the pm-pose of discoveris ' As ' Polack's Manners of tlie Howitt. the story is evidence to the existence of the belief. Her husband then returned in perfect health.' What. One day he entered his wife's hut. Of course. for instance. would be visible to people at a distance when its owner is only asleep according to the savage sleep when out hunting.* says the author. in every man's career. and pardoned the lady. lethargy. early man has found the appearance and the death to be things connected in fact ? I give an instance in which the philosophy of savages would lead them not to connect a phantasm of a living man with his death. p. The Woi Worung.

17. had seen eight or ten of the number envied mortals "angels. it is easy to say that odd things must occur. Clodd wrote about the Census 1897). If it be so. Thousands Mr. were asked whether they had ever seen appaand out of these some hundreds.. in a larger ratio than the laws of chance allow as possible. within twelve hours. like the American in the " snakes.. Edward Clodd is the author of of several handbooks Manual of Creation. replied in the affirmative. illusions of memory. Other objections are put forward by teachers of popular science who have not examined or. Finally. misreport the results of the Census in detail. with their deaths.ANTHROPOLOGY AND HALLUCINATIONS 119 ing whether hallucinations representing persons at a distance coincided. I may give — — an example of their method. accurate memory. Mr. Again. Once more. granting honesty. only weigh- ing evidence we have to take into account the competency . mostly un- Some foreigners. increasing the closeness of the or it will be easy to say that coincidence. and non-selection (none of which will be granted by opponents). will come in Allowances for them will not be accepted. ' book. in a signed review of a Evolution. select ' ' affirmative will equally fatal) — ' ' . are decidedly not enough for a popular argument on probabilities a million. and that the large proportion of affirmative answers as to coincidental hallucinations is just a specimen of these odd things. In spite of all precautions taken. the Maori might have some ground for his theory that such hallucinations betoken a decease. and allowances made later. science — ' The Story of * A ' : ' of persons ritions. or (which is be suspected of doing so. I do not believe that any such census can enable us to reach an affirmative conclusion which science will accept. though a larger number than is usual in biological inquiries.000 cases. it will be said.' Now. In had seen intelligent — — mongoose story. all warnings before. they came in. having examined." but the majority. would not be too many. a critique published in The Sketch (October 13. collectors of evidence will ' ' cases already known." .' and others.

His observations. terminology of popular science. in which coincidence of the hallucination with the death of the person apparently seen was affirmed. not known to coincide with any event this is his meaning his statement agrees with that of the Census. when Mr. was 352.120 THE MAKING OF RELIGION as well as the integrity of the witnesses. fantastic hallucinations of animals. there were 80. were purely accidental But.' The results being collected to be the compared. Thirdly. by 'snakes. Clodd means purely subjective and hallucinations. these 25.' amounted to if snakes Mr. unrecognised. which impression. of course. thousands of persons were ?iot asked whether they had seen apparitions. Otherwise we might ask Does Mr. ' ' If Mr.499 answered the question quoted above in the affirma- Of foreigners (naturally unintelligent ') 185 returned affirmative answers. it is not the fact that some hundreds. Clodd means. The number of hallucinations representing living or dying recognised persons in the answers received. Clodd says. ' . The non-coincidental hallucinations were multiplied by ' four. to allow for f orgetfulness of misses. replied in the ' ' affirmative. 1. First.' Mr. living or dead. so far as you could discover."' it is not easy to know what precise sense snakes bears in the tive.' They were asked Have you ever. or being touched by a living being or inanimate object. Clodd has most frankly and good-humouredly acknowledged the erroneousness of his remark. when believing yourself to be perfectly awake. Clodd prefer to be considered not competent or not veracious ? He cannot be both on this occasion. had a vivid impression of seeing. Of first-hand cases. was not due to any external physical cause ? Secondly. as against 830 representing human forms of persons recognised. for his signed and published remarks were absolutely inaccurate. 'The majority had seen only "snakes. mostly unintelligent foreigners.' Of English-speaking men and women. : ' ' ' ' ' ' : or of hearing a voice . by • ' — — errors. was decided that the hallucinations coincided with death 440 more often than ought it . of which 26 are given.

There was scarcely any documentary evidence.ANTHROPOLOGY AND HALLUCINATIONS case by the law of probabilities. as the questions were often answered several years before the publication of the Beport (1894). though such cases were excluded from the final computation they frequently knew that the person seen was in bad health they were often very familiar with his personal aspect. any note or letter written between the hallucination and the arrival of news of the death. or written on a sheet of blotting paper or the whitewashed wall of a barrack room. I know seven cases in which such hallucinations occurred. persons much in our minds. losing. able. the evidence alleged. however. 1. from cheques to notes made If we were for literary purposes. why were so few recent cases discovered? Again. 2. but had been lost. or presumption. and even if people had guessed at this. but on the details. had in some cases existed. If I may judge by my own lifelong success in mislaying. of husband to wife . I should not think much of the disappearance of documentary evidence to death-wraiths. that Science would ask for their production . it is human to lose or destroy old papers.' the assault should be made not only on the The events were never of method. for. eaten by white ants. and casually destroying papers. of the occurrences is more remarkthese things happen. if : : The remoteness . proof. very recent.' non-coincidental hallucinations. usually represent persons very familiar to us. that 'Between deaths and apparitions of the dying a connection exists which is not due to chance alone. the seers were sometimes under anxiety. to attack the opinion of the Committee on Hallucinations. and often were of remote occurrence. Such letters. Now what are called 'subjective hallucinations. burnt. Nobody supposed. or if I may judge by Sir Walter Scott's triumphs of the same kind. when these notes were written. in favour of 121 some Therefore there was relation of cause and effect between A's death and B's hallucination. from interesting letters of friends to the manuscripts of novelists. The remoteness was less than it seems.

No knowledge of illness anxiety reported. 1881. 11. 1874. represented persons familiarly known to the seers. 1888. 7. in twenty-eight cases: 1890. Brother-in-law to sister-in-law. dog-cart with a lady. Only in case 4 was there any kind of coincidence. Sudden death. the brother having intended to do (unknown to the sister) what he was seen doing driving in a cannot. No or Friend to friend. sister to sister cousin (Hving in the same house) to cousin 7. prove that these seven cases were not telepathic. 1845. brother to sister 5. 1855. if telepathy does exist. 1879. Now most of the 3. No anxiety. these dates of reported occurrences. friend (living a mile away) to two friends. 1830 (? !). was not very well. rently to a dog. it is most likely (as Hegel says) to exist between kinsfolk and friends. Russian. 1881. 1879. 1869. 1888.' The dates might be fresher In case 1. 1864 (?). nor at all anxious. 1885. 1878. 1861. Acquaintance Percipient not did. No anxiety reported. . No anxiety. we find. This looks as if they were casual . No of illness. of cowc^e. 1869. Step-brother to step-brother. 1882. • On examining the cases. 5. 1874. in 1894. Father to son.122 THE MAKING OF RELIGION . 1877. to seven people. In no case was there a death-coincidence. on which the Committee relied as their choicest examples. . 3. But he had not driven. and appaIllness known. of course. . 1873. 1863. Father in England to son in India. knowledge 6. No Casual acquaintance. 1880. 10. and her maid. Casual acquaintance. 4. . son to mother 4. 9. Case of dent or suicide. but there is no proof that they were. 1860 (?). No knowledge of illness. No anxiety. Russian. anxiety reported. percipient knew that his aunt in England ! (he being in Australia) 2. 6. 8. No anxiety. 1862. 1867. 1887. acci- anxiety. but. who feared to die in childbed. No anxiet5^ Uncle to niece. Grandmother to grandson. — We coincidental cases. and much interested. Russian. 1876. No knowledge of illness.

Father to daughter. surmised. No anxiety. 24. Illness known. 25. Aunt to No nephew and No anxiety. 28. No anxiety or knowledge of 13. . illness. affection. 27. Grandfather to grand-daughter. Father to son. No anxiety. sister. or to be surmised. 14. 15. No anxiety. Brother to brother.) Illness known. anxiety. 23. even when no anxiety existed. adversely.ANTHROPOLOGY AND HALLUCINATIONS 12. (Very bad case !) Illness known. three cases. 22. Illness known. Percipient a daughter. in two or Anxiety In a dozen the existence of illness was known. 20. anxiety. that in the selected coincidental hallucinations. No anxiety. It may therefore be argued. only reported. 21. Friend to friend. counted.' On the other hand. Brazilian. Father's hand. ' Much 18. Husband to wife. Brother to Friend to is Anxiety in time of war. Percipient had been nursing patient. 123 Friend to friend. Much Biissian. No Father to son. No anxiety. Casual acquaintance. 16. Friend to friend. familiarity. Sister to brother. 17. friend. No knowledge of illness. and that most foreigners are fools. anxiety. that knowledge of their illness. Sister to sister. Illness known. No anxiety. purely subjective hallucinations representing real hallucinations even in the case of these percipients. Illness known. Illness known. 26.) ' No immediate (Un- danger 19. anxiety. Grandfather to grandson. the persons seen were in the class most usually beheld in non-coincidental and. till . Bussian. Illness chronic. pro- p^sons also. ' bably. (Uncounted. to his wife. Illness known. and knowledge of illness had 7iot produced . Slightly anxious from receiving no letter. No pressing anxiety. that several cases are foreign. kept them in some cases before the mind also.

and show how far. the event of It would have been desirable. out of 1. on other grounds. On this point see Report. The authors. thereOn fore. Now. will seem to be. incidence. of the instances. grief. . or probably produce.124 THE MAKING OF RELIGION much less) of within the twelve hours (often death. mental strain was reported in 220 instances . of all sorts of hallucinations. and overwork. to publish all the wo?i-coincidental cases.622 cases of hallucination of all known kinds (coincidental or not). it does not seem fair to argue that anxiety produces so much hallucination that it will account by which we have analysed as coinciitself for those dental. occur only in twelve per cent. known to be ill. then all cases in which a coincidental hallucination occurred to a person in anxiety. and even inclined to believe that it does produce coincidental hallucinations. p. the whole. dear friends. Fifty phantasms out of the whole occurred during anxiety or presumable anxiety. in these not veridical cases. hits or misses. These mental conditions. the recognised phantasms were those of kindred. of which 131 were cases of grief about known deaths or anxiety. the evidence of the Census. thirty-one coincided (within twelve hours) with the death of the person apparently seen. in fact. percipients.' The impression left on my own mind by the Census does pretty closely agree with that of its authors. or overstrained. the person seen recovered in eight cases. Do these produce. Fairly well persuaded of the possibility of telepathy. were asked if they were in grief or anxiety.^ The Census. many empty hallucinations not coincident with death or any great crisis ? If they do. and subjects of anxiety. of course. In the remaining nineteen. would not convince me nor its authors. and Nervous such as anxiety. All probably. Of these. 250. fortuitous coincidences like the others. does contain a chapter on * Mental Conditions in connection with Hallucinations. ' Memories are very adaptive. we want documentary evidence want better records recording cases before the arrival of news of the co- We . by itself.

then in. perceived by myself. is of very considerable weight. after moping for some time. and largely allowed for all conceivable drawbacks. in a Kantian spirit. contrary to his wont. let us say. as proof of his death. as the sleeping accommodation was exhausted. evidence to go to a jury. in his usual He now admitted that. my At the end of a .' in other sources.C. at the time of the incident. On this topic I will offer. asked leave to go a three days' voyage to the nearest telegraph station. while lying awake high spirits. in the verandah. and to be more convinced by the cumulative weight of the hundreds of cases in Phantasms of the Living. Hong Kong. I am. His commanding to informant. Peru. say. One night he went a dance. It is not given as disposes the mind to a sort of belief. I would entertain some slight anxiety till I heard of his ' well-being. an anecdote of the kind which. and gave leave. with the distant mainland. after the ball. like a Homeric hero. Is all well officer. In the force was lips of a whose own part a particularly jolly young captain. Next day. He could not shake off the impression he had made the long voyage to the nearest telegraph station. on a couch beneath the echoing loggia. was good-natured. for I only received it from the very gallant and distinguished officer and V. Thus while I would never regard the hallucinatory figure of a friend.. he was in the worst of spirits. he passed the night. in the affair will be described.ANTHROPOLOGY AND HALLUCINATIONS however. personally. and. and even by the coincident traditions of European and savage peoples. and thence had telegraphed to another brother in. and. occurring in great quantities. * . not connected by telegraph. than by the statistics of the Census. week Captain returned. in my own circle of acquaintance. This gentleman was in command of a small British force in one of the remotest and least accessible of our dependencies. Census and all. The whole mass. 125 made a gallant effort. at the cost of much labour. he had seen a favourite brother of his. illogical enough to agree with Kant. and there exist individual cases which one feels unable to dispute.

surmount the awful bounds of the spiritual world.' as the telepathic impact only affected the sense anecdotes. ought to follow a reply to certain . when Alice seemed as the clock in the distant village tolled one. But the character of informant indisposes me to disbelief. but the places were as remote from each other as those given in the text. which could not it be. and so on. his dence we need Captain Hong Kong brother's account. survive its catastrophe. Can then can strong and earnest wishes. Hero. yet unfold its ' tale to ' its purpose remain unknown ' ? Master's reasonings are such as. received a reply.' only a possible example of a law. official date of the Peruvian brother's death. to his duties. For eviThis. postulate a breach in the laws of nature. to die. in hearing similar must have occurred to Scott.' ? He and so returned. like just before him. The tale was not unfolded to the ear. do not. — Her withered lips moved the ear ? (' And wherefast. formed during the last agony of nature.') fore should a breach be made in the laws of nature.126 THE MAKING OF RELIGION ' with John mail. although no sound issued from them. date of the dance. They no longer The death and apparition were represent our views. and place before us its inhabitants in the hues and colouring of life ? And why was that manifested to the eye. of course. : * ' The We * ' of sight. perhaps. is not offered as evidence. find ourselves able to understand the Master of my We Eavenswood's cogitations in fiction * : after he saw the best wraith She died expressing her eager desire to see me. The names of places are intentionally changed. coincidental almost to the minute it would be impossible to prove that life was utterly extinct. But the next mail bringing letters from Peru brought news of his Peruvian brother's death on the night of the vision in the verandah. 's account. Eavenswood's experience. * All well by last relieved in mind.

the Reply to Objections has been relegated to the Appendix. But. upon another. or brain.ANTHROPOLOGY AND HALLUCINATIONS scientific criticisms of the * 127 theory that telepathy.' whether among savage or civilised races. or the action of one distant mind. .' ' Appendix A. not to delay the argument by controversy. may be the cause of coincidental hallucinations.

Fison savages. . already noted. Phantasms seems better to say nothing such phantasms are seen by savages it — when awake. for their part. The Zulu who dies commonly becomes an Ihlozi. previously cited. they belief in the will doubtless greatly corroborate that endurance of the soul after death. that an Australian lad became a wizard on the strength of having seen a phantasm of his dead mother. Howitt's Kamilaroi and Kurnai. gives some first-hand Zulu evidence about a haunted wood. But the circumstance. by the European Poltergeist. it would be very difficult indeed to discover many good examples in what we know about Some Fijian instances are given by Mr. as * .' Others occur in the narrative of John Tanner. David Leslie. which is undeniably suggested to the early reasoner by the phenomena of dreaming. a captive from childhood among the Eed Indians. but only heard of ghosts from their old men. where the Esevikofu. proves that such experiences are not common and Australian black fellows have admitted that they. or ghosts of persons killed by a tyrannical chief. namely. But. Mr.128 THE MTAKING OF RELIGION VII DEMONIACAL POSSESSION There of the in this is a kind of hallucinations Dead — about which If place. in his and Mr. and receives his share of . never did see a ghost. were heard and felt by his native informant the percipient was also pelted with stones. while it is easy enough to produce evidence to recognised phantasms of the dead in civilised life.

which corroborate the savage belief in the persistence of The savage reasoner rather the spirit of the departed. or women. But it is not so copious. to a topic in which savage evidence is much more full than modern civilised records.' They speak in voices not their own. various explanations not involving anything so distasteful to science as the action of a discarnate intelligence may be. turn. which cause so many houses in civilised society to be shut up. In the philosophy of Animism. and. 129 The Esemkofu. 120. do not consciously possess. All these and similar phenomena the savage explains by the hypothesis that an alien spirit perhaps Among tlie Zulus. spirits of the dead. savage and civilised. or spirits at large. as 'haunted. from a theme in which civilised testimony is more bulky than that derived from savage life. physical ' of course. therefore. were the evidence as copious as that for coincidental hallucinations of the living. they act in a manner alien to their natural character. This topic is the so-called Demoniacal Possession. therefore. are disturbed and haunting so far as our information goes. — ' K .' Such disturbances the savage naturally ascribes to spirits. . As a movements of objects apparently untouched. are spoken of as inspired. in waking vision. on spirits. The facts attested may. it is not recognised phantasms of the dead. it would be of extreme importance. put forward. be theoretically explained as the result of telepathy from a mind no longer incarnate and. and to display knowledge which they could not have normally acquired.' Our evidence. can take up their homes in the bodies of living men. or dying. and in the belief of many peoples. in their normal condition. We * * they are said to utter prophecies.^ the other hand. p. Such men. so it is unnecessary to examine the much more copious civilised evidence.' or possessed. or shunned. and have been. for recognised phantasms of the savage dead is very meagre. granting even that it is accurate. rests his faith on the alleged phenomena of noises and rule.DEMONIACAL POSSESSION sacrifice. and. in fact.

Americans call inspirational addresses. on losing his religious zeal. He could not account for his former exercises. and he must ' . Mason are conscious impostors. he professed to become converted. " Love each other act righteously act uprightly. but. I sent a native preacher to visit him. Christian doctrine." with other exhortations such as he had heard from the . on hearing the Gospel. he removed to a distant village. and disagreeing with of the church members. it spoke to him no more. Though many such prophets Dr. prophecies.' After receiving.' * . It had left him. . Its language was exceedingly pleasant to hear. where he could not attend the services of the Sabbath. the patient again spoke unconsciously.130 THE MAKING OF RELIGION a demon. and I baptised him. delivers sermons. . being full of the sion of the patient. and produced great brokenness of heart. he After a protracted trial said . spirit spoke.' before he returns to his normal consciousness. communicated. In the same way we shall find that a modern American * ' Burmah. I watched his case with interest. — teachers. for several years he led an unimpeachable Christian life . and had no more communication with his spirit. p. . mentions a prophet who became converted to Christianity. and deserting. but under the influence of the faith which he had abandoned. perhaps a ghost. but it spoke very differently. 107. or a god has taken possesThe possessed. when the spirit left him again and ever since he has maintained the character of a consistent Christian. and what the spirit. The man said he heard the voice which had conversed with him formerly. but said ' — * that it certainly appeared to tell him : as though a Dr. some It said. oracles. An assistant was placed in the village near him. others are sincere. This anecdote illustrates what is called by spiritists change of control. what Mason also Another individual had a familiar spirit that he consulted and with which he conversed but.' gives the following anecdote it . and it was soon after reported that he had communications with his familiar spirit again.

no Neviua's Demon by an American missionary. Not having the fear of man before his eyes. and mania. S. 169. p. Dr. Prvm. K 2 . a curious collection of examples The reports of Catholic missionaries abound ' Op. pt. Possession in China. he also remarked that the current scientific explanations had the fault of not explaining anything. possessed women. 134.' Dr. Tylor. ii. Nevius. 'we search in vain to discover what this principle is. delirium. and mania. Nor can it honestly be denied that. says Dr. Proceedings. obtained new controls of a character more urbane and civilised than her old familiar spirit. if the special notes of possession actually exist. 'Mr. Nevius.' but. the United The doctor had the audacity to declare that he States.P. gave what he conceived to be the notes of possession. in cases.'"* Dr. Nevius.'^ voyant powers. a — * ' ' Hodgson.^ The book Demon Possession 171 Cliina — — of Dr. that the patients were possessed. in his diagnosis. scientific physicians now explain the facts on a different principle. xxxiii. cit. who had the courage of his opinions.R.' It is admitted that the possessed sometimes display an Medium/ ' of * * ' eloquence which they are incapable of in their normal In China. Nevius. Piper. then consulted a work styled Nervous Derangement. means agrees with * ' this view of the case Cult.' by Dr. who never coma line of poetry in their normal lives. however. xiii. For example. according to Mr. could find no better explanation of the phenomena than the theory of the Apostles namely. Nevius then observed that. and are said to give evidence of claircondition.DEMONIACAL POSSESSION * 181 after being for a time constantly in the society educated and psychological observers. Hammond. vol.. delirium. was violently attacked by the medical journals of his native country. Dr. Tylor intimates that all cases of supposed demoniacal possession are identical with hysteria. Hodgson by — the case of Mrs. utter their posed thoughts in verse. distinguished them from hysteria (whatever that may mean). and. for forty years a missionary. and suchlike bodily and mental derangements. they do mark quite a distinct species of mental affection.

132 THE MAKING OF RELIGION Professor in the Medical School of the University of New York. did not. in her normal state. Thus. these are not what I call possession. persistent and consistent acting out of a new personality. generally. what is very gratifying. medium '). Because pathologists and psychologists are unable to explain. Hammond to account for the abnormal conditions in so-called possession. and came back to his faith in Diabolical Possession. was precisely the natural inference : of savages. and could not know. Nevius catalogues the symptoms of possession thus 1. Piper knew a great deal about things which Mrs. ' • Putnam. Professor William James. M. . Nevius cannot be called strictly ' ' ' ' ' * ' — scientific. Nevius next hardly even attempted to do this. insanity.' perused the works of Dr.' He found this scientific physician admitting that we know very little about the matter. of course. said he. Dr. Dr. and. 1881. and hysteria but then. James professing his conviction that the alternating personality (in popular phrase. which calls himself shieng (genius) and calls the patient hiang to (incense burner. Piper. Eibot. or a god.' but for possession they have a different name. He was therefore informed that he had written one of the most extraordinarily perverted books of the present day on the evidence of transparent ghost stories which do not occur in his book.' He found Mr. But this. it does not follow that the devil. Dr. The automatic. epilepsy. the demon. which they ascribe to physical causes. Griesinger. Baelz. Nevius was none the better.' and that so-called possession is the result of material derangements of the organs or functions of the system. or a ghost. He expected Dr. He knew. is in it. the literature of ' ' ' * . after consulting many physicians. Nevius was ready to admit this latter doctrine in cases of idiocy.' Dr. The Chinese have names for all these maladies. The attitude of Dr. * ' alternating personality. that mind is the result of nervous action. but he has Dr. or give the modus of a set of phenomena. or familiar spirit) of Mrs.

Ibid. ciU p. even if he accepted the facts. that Mrs. The other witnesses were examined. 33. » Op.^ ' verse. p. Of these notes. Now. the only real question. physically. Kwo. Leng was on his way to see her. Nevius's book.^ Dr. to contact with the Absolute. a lady in her normal state incapable of lyrical efforts. But the question of evidence for the facts is. p. with Hartmann. 3.DEMONIACAL POSSESSION 2. or in the past. he could fly. nor explainable on the pathological hypothesis. for the Chinese were strictly owned by the . this evidence rests almost entirely on the written reports of native Christian teachers. the second would. questioned by Europeans. and detected the circumstance that Mr. learn We They are perfectly modest and rational in style. might be telepathically communicated to the brain of some living person while. ' We teachers.^ They are now crossing the stream. that knowledge of the remote in space. Nevius. or of the remote. when possessed. brother. the inference that a novel and wiser intelligence had taken possession of the patient's body would be. examined Mrs. 183 Possession of knowledge and intellectual power not patient (in his normal state). in Dr. when she could not have learned the fact in any normal way. But the more cautious modern. to the savage. irresistible. would be He would say reduced to no such extreme conclusion. and will be here when the sun is about so high which was correct. limp. lisped in numbers in her secondary personality. Sen. 'My heathen asks the sister who is a demoniac ? The reply of the heathen brother is best left in the obscurity of a remarkably difficult and are thus obliged to fall copious Oriental language. Leng and other native Christian reticent when you have a intelligent European. 38. of course. Complete change of moral character in the patient. most confirm the savage belief that a new intelligence had entered into the patient. . and corroborated. of course. talking in and. 35. If he displayed knowledge of the future. Nevius himself * ' . back on the reports of Mr. for knowledge of the future.

His moral character was not completely changed he was only more hypochondriacal and hysterical than . v^^ere in need of explanation. in the opinion of Dr. His patient. He was conAchille ' vulsed. usual. a scientific account of a demoniac and his cure V7as published by Dr. Achille. is to deny that the facts in which Dr. Janet.'^ Dr. and there are many anecdotes of movements of objects untouched. 1. knows nothing of w^hat has occurred . if they ever do. deranged. ansBsthetic. as this chapter w^as passing through the press. 1898. Captain Booth. ' Paris . on recovering consciousness. everything in the matter of possession. suicidal. that eminent authority v^ould not have satisfied Dr. These facts did not occur in the case of the demoniac exorcised Thus the learned essay of by Dr. 3. but after a long course of mental and physical treatment. The facts in which he was interested did not present themselves in Dr. Alcan.134 THE MAKING OF RELIGION . involuntarily blasphemous. Nevius believes ever present themselves at all . did not act out a new per- sonality. He was not * exorcised by a prayer or by a command. here. Achille displayed wo knowledge or intellectual power which he did not possess in his normal state. Janet does not explain them. in * See Fetishism and Spiritualism. except the facts v^hich. Dr. and so Or. Chi'istian prayers are often efficacious. ' of This is the first of a series works connected with the Laboratoire de Psychologie. Janet's explanation does not ' ' explain them. Paris. like was a poor devil of a French tradesman who.' By a happy accident. The simplest plan. Janet's patient. Nevius. Janet has explained. had infringed the laws of strict He brooded on this till he became chastity and virtue.' Ni-vroses etld^es Fixes. v^ith complete success. 2. but. Pierre Janet. and thought that Satan had him. Nevius. The narratives are of this type the patient. at the Salpetri^re.

And the same S. 86). shun it. Janet's essay is the dernier cri of science. own tribe are perishing. Go not thither Then. tribe.' . therefore.DEMONIACAL POSSESSION 186 His cure does not explain the cures in which Dr.E.P. and while in it pretend .. after inducing the possessed state. Science. 'who held intercourse with gods. when the condition is genuine. I behold a fire The gods say. Nevius just where it found him. examples from other areas are here included. Dr. he will perish first . Hodgson accepting facts similar to those of Dr. Nevius believed. their cattle are red. pointed east There.' turned his face westwards.' thou wilt govern black men. and shouting in a peculiarly violent manner. ' ! * water.' as they probably are. Sebituane. 602-604). spare thy future * So far. and thou. Tlapane used to retire. Thou. ' ' * ' unknown to themselves. — ' ' Zambesi till he was in touch with white men but Tlapdne. ! . through the lips of Professor W. pointing west. Then he would return en propMte. tell Dr. 406) Dr. His case did not present the features of which Dr. in Proceedings. can. and does. men of the that their utterances are ' ' * : . perhaps into some cave. Nevius asked science for an explanation. Tlapdne. thy village will perish utterly. I see a city and a nation of black men. number of the same periodical shows us Dr. and ex' plaining them by possession (p. Stamping. mere advice then. If Mokari moves first from the village. Eomaine Newbold.' February 1898 (pp. A rather impressive example of possession may be selected from Livingstone's 'Missionary Travels' (p. Nevius. Eamosinii. it may scorch thee. thine . and leaves Dr. Nevius that his evidence for his facts is worthless. The adventurous Sebituane was harried by the Matabele He thought of descending the in a new land of his choice. wilt be the last to die. Kamosinii. leaping. Nevius's observations practically cover the whole But other field of possession in non-European peoples. to remain in a hypnotic or mesmeric state until the moon was full. he said. or beating the ground with a club (to summon those under earth). 'they induce a kind of fit.

Such is possession among savages. and spared them. there is any evidence that persons thus possessed really evince knowledge which they could not have acquired through normal channels? If such evidence exists. as Littre craft.' ' ' Thus The ' ! ^ . not disobedient to the voice.. conquered.' which Animism explains by the * ' * explanations of modern philonot our business to discuss their physiological and pathological ideas. in Proceedings of S. The case of this lady is theory of possession. amid dead silence. * Like some bold Seeing all seer in a trance.' The Subliminal Self. but Macrimmon shall never See Eibot. an American. Myers. complained. that Now it is the firm conviction of several is. their vilwas destroyed soon after.B. does display. so freely illustrated in the New Testament.P." died. It is superfluous Tlapane lage ' ' to multiply instances of this world-wide belief.136 THE MAKING OF RELIGION Then. was attacked by the Baloiana. In the intervening years.' * The gods have given other men to me they have given bitter water. and it The is ' ' precisely seers. Bamosinii died. psychologists and hypnotists have devoted much attention to the theme of these secondary personalities. In a few minutes Maeleod shall return. Igo. knowledge which she could not normally acquire. in her possessed condition. Piper. Mokari died. Principles of Psychology. the facts would naturally strengthen the conviction that the possessed person was inspired by an intelligence not his own. water to drink. by a spirit. ' ' . Les Maladies de la PersonnaliU Bourru et Burot. sophers differ. his own mischance. in the field of experience.^ Our affair is to ask whether. and in trials for witchThe scientific study of the phenomena. had hardly been sketched forty years ago. Variations de la PersonnaliU Janet. men of science that a certain Mrs. The Mechanism of Genius. and so Sebituane wandered westward. L'AutoTttatisme Psychologique James. \ . on a : level ' with that of certain savage or barbaric Fijian priest sits looking steadily at a whale's tooth ornament. but They call me away.

to strong convulsions. xiii. 143 . 133. 436-650 viii. Other ghosts. Now the god has entered. Piper. The latter account exactly describes Mrs.E. 1-167 . may ' • Prvm. greater number. Piper. • « ^Doolittle's Ghinese. slight twitchings of face and limbs come on. The most convincing things said about my own immediate household were either very intimate or very trivial. and affects to be possessed by the spirit of a French doctor (who does not know French)— Dr. rar(B nantes. S. in her condition of trance. and tries sophistically to conceal his failures. but the following. Phinuit. Mrs. ii. Cult. S. .P. vi. 284-582.DEMONIACAL POSSESSION which increase ' * 137 he trembles. Here follow the statements of Professor James of Harvard. pt. i.* He was at first convinced that Mrs.^ Volumes of evidence about Mrs. Piper have been published by Dr.P. obtains knowledge not otherwise and normally accessible to her.' through her to the living. . It was admitted that her familiar spirit guesses. besides Dr. now influence her. . xxxiii. When . often introduced under feigned names.P. Proceedings. Piper and her husband have been watched by detectives.. . Phinuit. . She was for some months in England under the charge of the S. and her latest performances are said to exceed her former efforts. Proceedings.E. ghosts more civilised than he.' In China. Unfortunately the former things cannot well be Of the trivial things I have forgotten the published. She then displays a varying amount of knowledge of dead and living people connected with her clients. who are usually strangers. 320.E. Hodgson. the professional woman sits at a table in contemplation.. . consulted she passes through convulsions into a trance. who unmasked Madame Blavatsky and Eusapia Paladino. 110. after which she talks in a new voice. ii. attempts to extract information from the people who sit with her. and have not been discovered in any attempts to procure information. till the soul of a deceased person from whom communication is desired enters her body and talks 2 . assumes a fresh personality.

the accumulation of them has an irresistible effect and I repeat again what I said before." as she called him. from a scientific point of view. and gave striking advice during our first " visit to her about the way to deal with certain "tantrums of our second child "little Billy-boy. although they end by arousing one's moral and human impatience with the phenomenon. of the excellent woman's character. I wish it were more "scientific. the result is to make me feel as absolutely certain as I am of any personal fact in the world that she knows things in her trances which she cannot possibly have heard in her waking state. Insignificant as these things sound when read. and that the definitive philosophy of her trances The limitations of her trance inforis yet to be found. that. and its apparent beyond a certain point. no one but my wife and I knew the existence of the letter in question. taking everything that I know of Mrs. warning her against all mediums.138 THE MAKING OF KELIGION serve as samples of their class. (Of course. and described how it had " spun round and " round before dying. which was afterwards found in the house. since where there are limits there are conditions. amongst its most interesting peculiarities. how my wife had heard footsteps on a stair. yet are. and the discovery of mation.) She was strong on the events in our nursery. — . discontinuity and fitfulness. and I a waistcoat. its inability to develop them ' is always the beginning of an explanation. This is all I can tell you of Mrs. Piper. &c. how a certain rocking-chair creaked mysteriously.' 'But valeat qua^itum ! it is the Elsewhere Mr. a person of stealing the rug. She said that we had lost (She wrongly accused recently a rug. She told how my New York aunt had written a letter to my wife. James writes ' : Mr." best I can do. reproducing his nursery name. Piper into account. full of traits vifs. &c. She told how the crib creaked at night. Hodgson and others have made prolonged study .) She told of my killing a grey-and-white cat with ether. and then went off on a most amusing criticism.

Mrs.' in In this treatise I may have shown the will to believe an unusual degree but. after : consulting Mrs. she would make guesses. She exhibits a survival or recrudescence of savage phenomena. Piper's honesty and excellent character. January 14.. Piper. . . But secondary personalities have often more of Mr. shuffle. ears. due to spirit control. Piper is purely anthropological. * Figaro.' M. the interest of Mrs. and wits. as Ed. in her normal condition. or anybody. They " But the conare. She would and repeat what she had picked up in a former and the vast majority of her sitting with the same person answers started from vague references to probable facts Edith. The trances have broken down. the ' — limits of the admitted order of nature. alive or dead. . are vouched for by her friends and observers in England and America nor do I impeach her normal character. Hyde than of Dr. 314. 1895. for my own mind. ' ' when possessed. real or feigned. prima facie.' Mrs. for me. of convulsion and of secondary personality. Paul Bourget (who * is not superstitious). Edward. a survival of the animistic explanation. ' — ' Edgar.DEMONIACAL POSSESSION 139 of this lady's trances.' who may be It used to be admitted that." ditions are so complex that a dogmatic decision either for or against the hypothesis must as yet be postponed. Edmund. concludes L'esprit a des procedes de connaitre ^ non soup9onnes * par notre analyse. Jekyll in their composition. and are all convinced that supernormal powers of cognition are displayed therein. and entertains * . Piper would cheat when she could that is to say. describe a friend of his. p. try to worm information out of her sitter. ' The Will to Believe.' ' Again *In the trances of this medium I cannot resist the conviction that knowledge appears which she has never gained by the ordinary waking use of her eyes.

branch of psychology. it is ^that the whole thing is an imposture. Except finger. Piper is not anaesthetic during the so-called trance. . an orphan).' M. and that she did not tell the story promptly and fluently. vol. in his opinion. as far as his experience went. 605. . regard him as an expert in this dulity. to criticise this work. Hodgson deserves the praise of extraordinary patience and industry. there was not a single guess which was nearly right. that Mrs. Proceedings. Mrs. vi. Even so. It would be necessary to examine minutely scores of statements. and if you ask my private opinion. xiii. muscle-reading] kind. 606. and so worked on Professor Macalister wrote : to more * She is quite wide-awake enough all through to profit I let her see a blotch of ink on my by suggestions. S. Dr.^ It is quite impossible. no written reports can convey the impressions produced by several years of personal ' ' Proceedings. in conversation. in which many facts are suppressed as too intimate. in fact. who is alive.. dependent on her hold of the visitor's hand. part xxxiii. Piper's powers are of the ordinary thoughtreading [i. Piper was published.' Each of these gentlemen had only one 'sitting. Paul Bourget also informed me. Piper held his hand while she told the melancholy tale connected with a key in his possession.' Mr. he declared that he did not feel able to account for her * performance. the guess about my sister Helen. within the apace allotted. Dr.' * His reasonings are perfectly calm. Mrs. displayed in the very distasteful task of watching an unfortunate lady in the vagaries of trance. perfectly unimpassioned. Barkworth said that. Hodgson's last report on Mrs. but very slowly and hesitatingly. while others are remarkably incoherent. As these pages were passing through the press. . and a poor one. .140 (as that THE MAKING OF EELIGION an elderly man is precise statements. and his bias has not hitherto seemed to make for cre"We must. But he himself makes it clear that.P R. and she said that I was a writer.e.

through Mrs. smote violently diviner was hopelessly puzzled John kept his shilling. The ordinary possessed person is usually consulted as to the disease of an absent patient. Piper's entranced organism. ' ' . in these words : 141 he sums up *At the present time I cannot profess to have any doubt but that the chief "communicators" to whom I have referred in the foregoing pages are veritably the personalities that they claim to be. As a personal matter of opinion. but are expected to smite the ground violently if the guess made by the diviner is right gently if it is wrong. p.' Compare Callaway. intelligences.^ shilling to expend at every guess. Hodgson. A sceptical Zulu. It is unnecessary to wax eloquent on this head and the curious can consult the writings of Dr. The . The published reports do not produce on me any such impression. Chinese and Karens.' ' i ' This means that Dr. Hodgson for themselves.DEMONIACAL POSSESSION The results of that experience experience. and laid it out on a much more meritorious exhibition of animated sticks. whom we call living. having a ' ' . Piper's entranced organism (if they had the chance) than I would voluntarily find myself in a 'sitting' with that lady. on psychical research. . The inquirers do not assist the diviner by holding his hand. accepts the hypothesis of possession as understood by * ' Maoris and Fijians. • * Op. 406. Meanwhile we have only to notice that an American possessed woman produces on a highly educated and sceptical modern intelligence the same impression as the Zulu 'possessed' produce on some Zulu * ' . but are not the most credulous of mankind. at present. Fetishism. in this case. • part xxxiii. 328. I am convinced that those whom I have honoured in this life would no more avail themselves of Mrs. named Jolm. that they have survived the change we call death. and that they have directly communicated with us. p. See cit. The Zulus admit possession and divination.

priest. as Highland seers were wrapped in a black bull's hide. so far apart from other that whatever lay within them was readily to be A A ' discerned. the are fond of diagnosing and prescribing for absent number spirits patients. and among Australian blacks. waiting impatiently for the arrival of traders with provisions. but from high in the roof. pp. the seer demonstrates the ' Cock Lane and Common Sense. not from her mouth. and was first wrapped in ' elk's skin. Canadian Hareskin Indians. and limbs are wound round with ^ This is an extraordinary range of stringy bark cords. p. I did not invent it. and obtain information. travels A good example Carver was by Captain Jonathan Carver of savage possession is given in his (1763). 361-374. i. and offered to return the fee.' In China and Zululand. ' « Callaway. Eskimo.' Is the a ceremony apparently meaningless. This point is disputed.' I have elsewhere shown with bonds the seer who ^ is that this custom of binding to be inspired. but end a case appears in Mr. *The head. if ample satisfaction was not given. Callaway an account of a not compete. by loosing the bonds. till he 'was wound up like an an » Egyptian mummy. 55. as in Mrs. Piper could possessed Her spirit spoke. It gave forth a kind of questioning remarks which were always correct. existed in i Grgeco-Egyptian spiritualism. near the Thousand Lakes. Forty yards of rope made of elk's hide were then coiled about him. large lodge was arranged. In the centre was a each chest-shaped arrangement of stakes. 475. so that what went on within might be observed. . Brough Smyth. It then reported correctly a of singular circumstances. Piper's case. ordered some remedies for a diseased child. body. or jossakeed. offered to interview the Great Spirit.' of torches. and the covering drawn up (which is unusual). Curr's work on the natives. among Samoyeds.' The tent was illuminated by a great number The priest came in.142 THE MAKING OF RELIGION female Uguise gave Dr. diffusion of idea that. person with whom Mrs.

They had to be unswathed for him. Evang. Scotland. Secret Commonwealth 1691. . southwards. s Prim. 209. who will then communicate with him? remote points. i. * : ' . among the Australians. PrcBp. though he is tied up. judging from Australia. wherever the sorcerer is bound. if it is to be buried. in the Highlands second-sight was thus acquired the would-be seer must run a Tedder (tether) of Hair. a dead body.* land seer is bound with his head between his legs. but the Creeks do not. * * ' Kirk. and elsewhere. Egypt. I note the following examples. is a symbolical way of putting the seer on a level with the In three dead. as soon as the breath is out of it. 113. if that is the custom. 152. Schoolcraft. * P^re Arnaud. Cult. Crantz. if we could find that. and the lodge begins to answer questions by leaping The Eskimo bounds.'^ Again. that the binding. p. ofiBcial letter on the Creek Indians. about his Middle from end to end.DEMONIACAL POSSESSION agency ^ 143 of spirits. 9. Major Swan. a bull's hide in the Highlands. bound at the other points where the seer is tied up in a reindeer skin among the Samoyeds. or have been. Brough Smyth. Among the Creeks. 102. as of a corpse or mummy. where the prophet enters a magic lodge. the dead are bound also. we find seer-binding and corpse-binding but we need to prove that corpses are. 100. after the manner of the Davenport Brothers ? But the Graeco-Egyptian medium did not undo the swathings of linen.^ It would be decisive. unbound. Binding the seer is not a universal Eed Indian custom. I think. by others.' ^ Can it be possible. Eusebius. v. with a blanket wrapped it ^ about ' and the legs bent under and tied together. ii. wJdch hound a corpse to the Bier. or before being exposed on a platform.270. is corded up tight. about. is placed in a hole.' ^ v. bind the magician. it seems to cease in Labrador. 1791. in which he was rolled. \.^ Again. he sits cross-legged.' and then look between his The Greenlegs till he sees a funeral cross two marches. Among the Narquapees. in Hind's Labrador. like a mummy. — ' The corpse it. an elk skin in North America.

to await But I submit that the frequency of the inspiration. ' ' My theory is. The prophet.' ' But the cases are not analogous. savage form of burial with the corpse tied up. they learned to be second-sighted. says. and the sometimes with the head between the legs recurrence of the savage practice of similarly binding the sorcerer. i. the face pressed down between the knees. with the head between the legs (as in the practice of Scottish and GreenEllis land seers). p. repeatedly round.' The binding may originally have been meant to keep the corpse. on the peak of Carmel. sky. Kirk. prophets. or swathed. ^ 1 Kings xviii. of the Tahitians. not in prophecy. 42. . that they were also swathed with cords he does not allege. by what Elijah did. where * ' ' » ' Crantz. at least. as applied to seer to the society of the dead. . The Scotch used to justify their practice of putting the head between the knees when. while the Scottish seer is bound. from 'walking. is very old and widely diffused. tied tightly up. even where the burial rite had . ^ cannot be ascertained. 'the body of the dead man was placed in a sitting posture. probably points to a purpose of introducing the The custom. might survive. or ghost. and the whole body tied with cord or cinet. and put his face between his knees. by the way. . 519. for seers. cast himself down upon the earth. altered.144 THE MAKING OF RELIGION The dead Greenlanders were * wrapped and sewed up in their best deer-skins. wound . 237. notes that if the wind changes. for it had gone out of use. . among the Indians he knew. or corpses. with the knees elevated. but he was not permitted to see all the ceremonies. he is in peril of his life. Elijah had been hearing a premonitory sound of abundance of rain in a cloudless He was probably engaged in prayer.' I do not know that Tahitian prophets were ever tied up. bound with a corpse's hair tether. Polynesian Researches. for this manner of burying the dead.' ' Carver could only learn that. . . plausible. and might survive. dead bodies were wrapped in skins .

a canoe arrive. in the same way. till in about three quarters of an hour he was exhausted and ' But in an instant he sprang upon his feet. said they would come in two days. as quick as if the bands with mixed jargon which would would it finally spoke had been bound were burst asunder. and foamed at the mouth. a canoe we please.DEMONIACAL POSSESSION 145 So children are told. The seer will. now yelled. Carver. . become what he pretends to be. and the people in it would tell when the came round a point of land about a league away. the grimace will be permanent. This desertion of Carver's tale may be pardoned for the cmriosity of the topic.^ He seems to think such successes not uncommon.' he pro- phesied. leaves us to draw what conclusions ' traders were to appear. if the wind changes while they are making faces. a corpse. prayed. who had met the traders. just after high noon. next day. just after high noon. pp.' The natural inference is ' private information. The in a priest now began of to mutter. 'the seer was lifted into the chest-like enclosure. who knew the topography and the chances of a secret messenger arriving to prompt the Jossakeed. but. ' on this Carver. The Great Spirit did not say when the traders arrive. professing freedom from any tincture of credulity. which they did. does not allude to this theory. He goes on : 'Being thus bound up like an Egyptian mummy' (Carver unconsciously making my point). in Scotland. All that psychology can teach anthropology. speechless. that. I could now also discern him as plain as I had ever done. and I took care not to turn my eyes away a moment in which effort he ' — probably failed. 123. Next day. and He scarcely intelligible dialects. and the men in it. notwithstanding at the time he was put in it appeared impossible for him to move either his legs or arms.' about which the only difficulty is that Carver. and shaking off his covering. 184.

or Ked Indian practice. while modern Manning's civilised parallels depend on the solitary case of Mrs. Gibier's Le Fakirisme Occidental and in Mr. .146 THE MAKING OF RELIGION whole topic of 'possession. Zulu. if there be a chance of getting good evidence. * ' ' ' . Maori. and that cases of knowledge said to be supernormally gained in the secondary state are worth inquiring about.' is that secondary or alternating personalities are facts in rerum natura. Piper (for no other case has been well observed). no affirmative conclusion can be drawn from Chinese. that the man or woman in one personality may have no conscious memory of what was done or said in the other. Old New Zealand but. A few fairly respectable savage instances are given in Dr.

Fetish {fHiche) seems to come from Portuguese feiti(^o. There exist. as it seems to me. a talisman or amulet. served in the development of Polytheism. which. or supplied be inventively fashioned. like ancestor-worship. numerous forms of savage religion in addition to the creed in a Supreme Being.147 VIII FETISHISM AND SPIBITUALISM how the doctrine of souls was developed The hypothesis according to the anthropological theory. models after which such gods might will be criticised in a later Here it must suffice to say that the conception chapter. it differs souls. however. of a separable surviving soul of a dead man was not only not essential to the savage's idea of his supreme god. is not derived from the theory of ghosts or souls at all. but would have been wholly inconsistent with that conception. as to how souls of the dead were later elevated to the rank It has been shown of gods. or may be of value in sympathetic magic. and therefore L 2 . and these contribute their streams to the ocean of Thus among the kinds of belief which faith. itself an adaptation and extension of the idea of separable In this regard. was Fetishism. They may be tokens. or merely odd. applied by the Portuguese to various material objects regarded by the negroes of the west coast with more or less of religious reverence. from the belief in a Supreme Being. as we shall try to demonstrate. These objects may be held sacred in some degree for a number of incongruous reasons.

the spirit in which may even be asked for oracles. have seen a savage reason for supposing that ' most puzzling character. is talked with. a thing may be what Europeans call a fetish for scores of reasons. have tried to show that the belief in human souls on supernormal phenomena may which Materialism disregards. that the people it belongs to do habitually think this of such objects or it must be shown that the object is treated as having personal consciousness and so forth. Or they may have been pointed out in a dream. in fact. to class an object as a fetish demands explicit statement that a spirit is considered as embodied in it. ' . or communicating by it. Tylor says. or power. or they may (like a tree with an unexplained stir in its branches. as Mr. or. based * ' We may lean to the belief in a cause of certain hallucinations. worshipped The in-dwelling spirit may be human. subject. like the Head of Bran in Welsh * . in part at least. Tylor's discussion of the perplexity. as reported by Kohl) have seemed to show signs of life by spontaneous movements . We say perhaps not normal because the phenomena now to be discussed are of the be. it is necessary to combine what he says about Spiritualism in his fourth with what he says about For Fetishism in his fourteenth and later chapters. . one suggestion of the presence of a spirit in things dead. or which at all events seemed supernormal to savages. or acting through it. legend. For our present purpose. some reason his book is so arranged that he criticises * Spiritualism long before he puts forward his doctrine of the origin and development of the belief in spirits. leave the inquiring mind in In following Mr. We shall now endeavour to make it probable that Fetishism (the belief in the souls tenanting inanimate objects) may also have sources which perhaps are not normal. We We . . or met in a lucky hour and associated with good fortune. at least. as when a fetish is made out of a friend's skull.148 THE MAKING OF RELIGION probably endowed with unknown mystic qualities. but the alleged supernormal movements of inanimate objects which probably supply one origin of Fetishism.

' and finally escaped and rolled to the feet of the sorcerer. Lefebure next compares. His method was to sit on a bench. The question thus arises. who held a wooden spoon dressed in clothes like a doll this spoon had been carried to the grave of a dead man. The sticks whirled and dragged the men round like mad. two staffs of wood in the hands of some young men. Eowley tells how in Manganjah the ' out a criminal. like a table or a hat at a modern spirit stance. in fact lunatic. Cult. 458 not untouched. as was commonly believed. as the evidence. the African conjurers gave an appearance of independent motion to small objects. according to De : : and other relics thought that a of the dead. not untouched. like Mr. ii. M. when 'he carried it. Prim. the flights and movements of inanimate objects apparently untouched. the alleged physical phenomena of spiritualism.' ^ Now M. and becoming inspired at full moon. perhaps. Journal. The spoon waa . to the very tent of the thief. Tylor. n. it carried him. at least. with magical ceremonies. Lefebure has pointed out (in Melusine ') that.FETISHISM AND SPIEITUALISM 149 human spirits inhabit certain lifeless things. Tylor quotes from John Bell's Journey in Asia (1719) an account of a Mongol Lama who wished ' ' to discover certain stolen pieces of damask. 152. though practically universal. Is there any truth whatever in these world-wide and world-old stories of inanimate objects acting like animated things ? Has fetishism one of its origins in the actual field of supernormal experience in the region ? This question we do not propose to answer. to find • ' Darwin. But we can. give a sketch of the nature of the evidence. Again. Tylor. may be said X to rest on imposture and illusion. beginning with that as to the apparently voluntary movements of objects. Here the bench is innocently believed to be selfmoving. which were then accepted as fetishes. it danced about convulsively. or. Mr. placed. Tylor. being visibly animated. spirit dwelt in a lifeless and motionless piece of stone or stick ? Mr. . But how did it such as skulls come to be ' Brosses. Mr. Darwin saw two plausible conjecture by writing Malay women in Keehng Island. leads us to a * Mr.

. In the author's Custom and Myth.' Put up into a tree. p. there with their hands U7ider one end of the bamboo. the bamboo would run about with a man holding it only on the palms of his hands. and here the sticks are explicitly said by the natives to be moved by spirits. i.' ^ and those of the * Zulu sorcerers rise. 125. and ask what man's ghost is afflicting a patient. Dr. ' C5allaway. having a shilling to lay out in the interests of psychical research. while the other end is extended into the empty half of the hut. Duff Macdonald describes the Yaos ^ : same practice sorcerer occasionally makes men take hold of a which. At the mention of the * the stick becomes violently agitated. 330. Codrington found a similar practice.^ In Melanesia.' bamboo placed on a sacred tree. and ultimately carries them off bodily and with great speed to the house of the thief.^ among * Mr. when the name of a ' ' A ' ghost is called. pp. 217.^ The divining sticks of the Maori are also guided by spirits. Cult. i.^ These Zulu performances must be really very curious. and will lift and drag people about. ' ' • Frim. moves of itself. and reserved » • • Africana. declined to pay a perplexed diviner. cit. p. The process is just that of Jacques Aymard in the celebrated story of the detection of the Lyons murderer. The Divining Eod. after a time. till 'they feel the bamboo moving in their hands. Op. it would lift them from the ground. vol. and jump about. person.150 THE MAKING OF RELIGION who was then denounced the as the guilty wife of a chief. Amazulu. p. 161. In the last chapter we told how a Zulu named John.' The stick. 210. 223-225.' In right ghost the same way. vol.' * Codrington's Melanesia. In other cases the holding of the sticks produces convulsions and trance. Again. Eowley. Men sit a hut is built with a partition down the middle. begins to move as if endowed with life.* The wizard and a friend hold a bamboo stick by each end. p. far enough away. p. They then call over the names of the recently dead. fall. Universities^ Mission.

But there are not many who have the Umabakula. Many believe in Umsfbakula more than in the diviner." " fix themselves person who has come to inquire. and by comparing the absolute unconsciousness of muscular action when the table began to move in response to no voluntarij push.. . p.^ The sticks are about a foot long. They on the place where the sick man is affected . if they say and leap on the John was Dr. when the players are honest. How the Karens These savage devices with it is less obvious. . or dancing — divined by " yes. and the ring falls into the basin.' is certainly unconscious. . and when he who was dearest to the ghost touches it the spirit twists the thread till it breaks. I tried with a friend. quite satisfied. Again. Callaway's informant only knew two Umabakulists. they leap on his head. the table-turning. You are pushing. sticks He named Unomantshintshi. paid his shilling. animated sticks clearly correspond to the more modern Here.. Mr. and our unconscious movements swing it till it strikes the hour. Avmzxdu. and went home. though they seemed to rest on the table. With us a ring is held by a thread over a tumbler. pushing I have tested this in two ways first by trying the minimum of conscious muscular action that would stir a table at which I was alone. nor do they seem to be regarded as fetishes. It is not reported that they are moved by spirits." ." they fall suddenly they arise and jump about very much. My friend was manage * — ' himself unconsciously pushing. Tylor also cites a form of the familiar pendulum experiment. to Callaway. . ' It is undeniable that. if the head. who Umabakula. 353. which still revolved.' when I gently removed my hands altogether. ' If they say " no. The relations of the dead strike the basin. Among the Karens a ring is suspended by a thread over a metal basin. who said.FETISHISM AND SPIRITUALISM his capital for tried a medium * 161 a more meritorious performance. .

Darwin's tale. 1897. Chevreul.R. as they declare. Of course. by the dancing sticks of the Zulus. applies various objects move untouched. is the modern employment a forked twig which. and Hegel refers to ments with Bleton and others The case Amoretti's collection of hundreds of cases. in which evidence of failures and successes is collected. the unconsciousness of muscular action on the part of savages them engaged in the experiment with sticks would lead The to beheve that spirits were animating the wood. . whether the phenomena were supernormal The same remark or merely worked by unseen strings. on good ' The So-called Divining-Bod. to modern experimenters. and the rest. exposed by Faraday.^ Professor Barrett gives about one hundred and fifty cases.' by M. Professor Barrett has lately published a book of 280 pages. In modern England the rod is used in the interests of private individuals and . Merveilleux dans les Temps Modernes. Thus. and was. is in a convulsive manner. S.152 THE MAKING OF RELIGION a solitary experimenter. pubhc bodies (such as Trinity College. He. and cases occasionally agitated are quoted in which the twig writhes when held in a pair The best -known modern treatise on the of tongs! divining-rod is that of M. held by the ends. Still more analogous than turning tables to the savage use of inspired sticks for directing the inquirer to a lost of the object or to a criminal. 'La Baguette L'Histoire du have also Divinatoire' (1854). is well known. of Jacques Aymard. who in the seventeenth century discovered a murderer by the use of the rod in true savage fashion. the table seems to make little darts of its own will in a curious way. same fallacy beset the table-turners of 1855-65. without physical contact. would be even more convinced by the dancing spoon of Mr. in which he was only able to discover.P. when. Cambridge) for the discovery of water. like the savage cited. savages to some extent. Figuier — We * In 1781 Thouvenel published his 600 experi(1860). divining-rod revolves in the hands of the performer when he reaches the object of his quest.

calculated to check frauds and chance coincidence. has been found of practical value by practical men. used it when he wanted wells dug for the tenants on * the property. seems to belong partly to trickery and partly to more or less conscious direction by honester operators. or the persons in whose interest water was wanted. treasure. twelve failures. and thieves. and it is certain that the diviner is called in by people of sense and education. hostile or agnostic.FETISHISM AND SPIRITUALISM 153 He gives a variety of tests authority.' Mr. Barrett's opinion. especially where scientific experts have failed. . and content with getting what they * ' want.^ In Mr. with its curiously versatile sensibility to water. is what is called firsthand in other inquiries. much less a The person was bailiff on a large estate.' I have myself held the hands of an amateur performer when the twig was moving. and. commonly too practical to have a theory. ore. Yet 'it is almost impossible to imitate its characteristic movement by any voluntary effort. whatever its nature and causes. and as it is obviously associated with a number of analogous pheno' See especially The Waterford Experiments. Tylor operation of spirits. having been present. 106. The whole topic is obscure nor am I concerned here with the successes or failures of the divining-rod. and often the owners of the land. as a general rule. by geologists. the subconscious perception of indications of the presence of water produces an equally unconscious muscular spasm. But the movements of the twig have never. and neither by sight nor touch could I detect any muscular movement on his part. having accidentally discovered that he possessed the gift. p. The evidence. give their testimony . The actual spectators.' which twirls the rod till it often breaks. been attributed by modern English performers to the They say 'electricity. . and he publishes opinions.' As the divining-rod is the only instance in which automatism. to my knowledge. spasm. merely writes : 'The action of the famous divining-rod.

Knowledge of the geological ignorance of the dowsers. nearly the centre of the garden. mere water-finding ought not In the same class as to be the sole province of the rod.154 THE MAKING OF RELIGION civilised and savage life. therefore. to avoid working the dowsers into a state of irritation. Such experts ought. of course. Thomas Welton published an English savages. and other A Mr. is held at each end by two persons. probably ' undesigned. her hand firmly clutched on When Mrs. examples of fraud on their part. The little apparatus called planchette. as held by waterit is by ' . Again. It is just worth while to notice cases in which the rod acts like those of the Melanesians.' where a well was found. just as movements answers savages. and made to VTrite in the sand. and other modem inquirers. Experiments of this kind have not been made by Professor Barrett. both in experiments from being made by scientific experts on an adequate scale. nor could she let it go. these rods is the forked twig which. 1693). and cases of failure or reported failure. Africans. pushed by the performers. the rod was used by le Pere Menestrier and others. In translation of 'La Verge de Jacob' (Lyon.' it drew her with very considerable velocity to stick. as a mode of But it would be just as detecting automatic action. or the other. with a general hostile bias. African and Melanesian cases is. to indicate by its to all sorts of questions. in China. In the case of the twig. Welton is not likely to have known of the lately The coincidence with the published savage examples. except by M. sensible to use the twig as to use planchette or any other * autoscopic apparatus. If these elicit knowledge unconsciously present to the mind. But no advance vriU be made till scientifically trained inquirers themselves arrange and test a large number of experiments. she brought it to the garden. may prevent such mena. Mr. in 1694. is of course. the ouija. Welton took the it. consciously or unconsciously. Eichet. it certainly deserves the attention of science. 1651 he asked his servant to bring into the garden * a In great terror stick that stood behind the parlour door.

to savage philosophy. but unavoidably incomplete. are unknown to history. under the operators' hands. the belief we extend to such narratives is entirely conditioned by our knowledge of the personal The point here is merely the character of the performers. by savages.FETISHISM AND SPIRITUALISM 155 seekers. to be caused by in-dwelling spirits. itinerary of the Queen's residence in Scotland. wrote a number of details about a visit paid to the chdteau for a certain purpose by Mary Stuart. civilised and savage practice of automatism. After the communication had been made. by the movements of a stick. Hay Fleming's careful. Thus. and their movements may have helped to * originate the belief that spirits can inhabit inanimate objects. That visit. seem. It would be tedious to give a When . the mystery is deeper. and the chdteau is not spoken of in Mr. to spirits. In the case of the ouija (a little tripod. the owner of the chdteau explained that she was already acquainted with the circumstances described. may be attributed. and attested by immense quantities of evidence of every degree. make it clear that movements even of touched objects. I have known curious successes to be achieved by amateurs. which. operated on by two ladies known to myself. and its object. demonstrating unconscious movement of objects by the operators. a purely personal one. the apparent eliciting of knowledge not otherwise accessible. where they remain. as she had recently read them in documents in her charter chest. runs about a table inscribed with letters at which it points). in the house of a lady who owned an old chateau in another county. These movements. Of course. then. the ouija. objects apparently quite untouched become volaThis apparent animation and tile. frolicsome behaviour of inanimate objects is reported all through history. made without conscious exertion or direction. the difficulty of consciously moving it so as to escape close observation is considerable. These examples. the sources of Fetishism. or a bit of wood. be regarded in some cases as fetishes. by some civilised and by savage amateurs.' The objects so moved may.

So long as the stories multiply in various * : lands. Nasquapees. in New England (1680). 8. all through the career of modern spiritualism. 7. of course. a lawyer ' Common 2 Authorities and examples are collected in the author's Cock Sense. in ancient Peru (immediately after the Spanish Conquest). the savage belief in spirits tenanting inanimate matter. under proper inspection. it is bad method to ignore them. and. because. if they did not originate.' ' taneous example occurs. we must dismiss whatever the * The only thing modern paid medium does in the dark. as a rule.. Malays.156 full THE MAKING OF RELIGION account of the antiquity and diffusion of reports about such occurrences. how the explanation away events ' of this kind. . in witch trials. nothing so much leads to doubt on this theme as the explanation given except. to be done with the ethnographic and modern accounts If a sponof such marvels is to file them for reference. Hurons. are positively explained away. among Eskimo. of course. sometimes. We know. . Maoris. Lane and Proceedings. Zulus. xii. Tartars. But. description.' ^ Here they are not ignored. we can then compare our old tales. I cannot feel (in spite of such vast amounts of detected frauds) as if the case of physical mediumship itself. 'explain which we know only through A conjurer cannot explain a trick merely from a report. Thus. and so few are positively explained away. Professor James says Their mutual resemblances suggest a natural type. and I confess that till these records. in the case of dark stances got up and prepared by paid mediums. As to facts. whatever the cause or causes of the phenomena. sporadically. as a freak of nature. in modern Kussia. we cannot. Algonkins. in China. Zoller. especially a description by a non-conjurer.. We find them among Neo-Platonists.* Among all these cases. or others like them. whence came Fetishism. in the English and Continental Middle Ages. in Hayti (where they are attributed to Obeah'). * ' — ' ' * ' arose. they would buttress. everywhere. the house of a certain M. were definitely closed.

18C3. were of a truly odious description. he allowed S. Zoller. apparently. and the chief magistrate for law. Eegensburg. . including movements of objects. in Unterwalden. pp. who was out. Zoller's singular idea of making his house untenantable with which he did not possess. the phenomena were set down to M.' A an electric machine ' ' — of the most respected citizens. Zurich. deeply attached to his home. Daumer. Loud client. . 1863. by M.prima facie. M. was made simply uninhabitable in 1860-1862. and.' October 5. therefore. The disturbances. to no purpose. Zoller. 265. This declaration they put forth in the Schwytzer Zeitung. 1872. eldest son was present at the time. to think that there was. The remained in the drawing-room. they can be blamed for what. conceivable sort of research. Zoller. it seems that hardly • * Personal Narrative. He had made every to abandon the place. But the affair was explained away thus While the phenomena could still be concealed from public curiosity. and heavy blows resounded through the room. a house at Stans. published a statement that neither Zoller. 266. which had many interesting associations with the part his family played in the struggle against revolutionary France.^ No electric machine known to mortals could have produced the vast variety of alleged effects. as it chanced. and occurred in full daylight. had once felt the effects of an was obliged : some medical reason. a client called to see M. The client. Beich des Wundersamen. and as M.FETISHISM AND SPIRITUALISM and member 157 of the Swiss Federal Council. * number none was ever found servants without . produced or could have produced the phenomena witnessed by them in August 1862. and had called in the local police and savants. nor any of themselves. M. when my client asked whether there was such a thing as an electrical machine in the house (the family electric battery. including the Superintendent of Police.' sequently. Zoller changed his escaping his tribulations. nor any of his family. Hanke. for Zoller writes * : My having been enjoined to keep the disturbances as secret as Conpossible).

whatever their real nature and origin. things which would suggest to a savage his theory of Fetishism. Zulus. An inanimate object may be tenanted by a spirit.' Thus the early thinker might reason. while as to their existence among the founders of religion we can know nothing at all. as is proved by its extraordinary movements. probably supported this belief. and powerful souls. have suggested that clairvoyance. It is to be wished that competent observers would pay more attention to such savage practices as crystal-gazing and automatism as illustrated by the sticks of the Melanesians. clear. they could not possibly do. We have now finished our study of the less normal and usual phenomena.' like * ^ physical pheI hope. phenomena here touched See Appendix B. are represented in civilised as well as in savage life. Our scanty information we pick up out of stray allusions. They interest me. conscious. which gave rise to belief in separable. but it has nomena ' is. . Mesopotamia. thought transference. If we may infer from certain considerations. ' the advantage of being uncontaminated by theory. when reflected on. in coincidental hallucinations. the supernormal experiences were possibly more prevalent among the remote ancestors of known savage races than among their modern descendants.' My own position in this matter of ' electricity. by a historically We cautious inquirer. We have shown that the supernormal factors which. and go on to revere the object. self-existing. the European spectator not knowing the wide range of such practices and their value in experimental psychology.168 THE MAKING OF RELIGION * However. and in other ways just the kind of facts on which the * ' — — ' A upon ^ will be criticism of modern explanations of the found in Appendix B. for my present purpose.'^ Again. these in the acquisition of otherwise faculties have presented unattainable knowledge. is a blessed word. while even the far more obscure stories of physical manifestations are but poorly explained away by those who cannot explain them. and Yaos. and telepathy cannot be dismissed as mere fables. as being.

when once the doctrine of souls was conceived by early men. the prevalent theory of Materialism cannot be admitted as dogmatically certain in its present shape. less than some other theories. while the actuality of the supernormal facts and faculties remains at least an open question. Thus.FETISHISM AND SPIRITUALISM 1&9 savage doctrine of souls might be based. at the lowest. it took precisely the course of development usually indicated by anthropological science. . nay. we may not honestly leave out of the reckoning. can it account for the psychical facts which. We have to ask whether. We have therefore no more to say about the supernormal aspects of the origins of religion. or by which it might be buttressed. No more than any other theory. We are henceforth concerned with matters of verifiable belief and practice.

the father and friend of man. The usual though not invariable reply of the anthropologist might be given in the words of Mr.160 THE MAKING OF RELIGION IX EVOLUTION OF THE IDEA OF GOD the anthropological philosopher * a plain man would Having got your idea of naturally put the question spirit or soul your theory of Animism out of the idea of ghosts.' a work of much research As another example that God is : * ' The lowest savages not only have no gods. omniscient To * * — ' : — * ' ' guardian of morality. and The Indians of Guiana know worship of spirits. We shall return to this passage. author of all things. and eventually in a Highest Spirit. Im Thurn's hypothesis a late development from the idea of spirit may be cited Mr. 389.' From * . but do not Journal Anthrop. Im Thurn.' says Mr. author of a most interesting work on the Indians of British * Guiana : the notion of ghosts. . i. xi. > of Mr. . keeping pace with the growth of these beliefs. a habit of reverence for. . « p. and having got your idea of ghosts out of * dreams and visions. Im Thurn. no God. but very gradually. Vol. how do you get at the Idea of God ? Now by God the proverbial plain man of controversy means a primal eternal Being. in higher spirits. 1892. Inst. the invisible. 374. a belief has arisen. Payne's learned^ 'History of the New World. and.

in Mr. . the conception of which has invariably preceded that of gods in the human mind. then the spirit has attained to the dignity and the savage to the conception of a god. and kept it on board wages.' Mr. no idea of spirit. . and when they have secured the spirit. which he finds in a great creative spirit. and from Boskoff. relatively a late flower of culture. for all that. to agree with Mr. drink. Later they develop the idea of spirit. On any such theories as these the belief in a moral ' Payne. for the hunting races generally (with some exceptions) have no gods. Payne. one of the earliest efforts of primitive logic. and the hunting races. The of the savage leads him to seek for a primitive logic cause or maker of things. as it were. in his opinion. yet the conception of a creator or maker of all things obviously a great spirit is one of the this On theory ' ' ' . while a spirit kept on board wages in a tangible are unable. Payne's view of the facts. for a benevolent ethnological pm^poses. usually an image. Payne's opinion. from Mr. Does Mr.EVOLUTION OF THE IDEA OF GOD 161 even recognise those lower beings usually called spirits. 458. i. Tylor.' * ' in the affairs of the lowest savages are devoid of the idea of god or of spirit.'' Mr. who * ' are regularly offered for the purpose of securing assistance life. by reason of evidence object is a god ? We later to be given. earliest efforts of primitive logic. in a tangible object. toto ccbIo. Yet the lowest savages have no idea even of spirit. and to whom food. finds no sufficient proof for wholly non-religious savages. who has disposed of the arguments of Sir John Lubbock. the lowest savages having. permanently embodied in some tangible object. But while a god of this kind is. while his reasoning appears somewhat inconsistent. Payne mean that a great creative spirit is 7iot a god. Payne here differs. . have no god. defines a god as spirit. then.' and so on. Mr. though the idea of a creative spirit is. Payne's ' ' own logic is not very clear. as a rule.

as far as that conception exists among the most backward races. on the original datum of ghosts. have merely evaded it doubtless This. Now. This negligence of anthropologists has arisen from a single circumstance. Im Thurn's is. We shall demonstrate. or accounted for by theories contradicted by facts. Tylor. and. are active moral influences. that the Supreme Being. or. or left out of sight. to show that the pologists. creative moral god of the plain man. a very late (or a very early?) result due to the action of advancing thought upon the original conception of ghosts. as the problem is to account for the evolution of the highest conception of God. anthropologists. of course. contrary to the opinion of Mr. the problem can never be solved while that highest conception of God is practically important. uncreated. Spencer.162 THE MAKING OF RELIGION is Supreme Being of evolution. and even Mr. in one case at least. Thus. roughly stated. Huxley. Mr. Tylor. is not the practice of unwittingly. as a rule. the usual theory of anthroWe wish. on the other hand. * ignored. comparatively civilised and advanced. we shall make it undeniable that Anthropology has simplified her problem by neglecting or ignoring her facts. idea of God. This opinion of Mr. and therefore cannot arise from the later speculation of men. undying God among the lowest savages. in place of facing and solving their problem. While the real problem is to account for the evolution out of ghosts of the eternal. is explained away as a result of European or Islamite influences. They take it for granted that God is always (except where the word for — — .' the germ of such a god or being in the creeds of the lowest savages is by anthropologists denied. as he is conceived of by our inquiring plain man. at best. the casual sprites of savage What is even more faith. though even his great work is professedly much more concerned with the development of the idea of spirit and with the lower forms of animism than with the real crux the evolution of the idea (always obscured by mythology) of a moral. Mr. is shadowed forth (among contradictory fables) in the lowest-known grades of savagery.

they regard God as that idea carried to its highest power. may admit that Mr.' theology These statements can be wholly independent of ethics. her conclusion. Anthropology has an easier task in explaining the origin of religion while. having accounted for the development of the idea of spirit. Fuegians. fathers in heaven. in direct ratio to the rising grades in the evolution That is not necessarily the of cultm'e and civilisation. Tylor's account of the process by which Gods were evolved out of ghosts is a little toujfu can scarcely see the wood rather buried in facts. if we can show that the early idea of an undying. makers for the trees. ii. Given souls. Australians we shall demonstrate. Still less must we take case . Tylor and Mr. p. guardians of morality.EVOLUTION OF THE IDEA OF GOD 163 God is applied to a living human being) regarded as a Thus. is invalidated. just because these rely upon) to be erroneous. moral. Here the inquirer must be careful not to adopt the common opinion that Gods improve. out That such of ghosts or surviving souls of the dead.' proved (by such evidence as anthropology is obliged to And. usually the reverse occurs. Science and Hebrew Tradition. want to know how Gods. being deduced from premises so far false. that the alliance [of religion and morality] belongs almost. and in its simplest condition. to religions above the savage level not to the or that among the Australian earlier and lower creeds of — — * — * ' ' . 372. as is supposed. 34G. it for granted. then this idea of an eternal. vol. Spirit. Huxley. following Mr. creative being may have existed even before the doctrine of spirit was evolved.' imply the doctrine of We — We * We things (or of most things).' is * . pp. just because these statements are incorrect. were evolved. statements are put forward. 3. or wholly. and friends. creative being does not necessarily or logically spirit (or ghost). Cult. ' Frim. moral. 381 . K 2 . seeing what is good or bad in the hearts of men. moral. But. practically omniscient Gods are known to the very lowest savages Bushmen. acquired by thinking on the lines already * savages. morally and otherwise. and as the final step in its evolution.

p. Cult.' and is a centre of myths rather than of worship or of moral ideas. The Zulu religion will be analysed later. as kindly The dead ancestor is now passed into a deity.' This might yield a Devil it would not yield a God who 'makes for righteousness. ' ' ' ' * * ^ m^^ yol. 110. 113. while known at all. vol. p. but he is beyond the reach of rites. The name of such a man. They do not know the ancients who are dead. Prim. Tylor develops Gods out of them.e. 116. of the dead as harmful spirits. nor their laud-giving names. from the tiniest elf that sports in the grass up to the heavenly creator and ruler of the world. Was He ? ^ spiritual being ' ' — rather obscure. Prim. are. nearer home. .' '' Thus. on the whole. the Great Spirit. fore. in a generaItongo. ii. has been the model on described. deified ancestors are regarded.' Here it is taken for granted that the Euler was from the first envisaged as a Heavenly which is just the difficulty. new generation of Zulus worshipful object its own father's This father. cannot survive as that of the God or Supreme Being from age to age and. Unkulunkulu. he says.' The human soul. such a real dead man. ii. theretion or two. * is ^ which man 'framed his ideas of spiritual beings in general. He scarcely attempts to clear away the haze that covers great parts of the subject.164 THE MAKING OF RELIGION Mr. obviously. ' Ibid. 109. have a mythical first ancestor. Cult. each first must have a new — . p. For among the Zulus many Amatongo Yet their father [i. ii. is much too well known to be taken for the creator and ruler of the world. . 115. about as godless a people as possible. pp. despite some African flattering titles and superstitions about kings who control the weather.' ^ spirits. vol. forgotten.' Happily. citing Callaway and others.* their names. father of each actual family] is far before all others when they worship the Amatongo. But he not one of the writers who is certain about every detail. the (ancestral spirits) are sacred. and his very name. . nor * . vol.' But we are no Examples of ancestor-worship follow. ' The process of framing these ideas is The savage lives in terror of the souls ' ' . ii. The Zulus.

. in Mr. angel (' subliminal self ') and (4) to and local spirits which cause volcanoes A fetish may inhabit a tree trees being polytheism. . for chief reflected and magnified on the mist of thought This theory (Hume's) or king these peoples have none. . 130-144. and AusThe maker and ruler of the world known tralians to these races cannot be the shadow of king or chief.' who sometimes ranks as Lord ' of the Dead. gods branches — . tribes '? . or First Man. . unknown to low savages. as (I conceive) among the Aztecs.' which does not assist the Thence he passes to argument at the present point. . and the transitions from the fetish (1) to the idol (2) to the guardian (3) to tree and river spirits. Sun and Moon. As an instance. or rabbits are thus evolved. fetishes rise into species gods . p. 248.' * . pp. ii. vol. Very good but whence comes the great God among which have neither chief nor king and probably never had. Ihii.' gods of Agriculture.2 As chiefs and kings are among men. again. ' ' Next. gods among the lesser spirits. Tylor gives the » Frim. B ashmen. . ii. The theory of family Manes. wherever a savage or barbaric system of religion is thoroughly described. will not work where people have a great God but no king or chief nor where they have a king but no Zeus or other supreme King-god. ' ' leads to the recognition of superior deities of the nature of Divine Ancestor. Cult. Tylor's theory. so are the great With little exception. of all bees. as among the Fuegians. great gods make their appearance in the spiritual world as distinctly as chiefs in the human tribe. owls. . We now reach. the fetish of one oak becomes the god of the forest. Next Mr. Mr. and departmental deities. . carried back to tribal Gods. Mr. Tylor off into a long discussion of the theory of 'possession' or inspiration. fetishism (already discussed by us). such as Heaven and Earth.EVOLUTION OF THE IDEA OF GOD 165 After other examples of ancestor-worship. vol. great fetish deities. the Or. Tylor introduces an important personage. generalised. War. and so forth.

already come into play in his theology. we cannot explain away the conception of the Creator as a form of the conception of an idealised divine First Ancestor. of course. in this strict sense. be careful to discount European teaching. the savage has this dualistic belief in a primitive form. apres coup.166 THE MAKING OF RELIGION i ' j Maori Maui. But the savage conception is not merely that of good= Ethics. and that ancestor-worship later grew more popular. But whether Maui and Yama are the Sun. On the whole. Tylor arrives. at last. trod first of men the path of death. as he says. still. Adam is called the son of God in a Biblical genealogy. the popular idea of Ancestor might be transfeiTed to the waning idea of Creator. closer definition is required [than the bare idea of a Supreme Creator]. Mr. The Creator might be recognised as the First Ancestor. at the Supreme Being of savage creeds.' shall show. well weighed.' 'bad=hostile to me. hostile Good and Bad Beings. The case of the Zulu belief will be analysed later. that we are inquiring. like the Indian Yama. must be cited ' ' We * textually ' : — To mark off the doctrines of monotheism. or not. if any.worship does not occur and again. Adam was made. the idea of ' ' ' ' . supposing that the idea of a Creator came first. because the conception of a Creator occurs where ancestor. because. who. and which opens to them a course tending in one or other of these directions. In Kamschatka the First Man is the son of the Creator. Nor are any fair representatives of the lower culture in a strict sense pantheists. must. no savage tribe of monotheists has been ever known. arc monotheistic in llu:i . very few civilised populations. but. Mr. and it is about the origin of the idea of the Creator. It may be declared that. assigning the distinctive attributes of Deity to none save the Almighty Creator. as we friendly to me. both Maori and Sanskrit reUgion regard these heroes as much later than the Original Gods. ^ ' And sense. he admits. not begotten. not of the First Man. Tylor next approaches Dualism. His words. The doctrine which they do widely hold.

as it comes into view within the lower culture. 333.' ready-made to their hands.' Ancient of Heaven. we must. ii. Cult.' Maker of All. further than as Christianity assigns them to Angels. as Mr. as Mr. pp. They have a Supreme Being. even when thus contaminated. of the conception of a Supreme Deity.' It is known this other tribes. and the distinctive attributes of Deity are not by them assigned to other beings. of the great gods of class and element. Tylor advises. select shall show that certain low savages are as monotheistic as some Christians. last * We We ' * * ' Frini. Spencer. of divine Manes. 332. The savage notions. .' shall select such savage examples of the idea of a Supreme Being as are attested by ancient native hymns. while this branch of the inquiry is practically omitted by Mr. Mr. keep watching for Christian and Islamite contamination. that. of local nature gods. Saints. a native substratum. there are to be discerned in barbaric theology. Tylor says. or are inculcated in the most sacred and secret savage institutions. strange as ' it appears. to mediating among the Andamanese and notion is due to missionary influence. But. ' ' We and.'' Eeligion. to and group the typical data which show the nature and position of the doctrine of supremacy. in regard to the whole chapter of savage Supreme Beings. It is to be remarked that. the Devil. henceforth to be traced onward in expanding pov/er and brightening glory along the history of It is no unimportant task. among savages. or are found among low insular races defended from European contact by the jealous ferocity and poisonous jungles of also note cases in which mispeople and soil. Tylor not Sons. quaint or majestic. vol. High above the doctrine of souls. shadowings. the religious Mysteries (manifestly the last things to be touched by missionary influence).EVOLUTION OF THE IDEA OF GOD is 167 polytheism culminating in the rule of one supreme divinity. may have to some extent. partial as it is. sionaries found such native names as Father.

' say Unkulunkulu. Animistic conceptions thus reach their utmost limit in the notion of the Anima Mundi. Brinton. Or speculative philoor Heaven. Or the cannot occur where there is no polytheism. that the Maker and Father in Heaven. in original conception. vol. idea of a Supreme Being thus A god of the polytheistic crowd is simply raised to the primacy. too merely existent to concern himself But he is always with the petty race of men. was merely regarded as a deathless Being. who is so far from being supreme.. Prim.^ He is talking specially of a heavengod he says it came to pass that the idea of God was linked to the heavens long ere man asked himself.. « . Cult. If so. 336. ii. how can we savages can we know that he was envisaged.. animistic at all ? We ' ' * ' spirit being raised. or he may 'loom vast. Animism was not needed for the earhest idea of a moral Eternal. 335. 1868. He may accumulate all discern through powers of all polytheistic gods. Are the heavens material and God It will be I find that ' . which. shadowy. and calm . but it had already occurred to Dr. : principle of Manes worship may make a Supreme Deity out of a primeval ancestor. ? nor am I aware » Dr. This hypothesis will be found to lead to some very singular conclusions.. that Spirit ? the question spirit or not spirit was not raised at all. does not develop his that it has been developed previously. too benevolent to need human worship . p. of course. prior to Death. ' spiritual idea. say Sun. Brinton.. 47. passing. however. pp. Mytlis of the New World. a great phenomenon or force in Nature-worship. Or.168 THE MAKING OF RELIGION can spare for it but some twenty pages out of his large He arranges the probable germs of the savage work. ascends from the Many to the One by trying to sophy ' and beyond the universe a First Cause.. that he is abject. is raised to supremacy. again. no question of How in addition to the objections already noted in tell that the Supreme Being of low was. Now.'^ animistic. originally. presently. more fully stated and illustrated. as shall show that he probably was not.

' ' Intelligent men among the Bakwains have scouted the idea of any of them ever having been without a tolerably clear conception of good and evil. to which we shall return.' while resolute that he was not a ghost} This point will be amply illustrated later. such a Divine Being must he animistic. or Makers. or ' of a future state. God and the I observed this point in Myth. and in the existence of Beings who were not. There is no necessity for beginning to tell even the most degraded of these people of the existence of God. p. vol. that the idea of ' spirit was not necessarily present in the savage conception of the primal Beings. to be the same. but. when first approached by curious travellers. human. the Banks Islanders (Melanesia) believe in ghosts. and never had * been.' there is as good evidence as we possess for any fact in the ethnographic region. rewarding. the Beings who never were human are only called spirits. not as merely alleged. 340.EVOLUTION OF THE IDEA OF GOD 1«9 The notion of a God about whose spirituaHty nobody has inquired is new to us. p. and missionaries.' To take only one case. 158. Codrington. To ourselves. It is certain that savages. have again and again * ' * ' * ' recognised our God in theirs. because our habits of thought do not enable us to envisage them except as spirits. the natives will always maintain that he (the Vui) was something different.' by us. Missionary Travels. benevolent.' says Dr. and deny to him the fleshly body of a man. The mythical details and fables about the savage God the ethical. ex hijpothesi. Ritual.^ . must be a 'spirit. Creators. indeed.' They never were men. Of the existence of a belief in a Supreme Being. admonishare. ' the facts being universally admitted. All alike might be called spirits. different and creative aspects of the Gods are apt ing. ii. . speaking ol the Bakwain. and Religion. and doubtless or probably to barbarians on a certain level of culture. * See one or two cases in Prim. while I did not Bee the implication. Cult. the Higher beliefs of the Lowest savages. as we study that strangely neglected chapter. that essential chapter. ' ' * Livingstone.

Nothing we indicate as sin ever appeared to them as otherwise. that we know nothing historically of the mental condition of the founders of religion. Here one may repeat that while the quaint or majesof a Supreme Being. but I see what its advocates mean. no doubt in some instances with justice. one looks in vain for an adequate siastical Ins titutions . familiar argue that they are revelation (vol. or corrupted. with his unique fairness. and the strength of Mr. for not left without a witness. I am by no means.' to believe that they were as to believe that this God the maleficent ghost of a * * ' It is as easy. ii.' of theirs was evolved out of me dirty mischievous medicine' man. not the most honoured.' except polygamy. may claim such beliefs as mutilated and perverted remains of higher religion (vol. as yet. above all. says Livingstone. ' ' ' ' . almost.170 THE MAKING OF RELIGION future state. we may hesitate to accept the anthroAt best it is conjectural. ii. 336). from its own highest elements. pological hypothesis en masse. but often just the reverse remembering. savage religion as degenerate. will scarcely direct or nearly direct products of But we may argue that. p. . is also. or ought to mean. Tylor. says the degeneration theory. and the facts are such that opponents have more justification than is commonly admitted for regarding the bulk of theologians. agree with Mr. Tylor in Mr. ex hypothesi. that the relatively pure and lofty element which. is most recent in evolution. ethics (denied or minimised by many anthropologists) and the distance which separates the high gods of savagery from the ghosts out of which they are said to have sprung considering too. p. arguing positively in favour of that hypothesis. are only sketched lightly by Mr. sidering their nascent * ' Now we may . Tylor that modern with savage creeds. ' ' makes for righteousness. I do not pretend to know how the lowest savages evolved the theory of a God who reads the heart and their position. among very tic foreshadowings low savages. Herbert Spencer's system they seem to be almost In his Principles of Sociology and Eccleomitted. con356).

enjoined in various places on his worshippers. it is precisely this ' Universal Power that is not propitiated by offerings of ' ' — ' L ' ' ' escape difficulty by saying that there the old ghost of Universal Power is regarded as dead.^ Now. 450. vol. (despite Mr. cannot the We and Africa. the consciousness of a Universal Power whence they and all other ' things proceeded. by a later propitiation of the dead and ghosts. the unselfishness. for that is not true of the punisher of sin. the older conception. in part. Spencer's notice. of this part of his conduct. Mr. the prohibition of even extra-tribal homicide.' Again. p." .' and yet spontaneously performed to that Power an act like that performed by them to tha dead body of a fellow savage by offerings of food. the loyalty to plighted word. 302. cit. and yet rernember traditional persons from generation to generation. 171 notice. how does he develop ' • Principles of Sociohay. in Tonga.' so that 'in time any amount of expansion and idealisation can be reached. Huxley) Australia. And. first. or as a roi faineant not worth propitiating. The new religious idea would soon refract back on.EVOLUTION OF THE IDEA OF GOD notice topic. the pitifulness. men and It peoples. and influence by its ritual. and the solitary sanction of faith between food. ' would appear then. creative being of low savage faith. there would be nothing strange in the matter if the crude idea of Universal Power came earliest. i. as some think. the chastity. secondly. the friendly. vol. p. that the question of the plain man to the anthropologist. for example. decrepit. as far as I can see. are problems that appear somehow to have escaped Mr. whence was he evolved ? The circumstance of his existence. the teacher of generosity. are jDUzzled by endless diffi- in vain for almost any The watcher of We system for example as to how savages can forget their great-grandfathers' very names. on the whole. OiJ. Spencer will argue that it is a strange culties in his ' : ' thing if primitive men had. i. and was superseded. . Having got your idea of spirit into the savage's mind.

Our study. and with the Jehovah of the Hebrews. real or ideal. does not answer to a common savage conception All this will become much more obvious of the Creator. range from the creeds of the most backward and worstequipped nomad races. ending with the Supreme Being of the highly civiHsed Incas. the spirit of a man who died. to those of peoples with an . . ancestors while. well-observed examples. again. aristocracy. with typical. does not pretend to embrace the are content religion of all the savages in the world. of course. houses and agriculture. . as a rule. and. We We hereditary kings. as we study in detail the highest gods of the lowest races.172 THE MAKING OF RELIGION ' has not been answered. God it what I call God ? cannot be a reflection from human kings where there have been no kings nor a president elected out of a polytheistic ^ nor society of gods where there is as yet no polytheism an ideal first ancestor where men do not worship their out of .

however. It may be needful. we must now be equally on our guard against the anthropological bias in the missionary himself.173 X HIGH GODS OF LOW RACES To avoid misconception we must repeat the necessary cautions about accepting evidence as to high gods of low The missionary who does not see in every ahen races. and. to point out once again another weak point in all reasoning about savage religion. near Magellan's among Straits. too. who visited the district some time before his own It is less probable that Spaniards established expedition. but ' When . easily proselytised. rely much on missionary evidence. when we do. a devil is apt to welcome traces of an original supergod natural revelation. and finding ancestor-worshippers (as he sometimes does). Thus. he is apt to think that ancestor. We shall not. Against each and every bias of observers we must be watchful. the Fuegians. instant impulse of a woods. namely that we cannot always tell what may have been borrowed from Europeans. were far out of the way. but one tribe. darkened by all peoples but the Jews. the Fuegian family is to run off into the Occasionally they will emerge to barter.' discovered by strangers.worship explains any traces of a belief in the Supreme Being. in 1830-1840. himself Tylor. a belief in a moral Deity in regions where they left no The Fuegians are not material traces of their faith. Having read Mr. Fitzroy attributes this obvious trace of Catholicism to a Captain Pelippa. worshipped an image called Cristo. Spencer and Mr.

very much blow. Fitzroy did not think of the Fuegians as * Fitzroy. seem to have little information about Fuegian religion either Ibid. Darwin. very much blow. or anything but conduct. hail. he very angry. York's brother (York was a Fuegian brought to England by Fitzroy) killed a wild man who was stealing his birds. because. 67.' Why the evil spirit should by A great black man is punish evil deeds is not evident. wind blow. .' But. first. * ' * ' ' ' Rain come down. 422. the ' sometimes nothing torments them in this world. Principles of Sociology.' family Fitzroy thought they had no idea of a future state.' evil spirit ' ' There are no traces of propitiation by food. who cannot be escaped and who influences the weather according to men's conduct. snow. p. To regard the Deity as a non-natural man is not peculiar to Fuegian magnified theologians.' Mr. Spencer disposes of this moral *big man' . as a sin. there is no evidence that the being is regarded as ever having died. Big man in woods no like it. but the reverse. Very bad to shoot little duck. supposed to be always wandering about the woods and mountains. Now .' this big man is not a deified chief. come rain. storms. 180. The Being also prohibits the slaying of flappers * before they can fly.174 ' THE MAKING OF RELIGION will induce a single individual of the to appear. i. and does not imply Animism. hail come down.' Here be ' The Sixth Commandment is in ethics in savage religion. Next. blow. for the force. * before or after the cruise of the Beagle. ii. Very bad to kill man. ' * We . &c. Descent of Man. His morality is so much above the ordinary savage standard that he regards the slaying of a stranger and an enemy. if they do wrong. it is not shown that Fuegians are ancestor-worshippers. who is certain of knowing every word and every action. caught redhanded in robbery. Again. blow. or sacrifice. come ^ wind. Fuegians 'have no superiority of one over another but the doctor-wizard of each party has much influence. snow come down. But the point is that this ethical judge of perhaps the lowest savages makes for righteousness and searches the heart. among other reasons not given. ^ evidently a deceased weather-doctor.

worshippers. the * ' . that they are degenerate from a loftier . when The worst were medicine-men such notable moralists ? spirits among the neighbouring Patagonians are those of dead medicine-men. are nearest to the primitive model. pottery. there is absolutely no evidence. nor fixed habitations and no traces of higher culture have anywhere been found above or in the soil of the continent. Spencer that ' the singularly complex marriage customs of the Australian Fitzroy. by Mr. civilisation. and consider to be spirit. indeed.' shaman. or whatever he may be called. for in some respects their religious conceptions are so lofty that it would be natural to explain them as the result either of European influence. bows. savages (as Bantu gives one accustomed to the negro the impression that he once had the same set of ideas. is on this level. evolved out of the malignant ghost of an ancestor a being whose strong point is morality. but has forgotten half of them. 190. and.' short prayer has been muttered over each portion. agriculture. 191. They have neither metals. » Travels in West Africa. is the worst and wickedest of all ghosts. one does not easily conThe adjacent Chonos have great faith in a good ceive. How. praying looking upward. As a rule everywhere the ghost of a doctor-wizard.' says Miss Kingsley. who are not proved to be ancestor.HIGH GODS OF LOW RACES 175 that the Fuegians believed in a future Hfe. the Fuegians. like the fauna of the continent. then. while for the second idea. It has been suggested. ' They have magicians. the Australians are probably lowest in culture.' but no details are given as to spirits or ghosts. the author of all good him they invoke in distress or However starved they do not touch food till a danger. 442. or as relics of a higher civilisation in the past. ii. whom they call Yerri Yuppon.^ Of all races now extant. Lastly. If ' man Fuegian and Chono religion be the earliest. This is important. p. The former notion is discredited by the fact that their best religious ideas are imparted in connection with their ancient and secret mysteries. . and if this * then the theology of many other higher The of the Zulus) is decidedly degenerate.

and two hundred years ago. West AusThe natives had neither boats. The * • Early Voyages to Australia.' ' They Curiously the main enough. before it for most of the Dampier appears blacks. Be it little or be it much they get. earliest condition in their past Our who visited New ' The Hodmadods.176 THE MAKING OF RELIGION more polite blacks point to a history. longitude 122^ degrees east (Dampier Land. Holland in the unhappy year 1688. canoes. and fruits of the earth. nor can degeneration be recent. as well the young and tender as the old and feeble. but lie in the open air. and the results entirely overthrow Mr. who are not able to go abroad. houses. men and women. wealth are gentlemen to these who have no . merely boomerangs (' wooden cutlasses '). poultry. literally. but only to have seen ichthyophagous coast There is one more important point. 102-111 (Hakluyt Society).' If rite. have no houses. yet for of Monomatapa. nor any bows. in 1688. this is to be taken quite the Bora old and young. Dampier attests their unselfishness ethical feature in their religious teaching. Their place of dwelling was only a fire with a few boughs : ' ' (the gunyeh) This description remains accurate unsophisticated Australian tribes. nor bark tralia). as we said. in latitude 16 Dampier degrees. the front teeth of the initiated are still knocked out. . and lances with points hardened in the fire. account of the Australians is that of Dampier. . Now. though a nasty : people. He found the natives the miserablest people in the world. . or Australian mysteries.' Dampier saw no metals used. was on the north-west coast at least locally. Huxley's bold statement that in its simplest condition. but it seems that they had their religious mysteries logs . sheep.^ Australians have been very carefully studied by many observers. must have included the women. Dampier observed the two fore-teeth of their upper jaw are want' ing in all of them. . ' ' In the Bora. Of this stage. their unselfishness. every one has his part. at which knowledge of The Maker and of his commandments is imparted. no material traces have ever been discovered. as the strong and lusty.

for less dignified ac- counts. cannot be disputed. some of which are cruel and farcical.' Eemarks more crudely in defiance of known facts could not be made. of is ' is ' tribal mysteries. and occasionally inspire him. 1884. tlie p. The Australians. added to yearly. as there should be if these gods were hungry ghosts.'' dogmas. Worship takes the form. the ethical ideal. for its origin and sanction. XXV. as at Eleusis. As among ourselves. such as is implied by public opinion. and Again. Huxley. K . supposed to be in conformity with the institutes of their God. derives no sanction from theological It reposes.' expressed in moral teaching. but the facts. with its theological sanction. is probably rather above the moral standard of ordinary practice.HIGH GODS OF LOW RACES such as 177 may is be met with a among the Austrahan savages. xxiv. none in the way of sacrifice to higher gods. op. And in this stage theology is properly wholly independent of ethics. regarded as ghosts of men. assuredly.' often malicious. and precisely contradict the statement of Mr. "^ Journal of cit. on such dogmas. theology dispositions (usually malignant) of ghost-like entities may be propitiated or scared away . What conclusion we should draw from these facts is uncertain.'^ is • The evidence Science and Hebrew Tradition. The young men are initiated with many ceremonies. Howitt's accounts. 346. at least. That these ghosts are worshipped does not appear. in conformity with the supposed commands of a God who watches over conduct. Institute. as at Eleusis. powers. originally instituted. believe in 'spirits. said * : and as to Australian religion is abundant. by the God. Anthrop. See. there ' denied by Waitz. He was wholly in the wrong when he The moral code. in the matter of cult. but the initiation includes ethical instruction. and probably in most cases These aid the wizard. but no cult mere and who can be said to exist. belief in the existence. The cult among the Australians is the keeping of certain laws. I shall here content being myself with Mr.

prompt to punish. ' The Supreme Spirit. xiii. in Brough God from Smyth's collection. but he was dreaded as one who could severely punish the trespasses committed against these tribal ordinances and customs whose first institution is ascribed to him. either as a benevolent. or more frequently as a malevolent being. The grandfather • — Journal.178 THE MAKING OF RELIGION As regards the possible evolution of the Australian ancestor-worship. it seems to me represents the defunct headman. and the anthropologist will observe that the names of the human dead are also often tabooed. Howitt credits the groups with possessing 'headmen. Howitt's own statement. whereas some inquirers. Mr.' — about the religion. The informants of Mr. the traces of headmanship among the tribes are extremely faint no such headman rules large areas of country. But the divine name is not thus tabooed and sacred when the mere folklore about him is narrated. by disease or death. the candour about the mythology is essential. His name is too sacred to be spoken except in whispers.' moral or ritual. it must be noted that Mr. .' tribes I refer to here [in Now. disbelieve Howitt writes : — in regular chiefs. Indeed. and the malevolence of the Supreme Spirit is not illustrated by the details of Mr.' a kind of chiefs. he goes on at once to remark that Darumulun was not. Mr. Howitt in' . the breach of his ordinances. * ' ' stinctively distinguished between the mythology and the This distinction the secrecy religion of Darumulun. who is believed in by all the South-Eastern Australia]. none is known to be worshipped after death. everywhere thought a malevolent being. and accounts for our ignorance about the inner religious beliefs of early races. 193.' To punish transgressions of his law is not the essence of a malevolent being. but the reverse. Darumulun watched the youths from the sky. Howitt himself knew little till he was initiated. it seems to me.

abstinence from lawless love. 'by one of the elders. said [Supreme Being of certain tribes] up there. and all you do down here. as often to soften the heart.^ The future life (apparently) is then illustrated by the burial of a living elder. and avoidance of the sins so popular. poetic. at other times he is {Biamban) or 'Father' (Papang). ^ advice so kindly. speaking of the Mysteries of Northern Australians (mysteries under divine sanction). Howitt's friend.' He is to avoid adultery. or tribal mysteries. again.^ representation is made of A the Master. The whole result is. * P. . and. are partly described by Collins as early as 1798. ' ' ' better have I found.' Many other authorities could be adduced for the A watchful religious sanction of morals in Australia. except at the Mysteries. took him out at night.* At the Mysteries Darumulun's real name may be Master uttered. Mr. struction. p. not to take advantage of a woman if he finds her alone. however. This may. 457. he is not to be quarrelsome. Biamban and to make such idols. which.' as was Mystae. and draw tears from the youth. exactly as we say 'Lord' and ' ' \ ' ^Father. is forbidden under pain of death.HIGH GODS OF LOW RACES 179 of Mr. 453. • P. who rises from a grave. symbolise the new life of the . xiii. pointing to a You will soon be a man you see Biinjil star. among moral lessons divinely sanctioned. and must have been practised in 1688.' Mr. Howitt mentions. M 2 . whose instructions would certainly not be conveyed in the Bora. in an indelible manner. 'Worse have I fled sung in an Athenian rite. cit. "* ' Journal. fatherly. those rules of conduct which form the moral law of the tribe.' It is known that all these things are not due to missionaries. and sanctioned by the example of Gods. and impressive.' to 'impress upon the mind of the youth. Howitt calls 'a quasi-religious element. 450. 296. « Op. and he can see you. in classical Greece. before the white men came to Melbourne. ' : . respect for old age. mentions the nature of the moral inEach lad is given. by what Mr.' Those which are made are destroyed as soon as the rites are ended. Palmer.

. This Fire Ceremony is not for lads not a kind of confirmation in the savage church but ia ^ intended for adults.180 THE MAKING OF RELIGION men . or dream-times. July 1897. So it is in the religious Mysteries of the African see. According to Taplin. with their friends. J. ' ' ' — — . F.' were celebrated . Gillen.' Australian Kurnai. i. J. i-ather vaguely. Also certain mythical ancestors. Victoria. thece real or ideal human beings appear to sink their identity in that of the object with which they are associated. it seems that religious ceremonies connected with Totems are the most notable performances. whose mysteries and ethical teaching are under the sanction of their Supreme Being. is * Yao . Mr. Nuvrumdere was a deified black fellow. or Engwurra of certain tribes in Central Australia. See Brough Smyth.I. and the central moral doctrine of Christianity. who died on earth. From a brief account of the Fire Ceremony. but nothing is said of sacrifice to these Manes. ^ of the Jeraeil. reverence. and inculcated in his by Mysteries.' of the alcheringa. 428 Taplin. we shall So it is with the spoken of as uninitiated. to be true of Daramulun. p. is ^ if named at all . his abode the he the Master and Lord of things his lessons soften the heart. 194. Anthrop.' ' What wants this knave That a God should have ? ' I shall now demonstrate that the religion patronised the Austrahan Supreme Being. Aborigines. Proc. or had given them.' One need not say that selflessness is the very essence of goodness. So much for the anthropological dogma that early theology has no ethics.' in some way mixed up with Totems. Inst. J.' originated. xiii. Native Races of Australia. but is said.A. and from Avhich they are supposed to have There appear also to be places haunted by ' spirit individuals. being observes and rewards the conduct of he is is named with heavens ' . The ' old men deemed or that through intercourse with whites the lads had become selfish and no longer inclined to share that which they obtained by their own exertions. • . a selfish man. 310. Howitt^ gives an account Mysteries of the Kurnai. xxv. This is not the case of Baiame. 297. The brief account is by Professor Baldwin Spencer and Mr. Royal Soc. is actually used to counteract the immoral character which natives acquire by associating with Anglo-Saxon Christians. 1885.

of making or creating. The initiator points initiate raise their faces to the sky. MunganHis son Tundun is ngaur. then to pluck off the blankets. whose doctrine is then unfolded in an impressive by the old initiator (' headman ') manner. 4. Look there. look there. Anthrop. p. or rather This may be grandfather. who lived on the earth. To obey the food restrictions until they are released from them by the old men. ' : ' /. is Father. interpreted as ancestor-worship. Not to interfere ivith girls or married women. not maker.' Mungan-ngaur (Mungan = 'Father. of ' the Kurnai. calling out. To listen to and obey the old men. Our Father. . and bid the and greed.' Long ago there was a great Being. if they have been associating with Christians). and co-exists with evolutionary myths. Mungan initiated the and destroyed earth by water when they were imMungan left the earth. and ascended piously revealed. of the Kurnai.' ngaur=' our').' On this topic Mr. or Greek rhombos.' ' * ' ' direct ancestor rites. but immortal. to make whirring sounds with the timdim. : Y To share everything they have with their friends. is to blindfold every lad. and dwelling in heaven. Mungan-ngaur's precepts are 1. look there to it.' Here Mungan-ngaur. 5. a Being not defined as spirit. to the sky. where he still remains. later. but the opposite myth. to expel selfishness The chief rite. I venture to assert that it can Mr. Howitt concludes no longer be maintained that the Australians have no belief which can be called religious. with a blanket closely drawn over his head. is of frequent occurrence in many widely-severed Australian districts. in the sense of beliefs which govern tribal and individual morality under a supernatural sanction. 2. 313. 1885.HIGH GODS OF LOW RACES The the lads 181 Kiirnai began by kneading the stomachs of about to be initiated (that is. 3. Inst. They have seen in this solemn way the home of the ' ' ! Supreme Being. that is. To live peaceably ivith their friends.

or make loud noises in the night.' Yet the facts which he and Mr. theological doctrines.^ the more The Australians are the lowest.' In its highest aspect that of simplest theology Australia is free from the faults of popular theology in The God discourages sin. to be Mr.' But Mr. yet no propitiation by food is made to their moral Buler. xiii. in or out of the rites. ii. ' Prim. 459. Huxley ignore throw a light very different from theirs on what they consider 'the cites. Spencer's solitary reference to Australia in the work on 'Ecclesiastical Institutions. the reverence is conspicuous we have here no mere ghost. as might naturally be expected. or by purely magical rites. Anthrop. Spencer does not allude to the much more essentially religious elements which he might have found in the very authority whom : : ' ' : he Mr. The laws of these Australian divine beings apply to ritual as well as to ethics. most primitive savages. 674. he is Greece. nothing rational about it.' and says Here we may recognise the essential elements of a cult.' Among the causes of confusion in thought upon the partial and one-sided religion. Ecclesiastical Institutions. as if he were a ghost.^ This appears. Brough Smyth. in myth. perhaps. Mr. On the whole it is evident that Mr. He is almost too revered to be ' ' ' * J. propitiated by food or sacrifice. p.182 THE MAKING OF RELIGION affirmative Hewitt's opinion became more deeply he was initiated. of the God has often. But the moral element is conspicuous. is a capital oifence. Tylor mentions application of the historical method of inquiry into ' ^ Here. His very image (modelled on a large scale in earth) is no vulgar idol to make such a thing. far from impeccable. . He cites a case of addressing the ghost of a man recently dead. in heaven. 450. for example. Cult. p. simplest condition of theology. though. except on the rare sacred Meanwhile the mythology occasions. Herbert Spencer. underrates the nature of Australian religion. which is asked not to bring sickness. as far as my scrutiny goes. we have examples. Inst.

There are two currents. if either. and nobody. to some writers who without a bias against all religion as an unscientific But superstition. a supposed ! . compared with magical bloody Aztec ritualism. or Ares. former. in almost all races. element is the earlier. and thereBoth elements are found fore the more conspicuous. conjurings. in our total lack of historical information about the beginnings.' If we knew all the mythology of Darumulun. is full of magic.' Thus the status of theology does not corre- idols. ghost-propitiating habit. mummery. . as in Aztec ethical piety. neglecting (as we have shown what and of good report. perfectly disthe tinguishable. The worse side of religion is the less sacred. is derived from the other. even among very low savages. It would scarcely be a paradox to say that the popular Zeus. ' spond to what we look for in very" low culture. can say which. to understand their language better. He is . the religious. and scandalous Sometimes the latter stream quite pollutes the legend. the lusts. of all Gods. the religious and the mythical. or the Fuegian being who forbids the slaying of an enemy. .HIGH GODS OF LOW RACES named by (except in mythology) and 183 is not to be represented not moved by sacrifice he has not the chance like Death in Greece. there. The first missionso little that there was not. loves not gifts. or which. mummeries. mythological. or is honest altogether. but they could ' . we should probably find it (like much of the myth of Pundjel or Bunjil) on a very different level from the theology. sometimes they flow side by side. Anthropology has mainly kept her eyes fixed on the impure stream. while relatively. is degenerate from Mungan-ngaur. and seems logical. they found quite the reverse to be true and not only so. co-existing. and almost literally marks the sparrow's fall. and frauds of priesthoods. aries in Greenland we know But when they came trace of belief in a Divine Being. he only. of corpses and then of ghosts came first is pitiation are not agreeable. The former current. if To suppose that proeither. is pure from * The latter current. flowing together through religion. .

348-356. Certainly there service. undying. St. 419 The reader is referred to the Introduction for additional information about Australian beliefs. i. if initial it was. From all this evidence it does not appear how nonthought beneficent.. for instance. and woTild lead to the belief in a Creator. for God hath showed it unto them being understood by the but they became vain in their which are made things ^ In imaginations. did I but know him. whom the Greenlander fact. 19. He then stated the argument from design. and do everything. Tylor.' nor of a direct revelation. Paul's theory of the origin of religion is not that of an innate idea. Cranz. or a ghost. are among the probable origins of religion.' ' ' ' . and did render must be some Being who made all these things. Curr's work. People. and for replies to objections. These reports are usually the result of the ignorance or contempt of white observers. pp. 199. This is a very different initial step in religious development. Ah. cf. Inst. mythology submerged religion. non-Manes-worshipping evolved the idea of a relatively supreme. 199. xiii. . i.^ That line. But an Eskimo said to a missionary. He must be very good too . from the feeding of a corpse.' * polytheistic.184 THE MAKING OF RELIGION plainly gather from a free dialogue they had with some perfectly wild Greenlanders (at that time avoiding any direct application to their hearts) that their ancestors must have believed in a Supreme Being.' As St. watching men's lives. Science conceives But they herself to have annihilated teleological ideas. * ^ Journal Anthrop. ' 3 Kom. reports of 'godless' natives are given. * In Mr. * whom he yearned. Tylor does not refer to this as a trace of Christian Scandinavian influence on the Eskimo. savages and benevolent Creator.. 198. The Australian Race. Paul v\T:ites which may be known of God is manifest in them. i. . Thou must not imagine that no Greenlander thinks about these things (theology). may be taken. and after non -monarchical. in the Mary Elver country and in Gippsland. . . . Cranz. unborn. of com'se. little . reached the belief in a God from the Argument for Design. how I That would love and honour him.' ' : which their posterity neglected little by Mr. He can go everywhere. . ^ him some . . and their foolish heart was darkened. moral. he says.

cheaply propitiated ghost of a tribesman. and need not be probably is not essentially derived from these. . that the Supreme Being of savages belongs to another branch of faith than ghosts. to take a practical case Here are the Australians. The distinction between the Australian deity. moral.185 XI SUPREME GODS NOT NECESSARILY DEVELOPED OUT OF 'SPIRITS' to examine the high gods of other low savages. We must try to get rid of our theory that a powerful. waning. ghost. But. at his highest power. First.' moral. . from the first. in * what was the process of development ? examined Mr. Tylor's theory. conceived as spirit and so was necessarily derived from a Before going on — — ' ' . is found all over a huge continent ? I cannot see that this problem has been solved or frankly faced. and that conception of a Father above. or ghost-gods. or fetishes. is essential. . easily forgotten. roaming in small bands. eternal Being was. then. without more formal rulers than headmen at most not ancestor worshippers not polytheists with no departmental deities to select and aggrandise not apt We have . unpropitiated by sacrifice. ex officio. How. did they bridge the gulf between the ghost of a soon-forgotten fighting man. not easily conceived by us. : ' ' . which. I must here again insist on and develop the theory. or Totems. to speculate on the Anima Miindi. It is not easy to show how. under various names. allseeing. and the ordinary.

eternal ' * * ' ' We A ghost is said. the notion of Mungan-ngaur grew from the idea of the ghost of a warrior. but he was by no means necessarily so to an early thinker.' savage gods are now regarded as spirits. the very idea of a ghost (apart from a ' Principles of Sociology.' * — ' Mr. Jevons has pointed out that. these are found on the lowest levels of savagery. There are degrees. he cannot be killed. speaks frequently of living I do not know that beings adored as gods. and found that the honest captain was but a mortal British mariner no god at all. and it appears extraordinary that an- — — thropologists have not (as far as I this circumstance before. and Mr. am aware) observed Spencer. you must have the idea of God. sach a being is necessarily a spirit. at all. — One cause be this is : 'God our blindness to the point appears to from childhood been taught that a Spirit. 421. by anthropologists.' To us. But there is no logical necessity for the belief in the evolution of this god out of that ghost. not as spirits. The medicine men a god after death. Spencer's men-gods become real gods after death.186 ' THE MAKING OF RELIGION ' the dark backward of Australian life. And therefore we have never remarked that there is no reason why we should take it for granted that the earliest deities of the earliest men were supposed by them to be spirits These gods might most judiciously be spoken of.' man becomes . These two factors in religion ghost and god seem to have perfectly different sources.' "We.' but as undefined eternal beings. as a rule. The medicine as gods 417. i. before you can hail a man as a god. never died at all. now. human murder of Captain Cook notoriously resulted from a scientific experiment in theology. who may not yet have reached the conception of a ghost. indeed. to have developed are treated into a god. He belonged to a world that knew not Death. If he is a god.' Now the Supreme Being of savage faith. The Mr. ' Now. can only conceive of an of We have know that legions of being as a spirit.' So they tried with a dagger.

said The British Philistine has no knowledge of God. conceived of without the question of spirit. an accident.' or no spirit being raised perhaps he was originally conceived of before that question could be raised by men. by a breach of his laws. He believes that the Creator is a magnified non-natural man. by himself. When we call the Supreme Being of savages a spirit we introduce our own animistic ideas into a conception where it may not have originally existed. or spirit.' The Gippsland or Fuegian or Blackf oot Supreme Being is just a Being. on that account. an error in ritual. Matthew Arnold might as well have spirit is he. in his opinion. He is not necessarily a spirit. But anthropologists continually tell us. He was not origias conceived of ' or not spirit. a decision of a god who was before Death was. ghost is the phantasm of a dead man. omniscience. Diseases and death are things that once did not exist. he is not. supernormally caused hy magicians and spirits. ought not to occur. : I have published a chapter on Myths on the Origin of Death in llodern Myt'liology. is the idealisation of the savage. Death came into the world by a blunder. that the idea of death as a universal ordinance is unknown to the savage. If the being is an idealised first ancestor (as among the Kurnai). with added power. or nally differentiated as ' ' ' ' ' ' .' He is a spirit Being. ' ' ' ' ' : ' . Being. with truth. living in the sky.SUPREME GODS 187 wraith or fetch) implies the previous death of his proprietor. either man or ghost of man. Scores of myths are told A everywhere on this subject. They are. Vui we have hardly a term for an immortal existence so undefined.^ The savage Supreme Being. a breach of ritual. ' . the savage thinks. not a mrart.' The Supreme Being is a wesen. minus fleshly body (as a rule).' though that term may now be applied to him. normally. In the original conception he is a powerful intelligence who was from the first who was already active long before. and that. and morality. anthropomorphic. If the God is the savage himself raised to the n'^' power so much the less of a Mr. an error in the delivery of a message. and minus Death.

and Baiame. at least. he can hardly be. the Supreme Being is reckoned an ancestor ? It can very readily be shown that. Tylor gives of the Mandans did not die. is that they never died at all. which. When he dies he is a confessed ghost-god.188 THE MAKING OF RELIGION what not. They belong to the • : — — ' Prim. be prior to the evolution of the notion of ghost or But how does it apply when. 311-316.' clearly no mortal man. he moved west. . he worshipped Mr. ii. was 'the ancient of heaven. and most of the high gods of Australia. by accident. Unkulunkulu will be precisely Yama. cannot logically have been so envisaged where the nearly universal belief occurs that death came into the world Being of Ancestor. was died. Tamoi. and is not. consequently is no ghost emigravit. worshipped. and was not the first of Aryan men who died. by Vedic Aryans. when the Supreme a savage people is thus the idealised First he can never have been envisaged by his worshippers as at any time a gliost or. ghost-worship and dead ancestor-worship are impossible before the ancestor is dead and is a ghost. death entered the world. among the Kamchadals. The Maori Maui was the first who died. answers to Yama. He was not affected by the entry of death. Modern minds need to become familiar with this indeterminate idea of the savage Supreme Being. first Adam but is the mythical ancestor of the Hebrews. This is the list Where the First Ancestor is equivalent to the Creator. but confessedly as a ghost-god. Cult. The Ancestor a list of first ancestors deified. and is supreme. he is from the first deathless and immortal. But the essential idea of Mungan-ngaur. logically.' Where the First Ancestor is also the Creator (Dog-rib Indians). as by the Kurnai. of the Guaranis. regarded as a mortal. or needlessly. but he is not one of the original Maori gods. may spirit. . . Now. Haetsh. virsp fiopov. he still exists. and of other low races. ' described later.

natm'ally. the high gods described were not necessarily once ghosts were not idealised mortal ancestors. from the beginning. and ancestors worshipped as [original] gods were not believed to have been human. On one hand. that hypo. and is superfluous. like Qat among the Melanesians. now dwelling on high. ' The Jevons. from before the coming — death. even contradictory. this non-original gods that were once ghosts. p. is made in every quarter.' ^ Both kinds may have a generic name. Cagn. Bunjil. such as halou. 'Ancestors hnoion to be human were not worshipped as [original] gods. original gods on the other. beings in any way. They could have been conceived of. immortal Fathers. For these gods. . of course. the ghost-theory is not required. explicitly stated distinction that the high creative gods never were mortal men. they did know it in practice). It is only needed for the evolution of ghost -propitiation and genuine dead . or wakan. is not needed for the evolution of the high gods of savages. Now. distinction is often calmly ignored whereas. . and had not reflected on phantasms nor evolved ghosts. when any race has developed (like late Scandinavians) the Euhemeristic hypothesis ('all gods were once men'). Introduction. They were. were there death later intruded among men. 197. Therefore.SUPREME GODS 189 period before death came into the world. by the evidence of anthropology itself. The ghost-theory. while other gods are spirits of mortal men. in their adorers' belief. but did not affect these divine . still less did they need to have conceived by abstract speculation the hypothesis of ghosts. but the specific distinction is universally made by low savages. Between them and apotheosised mortal ancestors there is a in of great gulf fixed —the river of death. therefore. The early thinkers who developed these beings did not need to know that men die (though.ancestor worship. They arise in an age that knew not death. by a race of immortals who never dreamed of such a thing as a ghost. in the nature of the case. Baiame.

The high Gods of savagery moral. They are. allseeing directors of things and of men are not explicitly envisaged as spirits at all by their adorers.' If they All this is rather hard on the lowest savages. the facts of the Bora ritual and the instruction given there prove that Mungan-ngaur and other names ' . if they sacrifice to a god. whom ' ' » Robertson Smith.190 THE MAKING OF RELIGION an historical thesis Is accepted as some writers. when once Animism prevailed. was sacrifice (as to more popular ghost deities) or neglect. p. 176.' 'living breath'] of Jehovah. later. or even a spirit. not gods to adore . or gods to For this the ghost-ritual has been transferred. came. like the easy Epicurean Gods.. going forth from him. ' ^ — — We * describe Pirnmeheal. not to adore. as do ghosts. Grant Allen as gods to talk about. Mighty beings. invaded the possibly older religion of the Supreme Father.' or undefined beings who were from the beginning and are undying. The alternative. then the god is Luckily. works in the world and among men. and receive no sacrifice. The in original conception. The Prophets of Israel. We shall find examples of both alternatives. 61. or gods developed out of ghosts. Evolution of the Idea of Qod. whether originally conceived of as spirits or not. reason. to be reckoned as spirits. . a ghost. Not being ghosts. and Napi and Baiame as magnified non-natural men. common doctrine of the Old Testament is not that God is spirit. for a Supreme Being. They even (but not among the lowest savages) came to be propitiated by food and * ' sacrifice. statement of fact by It is part of my theory that the more popular ghost-worship of souls of people whom men have loved. ^ mythological conceptions rather than religious beings. they seem to be spoken of by very Mr. nihil indiga nostri. But sacrifice does not prove that a God was. The notion can best of soul or spirit is here out of place. they crave no food from men.' To resume. then the god is a hungry ghost a god to talk about.' don't. but that the spirit [rtiah=:' wind. apparently. p. under the Animistic theory.

not merely gods to talk about. capable of surviving his bodily decease. non-metaphysical savages (if any such there be) evolved out of ghosts the eternal beings who made the world. — of God descends not from ghosts. to the ghost theory the alleged origin of religion. For their evolution the ghost theory is not logically demanded they can do without it. Brewin. but from the Supreme Beings of non-ancestor-worshipping peoples. Come from what germ he may. Dick. or cannot be shown not to be prior. and punishers of conduct (though that duty is also occasionally assumed by ancestral spirits) with our civilised conception of the divine. Yet theij. It is logically conceivable that savages may have worshipped deities like Baiame and Darumulun before they had evolved the notion that Tom. As far as we can say. by ethical conformity to their will and by solemn ceremony. by the very nature of savage reflections on death and on its non-original casual character.SUPREME GODS 191 are gcds to adore. are the high gods. theoiy seems to me to break down completely. the highest element in the religion of the lowest savages does not appear to be derived from their theory of ghosts. Deities of the higher sort. bogles. or Harry has a separable soul. the highest gods of savages may have been believed in. and not the spirits. Our concep- — tion morality as the people themselves unanimously distinguish such beings from ghost-gods. I take it that such In this case the Animistic beings never were ghosts. Yet these high gods of low savages preserve from dimmest ages of the meanest culture the sketch of a God which our highest rehgious thought can but fill up to its ideal. As it seems impossible to point out any method by which low. and so forth. before the savage had developed the idea of souls out of dreams and phantasms. non-polytheistic. as Makers and Fathers and Lords of an indeterminate nature. Jehovah or Allah does not come from a ghost. Thus. moral — . chiefless. Mrarts. : . or may be prior. and watch over guides. in the inevitable absence of historical evidence. are prior. rewarders. the gods who have most analogy as makers.

we may differ from the newest scientific opinion without too much diffident apprehensiveness. spectral as Bathybius. as it is conspicuously It proves that does make some difference. that a widely preached scientific conclusion may be as On other more important points. still. if the ghost is wrong. . in some other equally illogical way they came they had a Judge and Father theory of the high Gods to indulge the hypothesis that in heaven.192 THE MAKING OF RELIGION Ifc may be retorted that this makes no real difference. superfluous. If savages did not invent gods in consequence of a fallacious belief in spirit and soul. therefore. But.

a Maker of all things. Cagn made all things. and I poioerful. is no -medicine man. existing before the sun. or above its habitual practice). Orpen got the facts from Qing by inducing him to explain the * natives' pictures on the walls of caves.' dance (answering to a high rite of the Australian Bora) in which the most esoteric myths were unfolded. except in his myth.' Mr.' But I now think that I confused in my mind the religious and the mythological aspects of Cagn. moral (as the morality of the tribe goes. One of unknown origin. but he got spoilt through fighting so many things. Orpen by Qing. 'At first Cagn was very good. Pray to an insect of the caterpillar kind for success in the chase.' As to ethics. 11-13) I regarded Cagn as only a successful and idealised medicine man. ' ' O . and we pray to him. Spencer's Descriptive Sociology the religion of the Bushmen is thus disposed of.' How came he into the world ? Perhaps with those who brought the Sun only the initiated know these It appears that Qing was not yet initiated in the things. who 'had never Give us food. and Religion (ii. have elsewhere described the Bushman god Cagn. They make arrow-poison out of cater' ' * : * ' ' When I wrote Myth.198 XII SAVAGE SUPBEME BEINGS the lowest savages that the Supreme Beings are most regarded as eternal. are we not thy children ? Do you not see us hunger ? ' : Mr. as he is It among * ' was portrayed to before seen a white man except fighting. O Cagn.' That is rather meagre.' thus Cagn. prayed to.' In Mr. Ritual. but not in receipt of sacrifice.

the Greeks.' the Andamanese turn out to be quite embarrassingly rich in the higher elements of faith. For long these natives were the joy godless Andamanese. Spencer's Descriptive Sociology. but an excessively absurd mythology. for instance. perhaps correctly. Man. of course he need not be propitiated by human sacrifices or cold chickens. .' Cagn with i-kaggen. ' " Pp. and probably the * * original inhabitants. he collected his facts ' by proxy. whose occupation dates from prehistoric times. who obtain status *by relating an extraordinary dream.' They have to produce fresh evidential dreams from time to time. and other peoples.' ' ' and ' ' . That kind of material evidence to the faith in him must be absent by the nature of the case but the coincident testimony of travellers to belief in a Supreme Being cannot be dismissed as alleged. the student of the Andamanese despairs of the possibility of an ethnological theory of religion. a sudden death or accident. has lived with them for eleven years. he is hardly to be blamed. Spencer's * educated Englishman. If. that personage is only alluded to as Alleged Benevolent Supreme Being in Mr. and presided over our benevolent efforts to reclaim them from their savage state. as he tells us. and are considerably above the Australian level. xii. the insect. If he is a deity of a rather lofty moral conception. Mr.194 THE MAKING OF RELIGION though Dr. The case of the Andaman Islanders may be especially recommended to beUevers in the anthropological science of religion. Spencer's system may possibly be explained by the circumstance that. on the whole. ' The omissions in Mr. Bleek. J. They have not only a profoundly philosophical religion. They have second-sighted men. Yet we have precisely the same kind of evidence of observers for this alleged benevolent Supreme Being as we have for the caiiaille of ghosts and fetishes. 67G. like the Australian blacks. 677. ' Man. The people are probably Negritos. as.' While we find Waitz much interested in and amazed by the benevolent Supreme Being of many African tribes.I. is usually left out of sight altogether in his Priticiples of Sociology and Ecclesiastical Institutions.A. who knows their language.'^ Yet when the Andamanese are scientifically studied in situ by an of emancipated inquirers ' as the * They only supply Mr. 70. identifies pillars.' Ecclesiastical Institutions with a few instances of the ghost-belief. the details of which are declared to have been borne out subsequently by some unforeseen event. '^ They use the bow. they make pots.

xii. He knows even the thoughts of the heart. and the dread of future punishment to some extent is said to affect their course of action in the present life. and is immortal. By him were all things created. Anthropological study of religion has hitherto almost ' entirely overlooked the mysteries of various races. 158. Man consulted elderly and. Their religion is probably not due to missionaries.^ as we should expect it to be. foraging for There is the himself. murder. that is falsehood. while Mr.* The evidence ought to make us reflect on the extreme obscurity of the whole problem. 158. grave assault.I. as they always shot all foreigners. and (as a crime of witchcraft) by burning wax.A. 96-98. bad carving of meat. xii.SAVAGE SUPREME BEINGS They see 195 halluci- phantasms of the dead. adultery. except the powers of evil. 157.' but invisible. except in so far as they confirm the entry of the young people ' Man. and coincidental All this is nations. is like fire. eats and drinks. well-instructed Andamanese for his facts. He is angered by yubda * = or WTong-doing. * ' from ours at Port Blair).^ To those in pain or distress he is pitiful. The account of Andamanese religion does not tally with the anthropological hypothesis. for I do not find that ancestral ghosts are worshipped. theft. Yet Puluga lives in a large stone house (clearly derived sin. » xii. o 2 . The whole theology was scrupulously collected from natives unacquainted with other races.' * Tliis Being could not be evolved out of the ordinary ghost of a second-sighted man. • J.^ usual story of a Deluge caused by the moral wrath of Puluga. He was never born. and have no traditions of the presence of aliens on the islands before our recent arrival. in native religion. 15G. and sometimes deigns to afford relief. xii.^ Their God. 112.' He is Judge of Souls. Puluga. * * xii. nor is there a trace of early missionary influence. Foreign influence seems to be more than usually excluded by insular conditions and the jealousy of the original inhabitants. and is married to a green shrimp.

281-288.^ well as the barbaric factors in the rites. religious teaching is nearly unknown to us. the alliance of ethics with must rehgion among the most backward races. and. and the custom of ritual daubing with dirt . and strangely presumptuous. may have been developed out of such savage doctrine as softens the hearts of Australians and Yaos. we cannot tell whether. Aglaophamus. We : ' Myth. to deny. among were survivals ' ' : mummeries. frivoUties. and even license. and Religion. The New Life. Ritual. as beauty. such as the use of the rhombos to make a whirring noise. where we know the secret of savage mysteries. It is therefore quite ' ' incorrect. That this kind of doctrine receives religious sanction is certain.'^ But. £is Lucian and Qing say. with almost aU anthropologists. in which. i. 133. * . These we know the inner religion we ought to begin to recognise that we do not know. as in 1887. save in a few instances. mystic facts are danced out. and perhaps the future life. that the Hellenic genius must have added to an old medicine all that the Eleusinian mysteries possessed of dance These elements. till we are admitted to the secrets of all other savage mysteries throughout the world. always remember their secrecy about their inner religion. high ethical doctrines are not presented under the sanction of religion. and consolation. It is certain that the mysteries of Greece of savage ceremonies. because we know that they included specific savage rites. and the sacred ballets d'action. while Greece retained these relics of savagery. counsel. I would therefore no longer say.196 THE MAKING OF RELIGION Their esoteric moral and into the ranks of the adult. Lobeck. Now. there was something taught at Eleusis which filled minds like Plato's and Pindar's with a happy ' rehgious awe. their frankness about their mythological tales. are undeniably indicated in the Australian mysteries by the simulated Besurrection. similar softening of the heart was the result of the teaching in the Australian Bora the Yao mysteries inculcate the victory over self .

Codrington says. never died. are Dr. is our knowledge.' But to their initial is lacking. the ghosts are Tamate. logically. and.A. and will continue to show. creators. The example of the Melanesians enforces these lessons. human. conception our idea of spirit They are ' (1) Ghosts of the living men. (2) Beings who were not. beings which never were human. It is hard to bring the Melanesians within any Dr. yet.I. they are such as in English must be called spirits. is the usual savage doctrine. It is impossible. . and before death entered the world. and a Polynesian element on the other. or of ideal ancestors. we shall call Vui spirits A Vui is not a spirit that has beings. and never had been. therefore these are spirits. even now. 'the conception can hardly be that of a purely spiritual being. and reports that while the European inquirer can communicate pretty freely on common subjects the vocabulary of ordinary life is almost useless when the region of mysteries and superstitions is approached. 2C3. beings who The * ' ' ' ' ' * ' J. X. But as to render Vui spirits is to yield the essential point. as we have shown. we repeat. surviving the death of the body. by whatever name the natives call them. the idea of their existence might have been evolved before the ghost theory was attained by men. Vui. gent beings different from ' * ' existed before death.' dead.SAVAGE SUPREME BEINGS 197 The case of the Andamanese has taught us how vague. Codrington has made them the subject of a theory.' The Banks Islanders are most free from an Asiatic element of population on one side. for Tamate.' That is our point.' their essence is vague. careful study. God is a spirit.' or. to argue that these beings are only ghosts of real remote ancestors.' these beings are Gods. simply. for Fwi. Dr.' This. and how obscure is our problem. Codrington uses ghosts Vui. and still exist. who were before men were. ' ' The Banks ' Islanders * believe in two orders of intelli- On the other are beings. These higher beings are not safely to be defined as 'spirits. On the one hand are separable souls of men.

in Banks Islands. in a certain district.' Qat. does not generalise.' chief is Qat. in this case. higher place than Qat and his brothers in the religious system. and the rest which we shall offer. His mother was. 268). incorporeal Vuis. distinction which we have offered. or became. it should be said.' and derives both from ghosts of the dead. such as the beginning of Death and the coming of Night. and are in some uncertain way connected with stones . but the native will always maintain that he was something different. still at hand to help and invoked in prayers. Anthropology. There are corporeal and incorporeal Vuis. . Dr. being or beings. superstitions. The myth of Qat is a jungle of facetiae and frolic. is that of shell- The ' have a much • J. he is claimed as an ancestor (p. The only sacrifice.' This distinction.A. but confines himself to the savages of whom he has made a But. 275). Marawa.L 267. smooth the sea for us two. on the other is radical and ^ — — nearly universal in savage religion. not a man. with nothing like a human life. Codrington.' They have neither names. they receive sacrifice. if not universal.L x. neglecting the essential distinction insisted on. and ghosts or spirits exalted from ghost's estate. as common. 267. eternal. look down upon me. and deny to him the fleshly body of a * man.198 THE MAKING OF RELIGION . been a ghost the story may represent him as if a man.A.' though. ghost on one side original being. that I may go safely over the sea Qat created men and animals. a stone stones playing a considerable part in the distinction ' ' ' ' ' ! . but the ^ The body of the corporeal Vui is not a human body. ^ J. confuses both kinds under the style of * spirits. on one hand. nor legends. with one or two serious incidents. these stones usually bear a fanciful resemblance to fruits or animals (p. we think ourselves justified in regarding the between a primeval. from the other examples of the same special study. on the other. Codrington. by Dr. nor shapes. not a ghost of a man. Two strata of belief have here been confused.

' nor does the appearbelief in other spirits seem to be founded on ance of life or motion in inanimate things. in Melanesia. but J. The natives think • real. in accordance with the anthropological theory. ghosts of men. is a bag of sensations.A. in the opinion of some philosophers. as living man. the worship of ghosts a more congoes. The mischievous spirits are Tamate. which so commonly attend hallucinations among the civilised. This is a nunuai with which I am familiar. and there is no sacrificial fire. to our theory. prayer only invokes 'In the western islands the offerings the dead (p. A revived impression of sense is nunuai. with the higher culture.L x. half asleep at night.SAVAGE SUPREME BEINGS 199 money. for they do not appear to believe that the soul goes out from the dreamer. ever. and consumed by fire .^ This is rather the reverse of what we should expect. ghosts do not appear to have prayers or sacrifices offered to them. 313. a tired fisher. that never were ghosts. or presents itself as an object in his dreams. Vui. does not appear to proceed from their dreams or visions in which deceased or absent persons are presented to them. Mana is the uncanny. 294. is X. goes with the lower material culture. * Codrington. Vui). There is a behef in mana (magical rapport). Codrington cannot determine the connection of this behef with that in spirits.^ The belief in the soul. 285). howas ' when * draw of * ' ' .^ common ghost is a bag of nunuai. or beings. 122. take the rdle of salmon. in the eastern (Banks) isles they are made to spirits (beings.* Ghosts are only seen as spiritual lights. without form or substance. and automatically strikes.' but cause disease. According. Animism and ghost-worship may be of later development. the unknown. and work magic. cit. and belong to a higher level of than worship of a being. * * * ' P. Melanesia.' Now. Flying it fish. feels the The a salmon.' * To myself it rather looks as if all impressions had culture. Dr. . Except in the prayers to Qat and Marawa. In Leper's Isle. X. Op. are made to ghosts. 281. p. the worship of nonsiderable advance in the arts of life ghosts. in these isles. in Banks Island.

' are not Gods. called mana. X. if we can apply the term to him. J. of days or end of years and even to death. His represents him as a serpent. that the soul is the complex of all of these nunuai that there is in the universe a kind of magical ether.200 THE MAKING OF RELIGION their numiai. Kalou ijalo. So neglected is he that a song exists about his lack of worshippers and gifts. his ghost. real. and material objects. 300. * Williams's Fiji. after-images .' ' says Ndengei. or Degei. resembles the it others in drawing an impassable line between ghosts and The word Kalou is applied to all supernal eternal gods. On a higher level of material culture than the Melanesians are the Fijians. a body of stone with a serpent's head.A. by different men. emblem of eternity. if we take it as given in our knowledge. bodiless. See Mr.^ is ' are eternal. retains its old. and mystic or magical things alike. without beginning the latter are subject to infirmity The Supreme Being. p. to loakan in North America.I. myth or • We ' made men. as when Perrault says. . but all things that are Kalou fee. But the lesson of Melanesia teaches us how very little we really know of the religion of low races. Ndengei. as far as we understand. while ignoring the rest. allow for our ignorance. Thomson's remarks cited later. answer to mana in New Zealand and Melanesia. now the key was All Gods are Kalou. about Bluebeard's key. who seems to be an impersonation of the abstract idea of eternal existence. and are not content to select facts which suit our hypothesis. . and that the atai or ataro of a man dead. how complex it is. persistent. possessed. It seems to beings. His one manifestation is given by eating. Vui. Fijian religion. 218. and to fee in old French. and acquires new mana} It is an odd kind of metaphysic to find among very backward and isolated savages. placed them on earth. Gods are Kalou vu deified ghosts are * . The former .' This idea is not easily developed out of the conception of a human soul which has died into a ghost and may die again. tamate. in different proportions. how hardly can be forced into our theories.

There is a Hades as fantastic as that in the Egyptian 'Book of the Dead. ' » Fiji. . One is not quite clear as to whether Ndengei is an inspiring god or not. stones. possess. 30. 217. probably by inspiration. p. A Mikado of genius asserted himself hence arose modern Japan. as we shall show. impotent potentate. J. Tylor. My own mind departs from me. when it is truly gone. In the same way. was done by the Mikado of Japan. mediating deities. an Eternal Creator. xiv.SAVAGE SUPREME BEINGS • 201 and yet they share to us only the under shell. and reduced to a jest.^ He sends rain on earth. and then. Power was wielded by the Tycoon.A. secular sphere. There are scenes of license particulars of almost incredible indecency have been privately forwarded to Dr. or inspired. p. p.' Here is an extreme case of the self -existent creative Eternal.''* Suppose a religious reformer were to arise in one of the many savage tribes who. but that prayers are made to him is inconsistent with the ' A priest is represented as speaking for Ndengei. The Mikado was a political Dendid or Ndengei— an awful. Mr. in earlier days.' and second sight flourishes.' is the account of this 'alternating personality given by a priest. 228.' mythical warriors and adulterers. like the popular deities of Greece. mythically lodged in a serpent's body. if we reject the hypothesis that this is an old. with The other unborn immortals are scarcely a temple. a religious reformer like belief in his eternal inaction. ' ' * . by spirits and gods.^ After informing us that Ndengei is starved. men. and appear to be directed at propitiatory ghosts rather than at Ndengei. Yet Ndengei receives prayers through two sons of his. Williams next tells about offerings to him. . fallen form of faith. The mysteries include the sham raising of the dead. but He would do what. in the neglect. 230. Animals. withdrawn. The priests are possessed. my god speaks by me. It is not easy to see any explanation.I. may all be Kalou. 2 * lb. of hundreds of hogs. lb.

in certain cases. would have been worshipping a horde of little gods. Other peoples. or the idea of surviving ghosts came first into the minds of men. as we almost always find ghosts — among and a Supreme Being together.' Mr. But. which of the in belief the idea of an Eternal Being — or Beings. Mr. The king shall hae his ain Ndengei. jest. even the lowest. does not depend on. by the again. logically in no need of the ghost theory. everywhere explicitly contrasted with the But their foolish heart was darkened.' time that Greece and Home knew Israel. or the native sacred language. and falling more and more into the background elsewhere. had. it is an inference from the argument that an idea familiar to very low savage tribes. though still extant and traceable. might. Dendid. we must . and proclaim the primal Maker. Mtanga. the lowest savages. the ghost theory. be lost and forgotten altogether. we have no historical ground have no evidence is Where we for asserting that either is prior to the other. like the Australians. ' To take an example of half-forgotten deity. Had it not been for the Prophets. ' — two main elements It is impossible to prove. to the belief in the Maker. not conclude that no such belief exists. like Ndengei and Atahocan and Unkulunkulu. Moreover. The idea of primeval Eternal Beings. a good observer. if anywhere ghosts are found without gods. To make and to succeed in that effort was the differentia of Israel. Our knowledge confused and scanty often it is derived from men who do not know the native language. or require.303 THE MAKING OF RELIGION Khucn Ahtcn in Egypt would preach down minor gods. and even beasts and ghosts. as understood by savages. Im Thurn justly says : I . as we prove. Israel. has written on The Animism of the Indians of British Guiana. the germinal conception of a God assuredly not demonstrated to be derived from the ghost theory. ghosts and sacred beasts. is a The Old Testament the story of the prolonged effort to keep Jehovah in His supreme place. historically. where we find either. or have not been trusted with what the savage treasures as his secret. Im Thurn. while the Eternal would have become a mere name ' — perhaps.' ghost theory.

but not in the everlasting. and so forth. for instance as highest form of religion Mr. Animism. continued. xi.' * ' * — ' — ' ' 'But all.' The Guiana Indians believe in the is the case. by Mr. Tylor. and most worshipful. Im Thurn. all But — ' in higher spirits. Yao. words have been found in the languages of Guiana which have been supposed to be names of a Supreme Being.2 tenants of material bodies. xi. it is true that various all. a habit of reverence for and worship of spirits. however. . ought.A. 376. in a Highest Spirit . giving examples from his own knowledge of the difficulty with which Guiana Indians discern the hallucinations of dreams from the facts of waking life. the spirit latest evolved.' Mr. and. '' lb.L xi. keeping pace with the growth of these beliefs. ' lb.' * The Indians of Guiana know no god. that the Great Spirit almost certainly nothing of North American tribes is more than a figure of European origin. reflected and transmitted almost beyond recognition on the mirror of I conceive the Indian mind. ' But the reverse. from ghosts. Andamanese.SAVAGE SUPREME BEINGS 'The man who above possible is 203 Mr. Dorman. Fijians. a belief has arisen. 361-366.' That is not my opinion that the Ked Indians had their native Eternal. Im Thurn Tylor has taught him to see namely. like the Australians.' On this hypo- thesis. eventually. as of course. in the sense which those phrases bear in the language of the higher religions. Im Thurn uses spirit where we should say being.^ The belief in a Supreme Spirit is only attained in the Andamanese. He has also been persuaded. Dinkas. a Great Spirit. as will be shown later. Mr. 376. but very gradually. Im Thurn adopts the hypothesis that. xi. dilates on the dream origin of the ghost theory. ' : others has made this study it is not unfair to remark that naturally sees most distinctly that which Mr. usual. and.' Mr. * lb. to be the Highest Spirit. 374. existence of a man's They believe in no spirits which were not once ghost. God. Their waking hallucinations are also so vivid as to be taken for realities.' or nearly ' J.

decides that the beings thus designated were supposed ancestors who came into Guiana from some other country.204 THE MAKING OF EELIGION Being interpreted. Im Thurn's theory that Our Maker.I. Tylor says Savage Animism is almost devoid of that ethical element which to the educated modern mind is the very mainspring of ' * ' ' * : ^ ' practical religion. He falls naturally into his place with the other high gods of low savages. Cult.A. Im Thurn was able to give. Our Great Father.' Mr. This remark dropped out at a discussion of Mr. these Guiana names mean The Ancient One. Our Maker.' The Ancient of Days. ii. Im Thurn's paper. None of these in any way * involves the attributes of a god. Mr. 378. His evidence is all the better. But we need much more information on the subject than Mr.' ' Yet it keeps the Indians very strictly " J.' unwittingly offending the countless kept the Indians very their own rights and from offending . because he is a loyal follower of Mr. •' Ibid. Im Thurn casually observed (having said nothing about morals in alliance with Animism) ' ' : * ! The fear of visible strictly and invisible beings within against the rights of others. The Ancient One in Sky -land. Our Maker. Prim. 360. And Mr. hov^ever.' ^ Probably few who have followed the facts given here will agree with Mr. and clearly demonstrated that even a very low creed makes for righteousness. — Our Father. xi. do rather convey the sense of God to a European mind. . .' The Ancient One of the Heaven.' Our Father. Im Thurn. Tylor. Our Father in Sky-land.' is merely an idealised human ancestor. sometimes said to have been that entirely natural country (?) which is separated from Guiana by the ocean of the air. 382. .

however. idea of a god at When the familiar names for God. another explanation is conIf a people like the Andamanese. and practical reasons. ancestor-worship. as the newest evolved and infinitely the most practical form of cult.' and declines (till corrupted by the bad example of ancestral ghosts) to make himself useful to one man rather than to another. or Mungan-ngaur. The ' ancestral spirit. Ancient of Days. ^ However they work. or Mungan-ngaur later. for good or evil produces not only honesty. .SAVAGE SUPREME BEINGS within their others. the spirits Obviously there could be no Family God before there was the institu- tion of the Family. the Guiana spirits who have so much moral The belief in the power of charms influence. Australian tribes whom we have studied. to speak quite plainly. of the Africans. have not yet evolved the all. but a great amount of gentle ' dealing. or the ceivable. Mr. developed ancestor. occur in the Indian language. such as Maker. Im Thurn for the problem of religion in Guiana. It is plain that. Father.' says Livingstone. exert it by magical charms. or Baiame. The equal Father of all men cannot be squared.^ ' ' ' Conceivably. For these very intelligible. Im Thurn explains the neglected Being who bears Of course. simple. had such a conception as that of Puluga. and then. if the belief in a Mungan-ngaur came first in evolution. will not fit the facts. a priori. by the hypothesis. and the belief in a practicable bribable family ghost came second.worship with its propitiatory sacrifices and ceremonies. a Being with similar titles occurs where ancestors are not worshipped. can be squared the people in whom he takes a special interest for by family reasons.' In the Indians of Guiana we have an alleged case of a people still deep in the animistic or ghost-worshipping own Our own case. work for righteousness. as in Australia and the Andaman Islands. who. would gradually thrust the belief in a Puluga. the ghost-cult would inevitably crowd out the God-cult. the explanation suggested by Mr. when these titles as a remote deified ancestor. or Cagn into the shade.' 205 rights and from offending the rights of religion is rarely so successful.

useful for family purposes. repeat. worship and sacrifice going to the ancestral ghost. we These considerations. But. Im Thurn's description of the Guianese be correct.worship. . or a moral Creator not to be bribed. human nature in man. That explanation would fit the state of religion which Mr. savages who find themselves under the watchful eye of a moral deity whom they cannot square will desert him as soon as they have evolved a practicable ghost-god. because. Im Thurn has found. illogical. if the idea of a universal Father and Maker the Father and survival. then. assures us that the the Father. That god thrives best who is most suited to his environment. whom they can square. of course. fits them perfectly well. and therefore the most fashionable and potent of Guianese cults. Nor can the belief indicated in such names as Father and Maker be satisfactorily explained as a refinement of ancestor. in themselves. who already possess a throng of serviceable ghost-gods. Whether an easy-going. are not. No less manifestly. on the other hand.' and. nominis came it last in evolution.206 THE MAKING OF RELIGION of The name mere Maker would become a umhra. in British Guiana. Beyond all doubt. which. or the ghost theory. is better suited to an environment of not especially scrupulous savages. everything we know of human nature. however unpleasant to the devotees of Animism. or Ancient of Days came first What has here been said about the ghost-gods. or Maker. Whether a set of not particularly scrupulous savages will readily evolve a moral unbribable Creator. Precisely the reverse is said to be the case. rightly or wrongly. savages. ought to be the newest. any man can decide. nor contradictory of the theory of evolution. will not enthusiastically evolve a moral Being who despises gifts. when they have a serviceable family ghost-god eager to oblige. last. hungry ghost-god with a Hking for his family. ' ' ' . is a question as easily resolved. and There is a great deal of only cares for obedience. it occurs where ancestors are not worshipped. and of evolution. if Mr. as a refinement.

are worshipped. One native. and knovdng. Having now the Christian notion of a Divine Creator. Afterwards they [men] had power to change those things. or corn. ' Callaway. They took them away from Unkuliuikulu. ' Gods last).' while only ancestral spirits. with only a name surviving to attest a knowledge of a Father and Maker in Heaven) The Zulus are the applies equally well to the Zulus. Callaway's valuable collecFor that reason.' Animism supplanted Theism. 17. The truth is that both the anthropological theory (spirits first. the native may have inferred that worship (by Christians given to the Creator) was at some time transferred by the Zulus from Unkulunkulu to the Amatongo. put forward the very theory here proposed by us as an alternative to * that of Mr. these things were rain. Callaway. For it is not worship when people see things. great standing type of an animistic or ghost-worshipping race without a God. Bel. or food. the most eminent philosophical example must not reduce us into supposing ' that this text settles the question. Dr. or have they not yet evolved a God out of Animism ? The evidence.. that they might become " the Amatongos [might belong to the ancestral spirits]. and our theory (Supreme Being first. may have adapted his reply to what he had learned of Christian doctrine. But. collected by Dr. and say. the problem must be solved tions. is honest. Callaway collected great masses of Zulu answers to his inquiries. among others. ' made by Unkulunkulu . .SAVAGE SUPREME BEINGS 207 Indians of Guiana (namely. p. too. and it is plain that a respondent.. as " Yes.. oj Amazulu. though we have found an authentic Zulu text to suit our provisional theory. that they are now mere ghost and spirit worshippers. that the unworshipped Unkulunkulu is said to have made things. but confused. had they a God (on the Australian pattern) whom they have forgotten. Unkulunkulu (the idealised but despised First Ancestor) 'was not worshipped [by men]. Im Thurn. like the native theologian whom we have cited. Nothing could be more explicit. But. spirits next) can find warrant in Dr.

just because they are now such fervent ancestor-worshippers. hereditary kings.' There Unkulunkulu made the is great confusion of thought. Nor do the Zulus know how they * Th^e remained only that word about the have sinned. p.^ rather a moot question Dr.' says Dr.worship. 19. and a The King is above. 7iot where men have kings. 1. houses. early. the Fuegians. The Zulus hear of the heavenly King. Callaway. like Unkulunkulu. like their material culture. tradition.^ If not. ' * Op. but in a relatively late religion. villages. of a Maker of things who has ceased to exist occurs.208 THE MAKING OF RELIGION whole field of savage and barbaric cannot be settled by the ambiguous case of is * after a survey of the religion . made all things. a disciplined army. cit. have had a different original Unkulunkulu in ' * ^ and have altered it. he is an exception to the rule in Australia.' sinner by lightning. is mythical way. ' ' ' 3 Callaway. the use of iron. and savages in general.' which. agriculture. and so on. Op. Unkulunkulu The King above punishes sin. who broke off the beginning. like many other peoples. if at all. the notion of a dead Maker is late. who. Callaway. Andaman. .' says Dr.' Here may be dimly subordinate deiniurge. Unkulunkulu was prior to Death. . who are less advanced in culture than the Zulus. cit. p. not an early but a late development. represented as the First Man. then.' They are ancestorand believe that their worshippers. The idea. by parity of reasoning. cit. it the Zulus alone. which came among men in the usual "Whether Unkulunkulu still exists. p. not in a relatively primiOn the analogy tive. the First Man. agriculture. implies that there might have been other words which are now lost. heaven. 7. ' ' — ' ' We . then. is. cattle. is descried the ideas of a God. we say. striking the beneath. not It occurs where men have iron.' ^ * did a King which is above But he is not not hear of him first from white men. among the Bushmen. p. . first ancestor. was the Creator. 3.' But they may. Callaway thinks that he does not. The Zulu godless ancestor. : of pottery. Op. none of these things.

Unkulunkulu was understood. 20. with a special regard for their own families. too remote. Ah.'* (the chief being a living Zulu) they do not believe what they say. who is in heaven. 21. a hard task for a In process of time we have come to worship the Amadhlozi (spirits) only. where the First Man. Unkulunkulu is said to have been created by Utilexo. G7. and so got credit not When the heaven is said to be the Chief's really his due. the Creator. . When we were children Ukoto. it certainly seems as logical to conjecture that the Zulus had once such an idea of a Supreme Being as lower races entertain. P. who continually provided an excuse ' . ' . P. ' P .' the phrase is a mere hyperbolical compliment. are a highly practical military race. to point towards heaven.' A very old woman was most reluctant to speak of Unkulunkulu at last she said. which prefers intelligible serviceable ghosts. ' ' Callaway. though a monarchical race.' ' 209 unknown King reigns. Serviceable family spirits. of whom the ancients spoke. A Deity at all abstract was not to their liking. for a practical conquering race. by this patriarch. 122. said " The Lord is in heaven. pp. it is he in fact who is * . 49.' Then the old woman began to babble humorously of how the white men made all things. Utilexo was invisible. Pp." it was said They used to point to the Lord on high we did not hear his name.^ was the Lord who is above people used always. . .' All this attests a faint lingering shadow of a belief too ethereal. the Norsemen of the South. ^ * Pp. Unkulunkulu was visible. that we seek out for ourselves the Amadhlozi (spirits). have not yet developed a King-God out of the throng of spirits (Amatongo).SAVAGE SUPREME BEINGS heaven."'^ then. whose names and genealogies he We heard it said that the Creator of the world gave. 27.' ' : . so to speak.-^ On this examination of the evidence. to refer to immediate ancestors. and then nearly lost it as to say that Zulus. when I was growing up. because we know not what 'It is on that account. to say about Unkukmkuhi. that we may not always be thinking about Unkulunkulu. a very old Zulu. 26. The Zulus. 50. Again.

A developed races do not sacrifice is kill their flocks needed as a pretext. in the present generation of Zulus. To the gods of Andamanese. They are not to be got at by gifts or sacrifices. and thus the practical Amatongo are honoured.210 THE MAKING OF RELIGION were to their liking. while.' are bribable. supply an excuse for a good dinner. Australians. The less commonly for food. The Amatongo are to be got at. To the Supreme Being of most African peoples no sacrifice is offered. shall next see how this view. no sacrifice is offered. at all events. Unkulunkulu is a joke. There is no festivity in the worship of these Supreme Beings. the opposite of the anthropological theory. Bushmen. especially to other African races. and the Lord in Heaven is the shadow of a name. We ' . works when applied to other races. Clearly this does not point to the recent but to the remote development of the higher ideas. for a dinner of roast beef. no feasting. now superseded by ' ' ' spirit-worship.

universal benediction ?). the latest developed. He is called " Dendid " things. being all beneficence. besides the Zulus. and most to be He is the reverse. will show itself in leaving the Supreme Being alone. or neglect. a partly forgotten or neglected them? lively. that is.' He is omniall p2 . To take an example the Dinkas of the Upper Nile result of the ghost theory. the most powerful. The evil . while venal fetishes and spirits came in as a sacrifice) But if. That writer. so. as a result of the ghost theory. Oblivion. though rambling gives this very account of the Bantu races. while devoting sacrifice and ritual to fetishes and ghosts. are there examples. Bushmen. he is not addressed in prayer. and unprejudiced. of tribes higher in material culture who seem to have had such notions. observant. and Andamanese. as he needs no propitiation. : godless. can do no evil being feared.211 XIII MOBE SAVAGE SUPREME BEINGS ip many of the lowest savages known to us entertain ideas of a gians. propitiated. this should be done Being (who wants no is perfectly natural if the Supreme were the first evolved in thought. but. but to have Miss Kingsley. he ought to be the most fashionable object of worship.' says Sir Samuel Baker) pay a very theoretical kind of homage to the all-powerful Being. the Supreme Being came last in evolution. dwelling in ' (* heaven. not potent. Supreme Being such as we find among FueAustralians. whence he sees (great rain.

on the other hand. but it is not easy to see how the too beneficent Dendid could be evolved out of ghost-propitiation. Dizionario della lingua denka. this sopher they cultivate Vindependance du coeur. to modern Deists. and die. Rev. seem to have simply forgotten to be grateful to their Maker or have decided. 760. ' Citing for the . ! * At the beginning. And the Sun is born. chant. M. Spencer does not give the ideas of the Dinkas. and dies.' people.212 THE MAKING OF RELIGION sacrifices. des Deux Mondes. Macdonald in Africana. 74. a practical origin of all religions. that gratitude he does not want. Lejean says these peoples are so ! and utilitarian that missionary religion takes no hold on them. ii. and dies. when Dendid made all created the Sun. receives have a strange old chant : The Dinkas things. receives prayer and sacrifice. more to the credit of the clearness of their heads than the warmth of their hearts. being in matter strikingly unlike the Pawnees. Like the French philopractical ' . spirit. and priestly thought could scarcely influence the ancestors of the Dinkas. April 1862. and all the neighbouring peoples who hold the same beliefs. 2 » 1882. Waltz.^ He ! ' ! Eussegger compares the Dinkas. but popular Egyptian religion was not monotheistic. Mr. and returns no more It is like the lament of Moschus. of religion (beyond mere superstitions) has been declared to be the practice of an African people. MS. p. And Man is born.^ They are remote from Atheism and from cult Suggestions about an ancient Egyptian influence are made. the Eather the Dinkas. Mr. And the Stars are born. Spencer gives the example of natives of the southeastern district of Central Africa described by Mr. and comes again He created the Stars. and come again He created Man.' ^ The dead man becomes a ghost-god. Beltrame. Let us now take a case in which ancestor-worship. . is called a Mulungu (= great ' and no other form Lejean.

Mulungu.worship as the Source of the local religion. such old spirits may.'^ a grasping sophy.MORE SAVAGE SUPRE3IE BEINGS 213 ancestor or =sky ?). 681. or Mlungu. Thus. or the Darumulun of detects. though Mr.. dependent on the ghost theory. 66. Macdonald could not ascertain the secrets of his mysteries. used as a proper name. by the Wayao sometimes said to be the same as Mtanga. is said to be the great spirit. though Mr. Macdonald himself believes in ancestor. I go on to show that the Wayao have. but is himself kept a good deal beyond the scene of earthly affairs. it certainly points to a personal Being. a groat chief being better remembered . If it fell from the lips of civilised men instead of savages. used as a proper name. Spencer omits him. Duff . Yet analysis * ' Expressions of this kind among traditional. " Africana. is preferred above older spirits. have been revealed to a Darumulun. the mountain god is prayed to for rain higher gods were probably similar local gods in an older habitat of the Yao. Spencer's resume of Mr. . Macdonald) after a Being who is the totality of all individual existence. like is Where Mulungu * the gods of Epicurus. have a mountain top for home.. are left in uncertainty. and indicates (says Mr. just because Mr. He omits whatever Mr. of all men. in Australia. At other times he is a Being that possesses many powerful servants.' ' Ecclesiastical InslUutions.i Such is in the main Mr. Macdonald's report. however. if On this point we few Europeans. analogous to the Dendid of the Dinkas. Macdonald's report. which. a spirit formed by adding all the departed spirits This is a singular stretch of savage philotogether. now forgotten . in Australia. copious traces of such a Being. i. and partly dictated of the moment. Ahone. Macdonald says about a Being among the Yaos. msiniu. a Being who precisely answers to stripped (perhaps) of his ethical aspect.' Philosophy it the natives are partly by the big thoughts but a philosophy is. it would be regarded as philosophy. . or the Huron Mr.

' These ministers of his who do his pleasure are. making mountains and rivers. that Mtanga never was a man . and the Wayao. he was concerned in the first introduction of men into the world. in the world beyond the grave. creative.' whether for ethical reasons or not we are not informed. be ghosts of the dead at all nor can we properly call them spirits. Others say Here.' In the native hypothesis about creation " the people of Mulungu" play a very important part. For these reasons Epicurus and Lucretius make their gods otiosi. but whether it means sky (Salt) or whether it means 'ancestor' (Bleek).' He has a kind of evil * ' This Mulungu is ' * ' * .. but undefined..' Santos (1586) says they acknowledge a God who. or for philosophical reasons. unconcerned. it cannot be made to prove that Mulungu himself was originally envisaged as spirit. both in this world and the next.. either as half forgotten. with their universal collective spirit. ' ' * ' ' ' ' Africana. i. is now applied to spirits of ' individuals. He gets credit for .' For.. his voice is still audible.214 THE MAKING OF EELIGION This is. . in theology which interests us. The word Mulungu. spite of the potency which his supposed place as latest evolved out of the ghost-world should naturally give neglected. manifestly. a very chief. as is Mulungu himself. of course. in Wayao opinion. regarded as prior to the existing world. came first in evolution. He is associated with a year of plenty. however. undefined. is sophers. or Mtanga. that idea might then be applied to explaining the pre-existent creative powers.' They are beings. some hold. therefore. an Olympus left behind by the Yao in their wanderings. suppose that the idea of powerful beings. Mtanga is by some localised as the god of Mangochi. are no mean philo- him. Therefore they cannot. He is called intimately Mchimwene juene. precisely the feature in African The Supreme Being. measures retribution for the good or evil done in this. original. 67. represented as assigning to spirits their proper places.. and was followed by the ghost idea.

as Indra got dead chief is propitiated by human sacrifices. Macdonald ' ' : I find no trace of any gift to Mtanga. though associated with good crops. by Mtanga with rain. I do not know all your rela predecessor. i-he Satan of the creed. because we * God stayed longer with the people of (Mulungu). ' emancipated Yao. 71.* The thunder god. .' Europeans are cleverer than ' natives. yields the revealed them. . ' i. ^ Africana. Mr." He advice ."* are supposed to be inviolably concealed who often say that they would die if they to understand a religion if we do secret. Mr. Mpambe. really unknown to by a travelled and His mysteries are they were laughed at These rites by the initiated. A Soma. in Yao. and a selfish " person is called mwisichana. i. ' will not trouble himself about his great-great-grandfather he will present his offering to his own immediate father. that is. in fact. ' . 72.' ^ How not can its we pretend secret ? know That certainty of the ethical character of the Supreme Being. on the other hand. Njasi (lightning) is also a minister of the He is sent Supreme Being. the central secret lesson of religion ' is the lesson of unselfishness. 130. a child or subject of Mtanga. Chitowc. 3 tives you know them all invite them to feast with you. Mtanga or Mulungu receives any sacrifice or proThe chief addresses his own god ^ the chief pitiation.' I do not gather that. Macdonald says about the initiator (a grotesque figure) ' : — . and is said to give much good the lectures condemn selfishness. 68. is nihil indiga * ' .MORE SAVAGE SUPREME BEINGS *is 215 opposite. in Austraha. as among the Australian Kurnai.' ' All the offerings are supposed to point to some want of the spirit. delivers lectures. ' i. ' There could not be better evidence of the presence of the ethical element in the religious mysteries. . uninitiated. village A god is given beer to drink. : 7iostri. i gS. ^ Ibid.' an evil angel. Among the Yao.' Mtanga. but this being. saying.

while the foreground is held by the most recent ghosts. they are also of sleep of one family. but " God and beasts. Macdonald knows very little about the matter. and so on. . conceive that Mr. the Bora. is Mlungu." " God here.worship. and yet occupying the religious background. The other statement is apparently derived from existGod ing ancestor. i. we may expect this to be the behef but Mr. 279-301. — . I think.^ In spite of information confessedly defective. Spencer's theory. have a form of the usual myth of the origin of death. people who died became But God is prior to death.' God dwells on high. account of this being. a far cry from such a chief's ghost to the prehuman. and to have shown how he was developed out of ghosts which are forgotten in inverse I ratio to their distance from the actual generation. But the position of Mtanga raises one of these delicate and crucial questions which cannot » Africana. he ought to have given a full — . while a malevolent 'great one. . pointing to a Yao beUef in a primal being. I have ' : extracted from Mr. To prove Mr. angel-served Mtanga. Judging from the analogy of Eleusis.2i6 The making of religion It is not stated that Mtanga instituted or presides over the mysteries. Of ancestor worship and ghost worship. the Ked Indian initiations. maker not existent before men were of mountains and rivers liable to death which came late among them beneficent. was turned into a mountain. the place and place-name preserving the ghost's name and memory.' who disturbed the mysteries and slew the initiated. * ' ' ' ' * * death and sleep are one word. But it is. in a ghost of a chief attached to a mountain. Spencer would find a mid-point between a common ghost and Mtanga. ^ i\ - '. The legendary tales say all things in this world At first there were not were made by " God. we have abundant evidence. not propitiated by sacrifice (as far as the evidence goes) moral (if we may judge by the analogy of the mysteries). for the Yao (Mlungu).-'-e <r .' people. Spencer's chosen authority a mass of facts.

who died long ago. is he left unpropitiated.' * ' Looking at ancestral spirits first. Spencer's authority. as Chiuta. as greatest of divine beings. Mr. prior to death ? Is it not certain that such a being could be conceived of by men who had never dreamed of ghosts ? Is there any logical reason why Mtanga should not be regarded as originally on the same footing as Munganngaur. Here Offerings are made to them. why. spirits of the departed. God who is spirit. 1892. unless it be by moral discourses at the mysteries? As a much more advanced idea than that of a real father's ghost. prophets.' 'You can't put the plural. 'not spirits or fetish. or of animals. for practical or philosophical reasons ? On these problems light is thrown by a successor of Mr." say the natives.' and Mulungu. ' ' ' God the Sustainer.' Mulungu=God. has various names. as God is One. Dufi Macdonald. they also haunt thickets. and ' : make them rave and utter predictions. * ' . with sacrifice. and the chief directs the sacrifices of food.MORE SAVAGE SUPREME BEINGS 217 be solved by ignoring their existence. by what curious but uniform freak of savage logic is he ' regarded as prior to men. and though a ghost.' Though abiding in the spirit world. . God in space and the rainbow sign across Mpambe. ' they inspire Mlauli. Very Chief. fresher in conception. There are religious pilgrimages. he ought to be much later in evolution. if so. is a prayer Watch over me. we find Mzimu. ' ' ' Edinburgh. Mlezi. in the This gentleman. to mountains. and. God. and more adored.' There are little hut-temples. David Blantyre Mission. God Almighty (or rather pre-excellent ') . my ancestor. Hovi^ do we explain his lack of adoration ? Was he originally envisaged as a ghost at all. Is Mtanga evolved out of an ancestral ghost ? If so.' and having pow^erful ministers under him. but now half forgotten and neglected. tell the great spirit at the head of my race from whom my mother came. has published A Cyclopajdic Dictionary of the Mang'anja Language in British Central Africa. Clement Scott. like men in this region. supposed to come in dreams. the Rev.

after all. or not ? Mr. thus importing his theory into his facts. in any case. but he is trying to argue that. and spirits are spirits of who have died.' and dreams go by contraries. an element not observed by Mr. something which exactly call Monotheism. Our author says when the chief or people sacrifice it is to God. if sacrifice is not offered to the Creator. or hill-dwelling yet. Scott. we discover. as Creative God. he avers that the He appears to be confusing the Creator with spirits.' the world and man. They inter' • pret dreams by a system of symbols. these savages have words for dreams and dreaming. Scott gives no instance of this. and his article on Mulungu does not much enlighten us. ' ghosts of chiefs. a canoe is ill luck. and no reliance can be At the back of all placed on this part of his evidence. where ancespeople ' ' : ^ tors.218 ' THE MAKING OF RELIGION There are no idols called gods. be in a better way. receive sacrifice. really. His theory would. Macdonald shows that. It is plain. Macdonald says nothing of sacrifice to Mtanga. but this had not occurred to Mr. under Nsembe (sacrifice). the theistic conception is at the back of the animistic practice. under Mulungu. Among tho branches where foreign influence is least to be suspected. Scott does not seem to know more about the Mysteries than Mr.' .' Idols are Zitimzi-zitunzi. God made Spirits are supposed to be with Mulungu. Mr. Spencer's opinion. this (sacrifice to spirits) there is God. Nobody who has followed the examples already adduced will be amazed by what Waitz calls the surprising result of recent inquiries among the great negro race. behind their more con' ' ' ' we cannot ' spicuous fetishisms and superstitions. are offered food . that the religion of the Africans in the Blantyre region has an element not easily to be derived from ancestral spirit-worship. chiefs and people do sacrifice to God. Macdonald. contrary to Mr. Scott. There is some confusion of ideas here Mr. Does Mulungu. sacrifices are really made only to spirits. yet which tends in Incidentally Mr. as we have seen. Spencer.' but he also says that they sacrifice to ancestral spirits.' If I understand Mr. not gods.

Waitz und Gerland. By a deeper insight. Wuttke. and of the absence among them ' of ancestor worship. But this opinion can be held to be quite true only while we look at the outside of the negro's religion.MORE SAVAGE SUPREME BEINGS that direction. the surprising conclusion that several of the negro races on whom we cannot as yet prove. Supreme Being as the Creator and do not honour him with sacrifice. In 1874 . — — ' * — — This conclusion as to an element of pure faith in negro religion would not have surprised Waitz. ii. so far that. Anthropologic. seeing that their religion is also mixed with a great mass of rude superstition which. that apart from the extravagant and fantastic traits. Anthropologie. as is specially the case with Ad. seems to overrun completely the purer religious conceptions. and can hardly conjecture. In 1872 he had become well aware of the belief in a good Maker among the Australian natives. It would ' from a minute examination of it. even if we do not call them monotheists. in turn. which of late several scientific investigators have succeeded in attaining. we reach.' : 219 Waitz quotes Wilson for the fact that. and which radiate therefrom over all his creations in comparison with the religions of other savages it is neither very specially differentiated nor very specially crude in form. 167. among other peoples. The remarks of Waitz may be cited in full their fetishism apart. This volume of his book was composed in 1860.^ vi. which are rooted in the character of the negro. * Waitz. the influence of a more civilised people in the embodying of their religious conceptions are further advanced than almost all other savages. we may still think of them as standing on the boundary of monotheism. had recent evidence as to the same creed among lower savages lain before him as he worked. they adore a : The religion of the negro may be considered by some as a particularly rude form of polytheism and may be branded with the special name of fetishism. rather.' follow. 796-799 and 809. or estimate its significance from arbitrary pre-suppositions.

' by the use of narcotics. 392. the being has allowed the world to come under the control of evil spirits. Grossly wicked people are buried outside of ' ' ' names of the being are translated Maker. Mr. witnesses covenants and punishes perjury. alone.220 THE MAKING OF RELIGION Waltz's remarks on the Supreme Being of the Negro are well worth noting. logenie in ihuen. and Wilson thinks that mediums might pick up some good tricks in Guinea. Howitt's evidence on the moral element in the mysteries was not pubWaitz scouts the idea that the higher Australian beliefs are of Wir sehen vielmehr uralte Triimmer ahnlicher MythoEuropean origin. The South Guinea Creator. He gives no examples. ' has a good deputy. ' ' Mbuiri The priests.' (vi. ^ force. ' - . Ombwiri by Miss Kingsley) he alone has no He spirit?).' the regular place. Any ambia (=good is good. : After commenting on what a savage religion The belief in one great Supreme Being. 209.' 'Benefactor. and is invoked to punish criminals when ordeal water is to be drunk. yet the chief being (as in Homer) ratifies the Oath. Fetishism prevails. but capricious. receive religious worship. > Wilson.' Having no information about the mysteries. So far. as ghosts do. all things. neighbouring No details are given. but their Supreme Being is not said to receive sacrifice. Wilson. p. the delicate task of finding out really who he writes made and upholds ' is. like Unkulunkulu. from his unconcealed astonishment at the discovery. 798) flotsam from ideas of immemorial antiquity.' ' ' The Preserver. lished. that. while he is so far from being powerless. This people are ancestorworshippers. This great being. Shekuni have mysteries of the Great Spirit. Their inspired men do things 'that cannot be accounted for. p. but for fear of his their national treaties would have little or no wrath. is ' universal. he has an ethical influence. Though he leaves things uncontrolled. Wilson's observations on North and South Guinea religion were published in 1856. but communicates directly with men. then.' Though compact of all good qualities.' who. of course. Mwetyi. we know nothing of other moral influences which (spelled .' 'Great Friend. at a treaty. with spiritualism.

* . it would be more plausible to say that Mahomet borrowed Allah from the widespread belief which we are studying. who visited Africa in 1805. who is not satirising. in endless prayers. He did not hurry through the land with a large armed force. and not wholly otiose beings. ' . Thus. as there are many subordinate spirits who may be influenced by 'magical ceremonies.' This cannot strictly be called monotheism. or almost alone. Indeed. than that the negro's Supreme Being was borrowed from Allah.' The new moon prayers are mere matters of tradition our fathers did it before us. ranks and conditions upon the subject of their faith. it exists nowhere no. without the smallest shadow says. powerful.' says Park. Park thinks it remarkable that the Almighty only receives prayers at the new moon (of sacrifice to the Almighty he says nothing). The celebrated traveller. of doubt. that the belief in one God and in a future state of reward and punishment is entire and universal among them. the prayers of Presbyterians at home on Yarrow.MORE SAVAGE SUPREME BEINGS are. while inferior spirits are constrained by magic or propitiated with food. Allah being addressed. while the African god receives none. he is of so exalted a nature that it is idle to imagine the feeble supplications of wretched mortals can reverse the decrees and change the ' ' — ' ' * purpose of unerring Wisdom. had good opportunities of understanding the natives. or 221 may be. the African Supreme Being is unpropitiated.' he and can pronounce. paid his I have conversed with all way with his brass buttons. of course. or rehgious regard paid to One Spirit alone. in Swift's manner. We meet our old problem: How has this God. developed out of these hungry ghosts ? The influence of Islam can scarcely be suspected. in the conception of whom there is so much philosophy. but alone. exercised by these great. Mungo Park. not in Islam.' Such is the bhndness of unassisted nature. being the creator and preserver of all things. and that.' But if monotheism means belief in One Spirit alone.

and. Park himself. now arrive at a theory of the Supreme Being among a certain African race which would be entirely fatal to my whole hypothesis on this topic.' borrowed from We ' Em'opeans. and if it could be stretched so as to apply to the Australians.' ^ 'But it is . The theory is very lucidly set forth in Major Ellis's ^ * Major Tshi-speaking Peoples of the Gold Coast. " Mo o mo inta alio " (" No man knows anything about it "). but endeavour to shorten the discussion by saying. and is the less likely to have invented it. reflecting that the Creator of so frail a thing could not be indifferent to any of His creatures. they express themselves with great reverence. of course.222 THE MAKING OF RELIGION Park had. unsystematic polytheism.' nature being peopled by inimical powers or spirits. Andamanese. and to solicit a continuation of his favour during the new one. Fuegians. ^ London. and almost in chanced to observe the delicate beauty of a small despair. in particular. as we saw. and is at variance with the general tendency of the religious philosophy as described. that the original form of all religion is a raw. was reported ' to Park. 245. 275. 274. and other very backward peoples. 1887. may prove Islamite influence.' This. . 1815. ^ p. and * ' — ' ' Park's Journey.' Ellis's opinion coincides with that of Waitz in his Introduction to Anthropology (an opinion to which Waitz does not seem bigoted) namely. many opportunities of familiar discussion with the people on whose mercies he threw himself. i. The new moon prayer.^ He was not of the negro philosophy.' to thanks to God for his kindness during the contain existence of the past moon. if it could be demonstrated correct in fact. 'by many different people. in extreme distress. concerning their ideas of a future state. It is the hypothesis that the Supreme Being is a loan-god. plucked up courage and reached safety. moss-plant. said in a whisper. not often that the negroes make their when religious opinions the subject of conversation interrogated.

be infinitely the least Nevertheless. are mere specks in a vast tract of impenetrable The coast people have for centuries been in touch forest. be welcome. be the result of European influence. and shall give. With people in the condition in which the natives of the Gold Coast now are. . many local or personal.MORE SAVAGE SUPREME BEINGS 223 everyone worshipping what he thinks most dangerous or most serviceable. * ' We Major Ellis explains their Supreme A priori this European influence That a belief should sweep appears highly improbable. Unfortunately. Supreme Beings kept jealously apart from European ken. by parity of reason. in small villages (except Coomassie and The mere Djuabin). mention of Coomassie shows how vastly superior in civilisation the Tshis (Ashantis and Fantis) are to the naked. religion is not in any way allied ' » Ellis. though the most recent. '^ P.' with Europeans. houseless Australians. both socially and morally. There are few general. Major Ellis gives no evidence for his statements about the past history of Tshi Authorities he must have. and references would religion. guess what the original form of ' . Being as the result of ! powerful. must also. among peoples much lower in material culture than the Tshi races.' ^ observation of the Tshi race. objects of veneration. 20. cannot be regarded as a plausible hypothesis. however. abundant been evidence for the existence of a loftier faith than this. over all these specks in impenetrable forest. as they were at the time of the Portuguese discovery. from the coast-tribes in contact with Europeans. 4. but the Tshi-speaking races are now much in the same condition. Moreover. Their inland communities. the forests of the Gold Coast. 21. on Major Ellis's theory the Supreme Beings of races which but recently came for the first time in contact with Europeans.' this Major his Ellis only met by passage when he had formed own ' ideas do not pretend to all religion may have but we have given. who have metals and an organised priesthood. and that this belief should. pp. and revered in the secrecy of ancient mysteries. They occupy.

' Thus. Major Ellis also shows that the Gods exact chastity from aspirants to the priesthood. or sea. 3. represent the original material condition of society. were ' appointed by the first class. Deities of families or corporations. Tutelary deities of individuals. if religion began in a form relatively pure and moral. and gold. according to the natives. Obviously. 120. On the Gold Coast men can only approach gods through priests. hill.2 The present beliefs of the Gold Coast are kept up with moral We have that among much more backward ' ' * ' Where by organised priesthoods as lucrative business. it must degenerate. any more than those people with cities. was precisely the From these lucrative complaint of the Eeformers. — ' Ellis. under priests who exploit the lucrative. this kind of business cannot be done. a king. then. Major Ellis discriminates Tshi gods as 1. 15. and can see no money in the pure elements of belief and practice. we cannot accept these relatively advanced Fantis and Ashantis as representing the original state of ethics and religion. . like the Tshi races. as among more backward races. 126. p. expect to find the 'original state of religion among a people subdued to a money-grubbing Let religion begin as priesthood. The second class. who are too distant or indifferent to interfere ordinarily in human affairs. And priests are developed relatively late.224 THE MAKING OF RELIGION ideas. General. and a similar freedom marks the religion of Australia or of the Pawnees. 4. ' ' This is We ' it would be corrupted by priestly trafficking in its lucrative animistic aspect.' ^ given abundant evidence tribes morals rest on a If this be not so on the Gold Coast religious sanction. * p. a priesthood. to the neglect of ethics. forest.' there is no lucre and no priesthood. Local deities of river. pure as snow. That the lucrative elements in Christianity were exploited by the clergy. as civilisation advances. 2. ^ p. elements the creed of the Apostles was free.* ' ^ degeneration. iron. 10. ' P. cannot possibly. worshipped by an entire tribe or more tribes.

from Europeans. are clearly the product of priesthood Major Ellis then avers that when Europeans reached the Gold Coast. Bobowissi. appear to have animistic competition. were raised to class I. as if to the peerage. was prior to. Bobowissi makes thunder and rain. Ahone. and adapted under a new designation.MORE SAVAGE SUPREME BEING S L>25 He is all the Huron god. while classes III. men then selected their own fetishes. over a vast tract of country. rV. after an intercourse of some years with Europeans. 25. but has a deputy god. class I. Major Ellis argues that the revolution from amateur to priestly selection of fetishes could not occur in 190 years. ' (This is conjectural. and a Southern God. Major Ellis thinks that malignant spirits of class II.' Though. has to contrast Bosman's account of fetishism (1700) with his own observations.' Yet Major Ellis's theory is that this isolated people were influenced by a higher race. in the fifteenth century. sweetness and light. sky.. This was the God of the Christians. 24. hood has extended its field of business. On our hypothesis this indifference of high gods suggests the crowding out of the great disinterested God by venal All of class II. ^ — and where we hnoiv they have been uninfluenced by any higher race. whom they termed Nana Nyankupon. where there is but little opportunity for the exchange of ideas. to the extent of adopting a totally new Supreme Being. human sacrifices. and appointed class II. Q . lives on a hill. Tando. in the midst of pathless forests. But. in native belief.'") Nyankum=iam. a being » Ellis. These are now selected Bosman's authority was wrong or priestby priests.' the villagers near European forts added to their system a new deity. been originally malignant.' a later meaning. borrowed from them. and receives. later. called Okeus. meaning ' ' ' ' ' — ' ' ' ' Lord of the Nyansa has ' ' Now Major Ellis. or received. punishes nobody. amongst peoples living in semiisolated communities. pp. and therefore late. they appear to have found a Northern God. " craft. According to Bosman's native source of information. still adored.

or even less. In any case we ask for evidence how. Anyambi. and governs of Nyankupon. Yet Nyankupon is are adding new lower gods every day Nyanuniversally known. and passed apparently from negroes to Bantu all over West Africa.. are the lucrative element in religion. as described by Major the more remarkable. left wholly unpropitiated ? to be expected. animals. or money in the concern. Nyam. 189. Almost certainly the addition of Major Ellis writes one more to an already numerous family of gods. Anzam. and who was no practical use.' ' ^ Nyankupon was. Nzambi.' Major Ellis's logic does not appear to be consistent. I presume = Anzambi.' later than they discovered the bloodstained. And this they did. kupon. ' Miss Kingsley. p. the creator of man.' among Major tribes ' uninfluenced by any higher class is I.' ^ The crowd of spirits take only too much interest . or ritual. conspicuous. therefore. 442.^ he truly good. . in spite of priestly resistance. and. not under priestly influence. he says. the Nzam of the Fans. The reverse was of strangers. ^ it is ' alleged.' did a new Supreme Deity become universally known ? Are we certain that travellers (unquoted) did not discover a deity with no priests. despite the isolation of the groups. is ' The spread incognita to Europeans. p. the country was a terra Ellis. and of all ' ' ' : ' * ! * Bantu coast races. p. and the earth he takes no further interest in the affair. It is not very easy to believe that Nyam. confessedly. 229.226 THE MAKING OF EELIGION whom of they in no way sought to propitiate. Ellis. 25. names. since five or six miles from the sea. and the resistance of the priesthood race. but in the face of priestly opposition. Ellis. in the impenetrable forests. Nyam. lb.' who. was picked up from the Portuguese. like Ellis's : appoints a sub- ordinate god to do his work the malevolent spirits. was strenuously resisted by the priesthood. Nyambi. p. plants. lucrative Bobowissi ? Why was the supposed new god of a new powerful set Nyankupon. under all his .

.MORE SAVAGE SUPREME BEING3 * 227 adopted. It is clear that Major Ellis is endeavouring to explain. a new Supreme Being A quarter of a continent or so adopts a new foreign god. p. Only his name and the idea of his nature are universally diffused in West African belief. It is well worth while to have a presiding genius. of course. the borrowing of a God from Europeans). ' ' ' ' priests and offerings. The Tshi people took neither effigy nor name of a deity from the Portuguese settled among them. No priest would have a traditional way of serving him.' Then. a phenomenon of very wide distribution. Nyankupon received no sacrifice. 27. They neither imitated Catholic rites nor adapted their own they prayed not. Nyankupon would receive the best most powerful deity ? Far from that. He therefore came to be thought too remote. and leaves him plants Id unserved. by a singular solution (namely. ' Op. and had no priests. and unsung. the Fuegians picked up from a casual Spanish sea-captain and adored an image of Cristo. As the unlucky man in Voltaire says to his guardian angel. Q2 . as the * ' ' ! . but in Nyankupon's country. A useful thing. unhonoured. and that a solution improbable and inadequate. Nyankupon cannot be explained apart from Taaroa. to interfere directly in the affairs of the world.' ^ But that was just what they had not done Even at Magellan's Straits.' so the Tshis and Bantu might ironically remark. because our superiority proved Europeans to be protected by a deity of greater power than any of those to which they themselves ' (the Tshi ' races) offered sacrifices. at the present day.' while Bobowissi has ! . is ignored rather than worshipped. Name and effigy they accepted. of the whites. or too indifferent. ' * . He lives in no definite home.' Nyankupon. .' This idea was probably caused by the fact that the natives had not experienced any material improvement in their condition although they also had become followers of the god sacrifices of all. or hill. cit. nor sacrificed to the new Nyankupon.

except devil-worship. be regarded as of European origin. In all missionary accounts of savage religion. Gods to be later described. is thus stated by a tangle of polytheism as If so. in the religious ideas of the Fiorts.228 THE MAKING OF RELIGION Puluga.* . p. p.' room for the natural development of Nyankupon. and Ta-li-y-Tooboo. more or less or altogether stripped. even now. in whom 'the missionaries find a ^ On our theory parallel to the Jahveh of the Jews. there was not much Miss Kingsley ' : I have no hesitation in saying I fully believe Nzambi Mpungu to be a purely native god.' Nyankupon takes his place in the regular process of the corruption of theism by animism. but the study of him is even more difficult than the study of Nzambi. of his ethical influence. Consequently semi-mythical traces of Jesuit teaching linger. September 1897. ' Nzambi Mpungu lives * behind the firmament. p. the Creator among the Fiorts (a Bantu stock). Ahone. 29. under advancing conditions of culture. whose business is lucrative. and crowded out by the horde of useful greedy ghosts or ghost gods. because the Jesuit missionaries who gained so great an influence over the Fiorts in the sixteenth century identified him with Jehovah. The parallel case of Nzambi Mpungu. of these represent the primeval Supreme Being. Ndengei. Nyankupon has no pretensions to be.' National Review. by any stretch All of probabilities. or to have been a * ^ Major spirit. and that he is a great god over all things. Dendid. African Religion and Law. 132. cit. * He ' Ellis. • ' Op. 28.' 3 takes next to no interest in human affairs which is not a Jesuit idea of God. * . who cannot. and worked on the native mind from that stand-point.' Ellis's theory is a natural result of ' his belief in the original state of rehgion. which makes the observer deny any religion to the native The other is the bias which race. we have One is the bias to guard against two kinds of bias.

Again. be regarded as the result of contact with Europeans. by any latitude of conjecture.MORE SAVAGE SUPliEME BEINGS leads 229 him : tradition. the savages. that Anthropology must ignore them.' relatively pure creative beings. Strachey in Virginia cannot. Yet he almost exactly answers to the African Nyankupon. without sacrifice. missionaries' Hurons and Bakwain. or merely neglected. on the other side. nomenon to look for traces of a pure primitive religious Yet we cannot but observe this reciprocal phemissionaries often find a native name and idea which answer so nearly to their conception of God that they adopt the idea and the name. is so widely is explained away as a * diffused. or ' or give up her theory 1 for them as loan-gods ' — account . travels. as do the for what has always been familiar This is recorded in very early pre-missionary to them. in teaching. recognise it. when first they hear the account of God. to which we now turn. who For the belief in loan-god. as in the book of William Strachey on Virginia The God found by (1612). whether they are morally adored.

TLRA-WA.280 THE 3\IAKING OF RELIGION XIV AHONE. while the Blackfeet present a Creator who is not envisaged as a spirit at all. NA-PL PACEACAUAO. our Supreme Being. and Historie of Travaile into Virginia. while that Creator corresponds very well with the Peruvian Pachacamac. Virginia was the * permanently colonised by Englishmen in 1607. on our theory. and end with Pachacamac. and. that the natives had already adopted suggested. the supreme being of the old Inca civilisation. The Pawnees will show us a Creator involved in a sacrificial ritual. from the earliest years . case. especially as Strachey says that the Strachey. his deity. To continue the argument from analogy against Major Ellis's theory of the European origin of Nyan- kupon. which is not common. with Tui Laga and Taa-roa. It will be seen that the Hurons have been accidentally deprived of their benevolent Creator by a examining. TAA-BOA In this chapter it is my object to set certain American Creators beside the African beings whom we have been AVe shall range from Hurons to Pawnees and Blackfeet.' by William Gent. seems desirable first to produce a parallel to and to that of his blood-stained subordinate Bobowissi. first Secretary of the Colony. TUI LAGA. then. bibliographical accident. often regarded as a mere philosophical abstraction. dates It will hardly be (1612-1616). from a quarter where European init fluence first is absolutely out of the question.. represents a very early stage of the theistic conception.

punisheth them. like Bobovidssi. Powhattan. for unto them. under chiefs. . punish.' As if. that Mr. without idol. pp. they calling requires The good and peaceable God nor needs to be sacrificed unto. See Preface to this edition for corrected statement. Cult.AMERICAN CREATORS 231 native priests strenuously opposed the Christian God. he intendeth all good . one of whom. (sic) no such dutyes. and settled population. 39 Prim. . Such is the misery and thraldome under which Sathan hath bound these wretched miscreants. 'whilst the great God (the priests tell them) who governes all the world. . 'looking into all men's accions. Tylor did not find in Smith what follows in Strachey. the use of Smith's book (1632) instead of Strachey's book (1612). temple. creatyng the moone and ' books. or Okeus. Satan does not .' all black dressed. Strachey's and Smith's. Strachey's own creed. beside which was their Okeus. He is propitiated by sacrifices of their own children ' * ' (probably an error) and of strangers. Ahone. we find that the untutored Virginian is equipped with a merciful Creator. ii. and makes the sun to shine.' Mr. on the contrary. the offences of men against God Here.' are here slightly after censuring Smith's (and Strachey's) hasty theory that Okeus is no other than a devil. in addition to a devil (or rather a divine police magistrate). varying copies of one original. was a kind of Bretwalda. then. in Mr. xiii. or sacrifice. But. and examining the same according to the severe scheme of justice. 13. The temples contained the dried bodies of the iveroances. in hell.^ ' * In Pinkerton. or aristocracy. and general fetishism and nature worship. or Oki. 342.' Okeus.' Mr. agricultural. * with his idol and bloody ' rites. Strachey found a house-inhabiting. who doth them all the harm they suffer. from Smith's ' History of Virginia (1632). . an image ill favouredly carved. . Tylor quotes a description of this Oki. Okeus has human sacrifices. Tylor is unaware of these essential ! facts. The two Starrs his companyons . as needing nought of ours It is by the merest accident.

by Strachey. like Mr. is that of a well-educated man. in the British Museum. and omits any mention of Ahone. was left out of the statement. Edmund in Smith (1632). dedicated to Bacon (Verulam). Major. by analogy. 47. for the Hakluyt Society. useless. but not I owe to the kindness of Mr. Strachey interwove some of this work with This his own MS. MS. or. useful This could not be understood while Ahone to priests. The passage on Ahone occurs in Strachey (1612). in Pinkerton. do not fit the anthropological theory. and is. p. if Ahone. Strachey's evidence is early (1612). Avas edited by Mr. Brinton. in Virginia or on the Gold Coast. yet calamities beset mankind. published in 1612. but by his lieutenant. inflicted. is more or less eclipsed in popular esteem by nascent polytheism and nature worship. * ' very fairly attested. fond of these airing his Greek. It is to be remarked that Strachey's Ahone is a much the Netv World. appeased by sacrifices. cites Smith for the nefarious or severe Okeus. not by Ahone. Strachey. beside a subordinate.^ Now. Tylor. How are these to be explained? Clearly as penalties for men's sins. while Okeus and the rest were of the usual greedy class of animistic corruptible deities. This is precisely what we should expect to find. our suspicion of Major Ellis's theory that the African Supreme Being is of European origin. a description of Virginia. like Nyankupon beside Bobowissi in Africa. with a The remarks on religion are glossary.232 THE MAKING OF RELIGION Dr. Strachey's narrative justifies.^ Probably Mr. ' Myths of There is ^ . offer to the Supreme Being. Strachey's story of sacrifice of children (pp.' In Virginia he found the unpropitiated loving Supreme Being. in 1849. the Creator. but how was the Supreme Being evolved out of the ghost of a people-devouring king like Powhattan ? The facts. of the native language. including Smith's remarks. in Chapter VII. which it would be impious. But that magistrate can be. 94. to It is a logical creed. at all events. Gosse photographs of the drawings accompanying the MS. and not prejudiced in favour of worshippers of Sathan. by W. God (Ahone) is omnipotent and good. The purpose in the ' Ahone-Okeus creed is clear. Each highest deity. were earlier in evolution. the benevolent Creator. Okeus. Ahone. 9-5) seems to refer to nothing worse than the initiation into the mysteries.

we might expect to find traces of Aztec ritual among the Pawnees. who practised the feat of walking unhurt The Tonkaways regard the Pawnees. at a date relatively remote.^ Meanwhile the Ahone-Okeus creed corresponds to the Nyankupon-Bobowissi creed. The Tonkaways are a tribe who.' who receives their souls into Paradise.' where they are. for a philological theory. How the god took the mythological form of a hare is good ' diversely explained. Their Creator is spoken of as a godly Hare. on very evidence. As illustrations of the general theory here presented. and the Pawnees driven into a Reservation.' in exactly the same way as were the Hirpi (wolf tribe) of ' . The corn was given to them originally by the Euler : through fire. . the deer and the buffalo. in a sacred mystery.^ also have a wolf If. the lands seized. who. are admonished to live like the wolves. The buffaloes have since been destroyed. as in Plato's myth. whence they are reborn on earth again. as a long-separated branch of their then. and are allied with the Lipans and Tonkaways of that region. ' See Brinton. - Compare The Fire Walk ' ' in Modern Mythologij. the fourth being the ' Skidi or WoK Pawnees. who race. so it is less likely that the African creed is borrowed. were dwelling on the Loup Fork in Nebraska. thirty years ago. The American faith is certainly not borrowed from Europe. They also regard the four winds as four Gods. from Mexico. tribe. They seem to have come into Kansas and Nebraska. Mount Soracte. They were originally known to Europeans in four hordes. Long after they obtained better weapons they used flint-headed arrows for slaying the only two beasts which it was lawful to sacrifice. Myths of the Ncio World. The first is that of the equestrian Pawnees. he attributes to the Indians of the Patowemeck Eiver.AMERICAN CREATORS less 233 mythological conception than that which. they are of Mexican origin. cheated and oppressed in the usual way. They have long been a hunting and also an agricultural people. we may now take two tribal religions among the North American Indians. or lately were.

Curiously enough. and. though less cruel. however. As is common. like Secret Pipe Chief. not to Ti-ra-wa. and it would be an interesting inquiry whether such fossils are always found where the story of a If so. but in the experience of men who have died and come back to life. These visions in a state of apparent death are not peculiar to savages. and are a very The priest 'held a relation to the prayerful people. the future life is attested.' Sacrifice to Ti-ra-wd was made on rare and solemn occasions out of his two chief gifts. based on liypuotism. deer and buffalo. was a rite paid to the Morning Star. as of a voice giving good advice in time of peril. not only by dreams. as in the Attic Bouphonia. The Pawnees were created by Ti-ra-wa.' Ghosts are rarely seen. the power above that moves the universe and controls all things.* They offer the sacrifice of a deer with pecuhar solemnity. This. the Skidi or Wolf Pawnees offered on rare occasions a The ceremony was not unHke that of the captive man. Augustine's curious anecdote in De Cura pro Mortuis The founder of the new Sioux liabenda about the dead and revived Curio. brought from the original home in Mexico. fossils must be universally sin-flood occurs. and there is an end of them. ' ' diffused. They believe in a happy future life. see ourselves living with Ti-ra-w4 evil earlier race. Through ' ' ' Compare St. but auditory hallucinations. the slayer of the captive had instantly to make a mock flight.234 THE MAKING OF RELIGION ' their god. who told the story to Mr. Grinnell. was destroyed by him in the Deluge evidence is found in large fossil bones. died ' ' . and recovered. religion. Ti-ra-wd. They cite their dreams of the dead as an argument for a life beyond An the tomb. have had much effect on beliefs about the next world. while the wicked die. The beasts are also friendly. Pawnees and their deity not unlike that occupied by Moses to Jehovah and the Israelites. as fellow To the Morning Star children with men of Ti-ra-wa. * We ' ! . Aztecs. the Spirit Father. are regarded as the * ' speech of ghosts.' A feature in ritual is the sacred bundles of unknown contents. which knew not Ti-ra-wa. no doubt.

deer.AI^rERICAN CTREATORS corn. though their hurts had refused to yield to the treatment of the United States Army Surgeons. but this is not certain. The . also an embodiment of the God. that. In the old Skidi while prayers were rite the told the fattened captive what they desired to gain It is occasionally said that the human The sacrificer sacrifice was made to Ti-ra-wd himself. as among the Aztecs.' as in Peru. and many American soldiers were healed by Pawnee doctors. 236 and the sacred bundles. . buffalo. Grinnell got the There was also a description from a very old Skidi. Corn is ritually called The Mother. festival of thanks to Ti-ra-wa for corn. Superintendent of the Pawnees. and we worship through the Corn. under the eyes of Major North. Mr. It is possible not only fled. for long the U. the victim was regarded as women from the Ruler. * Demeter. in whose ritual sacrifice is the only feature that suggests ghost-worship. But this was forty years ago.' This art places great power in the hands of the It is notable doctors. During a sacred dance and hymn the corn is held up to the Euler by a woman. far surpass what is told of Indian jugglery. Major North told me (Mr.S. ' Cf. that in this religion we hear nothing of ancestor.^ The miracles wrought by Pawnee medicine men. Ti-ra-wd' The flesh was burned in made with great earnestness. and it is probably too late to learn anything of these astounding performances of naked men on the hard floor of a lodge. the rite having long been disused. We find the cult of an all-powerful being. Mr. but fasted and mourned. Grinnell) that he saw with his own eyes the doctors make the corn grow. who exhibit many other prodigies. Major North. we worship the fire.' are like seed.worship all that is stated as to ghosts has been reported. but I have standing apart and singing. Grinnell says never found any one who could even suggest an explana' ' We * ' * ' * : tion. as in the Mango trick.' Disease is caused by evil spirits.' the doctor not manipulating the plant.

worship among the Sioux. . it is not easy to be certain. in which the ethical element chiefly consists in a sense of dependence on and touching gratitude to Ti-ra-wa. Blackfoot mythology is low. or placed beside him. Spirits of the dead have mercy on me. as shown in fervent Theft he abhors. and those of Major North. * father in all places. half-educated European. That is about the amount of an Indian's prayer. crude. when we compare Mr. religion." Then they will add what they want. . the good dwell with him in his heavenly home. As in China. Grinnell's account of Pawnee religion. to the mouth of the Yellowstone ' Schoolcraft. " Wah negh on she wan " da. substituted for him. based on his own observations. and Mr. he applauds valour.' It is not so easy to see out of ancestor. Grinnell's account of the Pawnee faith. and. of Our how this which we Being was developed find no traces among : For ancestor." which means. iii. the wicked by annihilation. Dunbar. or because the Blackfoot belief is in an earHer and more backward condition than that of the Pawnees. except in tales of Creation.' Obviously. than when we follow a contemptuous. who has written on the language of the tribe. the The Blackfoot country runs east from the summit of Bocky Mountains. among the Blackfeet the Sun or is prior to him in conception. he punishes prayer. ' . there is a tone between mythology and specific difference of Pawnees. The later.236 THE MAKING OF RELIGION popular tales and historical reminiscences of the last generation entirely bear out by their allusions Mr. As in Australia. is derisive. 237. there exists a difficulty in deciding whether the Supreme Being is identical with the great nature-god in China the Heaven. it is usual to quote a remark of one Prescott. or from decadence. an interpreter ' Sometimes an Indian will say.worship. The religion of the Blackfoot Indians appears to be a ruder form of the Pawnee faith. He is addressed as A-ti-us ta-kaw-a. Whether the differences arise from tribal character. or has been. we are on much safer ground.

and so on. monotonous kind of Sheol. The souls or shadows of respectable persons go to the bleak country called the Sand Hills. then west to the Yellowstone sources.' The top of my head seemed to lift up. Old Man Dr. It seemed as if a lot of needles were running into it. where they live in a dull. and its close resemblance to the tale of Orpheus. * .AMERICAN CREATORS river 237 on the Missouri. but Mr. 'Above Persons. Grinnell reckons . which conduct themselves much as in our old-fashioned ghost stories. range of this deeply touching story among the Eed Men. one of which he unhappily infringes. Go on. is pitied by the dead. across the Eocky Mountains to the Beaverhead. The Creator is Na-pi. especially ghosts of men They cause paralysis and madness. or at least tell stories of. There is the Cold Maker. Thunder is most important. is one of the most curious facts in mythology.' who was before Death came into the world. Animals receive the usual amount of friendly respect from the Blackfeet. The shades of the v^icked are and mischievous. A man grieving for his dead wife finds his way to Hades. * earth-bound ' slain in battle. under certain ritual The prohibitions. an Immortal Man. and is worshipped. Mr. concernit Blackfeet. *It is well. Brinton thinks he is a personification of Light. but dread interiors of lodges they only tap on the lodgeskins. The question of spirit or . the Wind.' Of the first.' As the wife also heard the Voice it was probably human. absurd to attribute so abstract a conception to the Na-pi is simply a primal Being. the Blackfeet believe in. They have also an inchoate polytheism. you are going right. and Under "Water Persons. Ground Persons. heard a Voice. when lost with his wife in a fog. . They haunt people in a rather sportive and irresponsible way. the Blackfeet have the Eurydice legend. Na-pi is not a spirit. a white figure on a white horse. ghosts. As to spirits. and allowed to carry the woman back with him.' Like many Indian tribes. This must have been a ghost. ' As envisaged here. ' . not hallucinatory. . Grinnell's friend Young Bear. thence to their summit.

Foelsche. but the folly of the woman introduced Death. so he removed it to the level prairie. The Sun is by many beheved to have taken the previous place of N^-pi in rehgion . or exposed on platforms. Nov. All things that he had made understood him when he spoke to them birds.. the non-spirit has not arisen. or perhaps Na-pi is the Sun. Then he went to other peoples. henceforth never to be entered by the living. and though great men were left to sleep in their lodges. on the lines of adaptation to environment. Fetishism probably shows itself in gifts to a great rock.238 THE MAKING OF RELIGION ' ing which one of the usual tales of the Origin of Death is told. . so he set — it on rocky places. However. Na-pi answers to Marrangarrah. He put the bighorn on the prairie. animals. The misfortunes of the Indians arise from .' He has a demiurge. has been offered to him. often shift the responsibility for evil from the Supreme Creator. apzid Dr. He made everything. There it was awkward. where it skipped about with ease. and taught the forest arts. there is no trace known to me of continued ancestor. entirely beneficent. 1894. gave fire. . when the prayer is for life. Chiefs were elective. The antelope fell on the rocks.' as in the With Na-pi. ancestral names are not likely to become those of gods. There is daily prayer. fellows. Na-pi created man and woman out of clay. Sun.A. . on to a subordinate deity. Women institute Medicine Lodges. and people. Dawed (Mr. charity. Creation worked first chapters of Genesis. Na-pi. He inculcated the duty of prayer his will should be done by emissaries in the shape of animals. .worship. for conduct. As many Blackfeet change their names yearly. as a Prometheus. he is still separately addressed in The Sun receives presents of furs and so forth a prayer. finger.I. p. courage. both to the Sun and to Ni-pi. Pity me. he made all living creatures. It is curious to observe how savage creeds J. and likes all black black fellows. disobedience to his laws. . 191). praying. * So far. and Though weapons and utensils were buried with the dead. ' . Stirling. except called Marrangarrah lives in the sky He never dies. A very good Man Creative Being of the Larrakeah tribe of Australians.

there seems to be nothing like ancestor ' ' worship. Totemists and worshippers of hills and streams.AMERICAN CREATORS You have ' 239 seen my life. 101. be regarded as fairly well authenticated examples of un-Christianised American religion among races on the borderland of agriculture and the chase. who has nothing of the spirit about him. were converted to Sun worship by the first Inca. was published in 1609. In Garcilasso' s theory the original people of Peru.' Let us now look at the Supreme Being of a civilised American people. . and clean -minded.' ^ This Being was Pachacamac. taken from the traditions of an uncle. We The creed seems to be a nascent polytheism. and his book. insonified Sun. especially as ghosts are not worshipped.' the Medical Lodge woman is in spiritual rapport with Na-pi and the Sun. and to the perAs Blackfoot ghosts are vaporous. at least. subordinate to Na-pi as supreme Maker. Blackfoot religion is an ethical influence.' Being 'virtuous in deed. To this extent. a child of the Sun. i. Pawnee and Blackfoot. Even the new religion included But behind ancestor-worship and other superstitions. the sustainer of the world. Earth and Sea.' The question then arises. It would be difficult to maintain that ghost-worship or ancestorworship is a potent factor in the evolution of the deathless Ti-ra-wd or the immortal Creator Na-pi. Sun worship was the faith in a Being who advanced the Sun so far above all the stars of heaven. serious. Is Pachacamac a form of the same These two may . cults and beliefs. Garcilasso was of Inca parentage on the spindle side he was born in 1540. * ' • ^ Grinnell's Blackfoot Lodge-Tales Garcilasso. and Pawnee Hero Stories.' look on the Medicine Lodge woman as you white people do on the Koman Catholic Sisters. effectual for good. and aided by the fragmentary collections of Father Bias Valera. You know that I am pure. There are few more interesting accounts of religion than Garcilasso de la Vega's description of faith in Peru.

' That he was the Creator appears in an earlier writer. is in Quichua styled Pachacamac.' universe. and 'carna' = soul. and a Voice gave oracles therein. that of a Being who dwells not in temples made with hands In the temple this people. we must understand that Sun-worship and ancestor. at length. was remonstrated with by a priest. the Yuncas. having heard of the Inca god. was reckoned the Creator. Garcilasso. ch. i. 189). which the Inca. he worships. we might conjecture. also imposed upon the Yuncas. but by a race which. however. mention Darumulun. or is he the result of philosophical reflection ? The latter The Incas and their was the opinion of Garcilasso. without understanding his nature. and replied • Op. This appears to have been distasteful to the Inca Huayna Ccapac. 190). Moreover. like Mr. cit. * Araautas ' (learned class) 'Pacha. as the Australians will not. in religious matters. and they removed idols from the Yunca temple of Pachacamac (ii. Prescott. By the Incas to Pachacamac' no This negative custom they sacrifice was offered (ii. Yunca superstitions. They did not ' ^ treaty. and with much logic. 106.' or but seldom and reverently. He insists.worship were the practical elements of the Inca cult.240 THE MAKING OF RELIGION creative being whom we find among the lowest savages. infested the temple. even human sacrifices. I "While Pachacamac. Anima Mundi. offered (ii.' he says. 5). mentions one. Pachacamac. without temple or rite. that He whom. in accordance with a religious ' * = were philosophers. Clements Markham points out that Pachacamac is a pure Quichua * From all this ' word. as a Christian. and etherealised his religion. the one temple to Pachacamac was not built by an Inca. then. borrowed his name. is even take the name of Pachacamac into their mouths. Agustin de Zarate (ii. occasionally consulted. cited by Garcilasso. Pachacamac had no temple.'^ The Yuncas also had a talking idol.' . 186). that the Incas borrowed Pachacamac from the Yuneas. but they worshipped him in their hearts. after denying the existence of temples to Pachacamac. but only one. But Mr. for at a Sun feast he gazed hard on the Sun.

Cieza de Leon calls Pachacamac a devil. or mummy-worship. In fact.' whose name means ^ creator of the world The name. * Cieza de Leon. Against his theory of Pachacamac as a result of philosophical thought. Totemism and polytheism. kalou. as far as ritual went. Perhaps it would not be too rash to conjecture that Pachacamac is not a merely philosophical abstraction. that declares the devil to have forged and insisted on the resemblance ' It was open to Spanish missionaries to use Pachacamac. Perhaps we are to understand that this Inca. In Garcilasso's book we have to allow for his desire to justify the creed of his maternal ancestors. the position of Pachacamac and the Sun is very nearly that of the Blackfoot Creator Na-pi. and not provided with colleges of learned priests. is nil. nil. ii. was spoken with genuflexions and signs of reverence. like his father. have the Creative Being whose creed is invaded by that of a worshipped aspect We and whose cult. 253. who seems to have been the original author of the saying. quite logically. and to the direct traditions received by him from his uncle.AMERICAN CREATORS 241 that the restless Sun 'must have another Lord more powerful than himself. p. while Pachacamac was neglected. or of Shang-ti and the Heaven. in China. and the Sun. it may be urged that similar conceptions. wahan. with a vague mass of huaca=Elohim. ' * ' ! Pachacamac resemble the Christian Deity. B . in different strata of the Inca empire. but a survival of a Being like Na-pi or Ahone. and he often appeals to his knowledge of Quichua. meant to sneer at the elaborate worship bestowed on the Sun. ^ Markham's 446. when it was uttered. His criticism of Spanish versions is acute. 253. as to the Jesuits among closely did Cieza de Leon ! ' Garcilasso. or nearly siniihir. ancestor-worship. translation. 447. So of nature. p. or nearly There are also.' This remark could not have been necessary if Pacha' camac were really an article of living and universal belief. exist among races not civilised like the Incas.

^ He also tells the tale of the Inca Yupanqui and the Lord of the Sun. ^ Bites. . of the Tncas. Christoval assigns images. for the assuredly not a creation of a learned priesthood. He does not seem. as a fulcrum for the introduction They preferred to regard Pachacamac a fraudulent fiend. Christoval says. but says that the Incas had To Yupanqui he already knowledge of the Creator. even so. Pachacamac may be said to resemble a savage Supreme Mpungu would Being. p. from which Garcilasso strongly is dissents. Now Nzambi Mpungu. a different account of Inca We religion. 11. Bantu have no learned and be useless to the greedy conjurers whom they do consult. and wrote between 1570 and 1584. somewhat etherealised either by Garcilasso or by the Amautas. among the to use Bantu of Christianity. as he is not propitiated. then. unchangeable and eternal ') by the name Pachayachachi. The who was chaplain of the hospital for natives. to the Creator Uiracocha.' Christoval assembled a number of old priests and other natives who had taken part in the ancient services. sacrifice superfluous. 109. is as Bantu. wherein the Creator is addressed as Uiracocha. Maikham's translation. because. as he created ' ' ' ' is them. attributes the erection of a gold image of the Creator. He calls the Creator ('not born of woman. 6. they all belonged to him an idea that would also make ' (p. Garcilasso. ' Rites mid Laws ^ Bites. 26). again utterly denied by Garcilasso. the Creator had no woman assigned to him. the learned class among the subjects of the Incas. Teacher of the world and Tecsiviracocha. much superior to the Ahone of the Virginians. however. p. priests. and collected their evidence. i. sacrifice. Unlike the Sun. p. and even human Garcilasso denies sacrifice. of course.^ contradicted by Garcilasso. Christoval gives prayers in Quichua. Christoval declares.242 tile THE MAKING OF RELIGION Mpungu. possess. that the Creator Pachacamac had any of these things. vii. On grounds of analogy. that sacrifices were offered to the Creator. best version that of Christoval de Molina.' which Garcilasso dismisses as meaningless. which.

with his sacrifices the Creator. and made him serve as shepherd of the llamas of the Sun. when he said about Monmouth. The Inca. . dethroned out. He therefore banished the Prince to Chita. The appearance declared himself as Uiracocha (Christoval's name for the Creator). however. and a master of his native language. and promised his aid to the Prince. says Garcilasso. places A scrupulously truthful gentleman. and not consciously exaggerating. Introduction. mistake. p. is another.^ is Who is right? Uiracocha. replied in the tones of Charles II. is God. ' ' ' ! The Inca Yahuarhuaccac. Markham thinks that Garcilasso. the Creator of the Sun.AMERICAN CREATORS 248 he denies that Uiracocha was the name of the Creator. was yet less trustworthy (though wonderfully accurate ') than Christoval. on Discovery of Peru. one thing. he knew not. which follows : like George II. by no means as Pachacamac. B 2 . Mr. . endowed with an amazing memory. and he denies it. is scrupulously truthful. with what the Inca regarded as a cock-and-bull story of an apparition of the kind technically styled Borderland. without sacrifices.. XV. I shall now show that Christoval and Garcilasso have different versions of the same historical events.. ^ The Garcilasso. Pachacamac. He announced a distant rebellion. the Prince saved the city. * Lord Ailesbury's Memoirs. a Child of the Sun. knowing that the Spaniards made the assertion. broke the Inca fled. however. flatly contradicts the version of a Spanish priest. who also appears to have been careful and honourable. was at odds with his Prince of Wales. writing when he did. ' Compare • Repoi'ts Rites.' Asleep or awake. .' excellence of his memory is perhaps best shown in his ' ' * He does not make a single topographical details. Tell James ^ to go to hell The predicted rebellion. Three years later the disgraced Prince came to Court. and that ! Garcilasso bases his confutation of the Spanish theory of the Inca Creator on his form of this historical tradition. he saw a bearded robed man holding a strange animal.' in the topography of three hundred and twenty . hearing this narrative.

' were children of the Sun. 89.^ Garcilasso had seen the of the Inca Uiracocha. the invocations of Uiracocha. • ii. but the Inca Uiracocha's so7i. and dressed like the apparition. . ii. to flatter them. Prince of Wales. roofless. from the apparition. has plenty of humour and human nature. Garcilasso explodes the Spanish etymology of the name. and relates the whole tale from the oral version of his uncle. To Garcilasso. the throne-name Uiracocha. adding many native comments on the Court revolution described. 357. which. * * Acosta. and unique in construction. 29. Therein he had an image of the god.'^ Moreover.244 TPIE MAKING OF RELIGION and sent him into the country." Christoval's form of the story is peculiarly gratifying ' * ' ' Garcilasso. Cieza de Leon.' they say. pp. to whom he erected a temple. later Inca Uiracocha. of the period. in Christoval's collection of prayers. just as they said they were children of the apparition. which. both assert. and Yupanqui was 7wt the son but the grandson of this Inca Uiracocha. and.'' Uiracocha's own son was Pachacutec. in the language of Cuzco. apparition. lib. According to Christoval it was not the Prince. .^ Christoval has got hold of a variant of Garcilasso's narrative. as Pere Acosta rightly says. ' * mummy to Spanish prejudice : even in them Pachacamac occurs. which he sucked in with his The Indians said that the chief Spaniards mother's milk. 21 Garcilasso. vi. are a native adaptation his father. 28. which simply means Revolution. bearded men. later the Inca Yupanqui. perhaps St. as it were. to make gods of them. p. the Indians called them Uiracochas (as all the Spanish historians say). Now. Uiracocha. ch. then. Bartholomew. in Garcilasso. Garcilasso and Cieza de Leon agree in their descriptions of the image of Uiracocha.word " the world 'Pacliamcutin. which means changes. the Spaniards conceived to represent a Christian early missionary. by way of by. 88. 68. He then adopted. grew a beard. Uiracocha saw the Garcilasso corrects Christoval. gave frequent sittings. declared falsely that Uiracocha was their word for the Creator. Uites. for which he himself When the Spaniards arrived. who beheld the apparition.

60. toward Garcilasso.AMERICAN CREATORS in one way. .p.'^ Uiracocha. 338.'^ Mr. Christoval. making Pachacamac a title of Uiracocha. ^ 337. however. would be a late. the very place where. therefore. on the other hand. . no real rival of the Creator. p. so truthful and so wonderfully accurate. rather than to the Spanish priest. in Inca religion. as we shall see. The reader.' the In rivalry between the Creator and the divine Sun. royally introduced ancestral god. The Inca took care of it. then. « ii.' China. as nearly as possible resembling the figure he had seen in the crystal. 29. Garcilasso. the deity who receives human sacrifice. Prim. as he was bearded.' The apparition. the Apparition.* He bade his subjects to reverence the new deity. his name would be easily transferred to the bearded Spaniards. ii. The truth in the Uiracocha versus Pachacamac conI confess a leaning troversy is difQcult to ascertain. is the usurper. gave itself out for the Sun and Yupanqui. the Supreme Being. Mr.' Chuqui-chaca is. an example of a subordinate god (the Sun) usurping the place of the supreme deity. ^. and that Shang-ti. and all. ordered a statue of the Sun to be made. that Heaven is the elder god. as they had heretofore worshipped the Creator. and they say that he afterwards saw everything he wanted in it. must decide as to whether he prefers Garcilasso's unpropitiated Pachacamac.' who. or Christoval's Uiracocha. says that Chanca-Uiracocha was a huaca crystal. while the piece of crystal remained. ' 245 Yupanqui saw the apparition in apiece of the apparition vanished. * ' ' ' ' ' ' * (sacred place) in Chuqui-chaca. and. when he came to the throne. 54. who receives no sacrifice at all. Interesting as a proof of Inca crystal-gazing. human sacrifices. according to Garcilasso. this legend of Christoval's cannot compete as evidence with Acosta and Garcilasso. Cult. Tylor prefers the version of Christoval. whose arrival the Inca Uiracocha ' » * Now » Bites. it will be remarked. 12. ii. * Bites. was prior to Uiracocha. Tylor thinks. in human form and in Inca dress.^ He thinks that we have. the Inca Uiracocha erected a temple to his Uncle.

' Christoval's legend of the Inca crystal-gazer. He ranks after Garcilasso and Christoval. 91 et seg. Uiracocha meant to abandon the contest. Creator. This appears to be a mixture of the stories of Garcilasso and Christoval. such as Acosta. Mr. The Yunca form of the worship of Pachacamac Mr. in itself. saw a fair youth on a rock. who was defeated and killed by the Chancas. Payne. 'ruler of the world.' belongs to the later ^ Mr. He considers that Pachacamac combines the conception of a general spirit of living things with that of a Creator or maker of all things. and then vanished. if it means sea of grease '). Payne appears to prefer period of the Incas. 459. There is yet another version of this historical legend.. the Inca Uiracocha was like James III. maker of the world.' but the conception of all ' j Pachayachacic. • Payne. or by both names. i. fond of architecture and averse to war.' It is not. or whether he was anything. Payne regards as an example of de' ' Bites and Laws. but before earlier Spanish writers.246 THE MAKING OF RELIGION said to was have predicted. . and the Inca Uiracocha retired into private life. He gave the realm to his bastard. means called Pachacamac. According to Salcamayhua. written forty years after Christoval's date by Don Juan de Santa Cruz Pachacuti-yamqui Salcamayhua. who knew not Quichua. Urea. Tylor and Mr. a point of much importance whether the Creator was called Uiracocha (which. Markham do not refer to the passage in which Christoval obviously gets hold of a wrong version of the story of the apparition. who has the advantage of being a Quichua scholar. Mr. whether the Creator received even human sacrifices (Christoval) or none at ' ! As to Pachacamac. Pachacamac and the Creator are one and the same. who promised him success in the name of the The Prince was victorious. p. but his legitimate son. The important question is as to. we must consult (Garcilasso). But to call several or all Spaniards by the name given to the Creator would be absurd. Yupanqui. to the rival version of Garcilasso.

of any For. have been a deHberate har.^ 247 He disbelieves Garcilasso's statement that were not made to the Sun. i. or. in no way Christianised. Awonawilona. he was deceived by his Inca kinsfolk. if Mr. or even of spirit. tion. Garcilasso must. a spirit.' and contrast it with the scheme provisionally offered in this book. Payne absolutely rejects Ixtlilochitl's story of the Op. 490. Garcilasso may possibly be refining on facts. The reader can now estimate for himself the difficulty of knowing much about Peruvian religion. Payne is right about the lowest religion. Garcilasso's evidence.' Hegelian ages. however. though the idea of a great Creator. ' : ' ! Mr. but only preserved in a pure form by the Jews. if Mr. indeed. have been merely fabling throughout. the Maker and container of All. originally revealed to all men. but he asks for no theory of divine primitive tradition in the case of Pachacamac. . from the least contaminated backward peoples. To avoid deception by means of this bias we have chosen examples of savage creative beings from wide areas.' but so are the dateless outward in space. unless. whom he attributes to philosophical ' reflec- In the following chapter we discuss the old Degeneration theory. the All-Father. seems untainted by sacrifices human Christian attempts to find a primitive divine tradition. have already observed that the Degeneration theory biasses the accounts of some missionaries who are obviously anxious to find traces of a Primitive Tradition. still confining ourselves to the American continent. Payne is right. from diverse We from non-missionary statements. ' cit. These hymns run thus the beginning of the New Making. ' . indeed. is one of the earliest efforts of 'primitive logic. savages having no conception of God. and never chanted in the presence of Before the Mexican Spanish.' we. Thus. we have the ancient hymns of the Zuhis. monotheism of Nezahualcoyotl Tovqueraada knows nothing of it. solely had He then evolved all things by thinking himself being. and from their secret mysteries and hymns.' i. of course. 463.AMERICAN CREATORS gradation.

have tried to escape from the bias of belief in a primitive divine tradition.' Yet the Fijians may have forgotten the names of their ancestors three generations back in the world can you deify a person whom you don't We ' : . despite the savage mythology which intrudes into both sets of traditions. the Fijians deified their ancestors. and. Ndengei. Basil Thomson calls him. . Ethnol. is not the ghost of a conjurer or chief. gods that were the creation oj the priests that ministered to them. but bias of every kind exists. have ancestral gods. p.' I fail to see how Awonawilona could be developed out of the ghost of chief or conjurer. Degei.248 THE IMAKING OF EELIGION hymns of the Maoris. At present the anthropological hypothesis of ancestor-worship as the basis. Mr. and must exist. That in which all things potentially existed. perhaps (as in Mr. in fact. as we learned from "Williams. It is probable that there were here and there. we learn from Mr. affects observers. ' ' Gushing. 379. Like other primitive people. Thomson writes It is clear that theFijians humanised their gods. because they had once existed on earth in human form. The old fable of Ouranos and Gaia recurs in Zuhi as in Maori. remember ? so — ! of a different origin. The Fijians. Spencer's theory) the only basis of religion. as Mr. . Before treating the theory of Degeneration let us examine a case of the anthropological bias. so considerable that he for one is not forgotten just as if we worshipped the wicked Lord Of course a god like Ahone could not be Lyttelton made out of such materials as these. Thomson that there are other Fijian gods fied. Beport. No authority can be better than that of traditional sacred chants found among a populace which will not sing them before one of their Mexican masters. Bureau. . 1891-92. or. only malevolent chiefs were deiapparently a Fijian god is really a well-born human scoundrel. He certainly is not due to missionary influence. and also a singular form of the creative being. ' ' ! How Moreover. yet who was more than all.

Thomson is reminded of St. while the Creative Being is not and never was a ghost. Thomson does. Nor. and that Gods of this kind. the Andaman Isles. like the Peruvian Amautas.AMEIUCAN CREATORS and tvere not the spirits of 249 dead chiefs. but are not propitiated by offerings of food (as among Australians. and Blackfoot Indians). as in Peru. Thomson has clearly no bias in favour of a God like our own. He declared that they had come to preach the same god that he had been preaching. pp. Such a God. For these reasons — that a priesthood sees no money in a God of this kind. At this point criticism may naturally remark that J. 341-344. . lastly. known to savages. Tui Laga. can we regard the absence of sacrifice to the Creative Being as a mere proof that he is an ancestral ghost who had lived on earth at too remote a time for this absence of sacrifice occurs where ghosts are dreaded. are found where there are no priesthoods we cannot look on the conception as a late one of priestly origin. He deduces this god. then ye ignorantly worship. Paul at Athens. But we find such a God where we find no priests. and that more had been revealed to them than to of the him * of the mysteries of the god. according to his ' ' — * * ' .A.' Mr. ethical and creative. and not derived from ghostworship. the Tui Laga. Least of all can such a God be the creation of the priests that minister to him. is precisely the kind of deity who does not suit a priesthood." When the missionaries first went to convert this town they found the heathen priest their staunch ally. this God is ministered to by no priests. may refine on the idea.I. him declare I unto you. though a learned caste.' whom > Mr. worshippers. where a priesthood has not been developed. as Mr. May 1895. who was called Tui " Laga or Lord of Heaven. from priestly reflection and speculation. Such was the god Bure Tribe on the Ba coast. and much of Africa.' when. Andamanese. being usually unpropitiated by sacrifice and lucrative private practice.

be historically traced. Finally. 'need nothing of ours. by their very definition. It is consistent. as has been said before. even though he was not at first conceived of as a spirit. the other rising in the ghost-doctrine. as by the Algonquins and Zulus whether he is propitiated by sacrifice (which is very rare indeed). eternal. would inevitably come to be attached to the idea of the Supreme Being. — * We powerful. but are prior to death. as best adapted to everyday needs and experiences. that their Supreme Being never was mortal man. that the savage Supreme Being is the last and highest result of evolution on animistic lines out of ghosts. granting my opinion that there are two streams of religious thought. I equally claim him as the probable : : descendant in evolution of the primitive. one rising in the conception of an undifferentiated Being. undifferentiated. in this case. by way of Being not of the lowest savage level. Yet this way of looking at the Supreme Being. It does not run counter to the evidence universally offered by savages. know.250 THE MAKING OF RELIGION whether the savage Supreme Being is feted. the high gods of savages are not ghosts. and immortal being. and never were ghosts. may contaminate the former. not as spirit. the conception of spirit. by the original conception. as. moral. or only by conduct. whereas the animistic hypothesis is. with the universal savage theory of Death. inconsistent. granting that the idea of spirit has ghost for its first expression. a Supreme Metaphysically he . merely as being. as by the Comanches. indeed. not necessarily spiritual Being of such creeds as the ' ' Australian.' At the same time. but that it presents none of the logical difficulties inherent in the animistic pedigree namely. and creative. and introduce sacrifice and food-propitiation into the ritual of Beings who. who offer puffs of smoke or is apparently half forgotten.' once attained. except as a spirit. One must reply that this pedigree cannot. normal and supernormal. by our own experience. it stands to reason that the latter. example. Here let me introduce. must have existed. how difficult it has become for us to think of an eternal.

according to other traditions. in a middle barbaric race. as described by Ellis in that fascinating book Polynesian Kesearches. who thought himself out into the there void. But ^ we are now among polytheists it may be argued that. ii. This would be more plausible if we did not find Supreme Beings where there is no departmental polytheism to develop them out of. or wise men. as in the Polynesian hymn. and so on. ' : in Maori mythology.' and motherless from all eternity.^ Several of their taata-paari. an origin had to be found for them. 316. He created the gods of polytheism. or god framed on the lines of animism. no sky. and that origin was Taa-roa. No earth. Taa-roa was uncreated. the gods of war. Cult. no men He became the universe. Papa the rock Papa. Says a native hymn. as .' but merely * ' was no sky. pretend that. He was he abode in the void. 191. But we may disin the Zuiii hymn we have the myth of the tinguish of Heaven and Earth. A tuas are gods. This very interesting Supreme Being. is the Polynesian Taa-roa. .' "Whence came the idea of Taa-roa ? The Euhemeristic theory that he was a ghost of a dead man is absurd. Taa-roa is the Heaven-God (Ouranos in Greece). is a natural theory of men acquainted with ancestor-worship. but Heaven is not the marriage Eternal. argued. Earth. Oramutuas the chief of the spirits were ghosts of tiis are spirits These were mischievous they. . ii. warriors.' Euhemerism. fatherless ness. existing from the beginning. In the highest heavens he dwells alone. Heaven. In Tahiti.' before which. Thus it may be no primaeval theistic idea.AMERICAN CREATORS is 261 improved on in statement. 193. their images. of peace. ' ii. but a Euhemeristic hypothesis by a Polynesian thinker is not a statement of national belief. 345. or world of darkIn the Leeward Isles Taa-roa was Toivi. ^ Prim. Awonawilona. Taa-roa was only a man who was deified after death. morally he is stained with the worst crimes of the hungry ghost-god. or from the time he emerges from the po. 1829. given a crowd of gods on the animistic model. wife of ' ' ' * : ! = Rangi.' In the Windward Isles he has a wife. Ellis. in fact.

252 THE MAKING OF RELIGION and the skulls of the dead needed propitiation. nay. theism. not be found in anthropological treatises on the Origin of They appear. An old. and abstained. the worst human qualities. inevitably accompanying early progress. from human sacrifice to the burning of Jeanne d'Arc. the evil sacrificial rites unpractised by low savages come to be attached to the worship even of the Supreme Being. to whom human victims were sacrificed. that try to demonstrate. uniformity. to have been overEeligion. They had a ritual for almost every act of their lives. somehow. Yet the evidence for them is looked by philosophers. and under the influences of animism. the Andamanese. as in Australia. among the Bushmen. our array of moral or august savage supreme beings (the first who came to hand) will. full of savages. in passing. to induce Christian converts. Its excellence is proved bj'. religious criminal acts. for some reason. increase as religion and culture move away from the stage of Bushmen and Andamanese to the stage of Aztec and Polynesian culture. in early savage religions of Supreme Beings. is unknown.' Now this kind of horror.' a thing unfamiliar to low ' In fact. I think. Ghosts and ghostgods demanded food.its very sufficiently good. that the first advances in culture necessarily introduce religious degeneration. The Supreme Being is succeeded in advancing civilisation. or impossible. 221. moral and religious. . and I therefore suggest that in an advanced polyso on. assuredly undesigned. human sacrifice. and food was therefore also offered to the Supreme Being. which its ' very supporters have ignored. beyond all doubt. Thus there is what we may really call degeneration. in Polynesia. to repeat the old prayers. such as that of Polynesia. we shall now But we may observe. by ruthless and insatiable ghost-gods. Ellis. an obsothat of degeneration in religion has facts lete theory — — at its basis. It was found difficult. They began. and these ideas (perhaps) were reflected on to Taa-roa. That this is the case. ii. trembled.

AMERICAN CREATORS which orthodoxy has overlooked.. to some extent. 253 Thus the Rev. which makes.' » TJie FaitJis of ihe World.' religious the divine is conceived of how little conscious of his own true wants . . is the poor worshipper. ProFHiit informs the audience in the Cathedral of St. that. Giles's.' The poor fessor ' ' . 413. worshipper of Baiame wishes to obey His Law. p.. in the religions at the bottom of the it is always easy to see how wretchedly scale. for righteousness.

that the history of culture began assumptions with the appearance on earth of a semi-civilised race of men and second.' old degeneration theory practically. The hypothesis here provisionally advocated makes no "^ assumptions at I all. That hypothesis is forward to produce civilised men. but a belief in a moral. Brinton remarked in 1868 ' ' ! : supposition that in ancient times and in very unenlightened conditions. and ' The ' — ' . and fallaciously. i. not a doctrinal and abstract Monotheism. Tylor says. before mythology had grown. totems. is a belief that should have passed away when the delights of savage life and the praises of a state of nature ceased to be the theme of ' ' The philosophers. at various times. was revived by reformers. Dr.' false to all our knowledge of evolution. 35. creative Being. p. » Myths of tJie New World.254 THE MAKING OP RELIGION XV THE OLD DEGENERATION TEEOBY If any partisan of the anthropological theory has read so far into this argument. » Prim. resolved itself. powerful. 44. kindly. a monotheism prevailed which afterwards. he will often have murmured The old degeneration theory On this to himself. Cult. as Mr. into two first. while this faith is found in juxtaposition with belief in unworshipped ghosts. It is a positive fact that among some of the lowest savages there exists. . that from this stage culture has proceeded in two ways— backward to produce savages.

attract men's regard and adoration. that the Supreme Being of many rather higher savages differs from the Supreme Being of certain lower savages by the neglect in which he is left. it is mere matter of fact. and by his comparative lack of moral control over human conduct. on looking at relatively advanced races. like the (in Aztecs. supposed to be potent and helpful in everyday life. But these are relatively advanced conceptions. So far. and other virtues. ' who are often . To gods the human sacrifice was probably extended some cases) either by a cannibal civilised race. and not of assumption. 199 . Australians have some elements of cannibalism. but do not. advance to the idea of spirit — ' ' ' at one point. we find them worshipping polytheistic deities and ghosts of the kings just dead. to the extent of human sacrifice. among the lowest and most backward races. In his place a mob of ghosts and spirits. by the epicurean repose with which he is credited. Now. unselfishness. the god being conciliated for man's sin by the offering of what man most prized. meant degeneration at another point. Thus. we find a crowd of hungry and cruel gods. compared with the moral faith in unfed gods. p. 161. and so on. as a general rule. who are offered to him. Jevons remarks. and get paid by sacrifice even by human sacrifice. Therefore.worship introduced a sadly degenerate rite. loyalty. The powerful creative Being of savage belief sanctions truth.THE OLD DEGENERATION THEORY 255 fetishes. or by way of piacula. offer any human victims.' ^ The and wives in Hades. by terrible Introduction. that human sacrifice appears at a much earlier period in the rites for the dead than it does The dead chief needs servants in the ritual of the gods. Turning to races yet higher in material culture. not to be found. in accordance with my own observation. chastity. ancestor. I have set forth the difficulties involved in the attempt to derive this Being from ghosts and other lower forms of belief. propitiated also p. * then. to my knowledge. the * jealousy of the god being appeased in a similar way. On this point Mr.

aOO. or popular Greek standard is as undeniable as any fact in human history. U. or sky. as in the case of Taa-roa. adored ghosts. in this particular respect the degeneration of religion from the Australian or Andamanese to the Dinka standard— and infinitely more to the Polynesian. demonstrably . . indeed. with a word about credulous missionaries and Christian influences. while fixing her gaze on totems. who was before earth was. made a comparative study of the higher and purer religious ideas of savages. who receives no sacrifice but that of men's lusts and selfishness who desires obedience. the blood spurts back even on the uncreated Creator. not the fat of kangaroos who needs nothing of is unfed and unbribed. Cult. on worshipped mummies. ' savage Animism is which to the educated almost devoid of that ethical element modern mind is the very main' spring of practical religion. that the divine sanction of ethical laws . Anthropology has only escaped the knowledge of this circumstance by laying down the rule. 361. Im Thurn finds. sun. While Anthropology holds the certainly erroneous idea that the rehgion of the most backward races is always non-moral. nothing but Animism of the lowest conceivable tjrpe. — unbased on facts..' I have argued. Anthropology. while. or even higher) wherever religion is non-moral or immoral. or Aztec. he also finds in that Animism the only or most potent moral restraint on the conduct of men. in fact. belongs almost or wholly to religions above the that savage level. These have been passed by. and treasured has not. Guiana. .266 THE MAKlJNa OF RELIGION massacres of human victims. ' Prim. in animistic origin. cruel gods are degenerate from the Australian Father in Heaven. to my knowledge. ours Thus. or sea. Undeniably the hungry. been great degeneration in religion (if religion began on the Australian and Andamanese level. except in the fetishes. that the God of low savages who imparts the divine sanction of ethical laws is not of But even where Mr. not to the earlier and lower creeds ' ' . of course she cannot know that there has. .. Again.

And this is exactly what happened If we are not to call it It may be an old degeneration. ghost-gods. a 'useful constituency.THE OLD DEGENERATION TIIEOKY brief 267 for which Mr.' A moral creator in need of no gifts. the summary this work evidence is the best attainable.' it has been asked. or with malevolent will not favour one sendings of disease by witchcraft man above his neighbour. and to sacrifice to Him. Meanwhile. and set them side by side for purposes of comparison. of the venal rabble of spirits or deities. But the area covered is wide. need of food and blood. next. C Man being what he is. if the highest. In I only take a handful of cases of the higher religious opinions of savages.^ are a corrupt. Now. when once developed. to man. and opposed to lust and mischief. could all mankind forget a That is what I now try to explain. then the other elements of their faith and practice are degenerate. the old Adam. to reckon Him as only one. pure religion ? That degeneration I would account for by the attractions which animism. How. S . or as constrained by charms which do not touch his omniGhosts and ghost-gods.' and are on the side of theory. * Porphyry. afraid of spells and binding charms. Much more remains to be done in this field. Menzies. Kfydfifvai dfwv avayKai. as a reward for sacrifice which he does not accept. on the other hand. and it seems proved beyond doubt that savages have felt after a conception of a Creator much higher than that for which they commonly get credit. in the long run. as to them. neglect his idea of his Creator . culture ! ' ' ' Prof. an old theory. on the material plane. and fetishes which he could keep in his wallet or medicine ' For these he was sure.' what are we to call it ? but facts winna ding. or is very ' ' early (and nothing in it suggests lateness of development). Tylor found room. History of Religion. * whoring after practically useful ghosts. if that conception is original. perhaps. possessed for the naughty natural man. man was certain to go a * ' ' ^ * ' * . will not help a man with love-spells. 23. p. first to bag. or one tribe above its rivals. in potence. but.

kept advancing. that priestly self-interest (quite natural). Here is degeneration.' without altar or idol and the Inca. whether it Again. were involved in the maintenance of the old. we find Balboa. traces of Israel. Greece. the Sun. . the luck of the state. at this stage of culture. try to bring back his service to that of the unpropitiated. animistic. sacrifice appear in the ritual only relatively late that the great prophets. apart from the Life and Death of Our Lord. Now. 62. Yupanqui. How the conception of Jehovah arose in Israel. or another. That popular and political regard for the luck of the state. relatively non- moral system. even in Israel. the crafts and arts arose departments arose. Even the Big Black Man of the Fuegians is on a higher level (as we reckon morals). when he forbids the slaying of a robber enemy. had become degraded and anthropomorphised. than certain examples of early Hebrew conduct. and Pachacamac. it is undeniable that Jehovah.258 THE MAKING OF RELIGION . as conceived of in their purest form. as in Cuzco. declared that Our Father and Master. and the interests of a rich and powerful clergy. could only be swept away by the moral monotheism of Christianity or of Islam. and in the high mood of savage mysteries period of Hebrew which yet contain so much that is grotesque. must have a . the and most potent of many combined influences. Ixtlilochitl. unbought Dendid.' ' But. was the moral Monotheism of the Hebrew religion of Jehovah. justly declaring Jehovah to be indifferent to the blood of bulls and rams. Nothing else could do it. each needing a god thought grew clearer such admirable ethics as those of the Aztecs were developed. In the case of Christianity. But our knowledge of the Fuegians is lamentably scanty. far below Darumulun. at a certain central history. * Lord. Hist. and Ahone. or Ahone. and Puluga. human of and it is was a revival ' of a half-obliterated idea. Nezahuatl conceived and erected a bloodless fane to ' The Unknown God. or Pundjel. and while bleeding human hearts smoked on every altar. Cause of Causes. . . du Perou. and Rome. such as p.

had been the God of Israel's fathers. so far. a deity could not be tied to a . leans to the first alternative. Religion of the Semites. unless new facts are discovered. and consequent myths to explain that ritual. to the conception of the Semitic gods in general.' By the nature of Australian society. first by manifesting himself there.' like the widely spread Murring Nor could Darumulun be tied down to a place in Semitic fashion. degenera-. and apply it to their own tribal deities. Eobertson Smith says. but had begun to form fixed homes. not by that name. pp. 'humanly speaking.THE OLD DEGENERATION THEORY among low . but. and temple-ritual. Jehovah. 105. where the God had a house or a temple. or lord of the land. we must accept the version of the Pentateuch. Not only is there degeneration from the Australian conception of Mungan-gnaur. could not arise. there' Robertson Smith.' Darumulun ' ' ' is thus not capable of degenerating into a local god. in line with our own ideas of divinity because he is not localised. just as the nomad Arabs could not assimilate the conception of a god as a landowner. refuge in conjecture. or take some . tent. 8 2 . Mungan-ngaur is. cit. at its best. 269 savages or whether it was borrowed from or was the result of meditation on foreign creed the philosophical Supreme Being of high Egyptian The Biblical statement theology. As Mr. ' temple. Advancing social conditions compelled \ men into degeneration. for the simple reason that in the desert private property in land ' was unknown. we recognise the work of men who were no longer pure nomads. is another question. He dwelleth not in temples made with hands it is not likely that he should. 104. tion was inevitable. Op. 2 106. p. Nor could Darumulun be attached to a district.' because this involves a series of ideas unknown to the primitive life of the savage tribes. but. The question will be discussed later .' if religion began in a pure form among low savages.^ huntsman. as Baal. when his worshippers have neither house. nor tabernacle.

nor tabernacle. The Master. he necessarily conceives His kingly activity as going forth from the capital of the ' .' To us Milton seems nobly Chauvinistic when he talks But this localof what God has done by His English.worship. manent home Again.^ The early Hebrew conception ' of Jehovah. for Darumulun receives no sacrifice all. Major Ellis proves the degeneration of deity in Africa. instead of being regarded as being interested in the whole of mankind. so far as being localised in place of being the Universal God. the Glenelg some caves and mountain tops are haunted or holy. because. No authority cited. Waitz .' ' ised ' and essentially degenerate conception was On inevitable. nor. * Religion of Semites. In precisely the same way. . then. implies degeneration. .260 THE MAKING OF RELIGION fore at by receiving an altar of sacrifice there. Thus Darumulun. By a prophet like Isaiah the residence of Jehovah in Zion is almost wholly dematerialised. p. as it certainly does to our minds. and in the end a sanctuary. the efiigy of the god is scrupulously destroyed. nation. would eventually come to be regarded as being interested in separate tribes or nations alone. has no temple. By being tribes. nor sacred mount. Conceiving Jehovah as the King of Israel.' can ' go everywhere and do everything (is omnipresent and omnipotent). of an earthly monarchy. in his own abode beyond the sky.vi. is than infinitely more conditioned. attached to a given hill or river 'the gods. or limit him by the limitations.' ^ with no ancestor. 110. . when the rites are over. by space. 804. dwells in no earthly places. cannot lower their deity by the conditions. like Jehovah.' in the conception of some Australian blacks. But nomad hunter no king and no capital. practically. the scene of the Bora could not become a perof Darumulun. the Supreme Being. any * ' limit of land.

where aristocracy. and made it overspread the world. only modified by a weak reminiscence of the old kingship in the not very effective In the East the of Zeus. In fact. in advancing civilisation. we might find all three gods living together in a new polytheism. Eobertson Smith has pointed out. had developed polytheism. towards the lofty conception of universal Deity. as in Polynesia. Each has its god. the god who had been * interested in the whole of [known] mankind was settled on a hill.THE OLD DEGENERATION THEORY ' 261 as soon as. if worshippers of equally. Thus. aristocracy of many gods. had no agriculture. One to whom righteousness Sinai. political advance produces religious degeneration.' Australia escaped polytheistic degeneracy by having no — — ' ' ' ' aristocracy. Mr. . Sem. as in early Greece. or lagoon. and Darumulun coalesced into a nation. as of war. this form of degeneration (abstractly so considered) was to work. Baiame. Pundjel. several tribes must unite. their nation's God was infinitely dearer than even his Chosen People freed the conception of God from local ties. at an early period. again. agriculture. the manner in which the different political development of East and "West affected the religion of Greece and of the Semites. art. 74. For that conception was only brought into practical religion (as apart from philosophic speculation) by the union between Israel and the God of The Prophets. p. and the nation is apt to receive them being. into its Pantheon. as nothing else could have worked. In Greece. but not polytheistic gods. nor The departmental deities. monarchy fell. recognising in the God of Sinai and Zion. In the course of the education of mankind. granting a relatively pure starting' Bel. The result was a divine before the aristocratic houses. if polytheism be degeneration from the conception of one relatively supreme moral To make a nation. all. amidst a nation of worshippers. Ghosts and spirits the Australians knew. and Jiis social condition was savage not departmental. (or prytany) sovereignty national god tended to acquire a really monarchic sway. In yet another way. river.

hear of no ' We Nobody Fuegian In all religions Mr. * Op. The Ngarego and Wolgal held. Send it away sacrifices to ancestral ghosts among this people who cannot long remember their ancestors. Eobertson Smith says in which the gods have been developed out of totems [worshipped animals and other things regarded as akin to sacrifices. said. nobody fed Ahone. carried about by the family. degeneration from it must civilisation. . Darumulmi receives no sacrifice. and of other highest gods of lowest savages. cit. 188. Unlike Semitic gods. is mixed up with animals in some myths. I am unacquainted with any ^ icrying. 1884. that Tharamulun (Darumulun) met the just departed spirit and conducted it to its future home beyond the sky.A. J. and their sacrifices could not be carried on into his cult. so Darumulun could not.worship.' ^ Ghosts might also accompany relics of the body. an Australian Supreme Being. would come to waning camp-fires and batten on the broken meats. 2U7. to a certain distance. and did not inherit sacrifice Mr. p. had a celebrated theory that cereal sacrifice is a tribute to a god. p. unfed by men. he has no kin with ghosts. but it is not easy to see how such Supreme Beings as he could be * developed out of totems I am not aware. ' San. Eobertson Smith through them. consequently the practice has not been refracted on their supreme Master's cult. more handsomely. while sacrifice of a beast or man is an act of ' Howitt. nothing answers to the Hebrew technical As we have ' ' ' ' ! ' ^ priestly word for sacrifice. 811) are right in saying that the Australians have no ancestor. Chill ghosts. that any Australian tribe feeds the animals who are its totems. p.' ^ which are not offered to them. In the cult of Darumulun. ' : human stocks] the ritual act of laying food before the deity is perfectly intelligible. ' ! again.I. if WaitzGerland (vi.262 THE MAKING OF RELIGION accompany every step of point. food of the deity.' feeds Puluga. who would wave the black fragment at the dreaded Aurora Borealis.' Pundjel. 187. such as the dead hand. Eel. The Kurnai ghosts were believed to live upon plants.

and is eaten in the God's honour. on a continent peopled by older kinds of animals than ours. ' " Op. p. I beheve.. as among Pawnees and Semitic peoples (to judge from certain traces). unselfishness. on certain most unusual occasions. Micah is vi. one beast. who • » 5 Bel. either by one road or another. the God of the Murring or the Kurnai. Op.' * Now. the Darumulun. Thus. or Fuegians. Op. Andamanese. which makes in favour of the eating of totems by Australians. or other Supreme Being of the lowest known savages. 7. 277. does not occur to my knowledge. and its god. some evidence.THE OLD DEGENERATION THEORY ' 263 communion with the god. p. cit. cit. respect of age. Semites in their earhest Setting mythology aside and looking only at cult. was of the same blood as a lobster kin. cit. p. 6. 343. men roaming wild. in religion. who inculcates is not bound chastity.' Beasts were also of the same stock. when originally met. p. p. remains uncertain.^ Occasionally the sacred beast of the kin. Citing Gen. is eaten as a kind of mystic sacrament a most dubious fact. information received ') if a very deeply initiated (' from person were occasionally slain. occurs among not polytheistic Aztecs. iii. as the highest degree This of initiation.^ among Australians. New evidence always . xxii. at a certain very rare ' It would not even surprise me and solemn mystery. 2 Kings •^ 27.* Men and gods dined together. I mean. Bushmen. either from ghost-feeding or totem-feeding. 225. 269.'^ the God. cit. on a high level of material culture. or feeding on totems. Sem. there is. say a lobster. is the Australian Supreme Being a cause of and partaker in human The horrible idea of the Man who is sacrifice. Op. Much less. but I have at present no evidence that. was (as we regard purity) on a higher plane by far than the gods of Greeks and known myths. whose precepts soften the heart."-' The god himself was conceived of as a being of the same stock as his comrades. any Australian S upreme Being receives any sacrifice at all. usually not to be slain or tasted. who knows the heart's secrets. 247. upsetting anthropological theories. lately collected if not published. 2 Kings xxi.

or lusts. But the theistic conception. when not yet envisaged as spiritual. down Thus take to be the earliest known form of the theistic conthat of a Being about whose metaphysical ception nature spirit or not spirit no questions were asked. — : — ' wants. He cannot appear as a God of Battles no Te Deum can be sung to him for victory in a cause perhaps unjust. and the whole group do not. One of these tribes has no more interest with him than another. or river. The social conditions of his worshippers. then.e. Brinton long ago remarked. and the social conditions of aristocracy. Animism admits of endless can be located anywhere. is a conception from which the ordinary polytheistic gods of infinitely more polite peoples The animistic superstitions are frankly degenerate. and to provide a phrase or idea under which the Deity could be envisaged (i. ' . expansion. wildly based on the belief in the soul have not soiled him. stick. preserve Darumulun from the patent blots on the scutcheon of gods among much more * ' . in any A god made stone. for he is the Supreme Being of a certain group of allied local tribes. person. which do not and cannot exist in what I of activity. agriculture. who receives no blood of slaughtered man or beast. or the religion becomes a mere haunted and pestilential jungle of beliefs. nor localised him in a temple built with hands. the idea of A spirit to sports.' nor satisfy the metaTo meet these physical instinct of advancing mankind. cannot be subdivided and eparpilU. to supply soul. as a spirit) by advancing thought. have not made him one in a polytheistic crowd of rapacious gods. and on every side. as Dr.264 THE MAKING OF KELIGION by conditions of space or place. nor fettered him as a Baal to his estate.' with its moral stimulus. hill. as a body. advanced races. architecture. on the animistic model can be assigned to any departOnce more. That conception alone could neither supply the moral motive of a soul to be saved. ment human province of Cloacina. Thus. from every point of view. bush. Animism is full of the seeds of religious degeneration. wage war on another alien group.

relic worship is secondary. 266 The blending of the theistic and the animistic behefs was indispensable to rehgion. Take the early chapters of Genesis. belief in spirits again there arise priests who may inhabit stones or sticks who know how to propitiate spirits . can annihilate the old theory of Degeneration when it is presented in this form. The facts are the proofs . in one way or another. This is primary fetishism is secondary. and again. and so on. . usually by breach of a taboo. Death enters the world. Miiller. Degeneration of the theistic conception for a> while. therefore. But. according to him.THE OLD DEGENERATION THEORY Animism was necessary. for the spirits. belief in hungry face with the Creator. Deathless man is face tc idea. He He cannot offer sacrifice. is primary there.. in the sense of the infinite. Eehgion beginning. It must be repeated that on this theory an explanation is given of what the old Degeneration hypothesis does not explain. regards fetishism as a secondary and comparatively late form of belief. Then comes. Arguing elsewhere against this : have asked What was the modus of degeneration which produced similar results in Christianity. as there is no death. and in African and other religions ? How did it work ? I am not aware that Mr. in various forms of Christianity . by process of evolution. looking Mr. therefore. he observes. I : — — cannot degenerate in religion. and only contradictory facts. by Animism sup-. he cannot slay animals for the Creator. Granting a primal religion relatively pure in its beginnings. degeneration was necessarily implied. Max why did it degenerate ? of the Christianity. and so to the infinitely divine. We find it. ment on religion as the developsentiment of the Infinite. as awakened in man by tall trees. in sufficient quantity. occurred. in the process of animistic development under advancing social conditions. But. or any savage cosmogonic myth you please. Max Miiller has answered this question. high hills. it advances to the infinite of space and sky. planting Theism is conspicuously plain on our theory. Creator obviously needs nothing. But how degeneration worked namely.

among of culture. we have supplied. is * among altar * the stars. a religious Idea which certainly is not born of ghost-worship. . in Animism.266 THE MAKING OF RELIGION and how to tempt them into sticks and stones. blood is shed. does not So logically need the doctrine of spirits as given matter. men just emerged men who are in- volved in dread of ghosts. among the most backward peoples known to from the palaeolithic stage us. . This Being has not the notes of degeneration his home we . Fetishism would thus be really secondary. seeing that He is lord of heaven and earth. To him God. We under advancing social conditions. Max Miiller's doctrine of the Infinite were viable. . the doctrine of spirits. in it is secondary or not. . and for him no or in a house. do not need an hypothesis of Original Sin as a cause of degeneration. and obscured by rites of another origin) the faith in a Being who created or constructed the world who was from time beyond memory or conjecture who is primal. and. who makes for righteousness.' not in a hill no smokes. . some of its aspects. in what we take to be its earliest known form.' ex hypothesi. . historically. Nevertheless we meet. far we can go. I In their hearts. dwelleth not in temples made with hands neither is worshipped . vdthout the other ' elements of religion. what he does not seem to provide. These arts become lucrative and are backed by the cleverest men. for by these men. as though He needed any thing and hath made of one blood all nations of men . a cause and modus of degeneration. and who loves mankind. but not farther. . as to the fact of priority in evolution. but as we nowhere find Fetishism alone. with men's hands. and Theism. . and by the apparent evidence of prophecies by con- Thus every known kind of degeneration in religion is inevitably introduced as a result of the theory of Animism. if Mr. that made the world and all things therein. we cannot say. ancestral ghosts are not worshipped. vulsionaries. on their Ups. whether Fetishism logically needs. in their moral training find (however blended with barbarous absurdities.

from the bonds of Time and the manacles of Space. at moments. and have our That the words of St. Paul are literally true. we have study of anthropology. To scientific opinion. is only too obvious. then. as a thing by no means necessarily beyond a reasonable man's power to conceive. That in this God we have our being. though He be not far from every live. after if 267 feel Him. and : find one of us being.THE OLD DEGENERATION THEORY that they should seek the Lord.' for in Him we Him. as to the feeling after a God who needs not anything at man's hands. haply they might and move. as far as they are matters of been led by nothing but the . That these two beliefs. the study of anthropology seems to us to demonstrate.' in so far as somewhat of ours may escape. these conclusions. the earlier pari of this treatise is intended to suggest. have subject to degeneration in the religions of the world. the nature of things and of the reasoning faculty does not seem to give the lie to the old Degenera(a commonly been tion theory. So far. however attained ' point on which we possess no positive evidence).

to the doctrine of surviving human souls. attached to a stone — j . a shape of the widely diffused conception of a Moral Supreme Being. so Prophets hunger in an eternity inconspicuous. were strangely indifferent to the animistic element in religion. and the fire of Sinai. The exclusive admirer of the hypothesis of Totemism will find evidence for his belief in worship of the golden calf and The partisan of nature-worship will insist on the bulls. in the. when our information begins) envisaged in anthropomorphic form. or a kind of fetish-god. Jehovah's connection with storm. the theorist who believes in ancestor. They.worship as the key of all the creeds will see in Jehovah a developed ancestral to All ghost. as far as our knowledge extends. and enjoyment of God is confessedly In short. thunder. Thus. but gradually purged of all local traits by the unexampled and unique inspiration of the great Prophets. they have carried Theism to its . of course. Just as the is hunger after righteousness of the their hope of finally sating that of sinless bliss intense. On the other hand. at least. and so. at first (or.263 THE MAKING OF RELIGION XVI THEORIES OF JEHOVAH speculation on the early history of religion is apt end in the endeavour to see how far the conclusions can be made to illustrate the faith of Israel. to that element the purification of the of Animism which is priceless — soul in the light of the hope of eternal life. whoever accepts our suggestions will incline to see. \ perhaps an ancient sepulchral stele of some desert sheikh. early forms of belief in Jehovah.

Oriental scholars (with rare exceptions). in an early age. — — — . from this corruption. while always retaining its original ethical aspect and sanction. that — We . over the nature. These circumstances must be our excuse for venturing on to this difficult ground. know that Israel had. This is certainly a strange result of a religion which. has Animism for its basis. Accadian.THEORIES OF JEHOVAH austere extreme ' 269 Him ' — though He slay me. and quantity of foreign influence Chaldsean. while some Oriental scholars have borrowed from popular anthropology without much critical discrimination. therefore examine certain forms of the animistic hypothesis as applied to account for the religion of Israel. yet will I trust in — while unconcerned about the rewards of Animism. — and relatively peaceful tribal Given the materials as we know them. the conception of the moral Eternal we know that. Egjrptian. except that such was the will of God in the mysterious education of the world. How mysterious that education has been is best known to all who have studied the political and social results of Totemism. Why matters went thus in Israel and not elsewhere we know not. * It is probably impossible for us to trace with accuracy The wise and the rise of the religion of Jehovah. But we are of hostile groups into large societies. . On the face of it a perfectly crazy and belief on the face of it meant for nothing degrading but to make the family a hell of internecine hatred Totemism rendered possible nay. conception was contaminated and anthropomorphised and we know that it was rescued. inevitable the union . over ' the amount of later doctrine interpolated into the earlier texts. or Assyrian. we never should have educated the world thus and we do not see why it should thus have been done. We The topic is one in which special knowledge of Hebrew and other Oriental languages seems absolutely indispensable but anthropological speculators have not been . according to the anthropological theory. learned dispute endlessly over dates of documents. in a great degree. at an early age. source.

For my part. other races. still persevered in by admonished her. like the rest of the says. Huxley is hard put to it for ' when he looks ' evidence of ancestor-worship or ghost-worship in Israel for indications of these rites in the singular attached to the veneration of parents in the Fourth weight Scietice and Hebreto Tradition. An example of anthropological theory concerning Jehovah was put forth by Mr. abiding. He denied to the most backward races both and religious sanction of ethics. A reference in Deuteronomy xxvi. Monica till St. Huxley's general idea of religion as it is on the lowest known level of material culture must have passed criticised. cult or. p. as Israel did among a people who elaborately fed the has of the departed might pick up a trace of a custom. the Israelites had passed through a period of mere ghost -worship. and had advanced through ancestorworship and Fetishism and Totemism to the theological level at which we find them in the Books of Judges and Samuel. and to say.270 THE MAKING OF RELIGION very anthropomorphic. might possess. of the tithes dedigiven aught for the dead race which abode cated to the Levites and the poor. in a rather torpid condition in Sheol. like ' — through which the ancestors of Israel like other people — has already been known condition of savagery. 361. ' Op. for centuries among the Egyptians. according to Mr.^ Mr. a late pious imposture) does not prove much. He was demonstrably. St. and totally ignorant of the conditions of the problem. in error as to the facts. and therefore could not start from the idea that Israel.' ^ But why does he thiak the Israelites did all this ? in the lowest historically ' ghosts. . world. 14 (Deuteronomy being. Huxley. cit. Huxley. would not be of much practical use to a worshipper.' he I see no reason to doubt that. Of the hallowed things I have not namely. ex hypothesi. the giving of food for ' ' The Hebrew — A — — the dead. Ambrose But Mr. the belief in possessed. an Eternal making for righteousness. The Hebrew is there bidden to remind himself of the stay of his ancestors in Egypt. though unconsciously.

telling us what the Fuegians were before contact .' Possibly there is. * : of course. or very slight * Cook [Captain development. an absence.' Long may children It is really too farpractise this excellent compromise fetched to reason thus People were bidden to honour their parents. hard bestead is he who has to ghost-worship. as it stands. along with an absence of religious ideas generally. by way of the valuable hypothesis that Jehovah was a fetish stone which had been a grave-stone. are so full and minute in their descriptions of the various heresies into which Israel was eternally lapsing. Had ancestor-worship been a pecM niignon of Israel. Huxley really finds it safer to suppose that references to ancestor-worship in the Bible were obliterated by late monotheistic editors. and must ! ' : * ! ' : ' ' ! not be allowed to lapse again. we usually find. . The Hebrews' indifference to the departed soul is.worship . a slip of the pen. 308. Huxley in finding ancestor .THEORIES OF JEHOVAH Commandment. the Prophets would have let Israel hear their mind on it. there is a good deal to be said for that speculation. as a compromise between Monotheism and Hard. Mr. who. Cook]. none the less. and was kept in the Ark on the plausible pretext that it was the two Tables of the Law However. On the whole subject he writes : especially — when we consider their Where the levels of mental nature and social progress are lowest. Herbert Spencer is not more successful than Mr. of ancestor -worship.' Mr. Huxley goes on The Ark of the Covenant ma}^ have been a relic of ancestor. in fact. would be an excellent compromise between ancestor-worship and Monotheism. . a puzzle.worship among the Hebrews.' reason in that fashion This comes of training in the use of the weapons of precision of science. Egyptian education so important an element in Mr. or perhaps a lingam. p. . He adds The Fifth Commandment. ' Science and Hebrew Tradition. Huxley's theory.' is ^ 271 The Fourth Commandment. Mr.

Spencer in 1876) it may not be trusted at all. or after the bones. ceases when the corpses are tied up and buried. and I have found one native witness. and who certainly shows no traces If the Fuegians are not ancestorof European ideas. worshippers. p. Spencer's scheme.' Being among tribes not thus settled. though The spot selected is usually near the camp. is inconceivable. this Being was not developed out of . to the eyes of Captain Cook. Mr. so far as the scanty evidence have shown that (as known to may be trusted. carried about for a while. no anthropologist. . but a mariner who saw and knew little of the Fuegians. ancestor-worship. place for so large a camp is chosen. is precisely of the sort against which Major Ellis warns us. naturally. * wor' » ^ Some Prill.272 THE lilAKING OF RELIGION with Europeans had introduced foreign ideas. or after they are burned. if it exists. I have not discovered other evidence to this effect. are exposed on platforms. the Andamanese possessing a moral Supreme Being. on Mr. Yet many Australian tribes possess a moral they are not. 182. cannot be fairly well developed till society reaches the settled groups whose burial-places are in their level of Hence the development of a moral Supreme midst.^ The more a religion consists in fear of a moral guardian of conduct. by sacrifice or rite. King Billy.' and the I have looked for it. where the supply of food is ' adequate. persistence in ghostpropitiation. p. of his Majesty's ship Endeavour. the less does it show itself.' Mr. said there were no appearances of rehgion among them and we are not told b}^ him or others that they were ancestor. Australians ' apparently. The evidence of Captain Cook.' Probably they are not but they do possess a Being who reads their hearts.' which. show us not much Supreme Being. In fact ghost-worship. in Mr. Soc. 306. to the celebration of the mysteries near one of these burying-places. ' worshippers. though ' We The ancestor-worshippers. Spencer places the Andamanese on the same level as the Fuegians. have cemeteries. Spencer's hypothesis.^ By that hypothesis. Australian tribes ^ The Tshi-spcaking Races.

the law against self-bleeding and cutting off the hair for the dead. xxvi. if ancestor-worship existed. We . then. « Ibid. 14) about I have not Hence. as they undeniably do scold Israel for every other kind of conceivable heresy. this gives away the whole case For. though correctly.worship.' must be that ancestor-worship had developed as far as nomadic habits allowed. Principles of Sociology. argues that nomadic habits * ' : 1 are unfavourable to evolution of the ghost-theory. then. and human. the Aryans. semi-divine. Mr. Coming to the Hebrews. Spencer then assigns.' is ' ' ' * ' * Cf. Mr. ex hypothesi. without the cause. and the text (Deut. is refuted by facts. before it was repressed by a ^ But whence came that higher worship higher worship. were ^ Where we regarded as divine. as evidence for ancestorworship in Israel. fasting. The Prophets were unusually outspoken men. who. p.' the Divine Being among nomads who do not find. 314. according to their remoteness. Spencer argues that the silence of their legends (as to ancestor. while still nomadic.' ^ Alas.worship) is but a negative fact. do you evolve a Supreme Being ? Obviously not out of ancestor. ! the final fruit of the ghost-flower ? If you cannot have an established ancestor-worship till you abandon nomadic habits. ' But we may fairly argue that if Israel had been given to ancestor-worship (as might partly be surmised from the mystery about the grave of Moses) the Prophets would not have spared them for their crying.' They are. 317. Spencer. mourning dresses. they were not likely to be silent about ancestor-worship. the Spencerian theory have the effect. indeed . rather heedlessly. Mr. 316. Spencer's own silence about savage Supreme Beings. the Divine Being. which may be as misleading as negative facts usually are. T . and nomadic habits are unfavourable even to the ordinary ghost.THEORIES OF JEHOVAH 273 shipped ancestors. p. how did the Australian and other nomads develop the Supreme Being. if all men began as nomads. worship of ancestors. Principles. how. remember their great-grandfathers. the conclusion given aught thereof for the dead. witness Mr. p. and.

This was not a sajang. One of John Nicholson's native adorers killed himself on news of that warrior's death.' ^ It may be usual to regard inflictions. a token of recklessness caused by a sorrow which makes void the world. ' Jeremiah xvi. argues a similar indifference Once more.^ . Deuteronomy xxxiv. themselves unto Baal-Peor. neither shall men give them the cup of consolation to drink for their father or their mother. ' ' * ' ' ' against Beth-peor but no man knoweth of his sepulchre to this day. as by Achilles. nor cut themselves. and. nor make any baldness between your eyes for Neither shall men lament for the dead (Deut. to personal charm. in a valley of the land of Moab.' is usually taken by commentators as a reference to the ritual of gods who are no gods. 1).^ * Ye shall not make any cuttings in your flesh for the dead. But one has seen a man strike himself a heavy blow on receiving news of a loss not by death. 6. and I venture to fancy that cuttings and gashings at funerals are merely a more violent form of appeal to a counter-irritant of grief. 28. again. and ate the sacriThey joined fices of the dead. to comfort them for the dead counter-irritant to grief) . prove ancestor-worship in Israel. as sacrifices to the ghost of the dead.' may indicate a dread of a nascent worship The scene of the defection in of the great leader.' because the Jews were to be removed from their homes. mourner's hair. over ' ' . 28. 6. such as cutting. But it rather seems to indicate an acquiescence in foreign burial All this additional evidence does not do much to rites.274 THE MAKING OF EELIGION whicti seems to have intervened immediately after the cessation of nomadic habits ? There are obvious traces of grief expressed in a *Ye shall not cut primitive way among the Hebrews. xiv. though the secrecy of the burial of Moses. 7. nor make themselves bald for them neither shall men tear themselves for them in (by way of mourning. What is left worth living for ? The sacrifice of the sacrifice to the Manes of Nicholson. . yourselves. ^ ^ Leviticus xis. by mourners. them. nor print any marks upon you. the text in Psalm cvi.

Mr. the hearth was the altar. because of their nomadic habits. of so marked a feature in Hebrew religion but we are referred to 1 Sam.' till he got hold of ' ' * T 2 . Otherwise it must have been clearly denounced by the Prophets among the other heresies of Israel. Spencer omitted And how does the facts so invaluable to their theory Bev. 1 Sam.' Of course . Oxford. Oxford. His second citation is so unlucky as to con the chief of the tradict his observation that of course tribe was the priest of the cult.THEORIES OF JEHOVAH 276 Psalm cvi. but what a pity that Mr. there is no direct proof. in Judges xvii. is ' : obviously a later restatement of this addiction to the Moabite gods. neither is hf even the priest in his own house. ancestor. . Every family. and bowed down to their gods. it loas fully developed. W. according to Mr. is indicated in Numbers xxv. Though ancestor-worship among the Hebrews could not be fully developed. for whatever reason. He consecrated one of his own sons who became his priest. according to the Eev. and the Psalm adds they ate the sacrifices of the dead. that is. 19.worship among the Hebrews was. and the people did eat. ! * oddly enough. 29 and Judges xviii. the head of the family the priest. The bond which kept together the families of a tribe was its common religion. rudimentary. Huxley and Mr.. And Israel joined himself unto Baal-peor. a family dinner This hardly covers the large assertions made by party... XX. is not the chief of his tribe (Ephraim).' Psalm cvi. ancestor-worship in Israel could not be developed at once into the worship of * Jehovah.' It is plain that.' * . Therefore. Oxford know ? Well. Micah. Spencer. Mr. of course. xx. was firmly held together by the worship of its ancestors. . the priest of the cult. xviii.. like every old Eoman and Greek family. the worship of its reputed ancestor. as being at the most rudimentary. 29 makes Jonathan say that David wants to go to a family sacrifice. The chief of the tribe was. where Israel runs after the girls and the gods of Moab And Moab called the people unto the sacrifices of their gods . A. Beth-peor. at the utmost.

of any remote reference to a chief's being priest of his ancestral ghosts. Finding. that learned German cites the story of Micah as a proof that the different tribes or clans had different religions. a suit of clothes.276 THE MAKING OF RELIGION * a casual young Levite. moss-troopers of the tribe of Dan then kidnapped this valuable young Levite. and so on. pp. when first observed by Europeans. And all this. * Certainly it could. Levi. Eachel. and board and lodging. according to our clerical authority. then. while Totemism could do so. we find Totemism and the belief in a benevolent Supreme Being co-existing among savages. but as.^ Israelite religion Mr. Australia). sajdng that the new position was more creditable and lucrative. Be unto me a father and a priest. we cannot possibly say dogmatically whether a rough monotheism or whether Totemism came first in order of evolution. . because the Danites asked the young Levite whether it was not better to be priest to a clan than to an individual ? ! It is as a patron offered a rich hving to somebody's private chaplain. could not give the germs of the clan or tribal organisation. In place. Oxford next avers that the earliest form of the was Fetishism or Totemism. to History of Ancient Israel.' This is another example of Stade's logic. as he believes.' for ten shekels per annum. in many regions (America. This holds as good of ' * Short Introduction Stade i 403. and said. names suggestive of Totemism in Simeon. For example. This would hardly prove a difference of religion between the individual and the if parish. 84. he argues. This must be so. and seized a few idols which Micah had permitted himself to make. For monotheism. is evidence for ' ancestor-worship All this appears to be derived from some incoherent speculations of Stade. 83. we have here a man of one tribe who is paid rather handsomely to be Some family chaplain to a member of another tribe. Stade leaps to the conclusion that Totemism in Israel was prior to anything resembling monotheism.

Maori or Melanesian Mana. it seems a pity that the clergy should interfere in these ' ^ ' matters. which Mr. Israelites.' a thing most incident to loving fathers. 90). and is set in examinations ^ We also learn from Mr. This is. ancient primitive peoples religion furnishes a motive in the case of none did it become for law and morals so with such purity and power as in that of the Kumai. return to Mr. . From the history of the Witch of Endor. History of Israel. . p. Oxford's book is only noticed here because it is meant for a popular manual. I see Elohim. Oxford's popular manual of German Biblical conjecture that 'Jehovah was not represented as a loving Father. of Jehovah's holiness had nothing moral in it conception 'In all This rather contradicts Wellhausen (p. and ' uncommonly dangerous to her life. Mr. ! ' . Mr. The point.' . and his opinion filters into a cheap hand-book.' Moved to be the phantasm of the dead Samuel. Spencer's efforts in the same quest. proved by this hallucination the Witch uttered a veridical premonition.' ' the vaguely powerful ' — in fact X. is that Elohim is a interesting.THEORIES OF JEHOVAH Israel (if 277 once totemistic) as it does of Pawnees or Stade has overlooked these well-known facts.' ^ We began more dogmatic by examining Mr. Again. but as a Being easily roused to wrath. meaning the supernatural. criticised Mr. however. Huxley's account of the evolution from ghost-cult to the cult of Jehovah. Oxford and Stade. . term equivalent to Eed Indian Wahan. stade. As Mr. 437. ' : . . psychically. Huxley sees no reason to regard as other than a We now sincere statement of what really occurred. . Henry Foker says. / ' Wellhausen. i. Huxley's endeavours to find traces of ancestor-worship (in his opinion the origin next of Jehovah-worship) among the Israelites. and the We assertions of Mr. Oxford avers that the old Israelites knew The no distinction between physical and moral evil. 406. totally adverse to her own interests. he gathers These Elohim that the Witch cried out. Fijian Kalou.

Huxley reasons. like the highest God. but all atua are not 'original gods. because an : hallucination of the Witch of Endor (probably still in- completely developed) is called by her Elohim. King). not in kind. . the creative. and other original of his making. which are the human soul All Tongan gods are after its separation from the body. or El. but Elohim is also used of the highest Divine Being. ' Science and Hebrew Tradilicm. are carefully and absolutely disgods criminated from the atua. Td-li-y-Tooboo." down to the bottom of the earth. at last.' He.' If Jehovah was thus supposed to differ only in degree from the undoubtedly zoomorphic or anthropomorphic ** gods of the nations. He quotes Mariner. and unpropitiated by food or libation. at one time. We demur when. Huxley now enforces his theory by a parallel between the religion of Tonga and the religion of Israel under the Judges. he is immortal and without beginning. Huxley to differ from a ghost only in degree. 299. That. rather supposing him to be eternal. however. which was supposed to exist between the different Elohim was one of degree.'^ whose statement of his avers that there is a supreme Tongan being origin they had no idea. p. never was a ghost. because he. not of kind." why is it to be assumed that he He was also was not thought to have a human shape ? — ' ^ * ' thought to have a human shape. differs from a ghost in kind. the Eternal of He occasionally inspires the How (elective Tonga. Mr. was inspired by ' : ' ' ' ' ' ' ' Jehovah. any more than Saul. by some no doubt exists on that head. Elohim. ' ii. theorists is not where we demur. but often a How is not inspired at all by Ta-h-yTooboo. 127. therefore the highest Elohim is said by Mr.' unserved by priests.278 THE MAKING OF RELIGION This particular example of Elohim was a phantasra of the dead. in Hebrew belief.' atua {Elohiin). therefore the highest Divine Being is of the same The difference genus as a ghost so Mr. His name is Ta-li-y-Tooboo=" Wait-thereHe is a great chief from the top of the sky Tooboo.

oblation. though both are atua. that the conceptions of ghost and Supreme Being are different. your god not in the cup. or some bishop had made a misstatement of this kind.' but the difference between a phantasm of a dead man and the Deity they would admit. cit. wakan. he was not a deified To the lower. In the case of Ta-li-y-Tooboo there is no cup filled for the god. mataboole who acted as master of the ceremonies said. ' ' Science and Hebrew Tradition. meant that the god was either a deified ghost. The ghost comes from. " Give it to your god. at any rate. If the god. ii. and was supposed to be occupied by the ' When the first cup of Kava ivas filled. We have shown. the god himself. and a ghost. I conceive. not only in kind. all of. a being of like nature to these. and the Tongan Eternal receives no * : ' . does not. contrary to Mr. ghost. Huxley's averment.THEORIES OF JEHOVAH Surely 279 there is a difference in hind between an immortal God. eternal." and it was offered. Ah. or tried to show.'^ ^Before any cup is the man by the side of the bowl says " The Kava filled is in the cup"' (which it is not). * The sacrifice. had no priest. how Mr. then the chief place was left vacant. but in origin. if Mr.' non-ghostly Tongan gods the animistic habit of sacrifice had been extended. but not yet to the Supreme Being. — ' ' . ' ' ' ' ' . the animistic theory the Supreme Being. or the Duke of Argyll. Gladstone. halou. or a being of like nature to these.' ^ This is incorrect. Jcalou. or. p. Many people call a ghost supernatural they also call God supernatural. 'and the mataboole " " Give it to but the Kava is answers. A ghost-god should receive food or libation. wahan are not Gods. like Ta-li-y-Tooboo. Huxley. says Mr. and depends on. . as originally thought All Gods are Elohim. though only as a matter of form. p. 335. Huxley says that Ta-li-y-Tooboo did so. to be a difference of kind. or both are Elohim ^the unknown X. 205. Elohim. Mr.' ^ But as Ta-li-y-Tooboo had no sacrifice. ' ' Mariner. Op. 331.

But that practice makes against the ghost-theory. or a god constructed on ghostly lines. men may not think it civil or safe to leave another set of powers out. Darumulun or Puluga. of Jehovah. and NyanIf kupon. he leaves his high God severely alone. transference. On a God who never was a ghost men may come to confer sacrifices (which are not made to Baiame and the rest) because. of more advanced races. or Andaman. may in other regions be transferred from ghost-gods to the Supreme Being. a Supreme Being does we may argue that a piece of animistic not connected with the Supreme Being in Australia ritual. v«r . and Dendid. unless. Ahone. There seems to be nothing incredible or illogical in the theory of such receive sacrifice. But man naturally anthropises he does not thereby demonstrate that they his deities were once ghosts. But we have shown that among the lowest races neither are ghosts worshipped by sacrifice. and on ' ' : of careless reading. by on the anthropomorphised pre-prophetic accounts. being in the habit of thus propitiating one set of bodiless powers. these sacrifices afford the best presumption that Jehovah was a ghost-god. slave of fetishes and spectres. such as we all make daily. by The proof therefore rests definition. then (as in the case of Taa-roa). receive food We have also instanced many Supreme Beings offerings. It is manifest that we cannot prove Jehovah to be a ritual and ghost by the parallel of a Tongan god. who do not sniff the savour of any offerings. As regards the sacrifices to Jehovah. like a large number of passions and is the savages.280 THE MAKING OF RELIGION ! Huxley would have crushed him But it is a mere error ghost. the sweet savour which he was supposed to enjoy (contrary to the opinion of the Prophets). nor does the Supreme Being. not connected with his creed in Virginia or Africa (where ghost-gods do receive sacrifice). who never was a ghost. was not a the ritual. who. By his human very nature. man must clothe all gods with some and attributes.

and steeped in highly developed polytheistic Animism. Israel had been in touch with all manner of races much more advanced than themselves in material culture. how could they transfer to Jehovah the rite which. perincorrigibly after strange gods. Robertson Smith seem to hint. as texts pointed out by Mr. but ' understood that Israel (in the dark backward and have been totemistic.' only the scantiest concern about ancestral ghosts. namely by transference. by reason of nomadic habits. paid by a race which. or Andamanese). the Israelites went a-whoring easier). haps. It may therefore be tentatively suggested that early Israel had its Ahone in a Being perhaps not yet named Jehovah. Bushmen. sacrifice to ancestors (as we have shown that there is very scant reason for supposing that they did). like the Australians. by our hypothesis. Regarding Jehovah as a revived memory of the moral Supreme Being whom Israel must have known * in extremely remote ages (unless Israel was less favoured than Australians. and so forth. for the sacrifices to Jehovah. it ' Of course.' Speculation on subjects so remote must be conjectural. respect paid to stones and trees. perhaps by reason of nomadic habits. however. and a system of sacrifices. from which Israel emerges with Jehovah for God. account for sacrifices to Jehovah. we are met by a If the Israelites did not difficulty of our own making.worship. but our suggestion would. There was also worship of teraphim. we might look on the sacrifices to him as an adaptation from the practices of religion among races more settled than Israel. to disentangle the foreign and the native elements.THEORIES OF JEHOVAH 281 In the attempt to account thus. "We then find an historical tradition of secular contact between Israel and Egypt. they are not proved to have offered to ancestors ? This is certainly a hard problem. harder (or perhaps because we know so very little of the early history of the Hebrews. ' ' It is impossible. perhaps. According to their own traditions. and more civilised. Israel entertained. According to their history. of time) ia abysm may also .' was never much given to ancestor.

' This is monolatry. of is one of these Mr. and lifted up mine hand unto the seed of the house of Jacob. 6 In the day when I chose Israel. that there are very few people (s ?) without additional gods. This follows. and made myself known unto them in the land of Egypt. apparently. be civilisations. grants. the God of Abraham. and without polytheistic gods from to select a heavenly chief. accounted for as deified ancestors. during their residence in the land of Goshen (and a fortiori before it).' why. in the Egyptian bondage. and. Nor do we learn out of what polytheistic deities Jehovah was selected. the Israelites knew nothing of Jehovah. ' had been course. revived an old. breaks down on the close relation between the ethical code and the theological creed.282 THE MAKING OF RELIGION in contact with great sacrificing. polytheistic Mr. often of a very high order. as usual. later.' ^ They were polytheistic idolators. with certainty. . nor for what reason. Huxley gods. with a relatively Supreme Being.' The Biblical account is that the God of Moses's fathers. however.' and ' the ethical code.' as they had obviously done. giving his name as I am that I am translation (Exodus iii. as is Jehovah. The hypothesis. 6. Huxley supposes that. we are not informed. ' We Science and Hebrew Tradition. as the only god to whom worship is due on the part of that nation. among low savages. 351. ' the idols of Egypt. a half-obliterated creed of the ancient nomadic BeniIsrael. .' Ta-U-y-Tooboo. while he seems to slur the essential distinction between ghost-gods and the Eternal. comes into closer relation with the theological creed. but without ' whom ancestor-worship. p. They were no longer to defile themselves vrith ' Jehovah ' : * ' . enHghtened Moses in Sinai. * P. Whence came the moral element in the idea of ? Mr. 14 We are to understand that Moses. gives no theory of liow these gods came into belief. Huxley. 349. from Ezekiel XX. except the suggestion that 'the polytheistic theology has become modified by the selection of the cosmic or tribal god.' without prejudice to the right of other nations to worship other gods. which cannot. a religious uncertain) reformer.

we see mainly from Deut. we are not informed. Luke's. 20). was taken as a tribal god by all the Israelite tribes . p.' And who was El ? ^ Moses was not the first discoverer of the faith. or (2) the god of the Kenites. 4. W. xxxiii. through duction to the History of Ancient Israel (pp. Oxford's undeniably short way with Jehovah. who. A.. That Jehovah was not the original god of Israel (as the Bible impudently alleges) but was the god of the Kenites. How all this proves that Moses was a great impostor. Soho. dwelt among the people of Judah Jethro being a priest of Midian. was a Kenite. Oxford.A. by the Eev. Wellhausen that Jehovah was originally a family or tribal god. as we saw. Judges v. nally the God of the Kenites. the Lord came from Sinai.THEORIES OF JEHOVAH really 283 know no more about the matter. The second text mentions Jehovah's out of Seir and Sinai.. and we know of no such analogous case in the ethnographic field. Vicar of St. 19. M. and shone from Mount Paran. Jehovah was only a special name of El. Again. Huxley seems to think that he was.' Probably not. Wellhausen's and other German ideas filter into Short Intropopular traditions. The third text says going up that Jethro. 5.' but (1) Moses's family or tribal god.' as the poet says. current within a powerful circle. says either of the family of Moses or of the tribe of Joseph. 443 note.. 2. Here follows Mr.' Moses was the founder of the Israelite reliJehovah. . Moses's Kenite (or Midianite) father-in-law.' rose up from Seir.. Oxford whether Jehovah was a god of Moses's ' ' ' ' A ' ' * ' ' ' . his family or tribal god. perhaps origigion. and from the history of Jethro. ' ' ' ' ' ' • History of Israel.' I profess my inability to comprehend. and that Jehovah was not the original God of Israel. Wellhausen himself had explained Jehovah as a family or tribal god. 16. either of the family of Moses (tribe of Levi) or of the tribe of Joseph.' How a family could develop a Supreme Being all to itself.' It seems to be all one to Mr. according to Judges i.' The first text says that. but Mr. according to Moses.

is the god of the Inca family. to be sure. — few difficulties. it is to the last degree unexampled (within my knowledge) that one tribe. Oxford whether Jehovah was a god of Moses's family Have We We ' Religion of Semites. Jehovah was a Kenite god. in any stage of culture. Jehovah came out from Sinai. and. by foreign The learned Stade. ^ have seen that it seemed to make no difference to Mr. If. a Kenite god. of a Supreme Being. must ask for a single instance of a family or tribe. . in Egypt. or family. the Kenites were a half-AralD Semitic people connected with Israel. there having been a Theophany at Sinai. a family god who is also the Creator and is later accepted as such by all the other tribes. Peru will not help us not the Creator. and so forth ? Unless Israel had this rare illluck (which Israel denies) of course Israel must have had a secular tradition. as such. Hurons. Pawnees. One may ask for instances of such a thing in any known race. but the Sun. possesses. that mountain was regarded as one of his seats. on the other hand. in Israel's sojourn in Egypt.' makes a good deal of difference For in a ! Yet it really complex of speaking one language. in a complex of semi-barbaric but not savage tribes of one speech. Dinkas. Andamanese. Blackfeet. because. as Exodus asserts. Indians of British Guiana. Negroes. owning a private deity who happened to be the Maker and Kuler of the world. may disbeUeve religions. however dim. were likely to be dimmed. critics and manual-makers no knowledge of the science of comparative religion ? Are they unaware that peoples infinitely more backward than Israel was at the date supposed have already moral Supreme Beings acknowledged over vast tracts of territory ? Have they a tittle of positive evidence that early Israel was benighted beyond the darkness of Bushmen. all to itself. and may very well have retained traditions of a Supreme Being which.284 THE MAKING OF RELIGION ' tribe or quite the reverse. but that revolutionary opinion is not necessarily binding on us and involves a tribes. was accepted by all the tribes. Pachacamac.

130. Op. may protest * who In ' preferred such names short.' ^ In that case the name was long anterior to the residence in Egypt. contradictory. : hopelessly inconsistent with Exodus iv. 85 See Professor Robertson's Ea7-ly Religion of Israel for a list of these . from the Hebrew sacra. deity in Palestine. so Zipporah flint.reading intellectual middle classes of a theory so vague. and is said by After the revelation of the critics to be very archaic. Bush. an Egyptian. so dogmatically handled.THEOEIES OF JEHOVAH 285 The former (with the alteror tribe or a Kenite god. " Histoire du Peuple d'Israel. Of course.' she said. an expert in Biblical against the presentation to the manual . Oxford collects from German writers. religion. and their child. or criticism. p. Whatever all this may mean. where Moses's Kenite wife reproaches him for a ceremony of Therefore the Kenite differed his. 24-26. it does not look as if Zipporah expected such rites as circumcision in the faith of a Kenite husband. nor does it favour the idea that the sacra of Moses were of Kenite ' — origin. 23. Thus M. the whole subject. perhaps Jehovah was a local god of Sinai. but clearly because of the circumcision not a Kenite practice. at a khan. not of her.' Each is inconsistent theory. on the subject. p. and (by all analogy) so impossible as Mr. Eenan derives the name of Jehovah from Assyria. nobody ever knew why. * appeased Jehovah's wrath by circumcising her boy with a 'A bloody husband art thou to me. anxious to slay Moses. we have no El Shaddai and Elohim. citing Schrader. i.* certainty as * * Oeschichte des Volkes Israel. cit. with the other "Wellhausen's fancy is inconsistent with Stade's is all that we know of religious development . is mere matter of dissentient opinion among scholars.^ Without being a one scholar. Burning Jehovah was Zipporah. from Aramaised Chaldseanism. native of Joseph's family or tribal god) is Wellhausen's The latter is Stade's. But again. The passage is very extraordinary. Jehovah met Moses and his Kenite wife. or a provincial He was known to very ancient sages.

The care for the departed. are conspicuous for acumen the humblest layman can see that.' there are moral chapters the ghost tells his judges in Amenti what sins he has not committed. and. But Mr. the occasional vagaries of . perhaps. had he been pre- If the creed of sent. the intense pre-occupation with the future life. Yet again. the virtue of unselfish generosity. retained only as much of ethics as is under divine sanction among the Km'nai. They are just as much forbidden in the nascent morality of savage peoples. But one may protest against criticising the Bible. Many of ' . that I have no antiquated prejudice against Bibhcal criticism. and in the light of the comThe leading ideas of Wellhausen. far more than its morality. by methods like those which : prove Shakspeare to have been Bacon. out of the land of Egypt. as having no secure historical authority about Moses. One must protest. In the Egyptian Book of the Dead. against the presentation of inconsistent and probably baseless critical hypotheses in the dogmatic brevity of cheap handbooks. Assuredly the Bible must be studied like any other collection of documents. From the mysteries of Mtanga he might have learned. Huxley thinks that it possibly came from the ethical practice and theory of Egypt. are the essential characteristics of the Book of the Dead Israel cared for none of these animistic things. also. historically. for parative method. Jehovah. adaptation from the of the Ka. Moses did not need the Book of the Dead to teach him elementary morals. or Homer. the ritual — . these sins are forbidden in the Ten Commandments. or very little of Moses was certainly these. Huxley advances this opinion tentatively. brought none of these. a sort of Guide to Spirit Land. it hardly answers our question. Whence came the moral as conjectures. which. whence comes the moral element in Jehovah ? Mr. linguistically. example. for criticisms of critics. very eclectic Book of the Dead was superfluous. or of El. he took only the moraUty of Egypt. too. generally.286 THE MAKING OF RELIGION I need hardly say.

They might.THEORIES OF JEHOVAH element in Jehovah ? 287 One may surmise that it was the survival of the primitive divinely sanctioned ethics of the ancient savage ancestors of the Israelite. Obscured. to the what. and gods that sprang from ghosts. tribal. or a bronze knife. Here scientific nescience is wiser than the cocksureness of popular science.a light glory of thy people Israel' — shining.' and restricted and localised by the very national sentiment which they fostered. then. with her whence ghosts and fetish -stones. Blended with the doctrine of our Lord. and recommended by the addition of Animism in its pure and the reward of faith. ' a light to lighten the Gentiles. or sheep to herd. history cannot inform us. could not be developed. these conceptions might be revived by a leader of genius. on our . which ghosts. that flame which illumines the darkest places of the earth. and the a flame how litten. in some degree. in a crisis of tribal fortunes. if our general suggestion meets with any acceptance. and charity in priceless form — — eternal life All this — — the faith of Israel enlightened the world. hope. that what occurred in the development of Hebrew religion was precisely what the Bible tells us . known to them. owing to nomadic habits. however. or seed to sow. In the counsels of eternity Israel was chosen to keep burning. before they had a pot. by acquaintance with the idols of Egypt. is Old and New precisely what occurred. or even a tent over their heads. and anthropology can but conjecture. however obscured with smoke of sacrifice. savage nomadic Israel had the higher religious conceptions proved to exist among several of the lowest known races. these conceptions ' were purified and widened far beyond any local. It appears. did occur. according All this is just Testaments. become the rallying point of a new national sentiment. or national restrictions widened far as the flammantia mcenia mundi by the historically unique genius of the Prophets. as to the Kurnai. This must necessarily seem highly paradoxical to our generation but the whole trend of our If provisional system makes in favour of the paradox.

out of the many races which. by the path of anthropology. showed the comparative indifference of Israel to Animism and ghost-gods. in their most backward culture. . one race endured the education of Israel. had a rude conception of a Moral Creative Being. and gave birth to a greater than Moses and the Prophets. To this result the Logos. listened to the Prophets of Israel.288 THE MAKING OF RELIGION hypothesis. relatively supreme. has led us. as Socrates says. might be expected to occur if.

or practically Supreme. Being. Space forbids a discussion of all known selected. showing itself dimly either in the Prytanis.289 XVII CONGLUaiOll glance backward at the path which we through the jungles of early religions. the barbaric and the civilised polytheisms easily take their position in line. or in Fate. where the god addressed Indra. nothing has been said of the religion u . etherealised deity of advanced philosophic speculation. and this essay pretends to be no more than a sketch not an exhaustive survey of creeds. behind and above the Immortals . but the track of a solitary explorer . Max Miiller's Henotheism. It is not a highway. or in Mr. Granting our hypothesis of an early Supreme Being among savages. such as Zeus . to dwell on these civilised religions. in the We may now have tried to cut — — — . our object being to keep well in view the conception of a Supreme. the lower polytheisms are only alluded to in passing. finally. for our purpose. and are easily intelligible. but not often absolutely lost to religious tradition. from the lowest In polystages of human culture up to Christianity. for the moment. envisaged as supreme. It has not been necessary. but may here be stated. or President of the Immortals. religions. or Soma. only typical specimens have been Thus. obscured later by ancestor-worship and ghost-gods. and is adored in something Hke a monotheistic spirit or. Its limitations are The higher and even obvious. or Agni is. theism that conception is necessarily obscured.

who is not a divinised aspect of nature. 'with an inclination to substitute. had been for all we know. on its of the great Chinese empire. Sinologists. 352. upholding the tradition of the ancient faith. * — But Mr. China too has its ancient Supreme Being. while affection for my theory leads to prefer documentary evidence in its favour.290 THE MAKING OF EELIGION It appears to consist. to be If the personal Supreme Being. or the creed in Taa-roa. not a maker. if it contains nothing more august. by putting forward Heaven in place of Shang-ti. ii. theory. that the sage was. was restoring an older conception? This. in Beings who are eternal. for that known to more ancient Shang-ti. the religion. Shang-ti. ' ' — . As matters stand. who were before earth was or sky was. of course. and tends to Dr. and used in more ancient books personal ruling deity. Thus.' — ^ settled is purely a question of evidence. as " Dr. Tylor's affection for his theory leads him. it seems to me probable that ancient ' Prim. to that opinion . long ere man had asked himself. il . in fact. The Chinese religion of Heaven is also coloured by Chinese political conditions Heaven (Tien) corresponds to the Emperor. the name of Tien. Heaven. Brinton says.' If so. not a new revealer. before the idea of spirit evolved. in : harmony with his general is different It seems. so far.' says Mr. beneath that of the Zunis. perhaps. why are we to say that Confucius. * Tylor's reading. Legge charges Confucius. the Emperor above. my me The question can only be settled by specialists. of the worship of Heaven as a great fetishhigher plane. a preserver of old knowledge. Are — ' the heavens material and God spiritual?'" perhaps. thus acting according to the character on which he prided himseK that of a transmitter. god a worship which may well have begun in days. the Chinese religion is. by Mr. Cult. occupies in older documents the situation held by Tien (Heaven) in Confucius's later system. be confounded with Shang-ti. in his religious teaching. Tylor. rather.

. in human life. On the lower plane.CONCLUSION 291 China possessed a Supreme Personal Being. or there is Tien. hints that Shang-ti is merely an imaginary idealised first ancestor. a 2 . neither of them necessarily owing. These are not statements Euhemeristic theory. 119. Cult. anything to Animism. in wide regions of the uncivilised world. a distinguished soldier the Swine God was a hog-breeder who lost his pigs and died of sorrow the God of Gamblers was un decavl. by Animism and ancestor-worship. should now be a god of fact. or Military Sage. the worship of ancestors has invaded " a domain previously occupied by " Naturism and Animism ' : ' Abridged from Prim. Confucius but of course he is not his spirit is merely localised in his temple. Eeville justly observes as follows Not only have we seen that. The spirits are. in origin. King. M. Heaven (with Earth.' ^ . but I do not see that the Chinese facts are contrary to mine. more remote and original than Heaven. about all such explanations of the Supreme Being (say among the Kurnai) as an idealised imaginary first ancestor. Indeed. as everyone This is so knows. powerful that it has given rise to a native theory of Euhemerism. The departmental deities of Chinese polytheism are explained by the Chinese on Euhemeristic principles ' : According to legend. Chinese religion is overrun. Every theorist will force facts into harmony vdth his system. the War God. and therefore must be late). there is the animistic rabble of spirits ancestral or not. was once. just as the Zunis do. On the highest plane is either a personal Supreme Being. that hypothesis. Shang-ti. fed and furnished Nothing shows or l3y men in the usual symbolical way. where the Emperor worships him twice a year as ancestral spirits are . but of Chinese . or Chief. of course. Then there is the political reflection of the Emperor on Eeligion (which cannot exist where there is no Emperor. On worshipped. parent of men). and there is departmental polytheism. ii.

I so far agree with M. and whatever else survives in peasant folk-lore of harvest. that it is. in so many places. Master of life and death. and possessor of divine powers. in Original Gods. perhaps not explicitly formulated. a large admixture of the mythology and ritual connected with the sacrificed Bex Nemorensis. why.' ^ Our task has been limited. . This would. on theories not inconsistent with science. ii. E6ville as to think the belief in ' ghosts and spirits (Mr. The historical aspect of Christianity. the first ancestor is the Maker. Death. be concerned with the attempts to find in the narratives concerning our Lord. Tylor's Animism ') not necessarily postulated in the original indeterminate conception of the Supreme Being. but not till The electric origin of the recently discovered by science.^ spring and / ' After these apologies for the limitations of this essay. This proves that it was not the first ancestor who became God. such as Judaism.' But M. sense that all things whatever are animated and personal. Compare Mr. if not the Creator of the world. therefore. who. Aurora Borealis (whether absolutely certain or not) was we may We ' Histoire des Beligions. Grant Allen's Evolution ' ' ' ' of the Idea of God. in Mr. Spencer's system.' by which he understands the instinctive. began by showing that savages may stumble. M. mainly to examination of the religion of some of the very lowest races. or generally. 107). L'objet de la religion humaine est ndcessairement un esprit (ProUgomines. but much rather the Divine Maker and Beginner of all. further. would demand a separate treatise. differs from mine in that he finds the first essays of religion in worship of aspects of nature (naturisme) and in animism properly so called. and of the highest world-religions. it will be observed. posterior to these but. Frazer's Golden Bough with Mr. This does not seem consistent with his own theory. survey the backward track. and Resurrection of our Lord. became the first ancestor.292 THE MAKING OF RELIGION . and I do not try to look behind what we know historically about early religion. and have stumbled. we do not understand. in this way. 237. properly so called. in the belief of his descendants. in the creed of his adorers. in part. note. E^ville's system. not held by any of his descendants. as arising in the Life. I have not remarked this aspect of belief as much prevalent in the most backward races. E6ville says.

Howitt's. savage or civilised. In 1883 they had not come within his ken. were unfamiHar to Thus. indeed it is part of our case. suggestion. Keville. our need of more and better evidence. in experiments have chiefly. under the heads Melanesiens. if savages blundered (if you please) into a belief in God and the Soul. however obscurely envisaged. therefore. when he will observe that this eminent French authority is ignorant of the facts about these races here produced.' Les Australiens' (ii. in experimental evidence. of scientific theorising on the history of religion. in turn.' alleged ' We evidence. for the savage belief in the supernormal phenomena. as before anthropologists. as before anthropologists. we have exactly the kind of evidence on which all anthropological The relative weakness of that evidence.CONCLUSION an example ' 293 another was the efficacy of . especially that. Nay. Mr. evidence for the fact of exactly the same supernormal pointed out that phenomena in civilised experience. state- We . and the * ' ' • ' compiled by Mr. science reposes. which. Tylor's hypothesis. or facts unknown This peril is of the essence to us. by showing that. say of teleall nonpathy.' Mincopies. experimental psychology We we have even thought-transference. Eeville's Les Eehgions des Peuples Non-Civihs6s. however. Mr. authoriCodrington's. help to originate the defended the nature of our conception of spirits. for subjective psychological experiences. then stated our purpose of examining the We supernormal phenomena. Man's. evidence vTill hardly support any theory of religion. we turned to a court of psychologists in defence of our ties M. Brough Smyth. we had precisely the same evidence as must and does rest upon.' It was. Having thus justified our evidence for the savage belief in supernormal phenomena. 116-143). hinted for curative purposes. new facts. existing Anyone who is in doubt on that head has only to read M. as Dr. we would be the Our very last to deny. on Mr. Such minute and careful inquiries by men closely intimate with the peoples concerned. may upset my theory. these beliefs were not therefore necessarily and essentially false.

least many popular psychologists of the press) appear to be unacquainted with the circumstances.' therefore his mind being sane and healthy the inference seemed to be that — — ' J. quite gravely. as Mr. But non-experimental psychology reposes on the selfexamination of the student. . Experimental psychology.' is asked to resist a too frequent tendency to assume that the minds of every other sane * word He like his own. because he was about to unfold his discovery of the faculty which presents numbers to some minds as visualised coloured numerals. that he never had an hallucination. except by the aid and healthy person must be ^ ' of accidental circumstances. All this was many ' of whom still (at entirely new to psychologists. however. Eichet.I. Galton says. and be prepared to find much to which his own experience can afford little if any clue. Galton also found in his inquiries that occasional hallucinations of the sane are much more prevalent than he had supposed. under Dr. or than science had ever taken into account.. Janet.294 THE MAKING OF RELIGION of subjective experience. in practical life.' Mr. so vivid as to be undistinguishable from reality. One of them informed me. M. The psychologist. Galton's * ' of warning. and on the statements of ments psychological experiences made to him by persons whom he thinks he can trust. ments For the coincidence of such experience with unknown events we have such evidence as. unimaginative in the strict but unusual sense of that ambiguous word. Galton had to warn the unimaginative psychologist in this way.A. for example.' Mr. 85. is admitted by courts of law. The psychoshould inquire into the minds of others as he should logist into those of animals of different races. by hypnotism or otherwise. Professor James. by vivisubject. section (I regret to say) and post-mortem dissection. of course. The evidence is the conduct rather than the statements of the There is also physiological experiment. relies on expericonducted under the eyes of the expert. Hack Tuke. X. M.' needs Mr. if he be.

is usually of the abundant. in this last case. Our evidence and experiences. in this case. analogies in accredited experience. Psychologists at least need not be told that such faculties cannot. unlocalised legend of Coleridge. any more than other human faculties. the psychologist will never dream of procuring contemporary evidence for such a monstrous statement as that an ignorant German wench unconsciously acquired and afterwards subconsciously reproduced huge cantles of dead languages. carried to an extent reply that much less a fact to which he possesses. by virtue of having casually heard a former master recite or read aloud from Hebrew and Greek This legend do psychologists accept on no evidence books. But. certainly of crystal visions and of occasional hallucinations. Galton has replied to that argument His reply covers. by Mr. knowledge. Galton. nothing analogous. following Leibnitz. or passages got up by imagination boggles at. He will swallow an undated. reaching Coleridge on the testimony of rumour. for example. the whole field of psychological faculties little regarded. in experience. unconsciously acquired) we demonstrated by examples that the psychologist will contentedly repose on evidence which is not evidence at all. because it illustrates a theory which is. Nay. than for a fact (say telepathic crystal-gazing) to which he knows. be always evoked for for these faculties class on which the psychologist relies. expressly declares. Sir William Hamilton. Thus. at all. at least. Sully. Mr. discusses the Subconscious (for example. for the mythical German handmaid. he has the analogy of languages learned in childhood. when the psychologist. though. logically. doubtless. a very good theory. and Kant. as Mr.CONCLUSION 296 no sane and healthy mind was ever hallucinated. It covers the whole field of automatism (as in auto! matic writing) perhaps of the divining rod. then. often complex and study and experiment.' Here the psychologist evidence will content him * may for . who is not exactly an imaginative psychologist. and told at least twenty years after the unverified occurrences.

197.. as it is. Note to Du Prel. evidence at ours. ii..' the horror of some of his admirers. cit. or delirious memory. ' I. or shortly before death. the possibility of Coleridge's — — ' — story. Maudsley. the psychologist will venture to accept a case of language not learned. Mr. . but overheard each passage probably but once as somebody recited fragments. Du Prel. Bardolph's security. by Hamilton. 2 Science and Christian Tradition. Huxley was no blind follower of do not call Coleridge's tale impossible. In this instance (that of the mythical maid) the difficulty . Not that I deny. too.. Carpenter. in an anecdote of Goethe's).' 3 Hume. p. But. As Mr. Strong in these analogies. An unknown language overheard is a mere sound . he will probably decHne to examine all. 195.. Philosophy of Mysticism. Huxley of ' says. I refuse to accept it on And I contrast their conduct.. or learned by rote (as Greek.'' The distinction here drawn is so great and obvious that for proof of the German girl's case we need better evidence than Coleridge's rumour of a rumour. the distinctness— of the reproduction.' in swallowing Coleridge's legend. Mr. but. p. I title of am an anything that has a right to the ^ To "impossibility. =* Op. not possessing analogies for telepathic crystal-gazing. a priori. and verbal reproduction of a language not known or learned by rote. during an illness. but reproduced in delirious memory. and the common run of manuals.' ' unlike the psychologists. with their refusal (if they do refuse) to accept the evidence for the automatic writing of not-consciously-known languages (as Massey.i'96 THE MAKING OF RELIGION being forgotten and brought back to ordinary conscious memory. strictly unaware speaking. cited." except a contradiction in terms. is that the original impressions had not the strength that is. on no rote.. 19. I would first draw his attention to the difference between revived memory of a language once known (Breton and Welsh in known examples). Huxley would not call the existence of demons and demoniacal possession ' impossible.

we examined historically the relations of science to 'the marvellous. taking the creed as found in the lowest races. the base of religion in the theory of But apart from the savage English anthropologists. as they are universally said to do.CONCLUSION of 297 eleventh-century French poetry and prose by Mr. which I purposely reiterate. We We . were ordinary incidents in ' . choosing savage instances. the evidence points to the existence of human faculties not allowed for in the current systems of materialism. but contradicted. next took up and criticised the anthropological then theory of religion as expounded by Mr. how was the idea of a Supreme Being to be evolved out of that belief ? showed that. After offering to anthropologists and psychologists these considerations. doctrine of 'spirits' (whether they exist or not). if they occurred. and setting beside them civilised testimony to facts of experience. the processes put forward by anthropologists could not account for its evolution. Tylor. and would very strongly support the savage doctrine of souls. would have declined to investigate. would help to originate.' showing for example how Hume. all making for the foundation animistic religion. because they were miraculous. I wish I saw a way for orthodox unimaginative psychology out of its dilemma. or any other supernormal exhibitions of faculty. Through several chapters we pursued the study of these phenomena. Granting the belief in souls and ghosts and spirits. attested by living and honourable persons. to Charcot. Our conclusion was that such civilised experiences. Schiller). next turned from the subject of supernormal experiences to the admitted facts about early religion. The facts would not fit into. following his a priori theory of the impossible. among savages.' certain occurrences which. We We collected of from his work a in savage phenomena series of alleged supernormal belief. however attained. or their refusal (if they do refuse) to look at the evidence for telepathic crystal-gazing. medical experience.

Eobertson Smith. surely a large element of Christian ethics. found a relatively Supreme Being. 53. Mr. of races least contaminated with Christian or Islamite teaching. happily. but do showed that the not always worship ancestors. a Maker. was derived from ancient and secret tribal mysteries. Im Thurn. or ridiculed. we have not only the evidence of an earnest animist. ' We tioning morality. Again. Our evidence. Nay. are divinely sanctioned in savage religion are more potent than the most learned opinion on that side. was often shelved and half forgotten. However. * see that even in its rudest forms Keligion We force. the powers that man reveres were on the side of social order and moral law and the fear of the gods was a motive to enforce the laws of society. the late Mr. therefore the most potent. on our side. in the creed of the lowest and least developed races. the necessary social conditions for the evolution even of ancestor. the belief in a Supreme Being. sanc- was a moral . the belief in a Supreme Being. The necessary social conditions postulated were not found in places where the belief is found. Our next step was to examine in detail several religions of the most remote and backward races. the prevalent alliance of ethics with religion. but that of a distinguished Semitic scholar. demonstrated by facts that Anthropology had simpHfied her task by ignoring that We essential feature. Here.298 THE MAKING OF RELIGION the anthropological theory. where the belief in Animism {ex hypothesi the earlier) was in full vigour. p. ex liypofhesi the latest in evolution. the facts proving that truth. and unselfishness.worship were confessedly not found where the supposed ultimate result of ancestorworship. * . and sacred native hymns. Wellhausen has which were also the laws of morality. and unpropitiated by sacrifice. flourished abundantly. anthropological theory of the evolution of God out_of We ' Religion of the Semites.' already been cited to the same effect. or neglected. among peoples who go in dread of ghosts and wizards. when possible.

with the One righteous Eternal of prophetic Israel. call the restoration of Jehovah. and mysterious theological education of humanity. and. or King-God. with their magic These rites and the animistic and their bloody rites. studjdng what we tions. archaic aspects of the faith in Jehovah and we proved that (given a tolerably pure low savage belief in a Supreme We . in rare cases. Greece. The Supreme Being. under social condi- Prophets of Israel. tocratic institutions fostered polytheism with the old Supreme Being obscured. thus regarded. by much evidence. Such is our theory. may be We (though he cannot historically be shown to be) prior to the first notion of ghost and separable souls. we noted that they. the care for the individual soul as an immortal spirit under eternal responsibilities. combined what was good in Animism. may Next. We saw how. were strangely indifferent to that priceless aspect Animism. ghostgods. which does not.' derived from ghost-belief. to us. under the great Being) that belief must degenerate.CONCLUSION 299 ghosts in no way explains the facts in the savage conthen argued that the ception of a Supreme Being. reconception Arisflected or refracted back on the Supreme Eternal. That aspect had been neglected neither by the popular instinct nor the priestly and philosophic reflection of Egypt. as civilisation advanced. was denied to be part of the conception. or superseded. or enthroned as Emperor-God. appear to lack i / . and Israel geneof rally. and so ended the long. the old degeneration theory could be defined and observed traces of degeneration in certain defended. intricate. and Rome. then traced the idea of such a Supreme Being through the creeds of races rising in the scale of material culture. notion of 'spirit. as conditioned by the conduct of the individual soul. demonstrating that he was thrust aside by the We competition of ravenous but serviceable ghosts. and in what sense. Christianity. was detrimental to the conception. and shades of kingly ancestors. was not logically needed for the conception of a Supreme Being in its earliest form. behind them were next. the care for the future happiness. last.

No documents are extant to enlighten us we have only mobile. All this. and for hesitation in accepting the dogmas of modern manualmakers. than the casual observations of some travellers. The real object is to show that facts may be regarded in this light. are really rather of the nature of ' documents . I would suggest. still somewhat moral. however. if we may safely attribute to him a review (signed C. Tylor. Nothing my own suspicion of my provisional hypothesis more than its symmetry.' is sometimes their condemnation' ('Daily December excites 10. An exception to them certainly appears to be Mr. do suggest steps in evolution. often contradictory theories. Eeville.800 THE MAKING OF RELIGION evidence. That this character attaches to such ideas should keep us on guard against framing theories whose . (3) the relatively Supreme Being involved in human sacrifice. as they appear to me. it must be emphatically insisted on.' "While these four stages. We only ask for suspense of judgment. M. ' We symmetry Chronicle. Mr. too neatly. or Mr. and practices in the mysteries. and (4) the Moral Being rein* (1) stated philosophically. complex and confused ideas. 1897).' ' fear that all our speculations will remain summaries of probabilities. or the gossip extracted from natives much in contact with Europeans. ' . in the hands whether of Mr. as well as in the light thrown by the anthropological theory. or in Israel. at least. the Australian unpropitiated Moral Being. as in Polynesia. Grant Allen's Evolution of the Idea of God. It really seems to fit the facts. nor to be inconsistent (as the anthropological theory is apparently inconsistent) with the hypothesis of evolution. Clodd. we desire to base no hard-and-fast system of ascending and descending degrees upon our present evidence. is pro- pounded say under all reserves. Jevons. Spencer. incarnate in eccentric.) of Mr. that ancient savage sacred hymns. more so. (2) the African neglected Being. whose interesting work comes nearest to our provisional hypothesis.

as a foregone conclusion. i. be But logically. They will appear yet any student who goes so far with me as to doubt whether the highest gods of the lowest races could be developed. say that one This point of priority we can is earlier than another. that. first. on our thoughts about rehgion? What is their practical tendency ? The least dubious effect would be. then. logically. For these reasons dogmatic decisions about the origin of religion the elements of seem unworthy of science. never historically settle. we could not be sure but that they once possessed a God. If we met savages with ghosts and no gods. result. The hypothesis of St. ' the later of the two beHefs. (2) the beUef (probably developed out of experiences normal and supernormal) in somewhat of man which may survive the grave. we could not be historically certain' that a higher had not obliterated a lower creed. I hope.^ in a powerful. we cannot. to prevent us from accepting the anthropological theory of some acceptance. for for the first. or can be shown to have been developed. all the hypothesis here offered to criticism there are / -* we know. The main practical religion will appear to be imperilled. the lowest often. in its apparently earliest form. I have tried to show savages all how dim and is our knowledge. by more futile to way To him who reaches this point of the ghost-theory. and published in little primers. . if any. too. is our evidence. (1) the belief. and forgot him. moral. needed as given material It may. Rom. or any other theory. finding all religions among already developed in different degrees. the whole animistic doctrine of ghosts as the one germ of scientific opinion. Paul seems not the most unsatisfactory. historically. eternal. how attained we know not. This second belief is not. If we met savages with a God and no ghosts. what rehgion. chronowas necessary to religion as finally supplying a formula by which advancing this belief.CONCLUSION 301 Supposing that the arguments in this essay met with effect would they have. . will be hesitation about accepting the latest even when backed by great names. On two chief sources of Religion. 19. how weak. omniscient Father and Judge of men.

' *A magic mirror' life and from were (crystal-gazing) 'was . perhaps. ' ' Mighty Being involved in man's conception of his own nature. Jevons ' . not suffice to secure Introd. all have been more or less washed by the waters of this double stream of religion. were chiefly influenced by the first belief. extended the second. answering to the frescoes of the Pisan Campo Santo. what was imknown to the Hebrews. among his properties. the child but the heir of God. into forms of beautiful fantasy. Mr. the faith in the Eternal and had comparatively slight interest in whatever postOther humous fortunes might await individual souls. as far as our information goes. there existed. as elevating A may * be cited : The men from the not agyrtes professed by means of his rites to purify .) of Plato. For the Greek pardoners. a being not destined to the former creed . whom ' initiated. From the most backward races historically known to us. the material of art. Yet both in Greece and Rome.' capable of entering into eternal life. By the second belief he becomes the child of the God in whom. Frogs. kind of pardoners and indulgencesellers made a living out of that anxiety in Greece. and from the whole scope of the poem of Lucretius. p. iii. to those of our ovra status. a nurseling of immortality.302 THE MAKING OF RELIGION intellects could conceive of the Man is thus not only perish with the death of the body. among the people. civilised peoples. On the moral influence of this belief it is superfluous to dwell. sins they had themselves committed so to secure to those he purified an exemption the evil lot in the next world which awaited those who . who testify to an interest in the future happiness of the soul not found in Israel. or animistic theory. say the Greeks. and from the Painted Porch at Delphi. of Bel. 333 Aristoph. The Hebrews. next. to Hist. and in whom he has his being. he already trusted.' In Egypt a moral * did . an extreme anxiety about the posthumous fortunes and possible punishment of the individual soul. . as we learn from the Republic (Books i. 159.

Too eager to be all things to all men. is in the hands of a God not to be propitiated by man's sacrifice or monk's ritual. Polytheism everywhere in Greece especially held of the animistic conception. also required in — scribes. righteousness of life and the selflessness enjoined in savage mysteries. lie in wait That knowledge was contained in copies of for souls. interested. whom the animistic theory or cult everywhere obscures with its — — . in the end. and. the theistic conception. no less than for the hardness of men's hearts. food-propitiated ghostIn the religion of our Lord and the Apostles the gods. a stream of tendency making — : ' for righteousness/ or an energy unknown and unknow- . these things were ordained such as masses for the beloved dead. For the softness. has left us for God. cruel. as far as we know. the belief in a righteous Eternal. and popular ceremonial things apart from. at most. know how this doctrine was again disturbed by the Animism. was born to give himself up to developing. and by the sacrifice and ritual of the Mediaeval Church. corruptible deities. Early Israel.CONCLUSION immortal reward.' Man also is a spirit. as such. a singular lack of interest in the future of the soul. Greek philosophy could hardly restore that Eternal for whom the Prophets battled in Israel whom some of the lowest savages know and fear. of hungry.' the august and beneficent Mother of Christendom readmitted the earlier ' We ' Animism in new forms of saint-worship. as in the Red Indian and Polynesian Hades. 303 knowledge Amenti. and. in effect. pilgrimage. undisturbed. God is a Spirit. the Book of the Dead the gagne-pain of priests and of the spells that baffle the There was demons who. having. Modern thought has deanthropomorphised what was left of anthropomorphic in religion. and they who worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth. two currents of faith in one righteous God and care for crowd the individual soul were purified and combined. with its freakish. but commonly supposed to be substitutes for.

Theresa. at least. Yet that argument in no way depends on what we think about the phenomena normal. is left to us a —the ghost of a ghost. which religion — — then superseded. — I regard them. by virtue of his which man raised himself in his own esteem. the exclusive Theism of Israel receives its complement in a purified Animism. not among the feeblest are Socrates. though they seem shadowy. or even corrupted. or illusory on which the theory of It exhibits ghost.304 THE MAKING OF RELIGION able belief in For the soul. Pascal. I have ventured to that man we are not merely brain try to suggest that has his part. able to explain away these facts. in this place. Cromwell. d'Arc. with matters often trivial. by Animism in all its varieties. essential potency of the universe. in some degree. negation or a wistful doubt. too. By aid of the position tradition of and belief in supernormal phenomena among To modem the low races. Napoleon. in we know not what :has faculties and vision scarcely conditioned by the limits The evidence of all this deals of his normal purview. and emerges as Christianity. supernormal. have men of this opinion been always the weakest . from any favourable conclusion is . as probably beginning in a kind of Theism. soul. which yet are cognate with an Not being illimitable. and. or spirit may have been based. St. ' ' . by attested phenomena of the same kinds of experience among the higher races. Nor of the earth been chosen to confound things strong. we know not how. Charles Gordon. or. like the electric sparks rubbed from the deer's hide. more or less. Quite apart. in ethical standing. scientific teaching the earlier this part of of this essay suggests a demurrer. * and Jeanne ' I am perfectly aware that the superstitiousness of the earlier part of this essay must injure any effect which the argument of the latter part might possibly produce on critical opinion. to offer what would necessarily be a premature theory of them. or. as grounds of hope. Finally. as tokens that men need not yet Not now for the first time have weak things despair.

CONCLUSION 805 which may. malobservation. and quite apart from the more general opinion that all modern instances are compact of imposture. Hiimani nihil a se alienum putat. by some. be drawn from the phenomena. and superstitious bias. the systematic comparison of civilised and savage beliefs and alleged experiences of this kind cannot wisely be neglected by Anthropology. mythopceic memory. .

.

APPENDICES
APPENDIX A
OPPOSITIONS OF SCIENCE
elaborate reply to the arguments for telepathy, based on the Report of the Census of Hallucinations, is that of Herr Parish, in his Hallucinations and Illusions.' Herr Parish is, at present, opposed to the theory that the Census establishes a telepathic cause in the so-called coincidental stories, put forward,' as he says, with due reserve, and based on an astonishing mass of materials, to some extent critically handled.' He first demurs to an allowance of twelve hours for the coincidence of hallucination and death but, if we reflect that twelve hours is Httle even in a year, coincidences within twelve hours, it may be admitted, donnent a penser, even if we reject the theory that, granted a real telepathic impact, it may need time and
'

The most

^

'

'

'

*

;

quiet for its development into a complete hallucination. need not linger over the very queer cases from Munich, as these are not in the selected thirty of the Eeport. Herr Parish then dwells on that hallucination of memory, in which we feel as if everything that is going on had happened before. It may have occurred to most of us to be reminded by some association of ideas during

We

the day, of some dream of the previous night, which we had forgotten. For instance, looking at a brook from a
»

Walter Scott.

X 2

308

THE MAKING OF RELIGION

bridge, and thinking of how I would fish it, I remembered that I had dreamed, on the previous night, of casting a fly for practice, on a lawn. Nobody would think of disputing the fact that I really had such a dream,

^,

forgot it and remembered it when reminded of it by association of ideas. But if the forgotten dream had been fulfilled,' and been recalled to memory only in the moment of fulfilment, science would deny that I ever had such a dream at all. The alleged dream would be described as an hallucination of memory.' Something occurring, it would be said, I had the not very unusual sensation, * This
' '

has occurred to
a false

me before,' and the sensation would become
that
it

memory

had occurred

—in a dream.

This

theory will be advanced, I think, not when an ordinary dream is recalled by a waking experience, but only when
the dream coincides with and foreruns that experience, which is a thing that dreams have no business to do. Such coincidental dreams are necessarily false memories,'
*

Now, how does this theory of scientifically speaking. false memory bear on coincidental hallucinations ?
seems, are apt to have the false before,' and then to say that the event was revealed to them in a vision.' The insane may be recommended to make a note of the vision, and have it The same remark properly attested, before the event. to the presentiments of the sane. But it does applies not apply if Jones tells me I saw my great aunt last night,' and if news comes after this remark that Jones's aunt died, on that night, in Timbuctoo. Yet Herr Parish (p. 282) seems to think that the argument of
insane,
*

The memory

it

This occurred

*

'

*

fallacious memory comes in pat, even when an hallucination has been reported to another person before its fulfil-

ment. Of course all depends on the veracity of the To narrator and the person to whom he told his tale. take a case given ^ Brown, say, travelling vsdth his wife, dreams that a mad dog bit his boy at home on the elbow. He tells his wife. Arriving at home Brown finds that it was so. Herr Parish appears to argue thus
: :
'

Parish, p. 278.

*

Ibid. pp. 282, 283.

APPENDIX A

809

Brown dreamed nothing at all, but he gets excited when he hears the bad news at home he thinks, by false
;

memory, that he has a
*

it, he says to his didn't I tell you, last night, I had dreamed and his equally excited wife replies, True, Brown, you did, and I said it was only one of your And both now believe that the dream occurred. dreams.' This is very plausible, is it not ? only science would not

recollection of

wife, all this ?

My dear,
'

*

my

the dream had not been fulfilled dear, seeing that horse reminds me that I was dreaming last night of driving in a dog-cart.' For then Brown was not excited. say anything about
it if

if

Brown had remarked, 'Egad, my

to

None of this exquisite reasoning as to dreams applies waking hallucinations, reported before the alleged co-

incidence, unless we accept a collective hallucination of memory in seer or seers, and also in the persons to whom their story was told. But, it is obvious, memory is apt to become mythopceic, so far as to exaggerate closeness of coincidence, and to add romantic details. do not need Herr Parish to tell us that we meet the circumstance in all narratives from memory, whatever the topic, even in Herr Parish's own writings. "We must admit that the public, in ghostly, as in all narratives on all topics, is given to fanciful addenda.' Therefore, as Herr Parish justly remarks, we should maintain a very sceptical attitude to all accounts of * veridical hallucinations. Not that we should dismiss them as old wives' fables an all too common method or should treat even doubt the narrator's good faith.' them hke tales of big fish that get away ; sometimes there is good corroborative evidence that they really were shall return to these false big fish, sometimes not.

We

;

*

'

'

We

We

memories.

Was there a coincidence at all in the Society's cases printed in the Census ? Herr Parish thinks three of the selected twenty-six cases very dubious. In one case is a possible margin of four days, another (wrongly numbered by the way) does not occur at all among the twenty-

310
six.

THE MAKING OF RELIGION
In the This
third,
is

Herr Parish is wrong in his statea lovely example of the sceptical slipshod, and, accompanied by the miscitation of the second case, shows that inexactitude is not all on the side of the seers. However the case is not very good, the two percipients fancying that the date of the event was less remote than it really was. Unluckily Herr Parish only criticises these three cases, how accurately we have remarked. He had no room for more. Herr Parish next censures the probable selection of good cases by collectors, on which the editors of the
ment.^

Census have already made observations, as they have also He then large allowances for this cause of error. * offers the astonishing statement that, in the view of the English authors, a view which is, of course, assumed in all calculations of the kind, an hallucination persists equally long in the memory and is equally readily recalled in reply to a question, whether the experience made but a slight impression on the percipient, or affected him deeply, as would be the case, for instance, if the hallucination had been found to coincide with the death of a near relative or friend.' ^ This assertion of Herr Parish's

made

so erroneous that the Keport expressly says as years recede into the distance,' the proportion of the hallucinations that are remembered in them to those which are * is very large.' forgotten, or at least ignored, Again, Hallucinations of the most impressive class will not only be better remembered than others, but will, we may reasonably suppose, be more often mentioned by the percipients to their friends.'^ Yet Herr Parish avers that, in all calculations, it is assumed that hallucinations are equally readily recalled whether impressive or not Once more, the Eeport says * It is not the case that coincidental (and im(p. 246), pressive) hallucinations are as easily subject to oblivion The as non-coincidental, and non-impressive ones. editors therefore multiply the non-coincidental cases by
is
'
! ' 1

'

p. 287, Mr. Sims, Proceedings, x. 230. ^ Palish pp. 288, 289. iie^ort, p. 68.

APPENDIX A

811

four, arguing that no coincidental cases (hits) are forgotten, while three out of four non-coincidentals (misses) are forgotten, or may be supposed likely to be forgotten. Immediately after declaring that the Enghsh authors suppose all hallucinations to be equally well remembered (which is the precise reverse of what they do say), Herr

Parish admits that the authors multiply the misses by influenced by other considerations' (p. 289). By what other considerations ? They give their reason (that very reason which they decline to entertain, says Herr Parish), namely, that misses are four times as likely to be forgotten as hits. To go into the reason for adopting this plan would lead us too far,' he writes. Why, it is the very reason which, he says, does not find favour with the English authors How curiously remote from being coincidental with
'

four,

'

!

'

'

plain facts, or veridical at all, is this scientific criticism Herr Parish says that a * view (which does not exist) is of course assumed in all calculations ; and, on the very same page, he says that it is not assumed The witnesses of the report influenced, it is true, by other considerations (which is not the case), 'have sought to turn the
! ' * ' '

'

'

!

'

point of this objection by multiplying the whole number of (non-coincidental) cases by four.' Then the 'view is not assumed in all calculations,' as Herr Parish has just
' '

asserted.

Herr Parish, an honourable and clearinto this maze of incorrect and contradictory assertions? It is interesting to try to trace the causes of such non-veridical illusions, to find the points de repere of these literary hallucinations. One may that when Herr Parish recast the chapters of suggest his German edition, as he says in his preface to the English version, he accidentally left in a passage based on an earlier paper by Mr. Gurney,^ not observing that it was no longer accurate or appropriate. After this odd passage, Herr Parish argues that a ' veridical hallucination is regarded by the English
led

What

headed

critic,

'

'

'

'

P. 274, note

1.

312

THE MAKING OF RELIGION

authors as 'coincidental,' even when external circumstances have made that very hallucination a probable occurrence by producing tension of the corresponding nerve element groups.' That is to say, a person is in a condition a nervous condition likely, a priori, to beget
'


;

an hallucination. and so, naturally
fortuitous.'

An
if

hallucination is begotten, quite it happens to coincide v^ith an

event, the coincidence should not count

it

is

purely

Here is an example. A lady, facing an old sideboard, saw a friend, with no coat on, and in a waistcoat with a back of shiny material. Within an hour she was taken to where her friend lay dying, without a coat, and in a Here is the scientific waistcoat with a shiny back.^ The shimmer of a reflectexplanation of Herr Parish
'
:

ing surface [the sideboard ?] formed the occasion for the hallucinatory emergence of a subconsciously perceived shiny black waistcoat [quotation incorrect, of course], and an individual subconsciously associated with that impres^ I ask any lady whether she, consciously or sion.' subconsciously, associates the men she knows with the Herr Parish's would be a backs of their waistcoats. brilUantly satisfactory explanation if it were only true to the printed words that lay under his eyes when he There was no shiny black waistcoat in the wrote. case, but a waistcoat with a shiny back. Gentlemen, and especially old gentlemen who go about in bath-chairs (like the man in this story), don't habitually take off their coats and show the backs of their waistcoats to ladies of nineteen in England. And, if Herr Parish had cared to read his case, he would have found it expressly stated that the lady had never seen the man without his coat (and so could not associate him with an impression of a shiny back to his waistcoat) till after the hallucination, when she saw him coatless on his death-bed. In this instance Herr Parish had an hallucinatory memory, all wrong, of the page under his eyes. The case is got rid fanciful addenda,' to which Herr of, then, by aid of the
' '
'

'

'

'

Parish, p. 290.

«

Be^ort, p. 297.

'

Parish, p. 290.

APPENDIX A

313

Parish justly objects. He first gives the facts incorrectly, and then explains an occurrence which, as reported by him, did not occur, and was not asserted to occur. I confess that, if Herr Parish's version were as correct
as
it is

me

essentially inaccurate, his explanation would leave doubtful. For the circumstances were that the old

gentleman
lady's

of the story lunched daily with the young mother. Suppose that she was familiar (which she was not) with the shiny back of his waistcoat, still, she saw him daily, and daily, too, was in the way of seeing the (hypothetically) shiny surface of the sideboard. That being the case, she had, every day, the materials, subjective and objective, of the hallucination. Yet it only occurred once, and then it precisely coincided with the death agony of the old gentleman, and with his coatless condition. "Why only that once ? G'est la le miracle ! How much for this little veskit ? as the man asked
'
'

David Copperfield. Herr Parish next invents a cause for an hallucination, which, I myself think, ought not to have been reckoned, because the percipient had been sitting up with the sick man. This he would class as a suspicious case.
*
'

But, even granting him his
statistics,

he would

of coincidences for

own way of handling the have far too large a proportion the laws of chance to allow, if we are
still

to go

practically is that hallucinations are always only a kind of dreams.^ He proves this by the large number of coincidental hallucinations which occurred in sleepy circumstances. One man went to bed roused from early, and woke up early ; another was two ladies were sitting up in bed, giving their ; sleep
* '

by these statistics His next argument

at

all.

babies nourishment a man was reading a newspaper on a sofa a lady was Ijdng awake at seven in the morning and there are eight other English cases of people awake in bed during an hallucination. Now, in Dr. Parish's opinion, we must argue that they were not awake, or not much ; so the hallucinations were mere dreams.
;
;

;

'

'

>

Pp. 291, 292.

Herr Parish next contends Herr Moll (practically drowsiness) even if only a little. men has ever seen a person asserts attempt crystal-gazing. in sleep and in apparent wakefulness. Parish cannot be allowed. seems to us . and don't regard them this sure. nothing actual surroundings. to be I am used to dreams. of all things. to the subject. Hypnotism. When we are conscious of our surroundings. It is the essence of the every night dream that we are unconscious of our actual surroundings and conscious of a fantastic environment. It is the essence of wideawakeness to be conscious of our actual In the ordinary dream. most when while a full-bodied hallucination. everything actual does compete with Therefore. an hallucination which. was something soHtary in my experience. Anybody would see this if he were not arguing different on a perfectly (experto crede) is — ' ' ! that people who see in crystal balls. to use the regular All dreams For the eighteenth-century argument two sorts of dreams. therefore. believe ourselves awake. Yet I fear we must mind what they say. is different in kind from an Science gains nothing by arbitrarily ordinary dream.' ' sociation . At least. 1 . p. also speaks of crystal-gazing pictures as * ^ Possibly neither of these learned hypnotic phenomena. People may say. declaring that two experiences so radically different are identical.' But we must not mind what people say. we must remember that sleeping dreams are. ' . any hallucination. under a dominant idea.314 THE MAKING OF RELIGION Dreams are so numerous that coincidences in dreams can be got rid of as pure flukes. plane of impressiveness. when we are conscious of our material environment. seem. and Herr really very difficult to forget. at least. Herr Parish never as the basis of any such personal experience his opinion about the non-normal state of * Moll. competes with its visions. to differ in kind. And they really do differ in kind. easily forgotten we. arid so on. does compete with it in reality. are not so wide awake pictures There is 'disas to be in their normal consciousness.

Some one says that Miss X. Mrs. 297). is human..' and she afterwards spoke 'in a dreamy. infers a general affirmative : He from a single affirmapoint. far-away tone' Miss X. A. always late for Miss X. B. her eyes fixed on the window. B. Therefore. when crystal-gazing. spends hours in shopping. and may have seen mountains and marvels. is occasionally dreamy when not crystal-gazing. when she happened to have crystal-gazing. by ! was not window not crystal-gazing. was not in her normal consciousness on a certain occasion when she was Miss X. though extremely wide awake. He reaches this conclusion from an anecdote a friend of reported. * ' ' ' — syllogism : A. affected the pictures I appeal to the shades of Aristotle and Bacon against Here is his scientific logic in the hands of Herr Parish. is human. have looked dreamily at a window. argues Herr Parish. of logic. is more tive or less asleep. and that this condition is familiar to the observer. think herself fully awake (as she does think herself) when because once. In vain may so good an observer as Miss X. She was looking out of a crystal-gazing at all This is a noble example in a brown study. as a not unfamiHar phenomenon. But the point is that she was not voluntarily gazing at a crystal for amusement or experiment— perhaps trying to see how a microscope or to divert a friend. 816 But the phenomenon occurred when Miss X.' her expression was * associated' by a friend 'with something uncanny.. Therefore every human being is dinner. . uphfted her voice in some review. Therefore every human being.' may (p. It is exactly which happens not to be to the as if Herr Parish argued Mrs.APPENDIX A the gazer. nobody is in his normal consciousness when he is crystal-gazing. I think.

why not ? Why.316 THE MAKING OF RELIGION and maintained that. dans son assiette. . who makes no claim to any personal experience at all. she was quite normal state. 302). dormouse without any personal knowledge of the facts and.' But. and alone. the association Our side cannot prove the absence of ideas (p. assertion about the percipient's being dissociated. dropping matches into the water-jug. is certainly untrue of all crystal-gazers in considerable experience. when the gazer is talking. nine per cent. coincided with the death of the person seen ? In heaven's name. (italics) of the association of ideas. ' — that of dissociation. and so on. because the cause of all has been omitted from our weightiest calculations. 300) ? are all like the sleeping and waking altogether. how can we between ' it is impossible to distinguish possibly say that hallucinations and those of sleep waking If so. it is impossible to distinguish between (p. namely. using prisms and magnifying-glasses. As to crystal-gazing. namely. that there were no bells to ring might have come first.. I know better than you. you were not wholly awake you were a-dream. or not awake. Yet Herr Parish would probably say to any crystalgazer who argued thus. as he has not seen crystal-gazers. chatting. or ninety(p. ' We ' Herr Parish is reasoning here a priori. making experiments in turning the ball. We are — . changing the light. I have. — very impressive to the popular mind) matter how great the number of coincidences. this my cannot accept it on the authority of Herr Parish. not even if all hallucinations. Certainly we cannot but ideas in endless millions are being associated all day told (in italics ' : — No ' ' ' . I many as my so.' or asleep. when crystal-gazing. above dominant idea of his own theory all. And * scores of times. no pardon me. 301). they afford not even the shadow of a proof for telepathy What. our good old friend. Herr Parish next crushes telepathy by an argument which like one of the reasons why the bells were not rung for Queen EHzabeth. I prefer own opinion. he is under the ! . laughing. while in her ' — . Oh.

who dies in that hour (or within twelve hours). — The explanation another story ? tistics. who is not there. if this choice of freaks by Association occurs among other people. as Mrs. for her solitary freak? And. the freak begins to suggest that it may of ideas). though it may determine their contents. as when two or more people at once have. of all days in my life. or Nebuchadnezzar. and perhaps he was. Why on earth is association so fond of dying people granting the sta* ' . out of all irregular stitches. tion of ideas does not cause hallucinations.APPENDIX A long. the same false perception who is really absent and dying. or a salmon. may Bound. the same or flicker of light. or of a person profess to have. or a monkey. or Arthur's Seat (all of which may be brought to my mind by association A may when they are not present. and that was of a dying cHent whom he supposed to be perfectly well. unnoticed associaI bring Jones to my mind. because he had been making But. that a drowsy tailor. Suppose. have a cause. Sidgwick remarks. The tailor is not said even once to have seen a customer who was not dying yet he writes. Parish. sewing on in a dream. Herr Parish only moves the difficulty explains back a step. or a golf ball. say two hundred times more often than chance allows. association only formed one hallucination. solves the problem. or Jones. and. I was The tailor accustomed to work all night frequently.' poor fellow.' thinks he was asleep. tions 817 hundred thousand different. that once in my life I see the absent Jones. Not even the circumstance cited by Herr Parish. nothing. or arrangement of shadow. The same points de repbre. But don't therefore see Brown. or Brown. Still less do I see Dr. is next disposed of by Herr Parish. then. they are taken for granted by our side. Why did Association choose that day. which are * ' The difficult theme of coincidental collective hallucinations. his vigils and all his customers. saw a client in his shop while the client was dying. I am puzzled. . as we cannot live without association Associaof ideas.

Both heard. if so. But I am now inclined to beheve that what really occurred was this Herr Parish brought out his book in German. are looking out on different parts of the hall in their house.' One girl associated the sound with her honoured sire.^ As stated by Prof. vol. first. who refers to it on p. Miss Smith with a knight in armour. 313). Sidgwick. 433. ference of the connected associations. had betrayed him again. found in Prof. ' . ' in virtue of the difhowever. Then. vi. ' Proceedings. as in his legend of the waistcoat. Thus. and the other saw an elderly gentleman. 190. but his version reads p. Miss Jones with a lady in green. or an optical delusion. 314. Brown with a milkman.' producing. in different rooms. this should always be occurring. Most unluckily for Herr vary. Sidgwick's Presidential Address of July . p. In his German edition he probably quoted a story which precisely suited his theory of the This anecdote he had origin of collective hallucinations. Now. Thus two girls. we are in a haunted house there is a noise of a rattling window I associate it with a burglar. before the Beport of the Census of Hallucinations was published. the other with his faithful hound so one saw a dog. says Herr Parish.' Father and dog had not left the dining-room. for we all have different associations of ideas. 'the one sister saw her father cross the hall after entering the other saw the dog (the usual companion of his walks) run past her door. at the same time. . and again on He gives no reference. . ' . : 1890. an [objective ?] noise' (p. . That collection of phantasms should then be simultaneously on view. Herr Parish decides that the same point de repire (the apparent noise of a key in the lock of the front door) acted by way of suggestion on both sisters. Parish.318 THE MAKING OF RELIGION beget the same or a similar false perception in two or more people at once. he illustrates his theory by telHng a story which happens not to be correctly reported. like the dog and old gentleman all our reports should But this does not occur. At first I thought that a fallacy of memory. different hallucinations. the case just fitted Herr Parish.

and the workingwoman all heard the noise as of a key in the lock. was of opinion that Miss E. next entered the hall. took for that of a key in the lock. we have here. (now dead) saw nothing. after which they fled to the pantry. but nobody is said to have seen the father cross the hall (as Herr Parish asserts).. The story was wrong. granting that some other noise was mistaken for that of the key in the lock. for Herr Parish's purpose. E. Sidgwick's. was in the breakfast-room. as is proved by the elaborate account of the case in the Keport of the Census. G.' The facts. — breaking a little household rule in the hall. alas in the very point where. and the patter of the dog's feet on the tiles. was inchned to agree with her. which Herr Parish had before him. but which she took to be the sounds of a key in the door lock. Prof. as there reported. like Miss C. and there had heard the sound. E. Miss H. Miss C. E. G. E. 7iot (as Herr Parish declares) a collective yet discrepant hallucination ' * ' * ' — ' Parish.30 p.. 'Miss H. E. G. and Miss C.woman (now dead) were emphatic as to the father having entered the house .m. and the work. E. on the way. and the working-woman had been in the hall. The hallucination is believed not to have been collective. Miss E. about 6. .. then saw the dog pass the door. which they. 313. which may have ! Now : had any other cause. and Miss E. were not what he narrates.' Miss C.APPENDIX A like 819 a traditional variant of Prof. and a workingwoman. Now. B. but neglected when he prepared his English edition. p. Sidgwick's version was erroneous. yet Herr Parish uses it to explain collective hallucinations.' Miss E. E. meeting Miss H. it ought to have been right. Doubtless he overlooked the accurate version in the Eeport. but this the two only inferred from hearing the noise. in January 1883. a stick tapping the tiles of the She hall. so they ran straightway into the pantry. She heard noises. and supposed her father to be taking a walk with his dog. They were — . but as follows Miss C. where she found nobody but in the pantry she met her sisters Miss E.

ouce more illustrates want of attention. . after lapse of time. Herr Parish. that Mr. 190 and 313. If I. would be. there is no evidence for interpreted. saw her father cross the hall. pp. then.' exclaim that all the evidence was against its being The sound in the lock. pp. 'how much more are the popular tales about coincidental hallucinations likely to be dis' torted ? It is really a very strong argument. and then uses the example to He asserts in general. with the printed story under In one his eyes. had died at the moment. and that the case was claimed on our part as a 'collective coincidental How righteously Herr Parish might hallucination. go on telling distorted legends out of my own Herr head. especially. explain collective hallucinations that Miss E. E. however. but not the argument which Herr Parish conceives exactly himself to be presenting. his case by the ease with which unconsciously illustrates his very eyes adapt themselves. heard by three percollective missons. 314.' Miss E. as we have shown.320 THE MAKING OF RELIGION ' the discrepancy being caused 'by the difference of conbut a solitary hallucination. appearances adapt themselves And then he of course. inadvertently converts a soHtary into a collective hallucination. with « Parish. quite printed facts under bias as he erroneously. copies them on to Compare Report. 313). Herr nected associations Parish. way science. He suitable facts. in Herr Parish's work. and probably was. another noise And. the evidence is its — ' ! having produced in exactly the opposite direction. to his own memory and personal ' ' ' ' ' his paper.'s Now. a grave man of his errors improve his case. suppose sisters think that she saw no such matter. of witnesses to a explains the similar or identical reports 'the ease v^ith which such collective hallucination by in recollection' (p. by expectation of explained by inattention and by anxiety to prove a theory. two hallucinations.' Parish may reason. Here. and is probably to be to facts. 181-83. while the facts are plain in print before me.' This unlucky inexactitude is chronic. in any case.

you were naturally. when he was really dying. when no such thing occurred. now believes you told him about seeing your unhappy kinswoman.' the excitement caused by the death of a friend is likely. especially as the poor lady was killed by being pegged down on an ant-heap. howcollectively. This excitement. The only evidence for this fact is that such illusions occasionally occur. the occurrence of such an event as the death or mortal danger of a friend is . nonsense.' * Kraepelin gives two cases. nor did you tell Mr. a form of mnemonic error often observed among the insane.' rare as an individual folly among lunatics. and believe you had told Mr. though I admit he never saw your dear aunt in his life. it seems. To return to our old example. and believe. conversely. to make two or more sane people say. ever. and even creditably. 'you. This kind Y . most calculated to produce memory In the second case. rather praiseworthy than othervdse. He also is a most excitable person.' * The process ' occurs sporadically in certain sane people.APPENDIX A ' 321 are also is Finally he argues that even if collective hallucinations v^ith comparative frequency coincidental. made you believe you had seen your aunt. is supposed by Herr Parish to explain the theoretically false memory whereby sane people persuade themselves that they had an hallucination. illusions of this kind. under certain No examples are given What is exciting conditions. Jones. He. whom he knows to be in TimNews comes that the lady died when Jones buctoo. in some lunatic asylums. Jones tells me that he has just seen his aunt. beheld her in his smoking-room. there! * ' * : fore (by virtue of his excitement). excited. Lang. Lang. who. not It is not.' Herr Parish would argue. I am sorry to find. that they saw him somewhere else. Oh. that to be explained thus The rarity and the degree of * * : ' ' interest compelled by it (by such an hallucination) will naturally tend to connect itself with some other prominent event and. saw nothing of the kind. What happened was this When the awful news came to-day of your aunt's death. and persuade others that they were told of it. agrees with you.

322 of false THE MAKING OF KELIGION memory is very ' common. anything extraneous could encourage a belief in coincidental and veridical hallucinations. too.000 fresh answers. by persons to whom . if the seer was in company. But which it is the affair of the S. which. The other theory is funnier still.' say. ' interest compelled by some other prominent it made Jones ' connect it vdth event. Moreover. But. Jones never had an 'The rarity and the degree of hallucination before. among the insane. him the existence of the adaptive and mythopoeic powers I asserts. Two cases are recorded by Kraepelin. it would be these Oppositions of Science. occurred. inquiry. bringing up 17. this is a mere case of evidence. 87). Sure you quite under- but I don't see how it comes to seem good logic to Herr Parish. and also illustrates. the death of his aunt. which he and understood its nature. and if everybody who had an hallucination at once recorded it in black and white. to criticise. dream. the case for telepathic halluBut we must grant cinations may seem strong indeed. have 'skimmed the cream off' (p. might alter the whole aspect of the case. nine months afterwards. that a census of 17.000 inquiries may only grant. Another dip of the net.P. So Herr Parish * kills with both barrels. Herr Parish is in the happy position called in American a straddle.B. duly attested on oath before a magistrate. he was in circumstances conducive So the hallucination is probably a to the sleeping state. of memory. we cannot get scientific evidence in this way of If the public were interested in the question. really. say. and the same adaptive memories. then they all had the same points de repere. one way or the other.' If a man has an halluspeculative circles cination when alone.' If a learned and fair opponent can find no better proofs than logic and (unconscious) perversions of facts like the logic and the If ' statements of Herr Parish. stand my reasoning ? I quite understand it. who all had the same hallucination.

We may form a belief. and if all such records. but beyond that it is imStill. ! »2 . were kept in the British Museum for fifty years. for ourselves. then an examination of them might teach us something. Science might read her brief possible to advance. coincidental or not. on this point of veridical hallucinations.APPENDIX A 823 he reported. But all this is quite impossible. before the coincidence was known.

Darwin. Huxley. Carpenter. apparently without contact. Mr. or a most successful impostor. may have been one of the causes leading to fetishism.324 THE MAKING OF RELIGION APPENDIX B TEE POLTEBGEIST AND HIS EXPLAINERS. The evidence for the genuine supernormal character of such phenomena was not discussed. The history of such phenomena is too long for statement here. Mr. stone. was inessential as long as the savage did not discover the In the chapter on ' ' We imposture. to the opinion that a spirit added that. and been present at seances. Fetishism and Spiritualism it was suggested that the movements of inanimate objects. whether such movements were caused by trickery or not. from Egyptian magical papyri to yesterday's provincial newspaper. and were so regarded by the savants who looked into them. had all glanced at the phenomena. Tyndall. which had previously been reported as of sporadic and spontaneous occurrence. . Dr. who was certainly a most oddly gifted man. The same reports are found 'from China to Peru.^ About 1850-1870 phenomena. These were imitators of the enigmatic David Dunglas Home. A series of . that we might preserve the continuity of the general argument. may inhabit a stick. generally American. in the dark. A good deal of scientific attention was given to the occurrences Mr. were domesticated and organised by Mediums.' from Eskimo to the Cape. ' A sketch of the history will be found in the author's Cock Lane mid Conwion Sense. or what not. or in a very bad light. were impudent impostures. In most cases the exhibitions.

and sheer knavery. something remains to be said but first we shall look into attempted explanations of alleged physical phenomena occurring not in the presence of a . Of Home's successes with Sir "William Crookes. . if they are ' reported to recur. paid or even of a recognised Medium. Podmore has collected. his Poltergeists in Studies in Psychical Research. To take fraud first : Mr. ' ' zi. our eyes should be kept on such phenomena. and others. we think. so old.APPENDIX B 325 exposures culminated in the recent detection of Eusapia Paladino by Dr. an apparent exception. Hodgson and other members of the S. and it is hoped that a well-attested first-hand case of detection may be elicited. Mr. Lord Crawford. in order to arrive at a distinct opinion how far it may * be connected with facts insufficiently appreciated and explained by science. and by the Schiodrmcrei consequent on sitting in hushed hope of marvels. would seem apt to throw light on some interesting psychological questions.E.* Acting on Mr. best source is his article on 'Poltergeists. and can only be dismissed by reason of the bad ' The 45-116. was never detected in fraudulent productions of fetishistic phenomena. This is asserted here because several third-hand stories of detected frauds by Home are in circulation. by careful observation in a scientific spirit. Mr. and so new. and how far with superstition. too. Tylor says.^ His first instance (Worksop.' It will appear. . that the explanations of evidence so widely diffused. Home. are far from Our inference would be no more than that satisfactory. so uniform. Such investigation. however. Tyler's hint. 1883) yields no proof of fraud. and analyses. at Cambridge. There was.' Proceedings See.P. Podmore puts forward as explanations (1) fraud (2) hallucinations caused by excited expectation. though by no means a clever man. pursued delusion. The arch mystagogue. I am well aware that the problem [of these phenomena] is one to be discussed on its merits. eleven recent sporadic cases of volatile objects.

White sent EHza Kose away. Mr. not seem to have struck Mr. White left his home. On Thursday night. . On February 26. White's presence. at 8 a. To this example we confine ourselves. but left on Thursday morning. was looking for a place as servant.m. child of a half-imbecile mother. White only saved the wash tub by alacrity and address. We now offer the Statement of Police of Constable Higgs. in Mr. White to share her bed. Podmore took the evidence five vs^eeks after the events. I went round to the house at 11. . they increased in vigour. be entirely honest.m. . A doctor was called On Saturday. I heard of the disturbances at Joe White's house from his young brother. The whole incident struck her as very extraordinary. White returned on Wednesday night. Tom. and . This case appears to have been first reported in the Eetford and Gainsborough Times It does early in March. believed to A man good intelligence. phenomena set in. At 4 p. by the table voluntarily tipping up. recommenced. Eliza Kose. also a pohceman. and upsetting a candle.' 1883 (really March 9). and because Mr. as near as I can judge. On Thursday. returning on Friday afternoon. March 2nd. the row in.826 THE MAKING OF RELIGION courtesy of the editor. Podmore that he should publish these contemporary reports. while Mrs.' * ' much stress on failure of memory. as * ' * was admitted by the kindness of INIrs. the phenomena began on February 20 or 21. There was one candle lighted in the room.m. The girl was eighteen years of age. and peace returned. by the he lays so character of the other cases. To do this was the more necessary. I have therefore secured the original newspaper report.. To be brief. and a girl.. and nothing is said in the newspaper about her mother. ' On the night of Friday. and found Joe White in the kitchen of his house. to show us how far they agree with evidence collected by him on the spot five weeks later.55 p.' It is not in the newspaper report. in Mr. Mr. White's absence. Mr.

. Just pretty clearly. I stood near the outer door. Lloyd also Tom White and Solomon Wass. something else happened. There was a cup She said standing on the bin. just in front of it. shut the cupboard doors when they flew open. and saw the bits of with pots and things on the floor. when the cup jumped up suddenly about four or five feet into the air. No one White had hardly else was in the room at the time. * after I passed I heard a crash. and a large glass jar came out past me. After they had been in two or three minutes. am quite sure that it wasn't thrown by White or any one White couldn't have done it without my seeing else. smashing itself. The girl Eose had come into She was standing with the kitchen during our absence. side of the * fire. and was broken. The jar couldn't go in a straight line from the cupboard out of the door but it certainly did go. I saw that the tumbler had fallen on the ground in the direction I don't know how it of the fireplace. happened. She had hardly done so. and then I came back White into the kitchen. rather nearer the door. and then came and stood against the chest of drawers. already. White came in with Dr. and pitched in the yard outI didn't see the jar leave the cupside. and White went and shut them. Tom White and Wass were standing with their backs to the fire." and turned round and stood talking to me by the fire. There was no one else in the room. Cup'll go soon She then pushed it a little farther on the bin. Then Mrs. As I passed the chest of drawers in the kitchen I noticed a tumbler standing on it. 'I went into the inner room. and then fell on the White was sitting on the other floor and smashed itself. Then White asked me to come and see the things which had been smashed in the inner room. him.APPENDIX B and a good fire 827 burning. and looking round. The cupboard . But I or fly through the air it went too quick. board. her back against the bin near the fire. so that one could see things doors were open. He led the way and I followed. Eliza Eose and Dr. . . Lloyd were . " it has been down three tinies to me.

I stayed about ten minutes more. I was met in Bridge Street by Buck Ford. In fact. that is. I stood by the drawers. Lloyd. I don't think White or the girl could possibly have done the things which I saw. It went up not very quickly.S28 THE MAKING OF RELIGION near them. Podmore. Then suddenly a basin. Statement by Police Constable Higgs. Lloyd's attention to it. I called Dr. I stood a minute or two. The distance . During Friday night. — kitchen.' This statement was made five weeks after date to Mr. Tom said to " me. White was by me near the inner door. the doctor nearer to the door. flew out of the cupboard unseen. out of the door into the yard. but saw nothing else. Police Constable Higgs visited the house. not as quickly as if it had been thrown. which stood on the end of the bin near the door. Tom White and Dr. The next thing was a cup. turning over and over as it went. and broke in about a hundred bits. and we all saw it. and then the glass which I noticed on the drawers jumped off the drawers a yard away. Will you go with us to Joe's. and I don't know how it happened. got up into the air. When it reached the ceiling it fell plump and smashed. and an ordinary sized glass jar flew across the * . We compare it with the intelligent constable's statement made between March 8 and March 8. and reported in the local paper of March 9. and concerning the visit he makes the following statement. which stood on the flour-bin just beyond the yard we saw nothing smash. with their backs turned towards the bin. No sooner had he done so than the doors flew open again. A sugar jar also and heard nothing until we heard it travelled by the articles was about seven yards. I don't know what to make of it all. No one was near it. immediately after the events. and Mrs. and Joe's brother. and you will see some" I went and when thing you have never seen before? I got into the house Joe went and shut the cupboard doors. About ten minutes past [to ?] twelve on Friday night.

"It ' till after midnight. Though the sceptical reporter thought that objects were placed where they might easily be upset. apparent errors in the ' in his house account of the flight of the objects. there was nothing supernatural. the presence of a trickster in a locked pantry. the doctor saying.' but there was an appearance of something rather On the afternoon of Saturday White sent supernormal. I left just before one o'clock. went over the doctor's head. The newspaper reports contain no theory that will account for White's breaking his furniture and crockery. nor for Eose's securing her own dismissal from a house where she was kindly received by wilfully destroying the property of her hostess." He turned with his back to the flour-bin. Lloyd had been in the next house lancing the back of a little boy who had been removed there. The girl said. there was no human agency at work. and thick cords to heavy articles. none were upset. Dr.APPENDIX B 329 It flew upwards. and fell at his feet in pieces. and so far as I could I had not the see. An elaborate machinery of pulleys fixed in the ceiling.' As the policeman says. but saw nothing further. The doctor then went out. " I suppose the cup will be the next. There were six persons in the room while these things were going on. and that she had picked it up just before it went off the bench. and a number of people watched and we began talking. the girl Eose away. a most mysterious thing. The basin flew up into the air obliquely. that this cup had been on the floor three times. An amateur published a theory of silken threads attached to light articles. He now came is in. I said. and a number of . having been in the house thirty minutes. Excited expectation was so false to its function as to beget no phenomena. belief in anything appertaining to the superslightest natural." The cup fell a distance of two yards away from the flour-bin. and then fell to the ground and door. The ghost was * laid. on which stood a basin. whereof no trace was found by witnesses who examined the volatile objects. I stood a short time longer. broke.

nor is it singular that poor Mrs. may have been directly responsible for all that took place.' That is to say.' There is not the shadow of evidence that the girl Eose had the inestimable advantage of being half-witted she is described by Mr. Six or eight pounds' worth of goods were destroyed. can do what is quite inexphcable by ordinary mechanical means. acted as a maid. in an isolated case (the tilted table). in the absence of White.' The phenomena began. whether this girl Kose was pr>^sent or not when the jar flew circuitously out of the cupboard. In any case a half-witted girl. before Eose entered the house. But it is not easy to make out. p. the other witness. and her interest was not to break the crockery and upset furniture. but. a thing easily worked by a half-witted girl. according to the policeman. the explainer admitting that he could not imagine whij the tricks were played. or herself.' while. of course. ' * Studies in Psychical Research. as White thought she was the agent. 140. she was not even present on some occasions. The pheno- ' * inexplicable by ordinary mechanical means. gifted with abnormal cunning and love of mischief. a half-witted girl could do (barring mysterious agencies ') what is quite * mena Mr. See Preface to this edition for correction. in Mr. Such discrepancies are common in all evidence to the most ordinary events. reviewing the * case. Podmore as 'the child of an imbecile mother. in the evidence of White. White wept over her shattered penates. were apparently active when she was not * ' ' . which began before the girl's arrival. . though she admitted that he was not at home when the trouble arose. were all involved in this local explanation. so she suspected AVhite. She was admitted in kindness. Podmore.' ^ Yet he elsewhere ^ suggests that Eose as the instrument of mysterious agencies. The destruction began.330 TIIE MAKING OF RELIGION accomplices. says. The girl Kose gave to the newspaper the same account as the other witnesses. Podmore' s theory. simply as a half-witted girl. The troubles. described are quite inexplicable by ordinary mechanical means.

But contemporary accounts appeared in the local newspapers. not here cited. after abandoning the idea that mechanical means can possibly have produced the effect. she could not have caused them by ordinary mechanical means. came to think he had seen what he heard talked about. in Mr. Podmore falls back on the cunning of a halfvntted girl whom nothing shows to have been half-witted. let us give the affair. at a Mr. Mr. and. In default of William Crookes's?) 'that disturbances of this kind are ever due to abnormal agency.' C Studies. now turn to the other.' So much for the hypothesis of a fraud. Podmore's attempt normal explanation by has to exaggerate fraud. English The most alluded to by Mr. 158. which has been identical in results from China to Peru and from Greenland to the Cape. hallucination. is of no weight. some peculiarity of flight.APPENDIX B present. as He done. any experimental evidence (how about Mr. and a German one.' while of extraordinary mechanical means there was confessedly no trace. the value.) * Many of the witnesses described the articles as moving slowly through the (See * air. Podmore's theory. There is one discrepancy which looks as a witness. as disproof. The alternative is that the girl was the instrument of if ' we have mysterious agencies. Podmore adds another presently to be noted.) Before criticising this explanation.' 157. illusion. Finally. and he does not compare the contemporary with the later evidence. curious modern case known to me is not of . or exhibiting case. ' 831 if she was present. The disturbances ceased after she was dismissed nothing — else connects her with them. He has to lay stress on the interval of five weeks between the events and the collection of testimony by himself. and concomitantly active We cause. the Worksop English case. Podmore. of such discrepancies as occur in all human evidence on all subjects.' e. I am disposed to explain the appearance of moving slowly or flying as a sensory ' Mr. conditioned by the excited state of the percipient.g. therefore.

^ This case has a certain interest a propos of Mr. The thrower must certainly have had a native genius for pitching at base-ball. Bristow was employed with two fellow workmen. The events were of 1849. in 1891.) the presence of any to Swanland." .R.P. a spectator. who averred that surviving the objects could not have been thrown because of the eccentricities of their course." This sort of thing was repeated during six weeks. Each blamed the others. whose affairs had not been settled to his liking. and the record is expanded. Podmore's surmise that all such phenomena arise in trickery. Bristow. which he described in the same way as Mr. S. 1891. Darwin's spoon danced on a grave. Bristow. but not referred to by him for confirmation. was mentioned by Mr. named Andrews. The bits of wood sometimes danced along the floor. The scene was Swanland. in a carpenter's shop. — » Proceedings. Mr.832 THE MAKING OF RELIGION recent date. Bristow in his report. or moved as if borne on gently heaving waves. or corkscrew of about eighteen inches diameter. ' most remarkable episode ' in my life. . Sidgwick found one witness of these occurrences. . but it occurred in full daylight. The workrooms and space above were searched to no purpose. This * ' vdtness. and the phenomena continued for weeks. which produces excitement in the spectators. from an account written by him in 1854.' Going (June 27. To be brief. So Mr. in the presence of many witnesses. vii. describing what may be likened to a geometrical square.' The phenomena did not depend on one person or number of persons. near Hull. where Mr. The villagers had a superstitious theory about the phenomena being provoked by a dead man. Never was a piece seen to come in Mr. till this explanation became untenable. about the size of a common matchbox. Bristow deems this period the . Those to whom he referred were found to be dead. at the doorway. or had emigrated. more commonly sailed " gently along. One piece of wood " came from a distant corner of the room towards me. 383-394. they were pelted by odds and ends of wood. by Mr.

or So close is the uniformity glide in an impossible way. Podmore quotes hallucination confined to England. therefore. of course) in times old and new. generally. You. The best examples are the experiments He deof Sir William Crookes. and hallucination takes the form of seeing the thrown objects move in a non-natural way. Strictly scientific examination of these prodigies has been very rare.' in his ' not excited. It is difficult to believe that he was excited for six weeks. marquises. for he was normally engaged in his normal stable. the Amherst Mystery. and England (not to speak of Eussia). law.S. We Crookes's case. and has thriven to be a master in his craft. Telfer (of Eerrick). or undulate as if on waves. and I received a similar testimony (to the flight of an object round a corner) from a gentleman who employed Esther Teed. Podmore must. and persists through This is a novel and valuable psychological different ages. as in cases cited by Glanvil. when the incident occurred unexservice. and that of Mr. carallude to Sir W. or float. the ' uniformity of hallucination. Crookes's evidence. I keep throwing things about. He was One may pectedly as he was looking after his live stock. one of whom writes like a man of much intelligence.. . and you believe you see the things move in spirals. France. in works of the seventeenth century. Crookes's Researches in Sinritiialism. and. Schhapoff.APPENDIX B 833 while excitement begets hallucination. penters. Increase Mather. and we still marvel that excitement produces the same of excitement. Thus. affecting policemen. Mr. Germany. F.^ ' See Sir W. in similar terms.S. in states same peculiar form of hallucination develops itself uniformly in America. or hop. Mr. a German example.E. of hallucination that these phenomena are described. by witnesses (hallucinated. Nor is this uniform Mr. get excited. and a F. Podmore must hold that 'excitement lasted for six weeks among the carpenters in the shop at Swanland. consequently hallucinated. with Home. not detecting this stratagem. suppose that. Moreover.E. add the case of Cideville (1851) and Sir W.

Podmore will doubt whether he has discovered an universal law of excited mal-perception. a balance was affected to the extent of two pounds when Home was not in contact with the table on which the machine was placed. these circumstances are difficult to explain. but speaks nothing of the alleged levitation.. change of bulk. and these are but a few cases among multitudes. other spectators holding his hands. Lord Crawford and Balcarres. professionally. Sir W. celebrated for the accuracy of his observations. and his feet being visibly enclosed in a kind of cage. These are recorded in Buddhist and Neoplatonic writings. Crookes attests having seen Home float in air on In 1871. with a motion like that of a piece of wood on small waves of the sea (clearly excitement producing hallucination). Mr. gave the follow- . and automatically registering. by means of a machine constructed for the purpose.334 THE MAKING OF RELIGION monstrated. and escape from lesion when handling or treading in fire. while Home was at a distance. in Home's presence. and heard witnesses swear to having seen the holy man levitated. and certainly undesigned. the Master of Lindsay. or floating in air. 1730). that. Crookes being. now turn to peculiarities in the so-called Medium.S. He also saw objects float in air. in Tonquin (where a Jesuit saw and described the phenomena. Contagious hallucination cannot affect witnesses ignorant of each other's existence in many lands and ages. I venture to conceive that. in the 'Acta Sanctorum. of savages and civiHsed men. Lord Elcho. on reflection. All present held each other's hands. coincidence of testimony to the singular flight of objects does not rather point to an uniform in its effects. was present at the procks for canonising a Saint (unnamed). nor could they cook their reports to suit reports of which they never heard. or whether the remarkable.E. being at Eome. F. now several occasions. and all witnessed the phenomena. such as floating in air. Sir W. and among Eed Indians. ' abnormal agency ' We In 1760. Mr. Tylor says of Sir "William Crookes's cases (1871).' and among modern spiritualists.

and then with his back to the window he leaned back and was shot out of the aperture. which served as a ledge to put flowers on. It was * . and was brought in at our window. about seventy feet from the ground. was caused by a series of saints. " I will show you. The distance between the windows was about seven feet six inches. offers the explanation that the witnesses were excited. with the body The window is rigid. During the sitting.' It is not very easy to hold that a belief to which the collective evidence is so large and universal. We heard the window in the next room lifted up. Their first view of Home was floating in the air outside our window. raised about eighteen inches. Home had been and he expressed his wonder Mr. and there was not the slightest foothold between them. head first. and Home's feet about six inches above it. still entranced. which was corroborated by the two other spectators. but does not cover the facts as described. ' ing evidence. who quotes this. The moon was shining full into the room my back was to the Hght. brick wall was between them and him.' The hypothesis of a mechanical arrangement of ropes or supports outside has been suggested. and that Home thrust his head and shoulders out of the window. and in that state was carried out of the window in the room next to where we were. and almost immediately after we saw Home floating in the air outside our window. Podmore." aperture. as the belief in levitation. they could not see him do it. Home and Lord Adare and a cousin of his. Lord Adare then went into the next room to look at the window from which he had been carried. for he was in the next room. and I saw the shadow on the wall of the window sill. taken through so narrow an Home said. Home went into a trance. ' A * . Lord Adare and Captain Wynne. Mr. and then returned quite quietly. how Mr.APPENDIX B 335 I was sitting with Mr. nor was there more than a twelveinch projection to each window. then raised the window and glided into the room feet foremost and sat down.' But. if he did. He remained in this position for a few seconds.

336 THE MAKING OF RELIGION The argument of excited expectation and consequent hallucination does not apply to Mr. Httle to do with any conceivable theory of spirits. if possible. iii. Fere observes that any part of the body of an hysterical patient may change in volume. to expose him. Hamilton Aide and M. Both were extremely prejudiced against Home. Alphonse Karr. where Home received them. Nor in Lord Crawford's case is it easy to suppose that three educated men. 4. moved towards them. A large heavy table. in Parthey'a edition (Berlin.^ Mr. if hallucinated. 1857). would all be hallucinated in the same way. One singular phenomenon was reported in cape. and at Nice went to see. Podmore explains that perhaps he really stretched himself to his full height '—one of the easiest ways conceivable of a miracle. neither of whom was a man of science. ' which lambhchus working reports the same phenomenon men. M. p. and.^ In this case there was neither excitement nor desire to beheve. Home's has. and others thrusting their heads and shoulders out of windows where the observers could not see them. Neither of them could discover any explanation of the phenomenon.^ lamblichus adds that they were sometimes broadened as well as lengthened. 209. and revihng Home. disappointed. we must greatly extend our notion of the limits of the capacity for entertaining hallucinations. was^ Aide were two of a party in a spacious brilhantly lighted salon. and they walked away together. M. M. while Mr. Home a guest at a large villa in Nice. Karr and Mr. however. and carefully examined the space beneath. disgusted. Aide observed it from above. Aid^ has given me this information. simply owing to the fact that the ' in his possessed Mr. » He recorded the circum- » See Porphyry. sorcerers. Karr then got under a table which rose in air. . remote from their group. If two such witnesses could be hallucinated. Now. 2 Report of Dialectical Society. Btances in his Diary at the time. but a strong wish to disbeheve and to expose Home. He was said to become elongated in trance.

and is backed (for what photographic testiworth) by photographs of the performance. • • Mr. bears the "We -t fire. and to communicate the power of doing so to others. blister it done on eight occasions. Many persons. but without lesion lamblichus mentions this as among the of the skin. p. 399. Home then waved the handkerchief about in the two or three times.' Conceivably and the ancient Egyptian mediums may have been an extreme case of this change Could this be proved by examples. whilst he was entranced. however. Trinidad. Putting his other hand into the fire. and many other places. * Indeed.' which has no direct bearing on our subject. I went with him to the fireplace in the back drawingwant you to notice particularly room. is mony Lord Crawford saw unharmed. the Straits Settlements. Fiji. held it above his head. Home's of volume.' But it would follow that in this case observers were not hallucinated. Crookes's evidence follows 'At Mr. are said to have handled or walked through fire. Z . * and stooped down to • it when he put • his t hands • in. The evidence is that of travellers.APPENDIX B patient's attention the elongation of is 337 * on that part. missionaries. this argument is There is another class of physical phenomena. and others. and in India. in many ages. and then folded it up and laid it on his hand like a cushion. 1880. and the presumption would be raised that they were not fixed Home ' * hallucinated in the other cases. officials. not only without suffering pain. peculiarities of ' men and in Modern Mythology (1897) I have collected first-hand evidence for the feat in classical times. he took out a large air ' Bulletin de la SocidU de Biologic.' elongation would cease to be a miracle. his ' ' ' possessed ." Accordingly I stood close to the : my own. To hold glowing coals in his hand. what Dan is doing. and coal still himself received from A friend Home's hand the glowing of Sir Wof the hurt received in the process. was in Home's repertoire. Bulgaria. of universal application. He said. Home's request.

had recovered from the trance. . as also on the law of hallucination caused by excitement. 308. Under ordinary circumstances it would have been in a blaze.' He does not explain how this substance was put on Lord Crawford's hands. Proceeditigs. nor tell us what this valuable substance may be. and placed the red part on the handkerchief.' In September 1897 a crew of passengers went from New Zealand to see the Fijian rites.838 THE MAKING OF RELIGION of cinder. ix. and that 'possibly Home's hands were protected by some 'non-conducting substance. may be so hardened and thickened by such preparations that superficial charring might take place without the pain becoming great but the surface After Home of the skin would certainly suffer severely. where all but lump myself had remained seated. Podmore explains that only two candles and the gave light on one occasion. like a woman's. who walk through fire unhurt. Crookes's assertions that he saw Home perform the fire-tricks. but there were always possible that the skin . palpable signs of burning. I could detect no trace of injury to the skin. and Bulgarians. which. I examined his hand vsdth care to see if there were any signs of burning or of previous preparation. which was soft and delicate. But it is necessary to believe this distinguished authority's statement about his ignorance of some non-conducting substance Schoolboys' books and mediaeval this can be done with alum and other ' : ' ' tales describe how It is ingredients. "As the power is not strong. ' fire It is not necessary to believe Sir W. None is known to science. for we can fall back on the lack of light (only two candles and the fire-light).' Mr. and brought it to the table in the front room. as reported in ' ' Crookes. In about half a minute he took it off the handkerchief with his hand. Tongans. Neither were there signs of any preparation having been previously applied. I have often seen conjurers and others handle red-hot coals and iron. saying. Klings." He then put it on his hand. red-hot at the lower part. though it seems to be known to Fijians. if we leave the coal longer it will burn.

of reports. is a vera causa. Crookes. historically. Podmore's explanations (not satisfactory to himself) are conceived so thoroughly in the spirit of popular science one of them casually discovering a new air. The case for it is not confirmed. Both that substance and those spirits are equally in the ' * ' We ' ' ' ' Yet Mr. himself a witness. The interesting point. through excitement. then. can only be filed for reference. and Policeman Higgs at Worksop. practically identical. M. a third generously inventing an unknown substance that they ought to be welcomed by reviewers and lecturers. Hallucination. Fraud closes the futile chapter of explanations. Lord Crawford. would believe that a spirit might tenant a stick or stone Thus even o£ so beheving he would be a Fetishist. ' — — c2 . knowing nothing of each other.' Till the substance is tested experimentally it is not a vera We ' ' causa. This extraordinary bundle. Mr. Fetishism the probable origin is in a region of which we know nothing the x region. might as well say spirits at once. but an hypothesis difficult of application when it is admitted that the effects could not be caused Here by ordinary mechanical means. a vera causa. is the combination in Home of all the repertoire of the possessed men in lamblichus. this bundle made up of statements from so many ages and countries.' But it is manifest that any savage who shared the experiences of Sir W. when we have the same reports from witnesses certainly not excited. Victor at Cideville. Basil Thomson.APPENDIX B 839 the 'Fiji Times.' corresponded exactly with the description pubhshed by Mr. of facts paralysing to belief. as described by witnesses from different lands and ages. Eobert de St. Hamilton Aide. a second contradicting the facts it seeks to account for. makes us hesitate to accept a sweeping hypothesis of hallucination. certainly cannot get rid of the fire-trick by aid of a hypothetical 'non-conducting substance.' ' ' — psychological law. It seems wiser to admit our ignorance and suspend — our is belief. but its remarkable uniformity.

Nothing is more necessary in these researches than accuracy of statement. . supposed premonitions.. une jpersonne un pen mystique has and has altered the facts in the spirit of romance . at the Salpetrifere. Janet. which was assigned by Miss X.' ^ It work Les N^vroses contains a chapter on crystalin type. Alcan. the essay must be regarded as seriously impaired in value by Dr. no such disillusions ochauntings. 1898. or curred the romantic and marvellous circumstances are mythopceic accretions due to Dr. already cited has attributed them. of Miss X. famihar. Now. Throughout his paper Dr. cannot but be interesting. Paris. . No such persons were concerned. but to various people for example.'s from that lady's interesting essay. trinity of jeune fille. Janet has taken a set of experiences. a ' * ' gazing. styled et les Id^es Fixes. with neurotic visionaries. triumphantly given that explanation. pauvre voyante. The opinion of Dr. . Unluckily. and personne un peu > mystique. or experiments. revival of memory. herself. Janet's own memory or fancy. to une jeune fille. Janet appears as the calm of science pronouncing judgment on the visionary haunted young girls and disappointed vagaries of seeresses. Pierre Janet has appeared. Janet's singular treatment of his subject. not to Miss X. his scientific explanation is that given by his * ' man * ' ' ' .340 THE MAKING OF RELIGION APPENDIX CEYSTAL-OAZINa Since the chapter on crystal-gazing was by Dr. Dr. as that of a savant — une pauvre voyante.

quant aux autres. offers the same account of how the visions appear as that given by Miss Angus in the Journal of the S.' I. April 1898. xix. M. Ibn Khaldoun. * de la Bibliotheque Imp^riale. trusted than that of men and women in excellent health. crystal visions which I have cited from my own knowledge (and I could cite scores of others) were beheld by men and women engaged in the ordinary duties of life. les cuvettes remplies d'eau et les liquides ceux qui inspectent les cceurs. . mais.. I am unable to say whether such persons supply more cases of the faculty of crystal vision than ordinary people while their word. Dr. ought to have attributed them to herself. is much less to be . tels que les miroirs. have remarked that the explanation he offered was her own hypothesis. curious that an Arabian author of the thirteenth century. ils tachent d'arriver au . Not having any acquaintances in neurotic circles. The Students. one would think. Lef^bure. 643-645. tons ces gens-li appartiennent aussi h. k cause de I'imperfection de leur nature. Perhaps they are doubts if their descriptions are more to be trusted than the romantic essay of their medical attendant. novelists.P. ajoute-t-il. Lefebure's citation was sent to me in a letter. la faculty Ibn Kaldoun admet que certains hommes ont de deviner I'avenir. *"Ceux. la categorie des devins. school-masters. barristers. Lefebure's quotation from Ibn Khaldoun. In citing Miss X. decidedly.. le vrai devin n'a pas besoin de grands efforts . p.E. Janet ought to have reported her experiments correctly. verified by her own exertions. Pour ecarter le voile des sens. The original is translated in ' Notices et Extraits des — — MSS. Janet thinks that they are most and one apt to see crystal visions.. Dr. lawyers. and should. . golfers It is perfectly new have all exhibited the faculty.'s paper (as he did). . cited by M. I append M.APPENDIX C Being much engaged in the study * ' 341 of neurotic and hysterical patients. qui regardent dans les corps diaphanes.. ils y occupent un rang inf erieur. les foies et les OS des animaux. to all of whom the topic was school-mistresses.

Sur ce rideau se dessinent les choses qu'il desire ajjercevoir. Be sert de moyens tout k fait strangers a sa faculty perceptive et qui ne ' et indiqu6 qu'elles 6taient ' » self his Compare Tennyson's way own name. mais de Tame. fausses. Quelques personnes croient que 1 'image aper9ue de cette maniere se dessine sur la surface du miroir mais ils se trompent. Nous avons vu quelques-uns de ces individus entraver V operation des sens par I'emploi de simples /wwigations.* Cette agitation d'esprit. excite dans son cceur des id6es que cet organe exprime par Les paroles qu'il prononce sont tant6t vraies.342 THE MAKING OF RELIGION perceptions. II essaye ce moyen afin de soustraire son dine aux influences des sens et de lui donner assez de force pour se mettre dans un contact imparfait avec le monde spirituel. s'interpose entre lui et le miroir. II est vrai que. Le devin regarde fixement cette surface jusqu'a ce qu'elle disparaisse et qu'un rideau. but en essayant de concentrer en un seul seris toutes leurs Comme la vue est le sens le plus noble. pour eux. le devin. sur ce II raconte alors les perceptions savoir. Les arrive a ceux qui examinent les coeurs et les foies d'animaux. etat. du reste. Pour arriver au plus haut degr6 d'inspiration dont il est capable. tantot niinist^re de la langue. En effet. le devin doit avoir recours k I'emploi de certaines phrases qui se distinguent par une cadence et un paralUlisme particuliers. . est bien connu. voulant supplier a I'imperfection de son naturel. les perceptions de Vdme ressemhlent a celles des sens au point de les tromper La meme chose fait qui. . jointe k I'emploi des moyens intrins^ques dont nous avons le parl6. 209) I'emploi des incantations un simple adjuvant physique destin6 k donner k certains hommes une exaltation dont ils se servaient pour tacher de d^couvrir I'avenir. . soit que Ton desire telles qu'il les sont dans cet devins. et cela lui permet de donner des indications . ils lui donnent la preference fixant leur regard sur un objet a superficie unie. pendant qu'ils re9oit. n'aper9oivent pas ce qui se voit reellement dans le miroir c'est un autre mode de perception qui nait chez eux et qui s'opere. semblable a un brouillard. non pas au moyen de la vue. puis se servir di' incantations^ afin de donner a L'auteur arabe avait d6j^ mentionn6 (p. affirmatives. ils le considerent avec attention jusqu'a ce qu'ils y aper9oivent la chose qu'ils veulent annoncer. of attaining a state of trance by repeating to him- . soit negatives.

Quelquefois mSme il a recours k des suppositions et a des conjectures dans I'espoir de rencontrer la vMt6 et de tromper ceux qui I'interrogent. 343 I'ame la disposition requise ensnitc ils racontent ce qu'ils ont aper9u.' .APPENDIX C ." ' s'accordent en aucune faijon avec elle. disent-ils. au moyen d'emblemes et de signes. se montrent dans I'air et representent des personnages elles leur apprennent. Done la v6rit6 et I'erreur se pr6sentent a lui en meme temps. aussi ne doit-on mettre aucune confiance en ses paroles. Les individus de cette classe se detachent moins de I'influence des sens que ceux de la : classe precedente. les choses qu'ils cherchent a savoir. Ces formes.

however. Being.' in his tract on The Organisation of AustraUan Tribes (pp. Such a person. in some cases. might conceivably develop into a hero. Mr. if not into a creative being. He attaches more of the idea of power to Head-men than does Mr. 103-113). Howitt's remarks on Australian Head-men. it is argued that in Australia are. very inconspicuous. traces of a tendency to keep the office (if it may be called But Vich Ian Vohr or Chinone) in the same kinship. and that a dead chief cannot have thriven into a Supreme Attention should be called. The Australian Eace. if accompanied by courage.' . gahgook are not to be found in Australian tribes (p.344 THE MAKING OF RELIGION APPENDIX D CHIEFS IN AUSTBALIA In the remarks on Australian religion. There are and. as a rule. Curr in his work. But we must await evidence reverence was paid to to the effect that any posthumous this man. 113). lalina Piramurana (New Moon). wisdom. I do not observe that the manes or ghost of a dead Head* ' ' cliiefs * ' ' * ' man receives any worship or service calculated to fix him in the tribal memory.' The Head-men. arrive at such influence as they possess by seniority. by magical acquirements. if propitiated after death. though one Head-man was potent through the whole Diejrri tribe over three hundred miles of country. at most. to Mr. and so lead to the evolution of a deity. Howitt's essay is in the 'Transactions of the Eoyal Society of Victoria for 1889.

religious beliefs of. 230 parallel with African gods. . Hamilton. . 106. tribal names. 117. 246 Academy Animal magnetism. 248. 107 . of. 239-241 cult of Pachacamac. cited. 178. Sig. Pawnee tribal reTi-ra-wa. 230 . 74. 116 tion caused by expectancy. 234 religion of theBlackfeet. . 271-277 the. 280 Aid6. 239-247 another account of the Inca religion. 190. nature and influence 29. the case of.' cases in her ex- Andamanese. See under separate 303 Anthropology and hallucinations. religious faiths of. 109 tions. 212. . 336 Algonquins. rite to the Morning Star. hymns of the Zufiis. 111 tasms of the Uving. . . . .222. Pere. 244. 110 phantelepathy. 252. of the instances. 231 . . . 194-197. hallucinations causes of hallucinaof sight. 241. 16 Africans. 272 •Angus. 264.. 129. 247 Amoretti. 107 . and character 119 . 134 Acosta. 118. 168. perience of crystal-gazing. 116 . 231-233 . ence. inquiry into. 105. 266. 213. 236 . 235 . 335 Addison. other crisis of person seen. 108 ' . 237239 . 211. 205. 256. .221.INDEX of Medicine. puzzling nature of hallucinations shared by several people at once. 152 religion. Lord. 112. Paris. 234. 34. . 48. Miss. . 53. 269. 239-242 Sun-worship. one account of the Inca . cited. cited. 164-166. apparitions and deaths connected in fact. collective hallucinathe properly receptive tions. Maori evidence to be recases. 247. . Ahone. 105 sleeping and waking experi. . 108 illustrative coincidence. 206. 110 state. 121. 113-115 subjective hallucinajected. morbid hallucinations and coinciconnection dental flukes. 167. 231-233. 34 Achille. the. 208. 108. 262. 258. 119 . 121. the ligions. 49. 117 Census of the Society for Psychical Research thereupon. N^-pi.35 Animism. inquiry into animal magnetism. 268. 190 American Creators. 205. the Inca deity. 250 Allen. North-American Indian god. 107 ghosts. Adare. cited. 110. cited. 89-102. 242246. savage gods of Virginia. 63. 30. 233-236 Spirit Father. 58. coincidence of hallucinations of the sane with death or . 341 weighing evidence. remoteness of occurrence of instances. 249. 212. . 256. 117 hallucinations coincident with a death. number emotional effect. 191. 116. hallucinations in mentally sound people. opinion of the Committee on Hallucinations.' 108 the of cause and effect. Ancestor-worship. Awonawilona. the Ahone-Okeus creed. Grant. 268. cited.

the suggested hyp. 249. cited. 255. 76 Bissett. 60-64 . quoted. 84. 15 Braid. . 122 influence of anxiety. cited. 50. deity. 15 Book of the Dead. religious beliefs of. 175-182.. 290 . 169. 225227. 40 testing of evidence. 211 Bakwains. religious beliefs of. on the diviningrod.. 226. the. the Tongan Elohim. 220 Apaches. Cardinal. 39 . 282 . cited. cited. 190. Dr. cited. Mr. Professor. 36 Brewster. . 99-102 Blackfeet. . Baelz. 45 meanings of religion. 40 evolution and evidence. 219. 225 Bourget. 230. 48. 183. 55 56 . cited. 279 Aurora Borealis. Piper. 165. J. 266. 189. man's first conception of 218 Bleek. 60 the ghost-soul. 139. 286. . . 35. experiences of crvstal-gaziug. 49 49 waking and sleeping hallucinations. 128. John.346 want 121 . from civilised men. creed of. 240. 258 Binet and F6re. 43 . Jacques. children primitive man. 45. 15 Beaton. G. 57 note early scientific prejudice against. his opinion of Mrs. 123 . 44. Adolf.. cited. . Piper. cited.' 24.. 34 Bernadette. 118. 46 disproof of godless tribes. Dr. 236. 85 ApoUonius of Tyana. cited. 54 . 33 ' Automatism. their gods. 208. 196. 205 261. Gold Coast god. of the ideas of . Sir David. Fuegian deity. 61 savage abstract speculation. THE MAKING OF RELIGION Awonawilona. 150. 280 Baker. 155 Brinton. 251 Aymard. 97 Bell. 83 Boyle. religion in the. case of. 230-232 Bodinus. 4. 149 Beni-Israel. . 41-43 psychical research. 224. Dr. 197-199 Bantus. 152-154 Bastian. 57 . 308 Bora. mental and nervous conditions in connection with hallucinations. . 168. Zuni deity. 140 Barrett. Australian mysteries. 124 officer. 264. 52 ghost-seers. 104 note. 179. . 211. .. A. psychical conditions in which . . 292 Australians. 261-263 Bosman. Sir Samuel. non-coincidental hallucinations. . differ 54 power normal psychological conditions. 248. savage ideas of the. Mr. second-sight. 185. beliefs of. 43 Baxter. limits of savage tongues. notic state. 52 conception of life. 175. 188. 263 of documentary evidence. 255. 60 the migratory spirit. 182 Baiame. origin of inferences drawn religion. 205. South Guinea Creator. 232. 260 religion. 125 Anthropology and religion. 123. 121 telepathy existing between kinsfolk and friends. Paul. cited. 196.. 254. 66 Atua. 169 Balfour. 236 Blantyre region. his opinion of Mrs. and Mrs. 258. . Captain J. cited. savages . 47 Animism. 152 Aztecs. existence of illness known. 42. 58 savage names for the ghost-soul. 190. 83. 56 Anyambia. case of. 6. 44 . and early man's Berna. 124 value of the statistics of the Cenanecdote of an English sus. 234. crystal-gazing by. 243 Barkworth. from supernormal phenomena. . quoted. 44. 140 Bourke. of producing non- faculties of the lower animals. magnetiser. 215.. 117 Big Black Man. . 60 crystal-gazing. 262. his mistress visualised. 52 analogy . 53 savage parallels of psychical phenomena. 20. 194 Bobowissi. inventor of the word hypnotism. 176. Banks Islanders. . 211. cited. 67. 217. 191. 233. .

cited. . 154. 24 note Clievreul. 78-81 provoked by various methods. 324 Carver. 73 73 ProPeruvian clairvoyants. de. 325..' 89-102.. 338 Crystal visions. 191. 7. 325. visions second-sight. Stuart. rejection of 347 the. .. 211. 324. . Darumulun. 12 note. 72. 174 note. cited. 240. cited. 9. 120.. Button. 70 the Marson case. . the. . Bunjil. 336. . 149 291 Cook.INDEX Bristow. 332 British Association decline to hear Braid's essay. . 71 the element of trickery. 66. 296 Collins. 334. Sir William. 39 Brosses. 257 moral Creator. M. in later 83-85 Europe. 237. Captain Jonathan. 337. Dr. 334. 21 . . cruel gods degenerate from the Australian Father in Heaven. Mr. 68-70 among the Lapps. 193. 44. 332 Death. of. 250 of. ' . 87 coincidence of fact and fiction. General Mason. the Fuegian. religious beliefs. 66. 169. 150. religious beliefs 193. 257 hankering after useful ghost-gods. 300 Cockburn. 24 . 103 cited. . 115. cited. cited. case of. 257 lower. 85 .. 333. the. . 189 Bushmen. cited. 258-264. Dampiek. the. 178. her miraculous cure. 143. Bushman Charcot. 99-101 Codrington. 256 savage a pure religion Animism. 183. Mr.. 208. Cagn. Mrs. cited. 85. 92 phenomena suggest the savage theory of the soul. cited. 75 Dobbie's case. 295. . 331.. 208 Cardan. 340 Cumberland. 131. 314-316. Mile. wandering 50. tests the Delphic Oracle. Australian Being. his instance of savage possession. ' Curr. the. 285 Clairvoyance {vue d distance). hungry. 254 differences between the Supreme Being of higher and lower savages. 144. 67 Corpse-binding. cited. 67 instances. 179 ' Darwin. 280 Supreme 186. Dr. savage ideas on. cited. . 144 Crawford. 115 deity. 65 opening the Gates of Distance. 20 Coleridge. 271 Brown. 85 attributed to dissociation. Confucius.. religious teaching 290. demon possession in. . ' . 189. 197-199 Coirin. 11. 256 an inconvenient forgotten. 149-151 . 'Miss Rose's' experience. Captain. divining-rod. 142 cited. 143 Croesus. 20. Dr. . 187 Degeneration theory. 290. . 81. Creeks. Lord. Edward. 175 Circumcision. cited. 145 . 142. 67 among the Zulus. 72 Cures by suggestion. . cited. fessor Richet's case. 291 Chonos. Comanches. . . Clodd. 119. ' ' ' . arguments against accepting recognition of objects described by another person. 152 Chinese.. seers. 20-22. reports 'godless 184 note savages. . Jemmy. 14 Crookes.' 65. 179.' test of crystalgazing. 255 human sacri255 fice. 91. 72 a Red Indian seeress. nature of Miss X's experiments. cited. 75 Mr. anthropological papers. 66 conflict with the laws of exact science. 15 Carpenter. cited. Dr. 254. cited. . on Zulu beliefs. 207.' 87.' 86 examples of thought-transference. 83 savage instances. deity. See Crystal visions of . on faith cures. . . 176 Dancing sticks. the powerful creative Being of lowest savages. 149. . 205 Callaway. 66 attested cases among savages. 106. 76 Scottish tales . 252 337 165. 133. 213. 151. 88 Miss cases in the experience of Angus. ' .

259 status of Darumulun. . falling off in the theistic conception. . the savage Supreme Being on a higher plane than the Semitic and Greek gods. 232. 203 cited. . 136-141 . M. . 260 degeneration of deity . 128. 266. cited.. . diagnosing and 142 . . 258 hovah. 142.' 132. ' ' . 338 . 24 Dessoir.' 130. 263. Francis Dart. 265 feeling after a God who needs 266 . 147 sources supernormal to savages. Dyneis. 32. 265. on Polynesian and African religious ideas. 272 Elohim. 133 scientific account of a demoniac and his cure.' 129. use of the. . 150 lum experiment. Ebomtupism.. 129 Ellis. 258. Dr. 152-155 Dobbie. 261.. Du Du Pont. 258 sacrifice in ritual of Israel. 156 the disturbances in the house of M. Divining-rod. comparison with physical phenomena of spiritualism. 267 Demoniacal possession. 225. 144 Dendid. cited.. 211. Zoller. cited. 'alternating personality. the fetish. . 263 Animism full of in Africa. 236 human . ing of the ideal of a Creator.348 THE MAKING OF RELIGION . religious beliefs of. 260. religious 184 beliefs of. . 149 . cited. . 131 attempted explanations of the phenomena. 280 Deslon. 147 . 256 Faith-cures. 265. 83. 131 stances in China. trance 65 Semitic gods. 24. Jonka. M. 259 conception of Jehovah conditioned by space. . 113. 37. 334 Eleusinian mysteries. 248.. 151 table-turnthe divining-rod. beliefs of the. Carver's example of savage possescustom of binding sion. on Maori ghost-seeing. 156 room manifestations. 145. . 260 . 'change of control. not anything at man's hands. Mile. 136 scientific study of the phenomena. . 72. . 276. 165. cited. Major. 128. on hallucinations. 42. 257 maintenance of an immoral system in the interests of the State and the clergy. the 'inspired' or 'possessed. 83. . 135 knowledge by the possessed. 212. 142. . 196 Elliotson. gift of ineloquence and poetry. 132 evidence for. Mr.. 157 the seer with bonds. 57 Dinkas. Lord. 258 . 156 consideration of inphysical phenomena. 158 . fetishism. 200. Mr. second sight. .. Eskimo. origin of conception of Je. 20-22 Fenton. 28 of. 262. the seeds of religious degeneration. 152 Fijians. 150 a sceptical a form of the penduZulu. 222-228. . 136 details of the case of Mrs. beliefs of. savage equivalents to the term. Zulu ghosts. sacrificial ideas. 258. 32 Fetishism and Spiritualism. 144. . Egyptians. 33. 134 inducing the possessed exhibition of abnormal state. Dinka Supreme Being. . 212. 152ing. stanced. 76 Dorman. 143. of degradation of Jehovah. 132. modus of degeneration by Animism supplanting Theism. prescribing for patients. 149 . Mr. . Dr. 264. disciple of Mesmer. 148 independent motion in inanimate objects. cited. symptoms of possession. Dunbar. quoted. Max. Piper. 302 Elcho. 136. 40 . 114 Ferrand. 211. 75 Prel. 128. 277 Esemkofu. 73 political advance produces religious degeneration. . 258 moral monotheism the Hebrew religion. 131. Melanesian belief in sticks moved by spirits. 152 165 the civilised and savage dark practice of automatism. 251. 30. corpse-binding. his case of clairvoyance. 265. 324-339 Figuier. 35.

176. cited.' 185 tween deities and ghosts. 179 possible evolution of the Australian god. 160 anthropological hypothesis. 191. 36. the.' 65. 189 propitiation by food and sacrifice. 165.. 184 . cited. . 132 . religious beUefs in. fetishes. 211. . 262. Greenlanders. 188 hostile Good and Bad . 54. 146 Gippsland tribes. 144. 164 of spiritual beings . . 12.. 190 gods prior to the ghost-theory. 117 Guyau. Dr. beliefs and customs Flint. conception of an idealised divine First Ancestor. 181. 95. the. . 239-244 'Gates of Distance. . hypothesis the moral. 173-175. . Beings. 220 Gurney. Joseph. Christian and ting Islamite influence on savage conceptions. 63 Ghost-soul. . 84 in of theirs. 180 note Fison. 178. Professor. 166 .. the High Gods of low races. Dr. 115. 161 regarded as a spirit. 177. 167 probable gei-ms of the savage idea of a Supreme Being. 22 Fuegians. . Opening the. savage religions. 115. 180. 178 mythology and theology of Darumulun. 35. names for the. religion. on willing sleep. 183. the. 12.. 294. Sieur de. 86 Griesinger. on Pawnee beliefs. 165 . 182.. . his experiments in hypnotism. 114. 186. 295 Garcilasso de la Vega.' 190 gods to talk higher about. 187 negation of the ghost-theory. cited. Mr. . 25 . 164 the Zulu first ancestors. 66. 165 Dead. 24. . 186 . 164 165 ancestor. 183 religious sanction of morals. . 168. Being of low savage faith. 60 Gibert. Dr. Mr. the degeneracy. Eev.. 256 Guinea. 208.' 167 . St. . 302 Greeks. 168 . . 234-237 Guiana Indians. ghosts. gazing in Madagascar. 182 Gregory. 166. the. the Lord of the . cited. stigmata of. 179 selflessness the very essence of goodness. cited. Admiral. 174 medicine-men. on Inca beliefs. 169 recognition by savages of our God . 68 Ghost-seers. 15 God. 173. 128 Fitzroy. . 173 the Fuegian ghosts of dead Big Man. 187 GlanvU. the highest Australian god. cited. 188. 179. Supreme Gods not necessarily developed out distinction beof spirits. 185 human beings adored as gods. cited. See Supreme Beings American Creators Jehovah beliefs of. 188 idealisation of the savage himself. evolution of the idea of. . North and South. not to adore. 175 the Bora. . Dr. and Beings who never were human. cited. animistic conceptions. 272 Galton. 849 169. friendly intrusion of European ideas into . media' Sons.. the Supreme Being of savage creeds. his scientific ' ' investigations. 258. 173. 253 Francis. 166 . 107. deathlessness of the Supreme Being of savage faith. 171 food offerings to a Universal Power. 189 low savage distinction between gods. 160 primitive logic of the savage. ' . 187. 107. the. cited. of. 171 . 162 . 36 Gibier. 189 high creative gods never were mortal men.INDEX Firms. Grinnell. 51 . or Australian tribal mysteries. religious beliefs of. great gods in savage systems of .. precepts of Darumulun. 170 creative . M. 190 magnified nonnatural men. argument from design. Mr. • . 174 on crystalFlacourt.. idea framed on deified the human soul. . . 227.. 58 Fire ceremony. 202-206. Mr.

341 Jeanne d'Arc. statement of. Piper. 282. 132. 143-145 Hodgson. of . 56. 126. 60. 287. 175. 144 ^ 294 . 85. 34. 28 cited. Sir William. 43. 26. Madame. cited. 35. theories of. Pierre. development of their re- Ugious ideas. 166 Kant. beliefs of. Mr. on the religious ideas of the Indians of Guiana. Dr. Lord. ' ' . on hypnotism. 141 . 30-34. 186. 151 Karr. case of. Alphonse. on demoniacal possession. the. inquires into Swedenborg'g visions. a medium. David.Stilling. traditional emergence of Israel. 75. 336. 110. 287 . 284 . 37 Kenites. the. 128. 298 Incas. 278 . 22_25 alternative definition of a miracle. report on Mrs. 283. 137. 325. Mr. . 283 a Kenite god. 277 the term Elohim. 221 Israelites. 26 Hearne. cited. 279 . 339 Ibn Khaldoun.. 258. 137. . Miss. 341 Im Thurn. 27. 326-328 . Dr.. 270 absence of ancestor-worship from the Hebrew tradition. Police Constable. 202-207. 300. 134. suggestion of a Being not yet named Jehovah. 277 human shape assumed. 268-284. Jeraeil. 334-339 Howitt. 22 Hebrews. 258. . 268. 21. Kingsley. 270-273. 324 Hypnotism. 84. cited. mysteries of the Kurnai. 280 . 73. . 42. 73. 286 . 337.' 27 conscious. 135 . 16 17. cited. cited. cited. 135. Professor William. attitude towards miracles. 85 Islam. 235 Jiing. 211. on African beliefs. 48. 30. 260. on the metaphysics of discusses the subspirits. Pawnee. 297 Huxley. definition of a self-contradictions. 176. 14. 240-247. 125 Karens. on savage re. 273-277 evolution anthropological of . 302 James. 324. influence of. 255. 156. cited. refuses to examine miracles of the Abb6 Paris. . . alleged evidence for ancestor-worship in Israel. 286 . 171. Dr. 25 cited. 162. 220. 19. 182. his powers as considered as a ghost-god. David Dunglas. origin • ' Hallucinations. cited. 271. 32. 78. Professor. 260. . 281 . 294. 23. 258 Iroquois. 60. as a Moral Supreme Being. 3 on cure by suggestion. 163. 140. cited. the moral element a sur285 vival of primitive ethics in the savage ancestors of the Israelites.350 THE MAKING OF RELIGION Janet. ligious cults. 18. 6. cited. on the Aurora Borealis. 115. . from ghost-cult to the cult of Jehovah. 201 Kamschatkans. 58. 282. Fijian name for gods. 256. 299 180 302 279. 277.. Highland second-sight. . theory of the Jehovah-worship. 228 Kirk. sacrifices to. 177-182 Hume. the. 37. Kalou. Jehovah as the god 281 as a deified ancestor. . 270. 73. 296. 50. 284 inconsistencies of theorists concerning.76 Jugglery. 131 Harteville. 73.' 26. 36. 17 note. White's house. 63 lAMBLicnus. 59. 336 Kelvin. on the evolution of Jehovah. 276 Jehovah. a mere tribal god. See Anthropology and Hallucinations Hamilton. 12 Hammond. on the disturbances at Mr.. 59 disappointed with Swedenborg's Arcana Coelestia. See Israelites Hegel. cited. on willing sleep. quoted. 200. cited. 177. 282 moral element in the idea of Jehovah. 24. cited. 111. 29. 152 Higgs. Jevons. miracle. 160. 340. 107. on demoniacal possession. 16. 268 . verity of the Biblical account. 34. 325 Home. cited.

religious beliefs of. cited. 21 gestion. Malays in. 35 Malagasies. 24 . 150. Banks Islands Laino. 18-20. Catherine de'. 241. 149. Cieza de. 75. Charcot's amine evidence.. M. 263. 16 essay on. Mr. Madame. 16 and his definitions a miracle.. on the Dinkas. phenomena of clairvoyance. 83. 16. 213. their religious conceptions. 29. 20. cited. 119.. his theory of magnetism.. Max Dessoir's gic tie. 76 Lapps.. facts and phe35 willing. 29. cited. animalmagnetism. M. M. Kant's researches. case of. 194. 290 Lejean. cited. 198. 15 Leaf.' 31 views. marvel- lous facts. Dr. science opposed to systematic 22 refusal to exnegation. cited. 15. 41 Miracles. religious beliefs of. 2629 Swedenborg's clairvoyance. Hegel's 'maDr. 23-25 . 246 Marson. 30. 278 Markham. ideas of a god in. faith . Manganjah. 170 Lloyd. cited. 324-339 Melanesians. views. on second-sight. 74. witchcraft. 29.. 15 Le Loyer.. 23 . 113- 115. 112 note Leeward Isles. on Andamanese religion and mythology.' 24 suggestion a distance. 215. cited. Duff. 75. cited. cited. 197. . 244 Leonie. 58 Macdonald. 32 hallucinations. le P^re. ' . 195 Mana. 34 Millar. 200 Menestrier. Dr. 199. cited. Dr. of Keeling Island. 84 Magnetism. 154 Mcnzies. Samuel. 150. 200 Mandans. Pere. cited. . cited. a. 81 Latukas. 84. 334 Littr6. 14 and more modern research. Alastair. Dr. the. 257 Mesmer. Macalistee.. 287. Professor. 135. 189. 218 Macgregor. . 79-81 Madagascar. cures by sug. 40. Piper. 328 Loan-god. cited. 222-229 Lourdes. 29. Mr. 166. 341 Legge. 37 26. 27 . 71. 118. cited. M.. Dr. 55 Maudsley. 34 hypnotism.. uses the divining-rod. 34. . the. 169. on the teaching of Confucius.INDEX Kohl. Sir John. regarded from the standpoint of science. 166. 146 Maoris. the case of her hypnotisation. 188 Marawa. 150. 58. Dr.' 36 nomena confronting science. .. Australian tribe.. . 20-22. 291 851 in. Professor. Dr. 23 note Maui. magical rapport. 130 Mather. 32. David. 251 Lefebure. 31. ]28 Levitation. the case of. 199. 42 Leslie. . 188 Mayo. cited. . Maori deity. 136 Livingstone. ' . 199 Mariner. 181. 31. 188 thought-transference and hypnotic sleep. practice of sorcery 149 cited. cited. 16. 19 Lubbock. Mr. 20. Dr. 71 Mason. 66 Medicine-men. Mr. 84 in- cures. fetishism 141 Man. 148 Knlin. his opinion of Mrs. 140 MacCulloch. telepathic hypothesis of. Mr. cited. 25 cures at the of tomb of the Abb6 Paris. 180. 32 . Manning. 133 Leon. 212 Lejeune. . 83 Leng. 215.76 on Zulu clairvoyance. cited. 35 water-finding. cures at. 243. Cotton. deity. gives stances of second-sight.. 187. cited. Binet and F6r6's explanation of these cures. cited. 12 note Langlois. 327. cited. 6. Dr. 49. beliefs of. . on familiar spirits. 20.. Australian tribe.. 86 Medici. 14 early tests. Mr. 42 Lavaterus. beliefs of. . 262. on ghosts. . G8. 84 Mediums.. 49 Kuruai. Hume's 15 . Tshi theory of.

Gold Coast Supreme Being. 30. 136- 141 Pliny. 225-228. 60 North. 326.. Major. 232. 303 Porphyry. Mr. de. South Guinea god. 258. Piper Piper. 341 Mlungu. 213218 Molina. 228. 316. Mr. 220 Myers. 240 Eavenswood. 75. on Pawnee jugglery. Australian god. religious ideas and practices of.. his discovery of hypnotic sleep. religious beliefs and practices of. cited. Qat. 76 . 190. Herr. 233-236. 15 Plotinus. 237239. 132. Dr. the. 258. cited. 325 Palmer.' on crystal-gazing. Andamanese Supreme Being. cited. 275-277.. 231. Professor W. 213-217 Muller. 252. Bushman. 151 Pepys. on ancient Israel. 200-202. 173 Pendulum experiment.. cited. 66 Plutarch. Christoval de. religious beliefs of. 251. Kurnai Supreme Being. 161. Banks Islands deity. Captain.217. 83. Bantu Supreme Being. 334-339 Polynesians. Shekuni Great Spirit. 280 N4-pi. 325. 243 Moll. erects a bloodless fane to the Unknown God. 41. Eomaine. 7. 23 Parish. 220 Orpen. Henry. 239-247 of the Dead. 283-286 Mtanga. . cited. 14 Nzambi Mpungu. 37 note Ombwiri. . 221. 160.352 ' THE MAKING OF RELIGION Paladino. cited. Central African deity. the. cited. Mr. 33 . criticism of his reply to the arguments for telepathy. 188. See Mrs. on demoniacal possession. 338. case of. 235. cited. on hypnotic slumber. cited. on psychical research. 256 Polytheism. Mr. 205. 289. 181. American Indian deity. 29 cited. cited. 228. 307-323 cited... his ideas of the god Gang.259 Mwetyi. 193. 266. Mr.. Inca Supreme Being. 242. 248 Nevius. 66 Pelippa. 222 Pawnees. 258 Pachayachachi. onlnca beliefs. American Indian deity. 230. A. 232 Puluga.. Max. on African beliefs. cited. miracles wrought at his tomb. 15 note Phantasms 128 Nana Ntankupon. 283-285 262 Puys6gur. M. instanced. and his explainers. Eev. 193 Oxford. 43. the sisters. Inca god. 330-336. 840. Mrs. Rev. Dr. 196 Pachacamac. Virginian chief. 20 More. 212. 228. Herr. 18-20. Miss X. Abb6. 258 Nicaraguans. 261. 226. 236 339 Poltergeist. 265. 239-247. 189. 242 Powhattan. 289 Mungan-ngaur. 230. 291. 195. case of. 314 Montgeron.. 131-135 Newbold. founder of the Hebrew religion. W. 246 Peden.205. 46. 15 Moses. cited. 231. cited. Fijian Supreme Being. 224. Okeds (Oki). 87. Mungo. 107 Park. 232 Okey. cited. 15 Peruvians. African deity. 135 Nezahuatl. a form of the. cited. 242. 15 Podmore. Frederic. Eusapia. Master 126 of. 198. 86. 19. 262 Pundjel. 111. the case of. 199 Qing. 263 Payne. 179 Paris. 315. 328. Ndengei. 8. 241 Phinuit.

. 212. 64. See Fetishism Stade. 135. Rhombos. moral. Eliza. . David Clement. preference spirits. 5. 234 Smith. 106. 324-339. 292 Spiritualism. Mr. M. 56. the case of. 326-330 Eoskoff. M. savage mysteries and rites. 132 Richet. North American tribes. and Vui (Beings human). 318. 72 Shang-ti. 15 SuUy. Erminie. 113 Sidgwick. . cited. 218. 202. 186 religion of Bushmen.. 853 cited. the Banks Islanders' belief in . 42. 71 Renan. 84 Smith. 22. Herbert. Dinka Creator. 212 the . 182. 118 Spencer.' her experience of crystal-gazing. 121. Chinese Supreme Being. the Great Spirit of . Mr. 285 E6ville. 200. Smyth. Puluga. the 208 . 73. the. UnkuGhost-cult. Mrs. 47 Animism. 53. historian of Virginia. 284. 27 Sebituane. 203 Eegnard. Sun-worship. cited. African anMlungu. 104 note. 298 . cited.. 229-232 . cited. 293 178. 302 Miss. 86 Santos. 195 . cited. 291 Shortland. 75. 14 Scheffer. 182 men-gods. cited. of. 216. Ndengei. 29 Romans. 236 Schrenck-Notzing. Mr. 174 customs. . 90. Suetonius. 290. 72 Strachey. M. cited. 142. use of the. 66. beliefs and practices 21. 212 48 note. Russegger. 211 cestor-worship. 76 cited. Mr. 42. cited. 196. . 238-245 Supreme Beings of savages. Professor. Fijian belief. 293 Reynolds. . 193 . 42 Rowley. on crystalgazing. 49 Australian marriage Man. 214 Saul and the Witch of Endor.INDEX Red Indians. Hans. 126 clairvoyance. cited. Dr. 143. . rehgious ideas ' of. cited. the Bushman god. and powerful. a . 58.. cited. 72 Sand. 291.. 167. 149 Rose. 201 the idea of primeval Eternal Beings. 128. cited. for serviceable family 209 . 276. 200. 207210 . hypnotises L6onie. . cited. 82. believes in Siderism. cited. 193 Cagn. 43 ghosts. quoted. George. the. 203206 the God-cult abandoned for . 136 Second-sight. 218 Scott. 295 Salcamayhua. 6. 231. the Zulu Creator. von. 246 Samoyeds. 205. the soul the complex of real bodiless after- images. 78-81 Seer-binding. 217. corporeal and incorporeal (ghosts) sacrificial offerings to ghosts and spirits. 198 . Brough. M. cited. 213. on early religious ideas. cited. William. Reginald. 196 alliance of ethics with religion. 203 dream origin of the ghost theory. . 281 note.. . regarded as eternal. 294 Ritter. the notion of a dead Maker. Professor Charles. 203 Guiana Indian names indicating a belief in a Great Spirit. who never had been Vuis. cited. 66. . case of. Sir Walter. 193 ancestor-worship. 245. cited. 236 Skidi or Wolf Pawnees. 3. 54 limits ol savage the Fuegian Big language.. 199 . . lunkulu. 70. 170. 332 Sioux. his attitude towards cited. cited. 175 Australian religion. 232 Smith. 22 Ribot. cited. 271-273 cited. cited. 285 Stanley. Tamate 197. Robertson. 200. 83. 91 Rose. 15 Scott. 49 note. Dr. . 84 Society for Psychical Research. cited. 162.. 143 Seers. 116. cited. Russell. 261. . 81 Schoolcraft. 55 note Scot. Herr. 259. 202. cited. the Fijian chief god. . cited. 71. 104 note Stoll. Rev. 12 Starr. cited. the Andamanese god. 154.. 233.

. 221 . 128 * ism. 153 evolution of divining-rod. religious behefs of. 36 Tui Laga. . 51 . 49 theory of metaphysical genius in low savages. 311 . 263.'s Census cases. 54 . 54-56 on the influence of Swedenborg. memory. . 59. 118 demoniacal possession. deities. recovers Mme. . 233 Torfseus. 311 . 251. 217. non-coincidental cases. 312 . number of coincidences no proof. 201 savage Animism. cited. 88-103 Thouvenel. . Supreme Being of savage creeds. 223-227 Tuckey. to. 309. 47 . condition to beget hallucination. 87 illustrative cases. Polynesian deity. 167 the degeneration theory. Esther. Emanuel. 4. American tribe. 163. 53 .. 200 248. the position of Mtanga. 251 Taine. 239 Tlapan6. the ancient of heaven. 254 upon religion. Lloyd. Mr. case of. ethical ele- visions in religious mysteries. 234236. 66 106 hallucinations. 29-32. 57. . Thought-transference. . . 48. 269. cited. 276 Tregear. fetishism. hallucinations mere dreams. 151 Tahitians. 290-292 Swedenborg. gods from ghosts. 152 Thyrasus on ghosts. 249.' 188 Tando. 278. 60 secondmediums. 110-113.' receipt. . . 312 coincidental collective hallucina- ditions of contemporary savages. Christians. . Dr. . M. American Indian god. 262. peans. 71 . Nana Nyankupon. confusion of thought 170. 135 Tongans. 148. 222-228 varieties of Tshi gods. 270. Teed. . 224. Gold Coast god. 166 . John. 308 Table-turning. 291 Ti-ra-wa.. 218 beliefs in . 225 fetishes. savage names for the ghost-soul. 59 Taa-Eoa. . 307 science oppositions hallucination of of . . M. 41 . . 290. 215 .' borrowed from Euro. . 817-323. his 'Arcana 27 . 231 .354 deity formed THE MAKING OF RELIGION by aggregation 213 . 252 Chinese conceptions. 308 . on Maori ghost-seeing. cited. 105. visions of. sight. the God of the ' American 225-229 Creators (see under). 278280 Tonkaways. 251. 166. Banks Islands ghosts. negro tendency to monotheism. dreams. . veridical hallucinations. 308. 131. ancestor of the Kurnai. Chinese heaven. . 333 Telepathy.R. gion. his term Anim' ' Tamate. ghost-seers. on psychical con. 204 Okeus and his rites. 252. 15 Tien. noticed by Kant. 282 on anthropological origin of relion savage philosophy of super-normal phenomena.' . 113 Tshi theory of a loan-god. departed spirits. .P. 182 list of first ancestors deified. African wizard. 149. 241. 221 Islamic inthe Tshi theory of a fluence. . Tongan deity. 57 Ta-li-y-Tooboo.. 45. 249 Tundun. Mungo ' Park's loan-god. 26. ment Thomson. . Crystal note. 117. 43 26 . 218 .. 339 North and South Guinea. 279. Mr. 310 314-316 crystal-gazing. 29. 225 . coincidence in S. 197199 Tamoi. 164 fetish 165 dualistic idea. 316 . 307 presentiments. 312. 316 association of ideas. Harteville's Ccelestia. cited. 230-253 the Polynesian cult. Totemism. 216 religious beliefs in the Blantyre region. the Amherst mystery. 225 Tanner. . . 28. his test of recurrence. 188 savage mysteries. 239. disproves the assertion about godless tribes. Fijian deity. See cited. 73 dreams. of tions. observation of African beliefs. 35. 309. Basil. . 181 Tylor. 280. . 256. 220 . .

29. Catherine. cited.. levitation. Joseph. 14. 277. 16 Wolf tribes. 85. 50. 219.. 37 Virchow. on the diviningrod. Supreme Being 214 Wellhausen. 243 Wallace. 157 Zulus. 73. of the. on clairvoyance. 19 Vui. cited. a Fuegian. John. Alfred Russel.INDEX Confucius's Pachacamac. 326-331 Wierus. cited. 197-200 Wabose. 170. cited. 290 . disturbances in the house of. 246 Vincent. ideas of a God in. 16 White. 251 SpotUsuooiie & Co. cited. 240. 202.. 59. 251 Witch of Endor. 325 . good spirit of the Chonos. 233 Wynne. the. 248 Wilson. M. religious beliefs and customs of. cited. 246. diviners by sticks. 334 . 61-63. 14-16 Wodrow. 285. 34. 335 220 Yama. 72. 201. 151. Mr. Lid.. on on clairvoyance. a Peruvian race. Colchester and Eton. 29 . 68. 555 Home. 214-216 Yerri Yuppon. 175 York. 220. cited. Mr. 242-246 Umabakulists. Professor. 277. London. 213. 74 Waitz. worship of. . 68. 151 Unkulunkulu. 65. 70. 213. Augustin de. 248. Welton. 164. Tyndall. 286. 297 232. 218Zaeate. 66. 150. 18. cited. 174 Yuncas. 257. 142. cited. religious beUefs of. on Hume's theory of 'miracles. 168. 231. cited. 207-210 128. 293. 156. 141. 188. Mr. 154 Wesley. spirit manifestationa at his house. 278 Witchcraft. 188 Yaos.. 63. Zulu mythical first ancestor. 36. Mr. cited. cited. 298 cited. 150. 220 Windward Isles. 162. . 169. Inca Creator. Captain. Zunis. experience of. 324 UiRACocHA. 177. 194 note. 207. 283. 60. non-ghost gods. Fiintert. 185. 52. hymns of the. Wayao. 152. 245 the mystagogue teaching. Vedic-Aryan ghost-god. 161. 240 Zoller. 203. 184. 222. 173. Red Indian seeress. Thomas.' 17. 15 Williams.. 78. 31 Eitter.

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BL .L32 .LMG. ANDREW The mailing of religion.

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