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VISVESHWARAYA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY BELGAUM

A Project Report On

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718
Submitted By Rajeeb Kumar Biswal Smutesh Mishra Snehanshu Mohan Sourajit Banerjee 1DB06ME053 1DB06ME066 1DB06ME067 1DB06ME068

2009-10
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY BANGALORE -560074

DON BOSCO INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY KUMBALAGUDU, MYSORE ROAD BANGALORE-74 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

CERTIFICATE
Certified that the project work entitled STUDY OF “DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718” carried out by Mr. Rajeeb Kumar Biswal, Smutesh Mishra, Snehanshu Mohan and Sourajit Banerjee USN 1DB06ME053, 1DB06ME066, 1DB06ME067 and 1DB06ME068, are bonafide students of Don Bosco Institute of Technology, in partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor of Engineering in Mechanical Engineering of the Visveswaraya Technological University, Belgaum during the year 2009-2010. It is certified that all corrections/suggestions indicated for Internal Assessment have been incorporated in the Report deposited in the departmental library. The project report has been approved as it satisfies the academic requirements in respect of Project work prescribed for the said Degree.

Name & Signature of the Guide

Name & Signature of the HOD

Signature of the Principal

(Prof. R.Suresh Kumar)

(Prof. A R K Swamy)

(Dr. K.Muralidhar)

External Viva
Name of the examiners 1) 2) Signature with date

ABSTRACT
Tribological studies are gaining importance in the present day world where machinery with high speeds is a trend. Steel is the material of present day world where almost every component contains an element of steel. Mild steel is widely used in the fields of automobile, aero-space, domestic use, etc. Friction in rubbing surfaces causes wear and loss of energy. One way of improving surface resistance to wear is by applying coatings. In the present work, mild steel is coated with Inconel 718 and studied for dry sliding wear behavior.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENT
Before introducing our project work, we would like to thank the people without whom the success of this project could have not been possible. We express our deep sense of gratitude to R.SURESHKUMAR., M.Tech Asst Professor Mechanical Engineering Department, Don Bosco Institute of Technology, for his valuable guidance, continuous assistance, and encouragement throughout the project and in the critical appraisal of the manuscript. We express our sincere thanks to A.R.K.SWAMY, Professor and HOD, Department of mechanical Engineering, Don Bosco Institute of Technology, for providing the facilities required for the completion of this project work. It is with great pleasure; we extend our gratitude and special thanks to Dr. K.MURALIDHAR, Principal, Don Bosco Institute of Technology, for permitting us to carryout this project work. We our extremely grateful to all the teaching and non-teaching staff of mechanical engineering Department for their valuable suggestions and extending help and cooperation whenever needed. We feel short of words to express our heartfelt thanks to all my family members and friends and all those who have directly or indirectly helped us to complete this work.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
SL. NO. DESCRIPTION PAGE NO.

CHAPTER 1

PREAMBLE

1

1.1 Introduction………………………………………………………...… 2 1.2 Problem definition...…………………………………………………..2 1.3 Methodology………………………………………………………......3

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

4

2.1 Classification of coating……………………………………………….5 2.2 Advantages of coating ………………………..………….…................6 2.3 General description of thermal spraying ………………….............. …6 2.4 Thermal spray processes ………….……………………….………….7 2.4.1Plasma spraying …………….……………………...…...........7 2.4.2 Working process …………………………………...…..........7 2.4.3 Plasma spray deposition.…………………………...…..........9 2.4.4 Application…... …………………………………...….........10 2.5 Bonding ………………………………………………….……..........10 2.5.1 Surface preparation for thermal spray coatings……………12 2.5.2 Thermal spray coating bonding mechanisms………………12 2.5.3 Factors effecting bonding and subsequent build up of the Coatings……………………………………………………13 2.6Mild steel……….. ……………………………………………...........14 2.6.1 Properties of mild steel ………………………....…………14 2.6.2 Physical properties of mild steel …………………………..15 2.6.3 Typical applications of mild steel …………………………16 2.7 Inconel………………………………………………………..............16 2.21.1 Composition of Inconel ………………………..…...........17 2.21.2 Types of Inconel ………………………………...……….18 2.8 Inconel 718…………………………………………………..............20 2.8.1 Composition …………..………………………..….............20 2.8.2 Physical properties ……………………………...………...21 2.8.3 Mechanical properties …………………………….............22 2.8.4 Application……….……………………………...…………22 III

2.9 Wear…….…………………………………………………...............22 2.9.1 Adhesive wear……………………………………………...23 2.9.2 Abrasive wear…..:……………………………...…………24 2.9.3 Erosive wear ……….……………………………...............25 2.9.4 Surface fatigue ……….………………………....…………26 2.9.5 Fretting wear ……………………………………...............27 2.9.4 Corrosive wear ……….………………………....………..28 2.10 Review of International Published Paper…………………………29 2.10.1 Study of Dry Sliding Wear of Plasma Sprayed Mo-Ni/Cr - Ti-6Al-4V Tribo Pair………………...........29 2.10.2 Dry sliding wear characteristicsof 0.13 wt. % carbon steel……………………………………………..29 2.10.3 Dry sliding wear behavior of Al 2219/SiC metal matrix composites……………………………………………….30 2.10.4 Friction and wear characteristic of ductile iron in dry sliding conditions……..…………………………….30 2.10.5 Tribochemistry in sliding wear of TiCN–Ni-based Cermets…………………………………………………31

CHAPTER 3

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS……………………….32

3.1 Stages Involved..……………………………………………………33 3.2 Surface preparation before coating …………………………………33 3.3 plasma spraying technique ..…………………………………………33 3.4 Specimens for testing …..……………………………………………35 3.5 Measurement of wear rate using pin-on-disc wear testing machine (tribometer)………………………………………………………………36 3.5.1 Apparatus Used…….. ……………………………………38 3.5.2 Material Used……………...………………………............38 3.5.3 Procedure…………………. ………………………………38

CHAPTER-4

RESULTS & DISCUSSION…………………...........39

4.1 Evaluating of wear rate using Pin-On-Disc wear tester…………….40 4.2 Graphs…………………………………………... ……………….…61

CHAPTER-5 CHAPTER-6

CONCLUSION………………… ..…………………73 SCOPE FOR FUTURE…………. .…………...........75

REFERENCES …………………………………………………….........77
IV

LIST OF TABLES
SL. NO. DESCRIPTION PAGE NO.

Table.2.1 Table 2.2 Table 2.3 Table 2.4 Table 2.5 Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 4.1

Physical properties of Mild Steel Mechanical properties of Mild steel Composition of Inconel Composition of Inconel 718 Physical prorperties Specification of plasma spray coatings Specification of a Tribometer

15 15 17 21 22 34 37

(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 10N) 41

Table 4.2

(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 20N) 42

Table 4.3

(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 30N) 43

Table 4.4

(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 40N) 44

Table 4.5

(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 50N) 45

Table 4.6

(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 10N) 46

Table 4.7

(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 20N) 47

Table 4.8

(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 30N) 48

Table 4.9

(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 40N) 49

Table 4.10

(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 50N) 50

Table 4.11

(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 10N) 51

V

Table 4.12

(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 20N) 52 and 53

Table 4.13

(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm Load: 30N)

Table 4.14

(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 40N) 54

Table 4.15

(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 50N) 55 and 56 and 57

Table 4.16

(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm Load: 10N)

Table 4.17

(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm Load: 20N)

Table 4.18

(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 30N) 58

Table 4.19

(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 40N) 59 and 60

Table 4.20

(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm Load: 50N)

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LIST OF FIGURES
Sl. NO. Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 DESCRIPTION Plasma Spray Process Plasma Spray Process Plasma Spray Deposition PAGE NO. 7 8 9

Schematic diagram of thermally sprayed spherical particle impinged onto a flat substrate 11 12 13 14 20 24 25 26 27 27 28 34 34 35 35 35 35 36 37 38 38 61 61 62 62 63 63 VII

Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6 Figure 2.7: Figure 2.8: Figure 2.9: Figure 2.10: Figure 2.11 Figure 2.12: Figure 2.13: Figure 2.14: Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5 Figure 3.6 Figure 3.7 Figure 3.8 Figure 3.9 Figure 3.10 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6

Schematic Diagram of Thermal Spray Metal Coating Microstructure of a metallic thermally sprayed coating Mild steel square Inconel 718 (Microscopic view) Adhesive wear Abrasive wear Erosive wear Surface fatigue Schematic fretting wear Schematic corrosive wear Side view of spray gun Front view of spray gun Mixing chamber Plasma spray controls Uncoated sample Coated sample Principle behind a Tribometer Tribometer Pin-on-disc machine’s digital display Digital weighing machine Wear v/s load at 300rpm Wear v/s load at 500rpm COF v/s load at 300rpm COF v/s load at 300rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 10N & 300rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 20N & 300rpm

Figure 4.7 Figure 4.8 Figure 4.9 Figure 4.10 Figure 4.11 Figure 4.12 Figure 4.13 Figure 4.14 Figure 4.15 Figure 4.16 Figure 4.17 Figure 4.18 Figure 4.19 Figure 4.20 Figure 4.21 Figure 4.22 Figure 4.23 Figure 4.24

Wear v/s Sliding distance at 30N & 300rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 40N & 300rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 50N & 300rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 10N & 500rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 20N & 500rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 30N & 500rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 40N & 500rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 50N & 500rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 10N & 300rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 20N & 300rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 30N & 300rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 40N & 300rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 50N & 300rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 10N & 500rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 20N & 500rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 30N & 500rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 40N & 500rpm Wear v/s Sliding distance at 50N & 500rpm

64 64 65 65 66 66 67 67 68 68 69 69 70 70 71 71 71 71

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

CHAPTER 1 PREAMBLE

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

CHAPTER 1

PREAMBLE
1.1 INTRODUCTION:
Mild steel is one of the most common metals which find its application in fabrication, manufacturing processes and all other metal removal processes. During metal removal processes since mild steel is used as the cutting metal it inevitably makes contact with the work piece and other metal surfaces resulting in wear and subsequently reducing the life and efficiency of the tool. To enhance life of these parts, their mechanical and tribological properties should be improved. Improvement of the properties can be accomplished in two methods. One is by reinforcing the metal parts with metal composites and second best method is to coat these surfaces with other hard substances. Coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate. In many cases coatings are applied to improve surface properties of the substrate, such as appearance, adhesion, weld-ability, corrosion resistance, wear resistance, and scratch resistance. Coatings may be applied as liquids, gases or solids. The material on which these coatings are applied is called substrate. Thermal spraying is a method of coating. Another method of coating the material is by Plasma spraying technique using a plasma jet. Deposits having thickness from micrometers to several millimeters can be produced from a variety of materials - metals, ceramics, polymers and composites.

In this project, we would study the dry sliding wear behavior of mild steel coated with Inconel 718. Inconel alloy 718 has been used widely in the aviation, space navigation and shipping industries because of its outstanding multi-properties. In our project work, Mild steel has been coated with Inconel 718 alloy using plasma spray technique and would be tested for various parameters by varying the load and keeping speed and track radius constant.

1.2 PROBLEM DEFINITION:
Mild Steel and its alloys are finding enormous applications in the field of automobile engineering for manufacturing of axles, crankshafts, steering, steering shaft, levers, aircrafts and heavy vehicle components and building constructions. Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 2

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 During working, there is always a relative motion and friction between the metal parts resulting in wear and tear. Due to this many adverse effects will be encountered by the specimen which renders loss of material, excess consumption of power during working, shift in the tolerances, wiping of lubrication etc. To make mild steel further versatile and flexible for various application and to provide a long life under different environments coatings are applied which provide better service and better quality to the metal pieces. Since all the manufacturing and fabrication processes involve the use of mild steel as the metal removal agent a method has to be adopted to minimize the wear of the Mild Steel and improve its shelf life. In order to enhance life of these parts, their mechanical properties and tribological properties should be improved. This can be done by reinforcing the metal parts with metal composites or by coating these surfaces with other hard substrates. If we go for

reinforcement it changes the material property itself as it is mixed with the base metal and in case if only surface property has to be improved its better to go for coating as it improves property only at surface. And also to avoid excessive cost incurred for reinforcing the metal it’s feasible to go for coatings since friction is a surface phenomenon. Therefore in the present investigation, a comparative study had been conducted to evaluate the various tribological properties such as wear. To enhance the tribological properties of Mild Steel, it was decided to apply Inconel 718 coating on Mild Steel by plasma spray coating and study its wear behavior by conducting dry sliding wear tests.

1.3 METHODOLOGY:
Step1: Test specimen will be first prepared to the given dimensions by various machining process. Step 2: The prepared specimen is to be coated with Inconel 718 by plasma spraying machine. Step 3: To carry out dry sliding wear tests to assess their tribological properties and behavior under working conditions in a Pin-On-Disc Machine. Step4: Presentation of the test results in the form of tabular columns and graphs with inference and conclusion along with illustrations.

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

CHAPTER-2

COATING
Coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the substrate. In many cases coatings are applied to improve surface properties of the substrate, such as appearance, adhesion, weld-ability, corrosion resistance, wear resistance and scratch resistance. In other cases, in particular in printing processes and semiconductor device fabrication (where the substrate is a wafer), the coating forms an essential part of the finished product.

2.1 CLASSIFICATION OF COATING:
COATING AND PRINTING PROCESSES: Coating and printing processes involve the application of a thin film of functional material to a substrate, such as roll of paper, fabric, film or other textile. The coating or printing can be applied to serve some sort of function (e.g. water-proofing) or just for decoration. CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION AND PHYSICAL VAPOUR

DEPOSITION : Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a chemical process used to produce high-purity, high-performance solid materials. The process is often used in the semiconductor industry to produce thin films. In a typical CVD process, the wafer (substrate) is exposed to one or more volatile precursors, which react and/or decompose on the substrate surface to produce the desired deposit. PICKLING: Pickling is a treatment of metallic surfaces in order to remove impurities, stains, rust or scale with a solution called pickle liquor, containing strong mineral acids, before subsequent processing, such as extrusion, rolling, painting, galvanizing or plating with tin or chromium. The two acids commonly used are hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid. Pickling liquor may be a combination of acids and may also contain nitric or hydrofluoric acids. PLATING: Plating describes surface-covering where a metal is deposited on a conductive surface. Plating has been done for hundreds of years, but it is also critical for modern technology. Plating is used to decorate objects, for corrosion inhibition, to improve solder ability, to harden, to improve wear ability, to reduce Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 5

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 friction, to improve paint adhesion, to alter conductivity, for radiation shielding, and for other purposes. POLYMER COATINGS:A polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass composed of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds

2.2 ADVANTAGES OF COATING:
Coatings emit zero or near zero volatile organic compounds (VOC). Coating overspray can be recycled and thus it is possible to achieve nearly 100% use of the coating. Coating production lines produce less hazardous waste . Capital for equipment and operating costs for a powder line are generally less. Coated items generally have fewer appearance differences between horizontally coated surfaces and vertically coated surfaces than liquid coated items. A wide range of specialty effects is easily accomplished which would be impossible to achieve with other coating processes.

2.3 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THERMAL SPRAYING:
Thermal spraying is a group of processes wherein a feedstock material is heated and propelled as individual particles or droplets onto a surface. The thermal spray gun generates the necessary heat by using combustible gases or an electric arc. As the materials are heated, they are changed to a plastic or molten state and are confined and accelerated by a compressed gas stream to the substrate. The particles strike the substrate, flatten, and form thin platelets (splats) that conform and adhere to the irregularities of the prepared substrate and to each other. As the sprayed particles impinge upon the surface, they cool and build up, splat by splat, into a laminar structure forming the thermal spray coating. The coating that is formed is not homogenous and typically contains a certain degree of porosity, and, in the case of sprayed metals, the coating will contain oxides of the metal. Feedstock material may be any substance that can be melted, including metals, metallic compounds, cements, oxides, glasses, and polymers. Feedstock materials can be sprayed as powders, wires, or rods. The bond between the substrate and the coating may be mechanical, chemical, or metallurgical or a combination of these. The properties of the Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 6

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 applied coatings are dependent on the feedstock material, the thermal spray process and application parameters, and post treatment of the applied coating.

2.4 THERMAL SPRAY PROCESSES:
Thermal spray processes may be categorized as either combustion or electric processes. Combustion processes include flame spraying, HVOC spraying, and detonation flame spraying. Electric processes include arc spraying and plasma spraying.

2.4.1 PLASMA SPRAY:
Plasma spraying is used to apply surfacing materials that melt at very high temperatures. An arc is formed between an electrode and the spray nozzle, which acts as the second electrode. A pressurized inert gas is passed between the electrodes where it is heated to very high temperatures to form a plasma gas. Powdered feedstock material is then introduced into the heated gas where it melts and is propelled to the substrate at a high velocity. A plasma spray system consists of a power supply, gas source, gun, and powder feeding mechanism. Plasma spraying is primarily performed in fabrication shops. The Plasma Spray Process is basically the spraying of molten or heat softened material onto a surface to provide a coating. Material in the form of powder is injected into a very high temperature plasma flame, where it is rapidly heated and accelerated to a high velocity. The hot material impacts on the substrate surface and rapidly cools forming a coating. This plasma spray process carried out correctly is called a "cold process" (relative to the substrate material being coated) as the substrate temperature can be kept low during processing avoiding damage, metallurgical changes and distortion to the substrate material.

Fig 2.1 Plasma Spray Process Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 7

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

2.4.2 WORKING PROCESS:
The plasma spray gun comprises a copper anode and tungsten cathode, both of which are water cooled. Plasma gas (argon, nitrogen, hydrogen, helium) flows around the cathode and through the anode which is shaped as a constricting nozzle. The plasma is initiated by a high voltage discharge which causes localised ionisation and a conductive path for a DC arc to form between cathode and anode. The resistance heating from the arc causes the gas to reach extreme temperatures, dissociate and ionise to form a plasma. The plasma exits the anode nozzle as a free or neutral plasma flame (plasma which does not carry electric current) which is quite different to the Plasma Transferred Arc coating process where the arc extends to the surface to be coated. When the plasma is stabilised ready for spraying the electric arc extends down the nozzle, instead of shorting out to the nearest edge of the anode nozzle. This stretching of the arc is due to a thermal pinch effect. Cold gas around the surface of the water cooled anode nozzle being electrically non-conductive constricts the plasma arc, raising its temperature and velocity. Powder is fed into the plasma flame most commonly via an external powder port mounted near the anode nozzle exit. The powder is so rapidly heated and accelerated that spray distances can be in the order of 25 to 150 mm. The plasma spray process is most commonly used in normal atmospheric conditions and referred as APS. Some plasma spraying is conducted in protective environments using vacuum chambers normally back filled with a protective gas at low pressure, this is referred as VPS or LPPS.

Fig 2.2:Plasma Spray Process Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 8

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 Plasma spraying has the advantage that it can spray very high melting point materials such as refractory metals like tungsten and ceramics like zirconia unlike combustion processes. Plasma sprayed coatings are generally much denser, stronger and cleaner than the other thermal spray processes with the exception of HVOF and detonation processes. Plasma spray coatings probably account for the widest range of thermal spray coatings and applications and makes this process the most versatile. Disadvantages of the plasma spray process are relative high cost and complexity of process.

2.4.3 PLASMA SPRAY DEPOSITION:
In the Plasma Spraying Process powder is softened or melted in the plasma gas stream, which also transfers the particles to the work piece. The plasma arc is not transferred to the work piece, it is contained within the plasma torch between an axial electrode and a water cooled nozzle. The process is operated in normal atmosphere, in a shielding gas stream (e.g. Argon), in a vacuum or under water. Due to the high temperature of the plasma gas stream the Plasma process is especially suitable for spraying high melting point metals as well as their oxides and carbides.Benefits of Plasma Spraying are: Operates In Several Environments Ideal for High Melting Point Materials

Fig 2.3:Plasma Spray Deposition

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

2.4.4 APPLICATIONS:
Textiles Petrochemical and chemicals Steel Paper pulp and printing machinery Thermal power plants Oil and natural gas industries Automotive Glass Medical

2.5 BONDING:
Coatings applied using thermal spray processes typically depend on a mechanical (interlocking) bond. The nature of the substrate surface is therefore a key to quality Thermal Spray Coatings. For successful coatings, the substrate surface needs to rough and pitted to provide a “foot-hold” (Splat-Hold) for each splat of powder that impacts the substrate. In addition, the surface needs to be clean and free from contamination that would fill the pits and prevent locking of the splats. How is this achieved?

Grit blasting is popular for surface preparation, which is simply pressurizing an abrasive media with compressed air and aiming the stream of accelerated particles at the surface being prepared. Many are familiar with grit blasting for cleaning surfaces prior to painting. However, grit blasting for thermal spray is quite different since more than removal of oxides is needed; instead, pits and crevices need to be formed where the molten thermal spray particles “splat” into the rough surface and adhere.

Grit blasting in preparation for thermal spray depends on dry abrasives. The grit blast material should be sharp and angular so that it will cut into the substrate on impact. It is also beneficial if it produces under-cut pits for a strong mechanical bond. The need for sharp, angular grit is the reason that grit for Thermal Spray operations needs to be changed-out more often than the grit used for surface cleaning

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 operations. The most common materials used for grit blast is aluminum oxide and chilled iron. The typical; surface finish after grit blast is anywhere from 15 RMS to 100RMS. The variables that will affect the final finish include media size, media morphology, media hardness, air pressure, distance from the work piece, angle of impingement, and anything that will affect the speed of the media hitting the work piece. The substrate is physically deformed during grit blast operations resulting in residual stresses being formed on the surface. This is easily demonstrated by grit blasting a thin strip of test material, often called an almen strip, and observing how the metal “bows”. This is due to the higher residual stress that is created on one side of the strip being grit blasted. “Shot-peening” has the opposite effect of reducing residual stress on the surface.

In summary, Grit Blast operations for Thermal Spray need to be properly used and controlled to provide a consistently strong bond by providing the proper splat pits for the coating material.

Fig 2.4 Schematic diagram of thermally sprayed spherical particle impinged onto a flat substrate

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

2.5.1 SURFACE PREPARATION FOR THERMAL SPRAY COATINGS:

An essential feature of any coating system is the bond between the coating and the substrate. Thermal Spray operations are typically based on the materials being applied to the substrate in the plastic (non-molten) state. Therefore, the bond is not due to fusion between the coating and the substrate. In addition, there is usually little or no chemical reaction between the coating and the substrate, so the bond is not chemical in nature

2.5.2 THERMAL SPRAY COATING BONDING MECHANISMS:
Mechanical keying or interlocking. Diffusion bonding or Metallurgical bonding. Other adhesive, chemical and physical bonding mechanisms -oxide films, Van der Waals forces etc.

Fig2.5 Schematic Diagram of Thermal Spray Metal Coating

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

2.5.3 FACTORS EFFECTING BONDING AND SUBSEQUENT BUILD UP OF THE COATING:
Cleanliness Surface area Surface topography or profile Temperature ( thermal energy ) Time (reaction rates & cooling rates etc.) Velocity ( kinetic energy ) Physical & chemical properties Physical & chemical reactions. Cleaning and grit blasting are important for substrate preparation. This provides a more chemically and physically active surface needed for good bonding. The surface area is increased which will increase the coating bond strength. The rough surface profile will promote mechanical keying.

Fig 2.6- A typical microstructure of a metallic thermally sprayed coating. The lamellar structure is interspersed with oxide inclusions and porosity. High kinetic energy thermal spraying using HEP, HVOF and cold spray produce high bond strengths due to the energy liberated from high velocity impacts. The high density tungsten carbide/cobalt and cold spray coatings are good examples. Metallurgical or diffusion bonding occurs on a limited scale and to a very limited thickness (0.5 µm max. with heat affected zone @ 25µm) with the above type coatings.

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 Fused coatings are different. These are re-melted and completely metallurgically bonded with the substrate and it’s self.

2.6 MILD STEEL:
Mild steel is a carbon steel typically with a maximum of 0.25% Carbon and 0.4%0.7% manganese, 0.1%-0.5% Silicon and some traces of other elements such as

phosphorous, it may also contain lead (free cutting mild steel) or sulphur (again free cutting steel called re-sulphurised mild steel)

Fig 2.7 Mild steel square

2.6.1 PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL:
Mild Steel is an alloy with carbon, manganese, Nickel, silicon and balance is iron as the alloying elements. It has generally good mechanical properties and is heat treatable and weld able. It is one of the most common alloys of mild steel for general purpose use.

Typical properties of Mild Steel include: Medium to high strength Good toughness Good surface finish Excellent corrosion resistance to atmospheric conditions Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 14

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 Good corrosion resistance to sea water Can be anodized Good weldability and brazability Good workability Widely available.

2.6.2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF MILD STEEL:
PARTICULARS Density Melting Point/Range Specific Heat: Average Coefficient of Thermal Expansion Thermal Conductivity Electrical Resistivity Curie Temperature 8.19 g/cm3 1260 - 1336 deg c 435 J/kg · K 13.0 μm/m · K 11.4 W/m · K 1250 n · m -112 deg C Table 2.1-Physical properties of Mild Steel PARTICULARS Ultimate Tensile Strength Yield Strength 1240 MPa 1036 MPa UNITS UNITS

Elongation in Elastic Modulus Strength (0.2 12 % % offset) 50 mm (2") Elastic Modulus (Tension) Hardness 211 GPa 36 HRC

Table 2.2-Mechanical properties of Mild steel

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2.6.3 TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OF MILD STEEL:
Heavy Vehicles components. Marine fittings. Large modern structures, such as stadiums, skyscrapers and Airports. Building constructions. Flyover and Bridge constructions. Heat treated gun parts Nuts, Bolts and Kick-Starts. Joints and Channels. Angle bolts, Rivets, and Sheets. Brake components. Automobile components like i) Axles. ii) Crankshafts. iii) Connecting Rod.

2.7 INCONEL:
Inconel is a registered trademark of Special Metals Corporation that refers to a family of austenitic nickel-chromium-based superalloys. Inconel alloys are typically used in high temperature applications. It is often referred to in English as "Inco" (or occasionally "Iconel"). Common trade names for Inconel include: Inconel 625, Chronin 625, Altemp 625, Haynes 625, Nickelvac 625 and Nicrofer 6020.Inconel alloys are generally known for their resistance to oxidation and their ability to maintain their structural integrity in high temperature atmospheres. There are several Inconel alloys that are used in applications that require a material that does not easily succumb to caustic corrosion, corrosion caused by high purity water, and stress-corrosion cracking. While each variation of Inconel has unique traits that make it effective in different circumstances, the majority of the alloys are used frequently in the chemical industry. Inconel 601 is a nickel-chromium alloy that has additions of aluminum. These additions increase its resistance to oxidation and various forms of corrosion. This has made Inconel 601 a common material in heat treating equipment, furnaces, and gas-turbine components. Inconel 690 has a similar makeup to 601, but it is considered a high chromium-nickel Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 16

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 alloy. The high chromium content in 690 makes it especially resistant to corrosion that occurs from salts, oxidizing acids, and other elements commonly found in aqueous environments. Inconel 625 differs from many of the other Inconel alloys because its composition includes substantial amounts of nickel, chromium, and molybdenum. It also has an addition of niobium. The result is an alloy that possesses high levels of strength without ever having to go through a strengthening heat treatment. Inconel 625 is especially effective at resisting crevice corrosion, making it a chosen material in the aerospace and marine engineering industries.

2.7.1 COMPOSITION OF INCONEL:
Different Inconels have widely varying compositions, but all are predominantly nickel, with chromium as the second element Element (% by mass) Molybdenum Chromium Inconel Nickel Phosphorus 0.015 0.015 Aluminium Manganese

Titanium

Niobium

Carbon

Copper

Silicon

Cobalt

Sulfur

6.0-10.0

0.015

14.017.0

72.0

0.15

600

1.0

0.5

0.5

8.0-10.0

0.015

20.023.0

3.154.15

58.0

625

5.0

1.0

0.5

0.4

0.4

0.5

0.1

50.0-55.0

17.0-21.0

0.65-1.15

4.75-5.5

balance

2.8-3.3

0.2-0.8

0.015

Table 2.3- Composition of Inconel

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0.006

0.35

0.35

0.08

718

1.0

0.3

-

-

Boron

Iron

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

2.7.2 TYPES OF INCONEL:
INCONEL 600: Inconel 600 is a nickel-chromium alloy that offers high levels of resistance to a number of corrosive elements. In high-temperature situations, Inconel 600 will not succumb to chloride-ion stress-corrosion cracking or general oxidation. The alloy is also resistant to caustic corrosion and corrosion caused by high purity water. Its ability to withstand corrosion in a variety of forms has made Inconel 600 the perfect alloy for use in furnace components and chemical processing equipment. However, Inconel 600 is also used effectively in the food industry and in nuclear engineering, because it will maintain its structure in applications that would cause permanent, irreversible distortion to other alloys. INCONEL 601: Like Inconel 600, Inconel 601 offers resistance to various forms of hightemperature corrosion and oxidization. However, unlike 600, this nickel-chromium alloy has an addition of aluminum. This addition allows it to demonstrate high mechanical properties even in extremely hot environments. Inconel 601's ability to stave off the strain that would result in many alloys when exposed to high temperatures has led to its use in furnaces and heat treating equipment like retorts and baskets. You will also find Inconel 601 in gas-turbine components and petrochemical processing equipment. INCONEL 625: Inconel 625 is the rare alloy that gains strength without having to undergo an extensive strengthening heat treatment. Inconel 625 is a nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with an addition of niobium. The niobium reacts with the molybdenum, causing the alloy's matrix to stiffen and increasing its strength level. Like most Inconel alloys, Inconel 625 has high resistance to a number of corrosive elements. In fact, it can withstand harsh environments that would all but destroy other alloys. It is particularly effective when it comes to staving off crevice corrosion and pitting. Inconel 625 is a versatile alloy that requires less work than most. It is effectively used in the aerospace industry, marine engineering, the chemical and energy industries, and much more. Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 18

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 INCONEL 690: The Inconel alloys consist mainly of a group of metal alloys that offer high resistance to corrosive materials and environments. Inconel 690 falls into this category. However, unlike some of the other alloys in the group, it is a high-chromium and nickel alloy. The high-chromium element of the alloy gives it a particularly strong resistance to corrosion that occurs in aqueous atmospheres. Generally, this corrosion occurs as oxidizing acids and salts break a material down. Along with its ability to resist these stresses, Inconel 690 can also withstand the sulfidation that takes place at extremely high temperatures. Along with its resistance to corrosives, Inconel 690 possesses strong metallurgical stability which allows it to maintain structural integrity in a wide range of applications. It also has a high level of strength and possesses fabrication traits that enable it to be used in a number of different settings. All of these aspects of Inconel 690 have made it a versatile alloy that has found use in a range of industries. INCONEL 718: Inconel 718 possesses the resistance to corrosive elements that are common among Inconel alloys. However, Inconel 718 differs from other alloys in its "family" in structure and response. 718 is a precipitation-hardenable nickel-chromium alloy. It contains substantial levels of iron, molybdenum, and niobium as well as trace amounts of titanium and aluminum. Its makeup allows for an ease of welding that is not matched by the majority of Inconel alloys. It also allows Inconel 718 to combine anti-corrosive elements with a high level of strength and flexibility. Inconel 718 is particularly resistant to post-weld cracking, and it can maintain its structure in both high-temperature and aqueous environments. In fact, it will maintain superb creep-rupture strength at temperatures as high as 1,300oF. The unique qualities of Inconel 718 have caused it to be used in industries and applications where other Inconel alloys simply would not be effective. You will find it in nuclear reactors, spacecraft, and rocket motors. However, it does have more common applications, as well. It can be very effective in tooling and gas turbines. There is also a version of the alloy (718 SPF) that is used specifically for superplastic forming. INCONEL 722: Inconel 722 is a nickel-chromium alloy that shares many of the same properties as other Inconel alloys. It demonstrates a high level of resistance to various forms of corrosion. It also has the capacity to remain effective at extremely high temperatures. Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 19

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 Inconel 722 can withstand the stress caused by several types of acids, which has made it a common metal in the chemical industry. INCONEL 903 Inconel 903 is part of a family of alloys that are known for their resistance to corrosion caused by a wide range of stresses in a variety of settings. Many Inconel alloys can remain effective in high temperature and aqueous atmospheres. Most are resistant to multiple acids, as well, so they are used regularly in the petrochemical industry.

2.8 INCONEL 718
Inconel 718 is a precipitation-hardenable nickel-chromium alloy containing significant amounts of iron, niobium, and molybdenum along with lesser amounts of aluminum and titanium. It combines corrosion resistance and high strength with outstanding weldability, including resistance to postweld cracking. The alloy has excellent creep-rupture strength at temperatures up to 700 oC (1300 oF). Used in gas turbines, rocket motors, spacecraft, nuclear reactors, pumps, and tooling

. Fig 2.8-Inconel 718 (Microscopic view) .

2.8.1 COMPOSITION:
Inconel 718 is a nickel-based super alloy that is well suited for applications requiring high strength in temperature ranges from cryogenic up to 1400 degrees Fahrenheit. Inconel 718 also exhibits excellent tensile and impact strength. Inconel alloys are oxidation and corrosion resistant materials well suited for service in extreme environments. When heated, Inconel forms a thick, stable, passivating oxide layer Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 20

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 protecting the surface from further attack. Inconel retains strength over a wide temperature range, attractive for high temperature applications where aluminum and steel would succumb to creep as a result of thermally-induced crystal vacancies (see Arrhenius equation). Inconel's high temperature strength is developed by solid solution strengthening or precipitation strengthening, depending on the alloy. In age hardening or precipitation strengthening varieties, small amounts of niobium combine with nickel to form the intermetallic compound Ni3Nb or gamma prime (γ'). Gamma prime forms small cubic crystals that inhibit slip and creep effectively at elevated temperatures. Element Carbon Manganese Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Nickel + Cobalt Chromium Cobalt Iron Aluminum Molybdenum Titanium Boron Copper Cb + Ta Min -----50.0 17.0 -Max 0.08 0.35 0.35 0.015 0.015 55.0 21.0 1.00

Balance 0.35 2.80 0.65 0.80 3.30 1.15

0.001 0.006 -4.75 0.15 5.50

Table 2.4 – Composition of Inconel 718

2.8.2 PHYSICAL PROPERTIES:
Inconel 718 is a Nickel-Chromium alloy being precipitation hardenable and having high creep-rupture strength at high temperatures to about 700°C (1290°F). It has higher strength than Inconel X-750 and better mechanical properties at lower temperatures than Nimonic 90 and Inconel X-750.

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 PARTICULARS Density Melting point Co-Efficient of Expansion Modulus of rigidity Modulus of elasticity 8.19 g/cm 1336 °C 13.0 µm/m.°C(20-100 °C) 77.2 kN/mm2 204.9kN/mm2 Table 2.5 – Physical prorperties SPECIFICATION
3

2.8.3 MECHANICAL PROPERTIES:
Alloy 718 is a precipitation hardenable nickel-based alloy designed to display exceptionally high yield, tensile and creep-rupture properties at temperatures up to 1300°F. The sluggish age-hardening response of alloy 718 permits annealing and welding without spontaneous hardening during heating and cooling. This alloy has excellent weldability when compared to the nickel-base super alloys hardened by aluminum and titanium. This alloy has been used for jet engine and high-speed airframe parts such as wheels, buckets, spacers, and high temperature bolts and fasteners.

2.8.4 APPLICATIONS:
Inconel is often encountered in extreme environments. It is common in gas turbine blades, seals, and combustors, as well as turbocharger rotors and seals, electric submersible well pump motor shafts, high temperature fasteners, chemical processing and pressure vessels, heat exchanger tubing, steam generators in nuclear pressurized water reactors, natural gas progressing with contaminants such as H2S and CO2, firearm sound suppressor blast baffles, and Formula One and NASCAR exhaust systems. Inconel is increasingly used in the boilers of waste incinerators.North American Aviation constructed the skin of the X-15 rocket plane out of an Inconel alloy known as "Inconel X".

2.9 WEAR:
Wear is commonly defined as the undesirable deterioration of a component by the removal of material from its surface. It occurs by displacement and detachment of particles from surface. The mechanical properties of steel are sharply reduced due to Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 22

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 wear. The wear of material may be due to the friction of metals against each other, eroding effect of liquid and gaseous media, scratching of solid particles from the surface and other surface phenomena. In laboratory tests, wear are usually determined by weight loss in a material and wear resistance is characterized by the loss in weight per unit area per unit time. There are following principle types of wear as described below: The definition of wear does not include loss of dimension from plastic deformation, although wear has occurred despite no material removal. This definition also fails to include impact wear, where there is no sliding motion, cavitation, where the counter body is a fluid, and corrosion, where the damage is due to chemical rather than mechanical action. The working life of an engineering component is over when dimensional losses exceed the specified tolerance limits. Wear, along with other ageing processes such as fatigue, creep, and fracture toughness, causes progressive degradation of materials with time, leading to failure of material at an advanced age. Under normal operating parameters, the property changes during usage normally occur in three different stages as follows:Primary or early stage or run-in period, where rate of change can be high. Secondary or mid-age process where a steady rate of aging process is maintained. Most of the useful or working life of the component is comprised in this stage. Tertiary or old-age stage, where a high rate of aging leads to rapid failure

2.9.1 ADHESIVE WEAR:
Adhesive wear, material transfer from one surface to another caused by direct contact and plastic deformation. Adhesive wear occurs when two bodies slides over each other, or are pressed into one another, which promote material transfer between the two surfaces. However, material transfer is always present when two surfaces are aligned against each other for a certain amount of time and the wear-categorization and the cause for material transfer have been a source for discussion and argumentation amongst researchers around the world for quite some time and there are frequent misinterpretations, misunderstandings due to overlaps and symbiotic relations between mechanisms as previously mentioned. The above description and distinction between "cohesive" adhesive forces and its counterpart, such as adhesive "wear" are quite common and usually goes for most researchers in engineering science and physics. Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 23

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 Having described the restriction on the subject wear, we can focus on what causes material transfer. Adhesive wear can be described as plastic deformation of very small fragments within the surface layer when two surfaces slides against each other. The asperities (i.e., microscopic high points) found on the mating surfaces will penetrate the opposing surface and develop a plastic zone around the penetrating asperity. Dependent on the surface roughness and depth of penetration will the asperity cause damage on the oxide surface layer or even the underlying bulk material. In initial asperity/asperity contact, fragments of one surface are pulled off and adhere to the other, due to the strong adhesive forces between atoms. It is thereby clear that physical-chemical adhesive interaction between the surfaces plays a role in the initial build up process but the energy absorbed in plastic deformation and movement is the main cause for material transfer and wear

Fig 2.9 Adhesive wear

2.9.2 ABRASIVE WEAR:
Abrasive wear occurs when a hard rough surface slides across a softer surface. ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) defines it as the loss of material due to hard particles or hard protuberances that are forced against and move along a solid surface. Abrasive wear is commonly classified according to the type of contact and the contact environment. The type of contact determines the mode of abrasive wear. The two modes of abrasive wear are known as two-body and three-body abrasive wear. Two-body wear occurs when the grits, or hard particles, are rigidly mounted or adhere to a surface, when they remove the material from the surface. The common analogy is that of material being Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 24

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 removed with sand paper. Three-body wear occurs when the particles are not constrained, and are free to roll and slide down a surface. The contact environment determines whether the wear is classified as open or closed. An open contact environment occurs when the surfaces are sufficiently displaced to be independent of one another There are a number of factors which influence abrasive wear and hence the manner of material removal. Several different mechanisms have been proposed to describe the manner in which the material is removed. Three commonly identified mechanisms of abrasive wear are: Plowing Cutting Fragmentation

Fig 2.10 Abrasive wear

2.9.3 Erosive wear:
Erosive wear is caused by the impact of particles of solid or liquid against the surface of an object. The impacting particles gradually remove material from the surface through repeated deformations and cutting actions. It is a widely encountered mechanism in industry. A common example is the erosive wear associated with the movement of slurries through piping and pumping equipment. The rate of erosive wear is dependent upon a number of factors. The material characteristics of the particles, such as their shape, hardness, impact velocity and impingement angle are primary factors along with the properties of the surface being eroded. The impingement angle is one of the most Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 25

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 important factors and is widely recognized in literature. For ductile materials the maximum wear rate is found when the impingement angle is approximately 30o, whilst for non ductile materials the maximum wear rate occurs when the impingement angle is normal to the surface. They can be classified as Blast erosion which are caused by solid particles which are carried by a stream of gases or accelerated by a certain force Flush erosion, which occurs by flowing action of liquid stream carrying solid particles Rain erosion, which is caused by liquid, drops impinging on solid surface Corrosion Erosion which is caused by imploding cavities in the liquid Thermal erosion which results in material loss by melting and evaporation due to action of thermal, mechanical, electrical or magnetic forces

Fig 2.11 Erosive wear

2.9.4 SURFACE FATIGUE:
Surface fatigue is a process by which the surface of a material is weakened by cyclic loading, which is one type of general material fatigue. It is characterized by crack formation and flaking of material. The rolling and sliding contact of the solids and liquids can result in cyclic surface stressing. Fatigue of material proceeds in a sequence of elastic and plastic deformation, work hardening and work softening, crack initiates and crack propagates.

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

Fig 2.12-Surface fatigue 2.9.5 FRETTING WEAR:
Fretting wear is the repeated cyclical rubbing between two surfaces, which is known as fretting, over a period of time which will remove material from one or both surfaces in contact. It occurs typically in a bearing, although most bearings have their surfaces hardened to resist the problem. Another problem occurs when cracks in either surface are created, known as fretting fatigue. It is the more serious of the two phenomena because it can lead to catastrophic failure of the bearing. An associated problem occurs when the small particles removed by wear are oxidized in air. The oxides are usually harder than the underlying metal, so wear accelerates as the harder particles abrade the metal surfaces further.

Fig 2.13- Schematic fretting wear

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

2.9.6 CORROSIVE WEAR:
This form of wear arises when a sliding surface is in a corrosive environment and sliding action continuously remove the protective product thus exposing fresh surface to further corrosive attack. Factors affecting wear: Physical properties of the material Micro structural elements Types of lubrication Loading conditions Surface finish Temperature Environmental factors Sliding distance and speed

Fig 2.14- Schematic corrosive wear

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

2.10 Review of International Published Paper:
2.10.1 Title of the paper: “Study of Dry Sliding Wear of Plasma Sprayed
Mo-Ni/Cr - Ti-6Al-4V Tribo Pair” Name of the Author: Prince M, Gopalakrishnan P, Duraiselvam Muthukannan, More Satish D, Naveen R and Natarajan S Name of the journal and Year of publication : European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.37 No.1 (2009), pp.41-48 Materials selected: Mo-Ni/Cr - Ti-6Al-4V Type of process adopted: pin-on-disc tribometer Testing & Results: The wear behavior of Mo-Ni/Cr pin on Ti-6Al-4V disc tribo pair was analyzed by conducting wear studies underconstant load of 1 Kg, sliding speed of 1.0 m/sec, sliding distance of 1000 m under roomtemperature(30oC) and high temperature(250oC) using a pin-on-disc tribometer. Conclusion: The mass loss of the plasma sprayed Mo-Ni/Cr and Ti-6Al-4V reduces with increase in Mo content till 40% Mo-60 Ni/Cr and then increases with increase in Mo content. The wear rate is directly related to the surface temperatures, thus showing the importance of thermal softening effects. Thus, as surface temperature is increased, the plastic strain rate at the contacting asperities also increased which leads to an increase in wear

2.10.2 Title of paper: “Dry sliding wear characteristicsof 0.13 wt. % carbon steel”
Name of the Author: By V.k. Gupta1, S. Ray, O.P. Pandey Name of the Journal and Year of Publication: Materials Science-Poland, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2008 Material Selected: Carbon steel Type of process adopted: Tribometer( pin-on-disk) Testing & Results: Wear characteristics of 0.13 wt. % plain carbon steel, heat treated under various conditions, were monitored on a standard pin-on-disk wear testing machine under the normal loads of 2.5, 4.5 and 5.5 kg and at a constant sliding velocity of 1 m/s. Weight loss of the specimen was measured at various time intervals to obtain wear rate. Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 29

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 Conclusion: The volume loss in wear increases with sliding distance.

2.10.3 Title of paper: “Dry sliding wear behavior of Al 2219/SiC metal matrix
composites” Name of the Author: By S. Basavarajappa, G. Handramohan,

R.Subramanian, A. Chandrasekar Name of the Journal and Year of Publication: Materials Science-Poland, Vol. 24, No. 2/1, 2006 Material Selected: Al 2219/SiC Type of process adopted: Tribometer( pin-on-disk) Testing & Results: The present study deals with investigations relating to dry sliding wear behaviour of the Al 2219 alloy,reinforced with SiC particles in 0– 15 wt. % in three steps. Unlubricated pin-on disc tests were conducted to examine the wear behaviour of the aluminium alloy and its composites. The tests were conducted at varying loads, from 0 to 60 N and a sliding speeds of 1.53 m/s, 3 m/s, 4.6 m/s, and 6.1 m/s for a constant sliding distance of 5000 m. Conclusion: The wear rate of both reinforced and unreinforced specimens increases as the load increases. The unreinforced alloy specimen seized much earlier than the composites.A combination of adhesion and delamination wear was in operation.

2.10.4 Title of paper: “Friction and wear characteristic of ductile iron in dry sliding
conditions.” Name of the Author: By P.R. Gangasani Name of the Journal and Year of Publication: 2003 Keith Millis symposium on ductile cast iron Material Selected: ductile cast iron. Type of process adopted: Multi-specimen wear testing machine. Testing & Results: There could be number of situation where ductile iron parts must be rubbing against hardened steel parts under dry conditions for a part of time or full time. Using, laboratory method the wear and frictions characteristics of the metal is determined. Conclusion: when interfacial pressure is relatively lower ,than the wear loss depends on starting hardness.

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2.10.5 Title of paper: “Tribochemistry in sliding wear of TiCN–Ni-based cermets”
Name of the Author: By B.V. Manoj Kumar and Bikramjit Basu Name of the Journal and Year of Publication: J. Mater. Res., Vol. 23, No. 5, May 2008 Material Selected: TiCN–Ni-based cermets Type of process adopted: reciprocating pin-on-flat tribometer Testing & Results: The tailoring of cermet composition to improve tribological properties requires carefulchoice of the type of secondary carbide. To investigate this aspect, a number of slidingtests were carried out on baseline TiCN–20Ni cermet and TiCN–20wt%Ni–10 wt% XC cermets at varying loads of 5N, 20N, and 50N against bearing. With these experiments, we attempted to answer some of the pertinent issues: (i) how does the type of secondary carbide (WC/NbC/TaC/HfC) influence friction and wear behavior, and is such influence dependent on load?; and (ii) how does the secondary carbide addition affect the stability and composition of the tribochemical layer under the selected sliding conditions? Conclusion: One of the important observations in this study is that the friction and wear properties do not exhibit any correlation with mechanical properties (i.e., hardness and KIc) when tribochemcial layer formation is dominant (at a load of 20N or 50N) at the interface of the investigated tribocontacts. However, an inverse relation of W_ with the hardness is observed when the abrasion or adhesion of debris is dominant at low load (5N).

.

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

CHAPTER 3 EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS

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CHAPTER 3

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS
3.1 STAGES INVOLVED:
Base metal: Mild Steel Coating material: Inconel 718 alloy. Stage 1: Prepare the raw sample by cutting, rough turning and by filing operations. Stage 2: Specimens are prepared and cut to the following size: 10mm diameter and 20 mm length Stage 3: The coating material (Inconel 718) was plasma sprayed on to the base metal to a thickness of 200µm on side 1 and to a thickness of 250 µm on side 2. Stage 4: Pin on Disc wear test are conducted by varying load from 10 to 50 Newton and constant speed conditions at 300 and 500 rpm and constant track radius of 30mm. Stage 5: Each test is conducted with all possible accuracy taking each specimen at a time for 30 minutes. Stage 6: Data of the wear, frictional resistance and the temperature is noted down every minute and accordingly graphs are plotted.

3.2 SURFACE PREPARATION BEFORE COATING:
The specimen is cleaned to remove all dust particles. It is then grit blasted before plasma spraying to create enough surface roughness to ensure a strong mechanical bond between coating and substrate. Then a layer of bonding agent is applied to the base metal to provide good bonding for the coating material on base metal.

3.3 PLASMA SPRAYING TECHNIQUE:
Inconel 718 powder is heated to about 10000k so that it is melted and ionized to plasma state. Then it is sprayed using a gun along with hydrogen and argon gas onto the Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 33

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 base metal from a distance of about 15cm for duration of 5 min. The voltage maintained is about 150V. PARTICULARS Voltage Current Inert Gases Primary gas: hydrogen (flow rate-100m3/min) Secondary gas: argon ( flow rate -100m3/min) Inconel 718 powder Specimen Preparation: Cleaning with Trichloroethylene 24 mesh Al2O3 grit blasting Coating: Bond coating - Ni, Cr Coating thickness – Inconel 718 (200-250icrons) Distance of spray gun from specimen 6 inches/15cm 100gm/min 150 V 495amps SPECIFICATION

Table 3.1 Specification of plasma spray coatings

Fig3.1: Side view of spray gun Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74

Fig3.2: Front view of spray gun 34

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

Fig3.3: Mixing chamber

Fig3.4: Plasma spray controls

3.4 SPECIMENS FOR TESTING:
Specimens used in this project are illustrated below:

Fig3.5: Uncoated sample (mild steel of 10mm diameter x 20mm height)

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

Fig3.6: Coated sample (mild steel coated with Inconel 718 of 10mm diameter x 20mm height)

3.5 MEASUREMENT OF WEAR RATE USING PIN-ONDISC WEAR TESTING MACHINE (TRIBOMETER):
A pin-on-disc machine or a tribometer consists of a stationary "pin" under an applied load in contact with a rotating disc. The pin can have any shape to simulate a specific contact, but flat tips are often used to simplify the contact geometry. Friction is determined by the ratio of the frictional force to the loading force on the pin.

Fig 3.7 Principle behind a Tribometer/ Pin-on-disc wear testing machine Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 36

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010 Wear test of Mild Steel specimens coated with Inconel 718. Sample of diameter 10mm and height 20mm, were studied using standard pin on disc wear test rig.

PARTICULARS Pin size Disc size Wear tack radius Sliding speed range Disc rotating speed Normal load Frictiona force Wear measurement range Input Power

SPECIFICATION 3 to 12mm Dia.120mmx8mm thick 20mm to 60mm 26m/s to 6m/s 100 to 2000rpm maximum200N 0-200N digital readout 4mm digital readout 230V, 5A, Iphase, 50Hz

Table 3.2 Specification of a Tribometer / Pin-on-disc wear testing machine

Fig 3.8 Tribometer/Pin-on-disc wear testing machine

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

3.5.1 APPARATUS USED:
Pin on disc wear testing machine with digital indicator and digital weighing machine.

Fig 3.9 Pin-On-Disc machine’s Digital display

Fig.3.10 Digital weighing machine

3.5.2MATERIALS USED:
Acetone LR( cleansing solution), Cotton, Emery paper, etc.

3.5.3 PROCEDURE:
Clean the surface of the disc and specimen by acetone LR. Switch ON the motor. Polish the surface using emery paper by pressing hard against the circular disc. Again clean the surface using cleansing solution. Switch OFF the motor. Fix the specimen (Pin) on the horizontal arm and tighten the specimen by help of Allen screws and set the track radius using the scale provided. Set the time to zero and preset it for 30minutes count. Switch ON the motor and fix the speed of disc (rpm) by digital tachometer. Adjust the displacement sensor to read zero. For every minute note down the following readings. a) Wear in microns. b) Frictional Force. c) Temperature.

Repeat the above procedure on the other specimen for a given period at constant sliding velocity and increasing load. Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 38

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS & DISCUSSION

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74

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STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

CHAPTER 4

RESULTS & DISCUSSION
4.1 EVALUATING OF WEAR RATE USING PIN ON DISC WEAR TESTER:

TABULATION: For Coated and Uncoated Specimens
(For constant speed, track radius and varying load) Track radius Speed Load : 30mm : 300 rpm and 500rpm : 10-50N (steps of 10N)

Formula used: COF = Frictional force/ Normal force (where COF- Co-efficient of friction)………………………………………………………………...………(4.1) Sliding velocity(v)= (where D-track diameter in mm, N-speed in

rpm)………………………………………………………………...…………..(4.2) Sliding distance (L)= sliding velocity x time= v x T m (T-time in Seconds)...(4.3) Wear rate = ………………………………………..(4.4)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74

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PAR AME TERS : A1 : 10 N : 0.01

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 11.535

INTIALWT IN gms : 11.545

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.1(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 10N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

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0.001274 0.001062 0.000897 0.000708 0.000595 0.000519 0.000445 0.000407 0.000393 0.000382 0.000348 0.00033 0.000305 0.000293 0.000274 0.000265 0.000258 0.000244 0.000231 0.000219 0.000209 0.000206 0.000197 0.000189 0.000181 0.00018 0.000173 0.000167 0.000161 0.000156

56.54862 113.0972 169.6459 226.1945 282.7431 339.2917 395.8403 452.389 508.9376 565.4862 622.0348 678.5834 735.1321 791.6807 848.2293 904.7779 961.3265 1017.875 1074.424 1130.972 1187.521 1244.07 1300.618 1357.167 1413.716 1470.264 1526.813 1583.361 1639.91 1696.459

0.01 0.15 0.16 0.16 0.17 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.19 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.23 0.23 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.28 0.29 0.29 0.3 0.3 0.31 0.31 0.32 0.32 0.34

30 31 31 32 32 31 33 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 33 35 36 36 36 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 37 37 37

0.1 1.5 1.6 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.9 2 2 2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.9 2.9 3 3 3.1 3.1 3.2 3.2 3.4

9 15 19 20 21 22 22 23 25 27 27 28 28 29 29 30 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 33

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : A2 : 20 N : 0.009

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 12.106

INTIALWT IN gms : 12.115

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.2(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 20N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

42

0.001667 0.000833 0.000556 0.000451 0.000361 0.000301 0.000268 0.000243 0.000231 0.000208 0.000196 0.000179 0.000166 0.000154 0.000148 0.000148 0.000135 0.000127 0.000121 0.000125 0.000119 0.000126 0.000124 0.000119 0.000114 0.00011 0.000105 0.000104 0.000101 9.95E-05

56.54862 113.0972 169.6459 226.1945 282.7431 339.2917 395.8403 452.389 508.9376 565.4862 622.0348 678.5834 735.1321 791.6807 848.2293 904.7779 961.3265 1017.875 1074.424 1130.972 1187.521 1244.07 1300.618 1357.167 1413.716 1470.264 1526.813 1583.361 1639.91 1696.459

0.235 0.265 0.265 0.27 0.275 0.29 0.425 0.425 0.45 0.46 0.485 0.49 0.49 0.49 0.495 0.5 0.505 0.505 0.51 0.51 0.515 0.515 0.52 0.525 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.54 0.54 0.545

31 34 34 34 35 34 34 35 36 39 39 35 35 35 35 36 39 38 37 38 36 38 39 38 37 33 39 36 35 37

4.7 5.3 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.8 8.5 8.5 9 9.2 9.7 9.8 9.8 9.8 9.9 10 10.1 10.1 10.2 10.2 10.3 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.6 10.6 10.8 10.8 10.9

24 24 24 26 26 26 27 28 30 30 31 31 31 31 32 34 33 33 33 36 36 40 41 41 41 41 41 42 42 43

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : A3 : 30 N : 0.009

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 11.254

INTIALWT IN gms : 11.265

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.3(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 30N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

43

4.63E-05 2.31E-05 1.54E-05 1.16E-05 3.7E-05 3.09E-05 3.31E-05 3.47E-05 3.09E-05 2.78E-05 3.79E-05 3.86E-05 3.92E-05 3.64E-05 3.7E-05 3.76E-05 3.54E-05 3.34E-05 3.65E-05 3.94E-05 3.97E-05 4E-05 3.82E-05 4.05E-05 4.07E-05 4.1E-05 3.94E-05 3.8E-05 3.83E-05 3.7E-05

56.54862 113.0972 169.6459 226.1945 282.7431 339.2917 395.8403 452.389 508.9376 565.4862 622.0348 678.5834 735.1321 791.6807 848.2293 904.7779 961.3265 1017.875 1074.424 1130.972 1187.521 1244.07 1300.618 1357.167 1413.716 1470.264 1526.813 1583.361 1639.91 1696.459

0.36 0.44 0.513333 0.513333 0.516667 0.52 0.52 0.52 0.523333 0.526667 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.53 0.533333 0.536667 0.54 0.54 0.543333 0.543333 0.546667 0.546667 0.546667 0.55 0.553333 0.553333 0.556667 0.56 0.56 0.563333

39 46 47 43 43 38 38 38 39 40 39 39 38 39 39 40 39 38 38 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 38 38 38 38

10.8 13.2 15.4 15.4 15.5 15.6 15.6 15.6 15.7 15.8 15.9 15.9 15.9 15.9 16 16.1 16.2 16.2 16.3 16.3 16.4 16.4 16.4 16.5 16.6 16.6 16.7 16.8 16.8 16.9

24 25 25 25 25 26 27 28 30 30 31 31 32 33 34 34 35 35 35 36 37 40 42 44 44 46 47 48 50 52

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : A4 : 40 N : 0.01

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 11.835

INTIALWT IN gms : 11.845

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.4(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 40N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

44

0.000278 0.000365 0.000243 0.000191 0.000174 0.00015 0.000184 0.000226 0.000204 0.000191 0.00018 0.000165 0.000155 0.000144 0.000137 0.000128 0.000121 0.000118 0.000111 0.000109 0.000104 9.94E-05 9.51E-05 9.69E-05 9.31E-05 8.95E-05 8.74E-05 8.43E-05 8.02E-05 7.99E-05

56.54862 113.0972 169.6459 226.1945 282.7431 339.2917 395.8403 452.389 508.9376 565.4862 622.0348 678.5834 735.1321 791.6807 848.2293 904.7779 961.3265 1017.875 1074.424 1130.972 1187.521 1244.07 1300.618 1357.167 1413.716 1470.264 1526.813 1583.361 1639.91 1696.459

0.19 0.205 0.22 0.22 0.22 0.225 0.245 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.2525 0.2525 0.255 0.26 0.2625 0.265 0.265 0.2675 0.2675 0.2675 0.27 0.27 0.2725 0.2725 0.275 0.2775 0.28 0.2875 0.2975 0.2975

30 30 31 31 32 33 33 34 34 35 35 34 36 35 36 37 38 38 36 38 38 37 38 39 39 37 38 37 38 39

7.6 8.2 8.8 8.8 8.8 9 9.8 10 10 10 10.1 10.1 10.2 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.6 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.8 10.8 10.9 10.9 11 11.1 11.2 11.5 11.9 11.9

8 21 21 22 25 26 37 52 53 55 57 57 58 58 59 59 59 61 61 63 63 63 63 67 67 67 68 68 67 69

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : A5 : 50 N : 0.009

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 11.196

INTIALWT IN gms : 12.203

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.5(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 50N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

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1.7E-05 6.8E-05 7.9E-05 1.7E-05 4.1E-05 1.1E-05 9.7E-06 6.4E-06 9.4E-06 1E-05 7.7E-06 7.1E-06 6.5E-06 3.6E-06 4.5E-06 5.3E-06 6E-06 7.6E-06 8E-06 8.5E-06 8.9E-06 6.2E-06 8.9E-06 7.1E-06 6.1E-06 6.5E-06 6.9E-06 1E-05 8.8E-06 9.1E-06

94.2477 188.495 282.743 376.991 471.239 565.486 659.734 753.982 848.229 942.477 1036.72 1130.97 1225.22 1319.47 1413.72 1507.96 1602.21 1696.46 1790.71 1884.95 1979.2 2073.45 2167.7 2261.94 2356.19 2450.44 2544.69 2638.94 2733.18 2827.43

0.20591 0.30989 0.22834 0.59327 0.61366 0.71764 0.6157 0.59735 0.51376 0.61366 0.55454 0.61162 0.58104 0.60143 0.53211 0.55454 0.54434 0.51784 0.60958 0.63201 0.53007 0.57696 0.57288 0.69725 0.69113 0.55657 0.58919 0.51988 0.55454 0.5525

30 30 30 31 31 32 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 36 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 38 39

6.2 7.2 8.6 8.7 9 9.7 10.2 10.2 10.2 10.3 10.7 10.9 11 11.3 11.3 11.4 11.4 11.4 11.7 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.8 11.9 11.9 12 12 12 12.1 12.2

4 16 19 20 20 21 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 27 28 28 28 28 30 31 32 33 33 34 34 35 36 36 37 38

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : A6 : 10 N : 0.008

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 11.165

INTIALWT IN gms : 11.173

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.6(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 10N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

46

0.000167 0.000125 0.000111 0.000104 0.000133 0.000181 0.000167 0.000146 0.000157 0.000142 0.000136 0.000139 0.000141 0.000131 0.000122 0.000125 0.000123 0.00012 0.00011 0.000113 0.000107 0.000106 0.000105 0.000104 0.000107 0.000106 0.000102 0.000101 9.77E-05 9.72E-05

94.2477 188.4954 282.7431 376.9908 471.2385 565.4862 659.7339 753.9816 848.2293 942.477 1036.725 1130.972 1225.22 1319.468 1413.716 1507.963 1602.211 1696.459 1790.706 1884.954 1979.202 2073.449 2167.697 2261.945 2356.193 2450.44 2544.688 2638.936 2733.183 2827.431

0.05 0.1 0.15 0.18 0.24 0.24 0.29 0.32 0.33 0.33 0.34 0.34 0.39 0.41 0.42 0.42 0.43 0.45 0.46 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.47 0.48 0.48 0.49 0.5 0.51 0.51

28 30 30 29 31 32 33 33 34 34 34 35 35 35 35 35 34 34 35 34 33 35 34 33 34 33 35 35 34 35

0.5 1 1.5 1.8 2.4 2.4 2.9 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.4 3.4 3.9 4.1 4.2 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.7 4.8 4.8 4.9 5 5.1 5.1

2 3 4 5 8 13 14 14 17 17 18 20 22 22 22 24 25 26 25 27 27 28 29 30 32 33 33 34 34 35

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : A7 : 20 N : 0.009

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 12.413

INTIALWT IN gms : 12.422

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.7(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 20N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

47

8.33E-05 0.000333 0.00025 0.00026 0.000217 0.000181 0.000155 0.000141 0.000139 0.000129 0.000117 0.000108 0.000106 0.000104 0.000103 9.38E-05 8.82E-05 9.26E-05 8.99E-05 8.75E-05 8.33E-05 8.14E-05 7.97E-05 7.81E-05 0.000075 7.53E-05 7.25E-05 7.29E-05 7.04E-05 6.94E-05

94.2477 188.4954 282.7431 376.9908 471.2385 565.4862 659.7339 753.9816 848.2293 942.477 1036.725 1130.972 1225.22 1319.468 1413.716 1507.963 1602.211 1696.459 1790.706 1884.954 1979.202 2073.449 2167.697 2261.945 2356.193 2450.44 2544.688 2638.936 2733.183 2827.431

0.43 0.66 0.665 0.665 0.665 0.675 0.68 0.685 0.69 0.715 0.725 0.725 0.73 0.735 0.74 0.74 0.74 0.745 0.745 0.75 0.755 0.755 0.755 0.76 0.76 0.765 0.765 0.77 0.775 0.775

30 31 31 32 33 34 34 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 39 39 38 39 38 38 38 39

8.6 13.2 13.3 13.3 13.3 13.5 13.6 13.7 13.8 14.3 14.5 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.8 14.8 14.9 14.9 15 15.1 15.1 15.1 15.2 15.2 15.3 15.3 15.4 15.5 15.5

2 16 18 25 26 26 26 27 30 31 31 31 33 35 37 36 36 40 41 42 42 43 44 45 45 47 47 49 49 50

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : A8 : 30 N : 0.016

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 12.130

INTIALWT IN gms : 12.146

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.8(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 30N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

48

2.78E-05 4.17E-05 3.7E-05 6.94E-05 9.44E-05 0.000102 0.000103 0.000111 0.000102 9.44E-05 8.84E-05 8.56E-05 8.12E-05 7.74E-05 7.22E-05 6.94E-05 6.7E-05 6.48E-05 6.14E-05 6.11E-05 5.95E-05 5.68E-05 5.43E-05 5.32E-05 5.22E-05 5.13E-05 4.94E-05 4.76E-05 4.69E-05 4.72E-05

94.2477 188.4954 282.7431 376.9908 471.2385 565.4862 659.7339 753.9816 848.2293 942.477 1036.725 1130.972 1225.22 1319.468 1413.716 1507.963 1602.211 1696.459 1790.706 1884.954 1979.202 2073.449 2167.697 2261.945 2356.193 2450.44 2544.688 2638.936 2733.183 2827.431

0.07 0.106667 0.113333 0.116667 0.116667 0.12 0.123333 0.123333 0.13 0.13 0.13 0.133333 0.15 0.15 0.153333 0.193333 0.193333 0.196667 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.206667 0.206667 0.21 0.213333 0.216667 0.22 0.223333 0.226667 0.266667

29 30 30 31 33 33 33 34 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 40 40 40 40 40

2.1 3.2 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.7 3.9 3.9 3.9 4 4.5 4.5 4.6 5.8 5.8 5.9 6 6 6 6.2 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 8

1 3 4 10 17 22 26 32 33 34 35 37 38 39 39 40 41 42 42 44 45 45 45 46 47 48 48 48 49 51

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : A9 : 40 N : 0.013

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 11.993

INTIALWT IN gms : 12.006

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.9(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 40N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

49

0.000167 0.000115 0.000125 9.9E-05 8.33E-05 9.03E-05 7.74E-05 6.77E-05 6.25E-05 5.63E-05 5.49E-05 5.03E-05 4.81E-05 4.76E-05 4.72E-05 4.43E-05 4.29E-05 4.05E-05 3.84E-05 3.75E-05 3.67E-05 3.5E-05 3.44E-05 3.73E-05 3.58E-05 3.45E-05 3.4E-05 3.27E-05 3.23E-05 3.19E-05

94.2477 188.4954 282.7431 376.9908 471.2385 565.4862 659.7339 753.9816 848.2293 942.477 1036.725 1130.972 1225.22 1319.468 1413.716 1507.963 1602.211 1696.459 1790.706 1884.954 1979.202 2073.449 2167.697 2261.945 2356.193 2450.44 2544.688 2638.936 2733.183 2827.431

0.07 0.0725 0.0725 0.085 0.0925 0.0925 0.095 0.0975 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1025 0.105 0.1075 0.11 0.115 0.1175 0.1175 0.12 0.1275 0.135 0.125 0.1275 0.13 0.13 0.1325 0.1325 0.1375 0.145

30 31 31 32 34 33 33 34 33 34 35 34 34 35 36 35 36 35 36 36 36 35 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37

2.8 2.9 2.9 3.4 3.7 3.7 3.8 3.9 4 4 4 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.8 5.1 5.4 5 5.1 5.2 5.2 5.3 5.3 5.5 5.8

8 11 18 19 20 26 26 26 27 27 29 29 30 32 34 34 35 35 35 36 37 37 38 43 43 43 44 44 45 46

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : A10 : 50 N : 0.019

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 11.735

INTIALWT IN gms : 11.754

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.10(UNCOATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 50N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

50

0.0004 0.000325 0.000217 0.000179 0.000163 0.000139 0.000129 0.000119 0.000113 0.000112 0.000105 0.000106 9.74E-05 9.05E-05 8.44E-05 8.13E-05 7.75E-05 0.000075 7.02E-05 6.83E-05 6.59E-05 6.36E-05 6.16E-05 5.97E-05 5.73E-05 5.51E-05 5.31E-05 5.18E-05 5.06E-05 4.94E-05

94.2477 188.4954 282.7431 376.9908 471.2385 565.4862 659.7339 753.9816 848.2293 942.477 1036.725 1130.972 1225.22 1319.468 1413.716 1507.963 1602.211 1696.459 1790.706 1884.954 1979.202 2073.449 2167.697 2261.945 2356.193 2450.44 2544.688 2638.936 2733.183 2827.431

0.368 0.378 0.378 0.38 0.442 0.456 0.456 0.458 0.46 0.462 0.47 0.47 0.474 0.476 0.476 0.48 0.484 0.488 0.488 0.488 0.488 0.49 0.49 0.494 0.494 0.494 0.494 0.498 0.498 0.506

30 32 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 36 36 36 36 37 37 37 37 38 38 38 38 39 39 39 39 40 40

18.4 18.9 18.9 19 22.1 22.8 22.8 22.9 23 23.1 23.5 23.5 23.7 23.8 23.8 24 24.2 24.4 24.4 24.4 24.4 24.5 24.5 24.7 24.7 24.7 24.7 24.9 24.9 25.3

24 39 39 43 49 50 54 57 61 67 69 76 76 76 76 78 79 81 80 82 83 84 85 86 86 86 86 87 88 89

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : B1 : 10 N : 0.002

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 12.737

INTIALWT IN gms : 12.739

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.11(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 10N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

51

0.000139 6.94E-05 4.63E-05 3.47E-05 0 2.31E-05 5.95E-05 3.47E-05 1.54E-05 2.78E-05 1.26E-05 2.31E-05 3.21E-05 9.92E-06 9.26E-06 8.68E-06 8.17E-06 7.72E-06 7.31E-06 6.94E-06 1.98E-05 6.31E-06 1.81E-05 1.16E-05 1.11E-05 1.07E-05 5.14E-06 4.96E-06 4.79E-06 4.63E-06

56.54862 113.0972 169.6459 226.1945 282.7431 339.2917 395.8403 452.389 508.9376 565.4862 622.0348 678.5834 735.1321 791.6807 848.2293 904.7779 961.3265 1017.875 1074.424 1130.972 1187.521 1244.07 1300.618 1357.167 1413.716 1470.264 1526.813 1583.361 1639.91 1696.459

0.04 0.09 0.07 0.1 0.25 0.35 0.42 0.55 0.58 0.57 0.57 0.58 0.42 0.48 0.54 0.61 0.54 0.58 0.58 0.56 0.62 0.63 0.57 0.59 0.57 0.65 0.66 0.67 0.66 0.64

28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29 29

0.5 1.1 0.8 1.2 3 4.2 5 6.6 7 6.8 6.8 6.9 5 5.8 6.5 7.3 6.5 7 7 6.7 7.4 7.6 6.8 7.1 6.8 7.8 7.9 8 7.9 7.7

1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 1 2 1 2 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : B2 : 20 N : 0.003

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 12.881

INTIALWT IN gms : 12.884

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.12(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 20N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

52

6.94E-05 6.94E-05 6.94E-05 5.21E-05 4.17E-05 2.31E-05 1.98E-05 2.6E-05 1.54E-05 2.78E-05 1.89E-05 2.31E-05 3.21E-05 1.98E-05 1.39E-05 1.74E-05 1.63E-05 1.54E-05 7.31E-06 1.04E-05 6.61E-06 9.47E-06 9.06E-06 1.16E-05 8.33E-06 8.01E-06 7.72E-06 7.44E-06 7.18E-06 6.94E-06

56.54862 113.0972 169.6459 226.1945 282.7431 339.2917 395.8403 452.389 508.9376 565.4862 622.0348 678.5834 735.1321 791.6807 848.2293 904.7779 961.3265 1017.875 1074.424 1130.972 1187.521 1244.07 1300.618 1357.167 1413.716 1470.264 1526.813 1583.361 1639.91 1696.459

0.155 0.235 0.36 0.43 0.55 0.6 0.62 0.65 0.58 0.51 0.53 0.585 0.6 0.665 0.64 0.64 0.595 0.575 0.57 0.53 0.52 0.575 0.555 0.59 0.56 0.56 0.695 0.6 0.62 0.605

25 26 27 27 28 29 29 29 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 33 33 33

3.3 4.9 7.4 8.8 11.2 12.2 12.6 13.2 11.8 10.4 10.8 11.9 12.2 13.5 13 13 12.1 11.7 11.6 10.8 10.6 11.7 11.3 12 11.4 11.4 14.1 12.2 12.6 12.3

1 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 2 4 3 4 7 4 3 4 4 4 2 3 2 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : B3 : 30 N : 0.002

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 12.754

INTIALWT IN gms : 12.756

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.13(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 30N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

53

4.63E-05 2.31E-05 1.54E-05 2.31E-05 9.26E-06 2.31E-05 3.97E-05 3.47E-05 3.09E-05 3.7E-05 2.95E-05 3.47E-05 2.49E-05 2.98E-05 2.47E-05 2.31E-05 1.63E-05 2.31E-05 1.95E-05 1.62E-05 1.32E-05 1.89E-05 1.41E-05 1.93E-05 1.3E-05 1.6E-05 1.54E-05 1.49E-05 1.44E-05 1.54E-05

56.54862 113.0972 169.6459 226.1945 282.7431 339.2917 395.8403 452.389 508.9376 565.4862 622.0348 678.5834 735.1321 791.6807 848.2293 904.7779 961.3265 1017.875 1074.424 1130.972 1187.521 1244.07 1300.618 1357.167 1413.716 1470.264 1526.813 1583.361 1639.91 1696.459

0.156667 0.18 0.273333 0.326667 0.506667 0.643333 0.62 0.62 0.63 0.503333 0.63 0.616667 0.576667 0.623333 0.566667 0.563333 0.623333 0.54 0.566667 0.563333 0.533333 0.446667 0.43 0.446667 0.436667 0.536667 0.546667 0.513333 0.496667 0.636667

22 22 23 23 23 24 24 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 30 30 31 31 32 32

4.9 5.6 8.4 10 15.4 19.5 18.8 18.8 19.1 15.3 19.1 18.7 17.5 18.9 17.2 17.1 18.9 16.4 17.2 17.1 16.2 13.6 13.1 13.6 13.3 16.3 16.6 15.6 15.1 19.3

1 1 1 2 1 3 7 7 7 9 8 10 8 10 9 9 7 10 9 8 7 10 8 12 8 10 10 10 10 12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : B4 : 40 N : 0.002

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 12.876

INTIALWT IN gms : 12.878

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.14(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 40N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

54

3.47E-05 1.74E-05 2.31E-05 2.6E-05 2.78E-05 2.89E-05 4.46E-05 3.47E-05 4.63E-05 4.51E-05 4.1E-05 4.34E-05 3.47E-05 2.98E-05 3.24E-05 3.04E-05 3.27E-05 3.09E-05 2.19E-05 2.43E-05 2.48E-05 2.53E-05 2.26E-05 2.17E-05 2.22E-05 2.4E-05 2.44E-05 2.23E-05 2.27E-05 2.31E-05

56.54862 113.0972 169.6459 226.1945 282.7431 339.2917 395.8403 452.389 508.9376 565.4862 622.0348 678.5834 735.1321 791.6807 848.2293 904.7779 961.3265 1017.875 1074.424 1130.972 1187.521 1244.07 1300.618 1357.167 1413.716 1470.264 1526.813 1583.361 1639.91 1696.459

0.1 0.1875 0.255 0.395 0.495 0.56 0.62 0.685 0.6975 0.5075 0.485 0.6825 0.71 0.5775 0.62 0.5675 0.6825 0.7 0.75 0.7 0.78 0.8025 0.755 0.78 0.76 0.73 0.7525 0.78 0.78 0.75

24 24 24 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 31 32 33 33 33 33 33 33

4.2 7.7 10.4 16 20 22.6 25 27.6 28.1 20.5 19.6 27.5 28.6 23.3 25 22.9 27.5 28.2 30.2 28.2 31.4 32.3 30.4 31.4 30.6 29.4 30.3 31.4 31.4 30.2

1 1 2 3 4 6 10 9 14 15 15 18 15 14 16 16 19 19 14 16 18 19 18 18 19 21 22 21 22 24

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : B5 : 50 N : 0.002

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 12.913

INTIALWT IN gms : 12.915

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.15(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 300rpm and Load: 50N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

55

5.56E-05 6.94E-05 3.7E-05 2.78E-05 1.67E-05 1.39E-05 7.94E-06 1.39E-05 6.17E-06 5.56E-06 7.58E-06 6.94E-06 4.27E-06 7.94E-06 3.7E-06 1.74E-06 3.27E-06 7.72E-06 7.31E-06 1.11E-05 5.29E-06 6.31E-06 6.04E-06 5.79E-06 2.22E-06 4.27E-06 5.14E-06 2.98E-06 2.87E-06 1.85E-06

56.54862 113.0972 169.6459 226.1945 282.7431 339.2917 395.8403 452.389 508.9376 565.4862 622.0348 678.5834 735.1321 791.6807 848.2293 904.7779 961.3265 1017.875 1074.424 1130.972 1187.521 1244.07 1300.618 1357.167 1413.716 1470.264 1526.813 1583.361 1639.91 1696.459

0.134 0.11 0.134 0.144 0.104 0.176 0.204 0.202 0.2 0.144 0.156 0.154 0.166 0.13 0.146 0.182 0.146 0.166 0.156 0.174 0.192 0.212 0.194 0.19 0.188 0.206 0.206 0.266 0.25 0.23

28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 31 31 32 32 32 32 32

6.9 5.7 6.9 7.4 5.4 9 10.4 10.3 10.2 7.4 8 7.9 8.5 6.7 7.5 9.3 7.5 8.5 8 8.9 9.8 10.8 9.9 9.7 9.6 10.5 10.5 13.5 12.7 11.7

2 6 4 4 3 3 2 4 2 2 3 3 2 4 2 1 2 6 6 9 4 6 6 6 2 4 6 3 3 2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : B6 : 10 N : 0.005

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 12.905

INTIALWT IN gms : 12.910

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.16(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 10N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

56

8.33E-05 0.000167 0.000222 0.000167 0.000133 0.000111 9.52E-05 6.25E-05 4.63E-05 0.00005 3.79E-05 3.47E-05 2.56E-05 2.38E-05 2.78E-05 2.6E-05 1.96E-05 2.31E-05 2.19E-05 2.08E-05 1.59E-05 1.52E-05 1.45E-05 1.39E-05 1.33E-05 9.62E-06 1.23E-05 1.19E-05 1.15E-05 8.33E-05

94.2477 188.4954 282.7431 376.9908 471.2385 565.4862 659.7339 753.9816 848.2293 942.477 1036.725 1130.972 1225.22 1319.468 1413.716 1507.963 1602.211 1696.459 1790.706 1884.954 1979.202 2073.449 2167.697 2261.945 2356.193 2450.44 2544.688 2638.936 2733.183 2827.431

0.29 0.59 0.51 0.52 0.81 0.87 0.76 0.78 0.75 0.76 0.75 0.73 0.74 0.73 0.74 0.72 0.73 0.74 0.77 0.77 0.8 0.77 0.79 0.77 0.77 0.74 0.74 0.72 0.74 0.73

28 28 28 28 29 29 29 29 30 30 30 30 31 31 31 32 32 32 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35

3.1 6.1 5.3 5.4 8.3 8.9 7.8 8 7.7 7.8 7.7 7.5 7.6 7.5 7.6 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.9 7.9 8.2 7.9 8.1 7.9 7.9 7.6 7.6 7.4 7.6 7.5

1 4 9 9 9 9 9 7 6 7 6 6 4 4 6 6 4 6 6 6 4 4 4 4 4 3 4 4 4 4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : B7 : 20 N : 0.002

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 12.988

INTIALWT IN gms : 12.990

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.17(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 20N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

57

8.33E-05 4.17E-05 0.000111 0.000104 6.67E-05 6.94E-05 5.95E-05 5.21E-05 4.63E-05 3.33E-05 3.03E-05 2.08E-05 1.28E-05 2.68E-05 2.22E-05 2.34E-05 2.45E-05 2.08E-05 1.97E-05 1.67E-05 1.59E-05 1.7E-05 1.27E-05 1.39E-05 0.000015 1.6E-05 1.54E-05 1.64E-05 1.29E-05 1.39E-05

94.2477 188.4954 282.7431 376.9908 471.2385 565.4862 659.7339 753.9816 848.2293 942.477 1036.725 1130.972 1225.22 1319.468 1413.716 1507.963 1602.211 1696.459 1790.706 1884.954 1979.202 2073.449 2167.697 2261.945 2356.193 2450.44 2544.688 2638.936 2733.183 2827.431

0.525 0.6 0.66 0.635 0.76 0.595 0.58 0.625 0.64 0.65 0.625 0.64 0.61 0.635 0.65 0.66 0.635 0.66 0.73 0.76 0.735 0.685 0.665 0.71 0.76 0.68 0.69 0.705 0.71 0.525

28 28 28 29 29 30 30 31 32 33 33 33 33 33 33 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 35 35 35 36 36 36 36

10.7 12.2 13.4 12.9 15.4 12.1 11.8 12.7 13 13.2 12.7 13 12.4 12.9 13.2 13.4 12.9 13.4 14.8 15.4 14.9 13.9 13.5 14.4 15.4 13.8 14 14.3 14.4 10.7

2 2 9 12 9 12 12 12 12 9 9 7 4 10 9 10 12 10 10 9 9 10 8 9 10 12 12 13 10 12

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : B8 : 30 N : 0.009

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 12.890

INTIALWT IN gms : 12.899

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.18(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 30N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

58

2.78E-05 2.78E-05 2.78E-05 2.08E-05 2.22E-05 2.78E-05 2.38E-05 2.08E-05 2.16E-05 1.94E-05 1.52E-05 1.62E-05 1.28E-05 1.19E-05 9.26E-06 8.68E-06 9.8E-06 7.72E-06 8.77E-06 8.33E-06 6.61E-06 7.58E-06 6.04E-06 5.79E-06 6.67E-06 5.34E-06 7.2E-06 5.95E-06 6.7E-06 5.56E-06

94.2477 188.4954 282.7431 376.9908 471.2385 565.4862 659.7339 753.9816 848.2293 942.477 1036.725 1130.972 1225.22 1319.468 1413.716 1507.963 1602.211 1696.459 1790.706 1884.954 1979.202 2073.449 2167.697 2261.945 2356.193 2450.44 2544.688 2638.936 2733.183 2827.431

0.29 0.436667 0.533333 0.583333 0.673333 0.62 0.616667 0.623333 0.62 0.636667 0.653333 0.673333 0.656667 0.636667 0.676667 0.666667 0.663333 0.603333 0.64 0.646667 0.626667 0.656667 0.686667 0.63 0.603333 0.6 0.57 0.616667 0.626667 0.636667

24 24 25 25 25 26 28 29 29 30 30 32 32 33 35 35 36 36 37 37 38 38 39 39 39 39 40 40 40 40

8.9 13.3 16.2 17.7 20.4 18.8 18.7 18.9 18.8 19.3 19.8 20.4 19.9 19.3 20.5 20.2 20.1 18.3 19.4 19.6 19 19.9 20.8 19.1 18.3 18.2 17.3 18.7 19 19.3

1 2 3 3 4 7 7 7 8 8 7 8 7 7 6 6 7 6 7 7 6 7 6 6 7 6 8 7 8 7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : B9 : 40 N : 0.006

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 12.890

INTIALWT IN gms : 12.896

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.19(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 40N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

59

2.08E-05 1.04E-05 1.39E-05 1.04E-05 8.33E-06 1.04E-05 1.79E-05 1.3E-05 9.26E-06 6.25E-06 5.68E-06 6.94E-06 6.41E-06 5.95E-06 6.94E-06 5.21E-06 6.13E-06 5.79E-06 4.39E-06 3.13E-06 4.96E-06 2.84E-06 3.62E-06 1.04E-05 1.25E-05 1.04E-05 9.26E-06 8.93E-06 1.01E-05 1.18E-05

94.2477 188.4954 282.7431 376.9908 471.2385 565.4862 659.7339 753.9816 848.2293 942.477 1036.725 1130.972 1225.22 1319.468 1413.716 1507.963 1602.211 1696.459 1790.706 1884.954 1979.202 2073.449 2167.697 2261.945 2356.193 2450.44 2544.688 2638.936 2733.183 2827.431

0.0175 0.06 0.09 0.2125 0.26 0.5325 0.5075 0.5975 0.6825 0.57 0.5475 0.585 0.72 0.7575 0.63 0.735 0.6125 0.605 0.62 0.56 0.615 0.64 0.64 0.55 0.58 0.53 0.505 0.605 0.6125 0.5075

29 29 29 29 29 33 35 38 40 40 40 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 42 43 43 43 43 44 44 44 44 44 44

0.9 2.6 3.8 8.7 10.6 21.5 20.5 24.1 27.5 23 22.1 23.6 29 30.5 25.4 29.6 24.7 24.4 25 22.6 24.8 25.8 25.8 22.2 23.4 21.4 20.4 24.4 24.7 20.5

1 1 2 2 2 3 7 6 4 3 3 4 4 4 6 4 6 6 4 3 6 3 4 14 18 15 14 14 16 20

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

PAR AME TERS : B10 : 50 N : 0.008

LOAD

SPECIMEN

WEIGHT LOSS

FINAL WT IN gms : 12.882

INTIALWT IN gms : 12.890

Wear (µm) Frict on force( N) Temp eratu re Coeffi cient of frictio n (COF ) Slidin g distan ce (m) Wear rate (mm3/ Nm)

Table 4.20(COATED MILD STEEL) (Track radius: 30mm, Speed: 500rpm and Load: 50N)

Dept. of Mech. Engg, DBIT, Blore-74 TIME IN MINUTES

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718 2009-2010

60

1.7E-05 6.7E-05 7.8E-05 1.7E-05 0.00004 1.1E-05 9.5E-06 6.3E-06 9.3E-06 0.00001 7.6E-06 6.9E-06 6.4E-06 3.6E-06 4.4E-06 5.2E-06 5.9E-06 7.4E-06 7.9E-06 8.3E-06 8.7E-06 6.1E-06 8.7E-06 6.9E-06 6E-06 6.4E-06 6.8E-06 1E-05 8.6E-06 8.9E-06

94.2477 188.495 282.743 376.991 471.239 565.486 659.734 753.982 848.229 942.477 1036.72 1130.97 1225.22 1319.47 1413.72 1507.96 1602.21 1696.46 1790.71 1884.95 1979.2 2073.45 2167.7 2261.94 2356.19 2450.44 2544.69 2638.94 2733.18 2827.43

0.202 0.304 0.224 0.582 0.602 0.704 0.604 0.586 0.504 0.602 0.544 0.6 0.57 0.59 0.522 0.544 0.534 0.508 0.598 0.62 0.52 0.566 0.562 0.684 0.678 0.546 0.578 0.51 0.544 0.542

29 30 31 32 32 33 34 35 36 38 40 42 44 44 44 44 44 45 45 45 45 46 46 46 46 47 47 48 50 50

10.3 15.4 11.4 29.3 30.3 35.4 30.4 29.5 25.4 30.3 27.4 30.2 28.7 29.7 26.3 27.4 26.9 25.6 30.1 31.2 26.2 28.5 28.3 34.4 34.1 27.5 29.1 25.7 27.4 27.3

1 9 16 4 14 4 4 3 6 7 6 6 6 3 4 6 7 9 10 12 13 9 14 12 10 12 13 20 18 19

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

STUDY OF DRY SLIDING WEAR BEHAVIOUR OF MILD STEEL COATED WITH INCONEL 718

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4.2 GRAPHS:

Wear v/s load at 300 rpm
60 50 Wear in μm 40 30 COATED 20 10 0 10 20 30 Load in N 40 50 UNCOATED

Fig 4.1 Wear v/s load at 300rpm

Wear v/s load at 500 rpm
90 80 70 Wear in μm 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 Load in N 40 50 COATED UNCOATED

Fig 4.2 Wear v/s load at 500rpm Fig 4.1 and 4.2 shows as the load increase wear also increase but the wear of uncoated specimens are more when compared to coated specimens.
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COF v/s load at 300 rpm
0.7 0.6 0.5 COF 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 10 20 30 Load in N 40 50 COATED

UNCOATED

Fig 4.3 COF v/s load at 300rpm

COF v/s load at 500 rpm
0.8
0.7 0.6 0.5 COF 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 10 20 30 Load in N 40 50 COATED UNCOATED

Fig 4.4 COF v/s load at 500rpm Fig 4.3 and 4.4 shows as the load increase COF decreases

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Wear v/s Sliding distance at 10N & 300 rpm
30 25 Wear in μm 20

15
COATED 10 5 0 282.74 565.46 848.22 1130.97 1413.71 1696.459 Sliding Distance in m UNCOATED

Fig 4.5 Wear v/s Sliding distance at 10N & 300rpm

Wear v/s Sliding distance at 20N & 300 rpm
50 45 40 35 Wear in μm 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 282.74 565.46 848.22 1130.97 1413.71 1696.459 Sliding Distance in m COATED UNCOATED

Fig 4.6 Wear v/s Sliding distance at 20N & 300rpm

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Wear v/s Sliding distance at 30N & 300 rpm
60 50 Wear in μm 40 30 COATED 20 10 UNCOATED

0
282.74 565.46 848.22 1130.97 1413.71 1696.459 Sliding Distance in m

Fig 4.7 Wear v/s Sliding distance at 30N & 300rpm

Wear v/s Sliding distance at 40N & 300 rpm
80 70 60 Wear in μm 50 40 30 20 10 0 282.74 565.46 848.22 1130.97 1413.71 1696.459 Sliding Distance in m COATED UNCOATED

Fig 4.8 Wear v/s Sliding distance at 40N & 300rpm

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Wear v/s Sliding distance at 50N & 300 rpm
80 70 60 Wear in μm 50 40 30 20 10 COATED UNCOATED

0
282.74 565.46 848.22 1130.97 1413.71 1696.459 Sliding Distance in m

Fig 4.9 Wear v/s Sliding distance at 50N & 300rpm

Wear v/s Sliding distance at 10N & 500 rpm
40 35 30 Wear in μm 25 20 15 10 5 0 471.23 942.47 1413.71 1884.95 2356.19 2827.43 Sliding Distance in m COATED UNCOATED

Fig 4.10 Wear v/s Sliding distance at 10N & 500rpm

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Wear v/s Sliding distance at 20N & 500 rpm
60 50 Wear in μm 40 30 COATED 20 10 UNCOATED

0
471.23 942.47 1413.71 1884.95 2356.19 2827.43 Sliding Distance in m

Fig 4.11 Wear v/s Sliding distance at 20N & 500rpm

Wear v/s Sliding distance at 30N & 500 rpm
60

50
Wear in μm 40 30 COATED 20 10 0 471.23 942.47 1413.71 1884.95 2356.19 2827.43 Sliding Distance in m UNCOATED

Fig 4.12 Wear v/s Sliding distance at 30N & 500rpm

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Wear v/s Sliding distance at 40N & 500 rpm
60 50 Wear in μm 40

30
COATED 20 10 0 471.23 942.47 1413.71 1884.95 2356.19 2827.43 Sliding Distance in m UNCOATED

Fig 4.13 Wear v/s Sliding distance at 40N & 500rpm

Wear v/s Sliding distance at 50N & 500 rpm
90 80 70 Wear in μm 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 471.23 942.47 1413.71 1884.95 2356.19 2827.43 Sliding Distance in m COATED UNCOATED

Fig 4.14 Wear v/s Sliding distance at 50N & 500rpm

From graphs 4.5 to 4.14 it is clear that increase sliding distance increases the wear rate and it is also clear that wear of uncoated specimens are more then the coated specimens

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Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 10N & 300 rpm
0.0007 0.0006

0.0005
Wear rate 0.0004 0.0003 COATED UNCOATED

0.0002
0.0001 0 282.74 565.46 848.22 1130.97 1413.71 1696.459 Sliding Distance in m

Fig 4.15 Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 10N & 300rpm

Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 20N & 300 rpm
0.0004 0.00035 0.0003 Wear rate 0.00025 0.0002 0.00015 0.0001 0.00005 0 282.74 565.46 848.22 1130.97 1413.71 1696.459 Sliding Distance in m COATED UNCOATED

Fig 4.16 Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 20N & 300rpm

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Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 30N & 300 rpm
0.0004

0.00035
0.0003 Wear rate 0.00025 0.0002 0.00015 0.0001 0.00005 0 282.74 565.46 848.22 1130.97 1413.71 1696.459 Sliding Distance in m COATED UNCOATED

Fig 4.17 Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 30N & 300rpm

Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 40N & 300 rpm
0.00025 0.0002 Wear rate 0.00015 0.0001 0.00005 0 282.74 565.46 848.22 1130.97 1413.71 1696.459 Sliding Distance in m COATED UNCOATED

Fig 4.18 Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 40N & 300rpm

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Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 50N & 300 rpm
0.00003 0.000025 0.00002 0.000015 COATED 0.00001 0.000005 UNCOATED

Wear rate

0
282.74 565.46 848.22 1130.97 1413.71 1696.459 Sliding Distance in m

Fig 4.19 Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 50N & 300rpm

Wear v/s Sliding distance at 10N & 500 rpm
0.0002 0.00018 0.00016 0.00014 Wear rate 0.00012 0.0001 0.00008 0.00006 0.00004 0.00002 0 471.23 942.47 1413.71 1884.95 2356.19 2827.43 Sliding Distance in m COATED UNCOATED

Fig 4.20 Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 10N & 500rpm

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Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 20N & 500 rpm
0.00025 0.0002 Wear rate 0.00015 0.0001 0.00005 COATED UNCOATED

0
471.23 942.47 1413.71 1884.95 2356.19 2827.43 Sliding Distance in m

Fig 4.21 Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 20N & 500rpm

Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 30N & 500 rpm
0.0001 0.00009 0.00008 0.00007 Wear rate 0.00006 0.00005 0.00004 0.00003 0.00002 0.00001 0 471.23 942.47 1413.71 1884.95 2356.19 2827.43 Sliding Distance in m COATED UNCOATED

Fig 4.22 Wear v/s Sliding distance at 30N & 500rpm

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2009-2010

Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 40N & 500 rpm
0.00009 0.00008 0.00007 Wear in μm 0.00006 0.00005 0.00004 0.00003 0.00002 0.00001 0 471.23 942.47 1413.71 1884.95 2356.19 2827.43 Sliding Distance in m COATED UNCOATED

Fig 4.23 Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 40N & 500rpm

Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 50N & 500 rpm
0.00018 0.00016 0.00014 Wear in μm 0.00012 0.0001 0.00008 0.00006 0.00004 0.00002 0 471.23 942.47 1413.71 1884.95 2356.19 2827.43 Sliding Distance in m COATED UNCOATED

Fig 4.24 Wear rate v/s Sliding distance at 50N & 500rpm

From graphs 4.15 to 4.24 it is clear that increase sliding distance increases the wear rate and it is also $clear that wear of uncoated specimens are more then the coated specimens

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CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION

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CHAPTER 5

CONCLUSION
Based on the tests carried out to study the effect on wear, Mild Steel coated with Inconel 718 as explained in the previous pages and within the scope of this investigation the following conclusion has been drawn. Coating of Inconel 718 on mild steel is effectively done for the thickness of 200microns. Wear loss of the specimens decreases effectively when compared to uncoated specimens. n conduction of different wear tests, on varying load and speed conditions, the following observations are made: It is clear that increase in sliding distance increases the wear and it is also observed that wear of uncoated specimens are more then the coated specimens. As the load increase COF decreases.

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CHAPTER 6 SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK

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CHAPTER 6

SCOPE FOR FUTURE WORK
In future, some more experiments can be conducted of the coating of Inconel 718 on mild steel. SEM (Scanning Electro Microscope) study of coating can be done to study surface texture and to get exact coating thickness. Microstructure analysis can be done to study the structure of coatings. Vickers micro hardness can be done to compare hardness between coated and uncoated specimens. Coating can be done by different coating methods. Corrosion properties can be found out. Prediction can be done by using neural network.

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REFERENCES
[1]. Prince M, Gopalakrishnan P, Duraiselvam Muthukannan, More Satish D, Naveen R and Natarajan S, “Study of Dry Sliding Wear of Plasma Sprayed Mo-Ni/Cr - Ti6Al-4V Tribo Pair”, European Journal of Scientific Research ISSN 1450-216X Vol.37 No.1 (2009), pp.41-48. [2]. V.k. Gupta1, S. Ray, O.P. Pandey, “Dry sliding wear characteristicsof 0.13 wt. % carbon steel”, Materials Science-Poland, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2008 [3]. S. Basavarajappa, G. Handramohan, R.Subramanian, A. Chandrasekar , “Dry sliding wear behavior of Al 2219/SiC metal matrix composites” , Materials SciencePoland, Vol. 24, No. 2/1, 2006 [4]. P.R. Gangasani, “Friction and wear characteristic of ductile iron in dry sliding conditions.” 2003 Keith Millis symposium on ductile cast iron [5]. B.V. Manoj Kumar and Bikramjit Basu, “Tribochemistry in sliding wear of TiCN– Ni-based cermets” J. Mater. Res., Vol. 23, No. 5, May 2008

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