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1 Introduction

You will need to download the MatLab code ‘aerosolinitial.m’ from Blackboard. This code calculates the lift and drag of a two dimensional Joukowski aerofoil in three stages. First, the aerofoil shape and pressure distribution are calculated using the same formulation you have already coded into MatLab in the ﬁrst assessed exercise. The outputs from this analysis are then fed into an integral boundary layer analysis based initially on the Thwaites formulation, as given in your notes. This is used to calculate the momentum thickness and skin friction coefﬁcient on the upper and lower surfaces from the stagnation point. As an option, transition can be assumed. If this is the case, the boundary layer beyond the transition point is calculated using a power law approximation, as covered in the handout on integral turbulent methods. However, at present some of the lines of code are missing, and this part of the program is inoperative. The lines of code requiring modiﬁcation currently contain the variable ‘deletethis’ and come with some helpful comments. You are also required to add an option to use Michel’s criterion for transition, and to compare this to the original one based on the change in the sign of the pressure gradient. Sections you need to modify are between the comments ‘START MODS’ and ‘END MODS’; there are four in total.

2

Using the Code

The code may be run interactively through MatLab. Several of the inputs should only take a limited range of possible values, and if so the user is informed at the input prompt. Entering data outside of these ranges is not prohibited by the software, and hence care must be taken inputting data to ensure correct results. The code operates in two parts, ﬁrst calculating the inviscid ﬂowﬁeld, then requesting inputs required for the boundary layer calculation. Generally this process is straightforward, but note that the program automatically divides the input for viscosity (µ) by 105 , i.e. if a value of 1

otherwise the program will exit. ﬁnd the largest integer value that the percentage ratio of d to b may take for which the laminar ﬂow over a symmetrical Joukowski aerofoil of chord 1 metre persists without separation to the trailing edge. enter ‘2’. Satisfy yourself that the drag coefﬁcient is indeed always negligible (roundoff and the discretisation may lead to small non-zero values. and alter a limited portion of the code (the lines you have modiﬁed should be included in the report .dat’.8 × 10−5 is required. and you only need to include either the upper or lower surface coding. Each ﬁle contains a header.dat’. and momentum thickness at zero degrees. Reports will be automatically scanned for plagiarism. zero incidence and a Mach number of 0. but not both). and there is no part which involves any mathematics or theory outside of the course content already discussed. ‘blupper.dat’ and ‘bllower. either positive or negative).1. use the program to calculate the inviscid lift and drag coefﬁcients for an aerofoil with d/b ratio of 5%. As output.8’.ignore them). Familiarise yourself with the code as it currently stands.79 × 10−5 . Initially (before you have added the necessary code). You should hand this in via blackboard. 3 Your Task The tasks set out below will require you to write a report (word limit 1500). the program generates three ﬁles. and why? Include ﬁgures using sensible scales showing aerofoil shape. Assuming sea level conditions of a = 340. It is extensively commented. or displayed using a graphics package such as Gnuplot. which may then be read in to Excel.59. As an initial exercise. pressure distribution. 1. Comment on the size of the incidence range for which this attached ﬂow may be maintained. these being ‘Joukowski.1. the input is simply ‘1. Show that this gives a ∂CL ∂α of 6. ‘Xi’ the cartesian coordinate). Each are simply ASCII text ﬁles. How does the code identify separation. informing the user what each of the columns contains (note that in the boundary layer ﬁles ‘S’ indicates the surface integral from stagnation. as a word document (or pdf). and µ = 1. ρ = 1. no camber. 2. This part of the exercise does not need to be included in your report. when asked if calculation of the turbulent boundary layer is required.225.there should be ≈ 10. for ‘no’. 2 . at -5 and +5 degrees incidence. Use zero Mach number (if you also put in zero velocity you will cause divide by zero errors in the boundary layer output .

a plot with CL along the bottom and CD up the side) for an aerofoil of 1M chord. Comment on the results. Finally. Why are the polars u-shaped? How and why does camber inﬂuence transition? What are the limitations to the power law model for turbulent boundary layers? Which empirical result for skin friction should be used and why? 6. Using the formulation given in the notes. so six in total). Compare the results for turbulent and laminar ﬂows at zero incidence for the aerofoil you used in part (2) using n = 7 for the power law approximation. investigate the effect on the second of these aerofoils. for both transition models.5 metres. Repeat the process at only h/b of 0% using Michel transition and compare.1 and using default transition. Again at sea level with a Mach number of 0. Include a ﬁgure showing the boundary layer momentum thickness on each aerofoil at zero incidence. Show boundary layer momentum thickness as a function of surface distance from the stagnation point. Which model predicts the most drag and why? How is drag calculated in the code and what are the limitations to this? In physical terms. include a simple turbulent boundary layer correction based on a power law. for zero incidence ﬂows and (a) increasing Mach number from 0. with the ratio d/b at 10% and the following values of h/b: (a) 0 (b) 2% (c) 4% Use incidences from -5 to 5 degrees. placed in the parts marked. Make sure that you add the lines to both the upper and lower boundary layer calculations as indicated. This should involve modifying/creating only three lines (for upper and lower. Add an option. Do not forget to include these lines in your report.5 at sea level 3 . or create a different version of the code to use Michel’s transition criterion. and discuss drag coefﬁcients. The base version of the code has the option to assume transition at the point where the pressure gradient changes sign (‘default transition’).3. but with the chord reduced to 0. and show all three on the same ﬁgure. so eight in total). why do the transition models give different results? 5. but only include modiﬁed or created lines of code. 4.e. This should involve only four lines of code (for upper and lower.1 up to 0. calculate the 2D lift-drag polar (i.

as well as the trends in the dimensional forces. Use a Mach number of 0.5. Explain the trends in the coefﬁcients of lift and drag in terms of your understanding of boundary layers and the Reynolds number. Consider lift and drag as well as their coefﬁcients. Please aim to submit in advance of the deadline. 4. Reports submitted after this time will incur standard faculty penalties. Use the default transition model.1 and 0. I suggest that at the very latest you submit your work several hours before the ﬁnal deadline. and 10 km (ﬁnd the atmospheric properties at these altitudes from standard tables).(b) Increasing the altitude to 2. 4 . Which empirical result for skin friction should be used and why? The deadline for the report is midnight on Friday the 18th January 2013 (Friday of the ﬁrst week back after the holidays). Blackboard does not always respond immediately to submissions and it is your responsibility to allow sufﬁcient time for this process.

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