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UNIVERSITY OF MINNESOTA Center for Spirituality and Healing PEOPLE, PLANTS, AND DRUGS: INTRODUCTION TO ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY 1:25PM- 4:25PM

Tuesdays (09/08/2009-12/16/2009) Mayo 1250 COURSE NUMBER: CSpH 5401 CREDITS: 3 Graduate and upper division undergraduate students; previous courses in botany, chemistry, pharmacognosy or pharmacology useful but not required. Ethnopharmacology is the scientific investigation of biologically active substances utilized by humans. Its focus is usually, but not always, on indigenous, traditional, historic, or non-Western cultures. By definition, Ethnopharmacology is interdisciplinary and eclectic; the scope and tools of ethnopharmacological studies are derived from pharmacology and toxicology, pharmacognosy, chemistry, medicine, botany and ethnobotany, medical and cultural anthropology, and other disciplines. This course will provide students with an overview of the subject matter of ethnopharmacology, and an in-depth appreciation of its past, current, and future contributions to human knowledge. Specific examples of ethnopharmacologic investigations and topic areas will be examined to illustrate and explore issues pertinent to the discipline. OBJECTIVES: At the conclusion of the course the student will be able to: • • • • Define ethnopharmacology, and demonstrate a broad familiarity with the scope of the subject area covered by ethnopharmacology. Demonstrate an understanding of the principles and practices utilized in ethnopharmacological research. Have an appreciation of the molecular and species diversity inherent in nature, its relevance to humanity’s well being, and the importance of its preservation. Have an appreciation of contemporary issues, diverse perspectives, and ethical, commercial, and legal dilemmas related to issues pertaining to the ownership of indigenous knowledge, intellectual property, regulation of organisms, biopiracy, and genetic resources.

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databases. Another important component of the study of ethnopharmacology. borrowed from taxonomy. A/F or S/N • • • GRADING: INSTRUCTOR: Dennis J. natural products chemistry. medicine." As such. Be acquainted with the literature. and the ethnographic description of their preparation and use. to identify. Be familiar with the diverse uses of psychoactive plants in traditional and indigenous cultures. TUESDAYS 1:25-4:25 p.edu or djmckenna@mac. and characterize the active compounds responsible for the actions of drugs and poisons used in non-Western cultures. Mayo 1250 OFFICE HOURS: by appointment. poisons. postindustrial societies. pharmacognosy.com Home phone: 651 433 3028 Office phone: 612 624 0112 STUDENTS: Limited to a total of 20 students DETAILED COURSE DESCRIPTION: Ethnopharmacology can be defined as "The interdisciplinary scientific investigation of biologically active substances utilized by humans. ethnopharmacology combines aspects of botany. Ph. however. and even psychology and the comparative study of religions into a synthetic discipline whose subject matter is human interactions with biologically active plants and animals as medicines. and other informational resources pertinent to the study and practice of ethnopharmacology.m. natural products chemistry. Part of the scope of ethnopharmacology is the documentation of the plants and animals used as drugs and poisons in such cultures. and "recreational" or ritual intoxicants. and demonstrate an understanding of cross-cultural perspectives pertinent to the use and misuse of psychoactive plants. McKenna. It is this aspect of ethnopharmacology that has led time and again to the discovery of important medicines that subsequently became integrated into the Western physician's pharmacopoeia. in practice its primary focus is on indigenous and non-Western cultures. Although theoretically ethnnopharmacology could include human uses of drugs and toxins in contemporary. anthropology. This course will cover both the ethnographic and scientific aspects of ethnopharmacology about equally. conventional pharmacology.• Understand the role and importance of botanical medicines in the public health programs and medical practices of developing countries and indigenous cultures. D-512 MAYO Email: mcken031@umn. and conventional pharmacology. Demonstrate an appreciation of the contributions of ethnopharmacology to Western medicine and sciences such as pharmacology and chemistry. isolate. Emphasis will be placed on helping students to appreciate the importance of 2 . is the application of state-of-the-art scientific methods.D.

W. Tuesday. October 21st. students will be asked to select a project or topic pertinent to the discipline of ethnopharmacology. (1997) One River: Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rainforest Touchstone Books. and are surrounded by plants and the products derived from them. keeping an account of their encounters with plants in their daily activities. At the end of the course they will present a seminar of about 30 minutes on their chosen topic or project during one of the last two class sessions. Innovative topics and presentation modalities are encouraged! We will discuss some options and ideas in the first meeting of the class. and different cultures have evolved different ways of using the drugs and toxins in their natural environment in both abusive and constructive ways. Douglas & McIntyre. This assignment is designed to enhance your “plant consciousness. (20%) We are immersed in the world of plants. There will be a final exam 10:30 am-12:30 pm. Mark (2000) Medicine Quest : In Search of Nature's Healing Secrets Viking Press • Plant Encounters. and to develop a cross-cultural perspective on human interactions with drugs and toxins. E. Final Exam (10%). October 27th. This course will examine the varieties of ways that humans interact with biologically active organisms in their environment. Vancouver Plotkin. The completed journals will be due by the date of the mid-term.W. Within the first three weeks of the course. Seminar topics can be chosen from a suggested list of broad topics or a student can suggest an alternative topic area. yet most of the time. December 22. (20%) Reviews/critiques (20%) Students will be expected to write brief reviews or critiques of five articles of their own choosing from the required or recommended reading lists. Alternatively. Davis. ASSIGNMENTS FOR CREDIT: • • Read/critique assigned reading topics as preparation for participation in class discussions. for 14 consecutive days sometime during the first 5 weeks of the course. Drug use and abuse is as old as the human condition.ethnopharmacological investigations in the process of drug discovery and the evolution of modern medicine. Student Projects (20%). (2002) Light at the Edge of the World. we are not even aware of the important role that plants play in our daily lives. There will be a mid-term exam on Week 8. • • • 3 . Mid-term Exam (10%).” Students will be asked to keep a daily log or journal. students may elect to read and review one of the following books: Davis. National Geographic Society.

not the road. student projects. • PowerPoint slide show: People. 7: 12-16. Larry (2001) Being Green: On the Relationships Between People and Plants. topics and schedule are subject to change and revision without notice! Week 1 (9/8/09): Introduction and overview: What is ethnopharmacology? • Getting acquainted • Overview of the course. Annual Review of Anthropology 20: 505-546 (PDF) 4 . (PDF) Cordell GA & Colvard DM (2005) Some thoughts on the future of ethnopharmcology. Cordyceps Week 2 (9/15/09): Prehistoric “roots” of human pharmacology and medicine. midterm & final exam. Plants. Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine Vol. Discussion of the grading and evaluation. 132-139. • PowerPoint slide show: The world-wide (phytochemical) web: Plant/human symbiosis and co-evolution • Class Discussion Required reading: Jackson FLC (1991) Secondary compounds in plants as promoters of human biological variability. reading/writing assignments. (PDF) Waiká Indians ingesting nyakwana. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 100:5-14. A syllabus is a roadmap.SCHEDULE/TOPICS: 45 hours of class time (15 three-hour class sessions). and Drugs: An Overview of Ethnopharmacology Required reading: Dossey. a hallucinogenic snuff prepared from Virola resin Complex chemical interactions mediate the relationships between plants and organisms in their environment – including humans The picture shows an ant infected with the insectivorous fungus.

Chapter 4 pp. Powerpoint show. SH (2002) All Plants are Chemists. Michael (1999) New rules for natural products research. (PDF) Recommended reading: McKenna. Ownership. the second reference is required. Week 4 9/29/09): Preservation of biodiversity and molecular diversity. and Criminalization of Nature • Class discussion. Recommended reading: Website: Left in the Dark: http://leftinthedark. DJ (2001) What is Pharmacognosy: An introduction to the science of pharmacognosy. Preservation and recognition of indigenous knowledge. Sagan EH. Hagen. or. (PDF) 5 . Bryan (2005) A structural lexicon of medicinally important chemical families found in plants. Carter GT. or have forgotten them. Documentation of the knowledge of such traditional healers is essential to prevent its loss to all of humanity Required reading: Gollin. Bryan (2005) Chapter 2: Interpreting the symbolism of chemical structures. 2005 4:206-20. Hammerstein P (2008) Revealing the paradox of drug reward in human evolution. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. Anthropologist Luis Eduardo Luna interviews curandero Don Emilio Andrade. Read it before you read the first required reference cited above. Haworth Herbal Press.org. Proceedings: Biological Sciences / The Royal Society 275:1231-1241. • Lecture & Slide Show: What is not patented is prohibited: the Exploitation.uk/ Week 3 (9/22/09) Pharmacognosy I: Chemistry & pharmacology of natural products • Introduction to Natural Products: Molecular Diversity in Nature Required reading: Hanson. RJ. Chapter 7. Hanson. IN: Understanding Medicinal Plants: Their chemistry and therapeutic action. (PDF) Buhner. the ownership and exploitation of nature. (PDF) NOTE: If you are not familiar with the conventions and nomenclature of organic chemistry. pp 142-170 IN The Lost Language of Plants: The Ecological Importance of Plant Medicines to Life on Earth. Haworth Herbal Press.The evolving role of natural products in drug discovery. White River Vermont. Plant and gene patents and biopiracy.Sullivan. Nature Biotechnology 17:921-22. 69-118 IN: Understanding Medicinal Plants: Their chemistry and therapeutic action. Chelsea Green Publishing. finding your way around a molecule. (PDF) Koehn FE.

83-114 IN The Lost Language of Plants: The Ecological Importance of Plant Medicines to Life on Earth. The search for plants that cure: cancer chemotherapeutic agents. P & N.100:15-22 (PDF) Mendelsohn. piscisides. (2000) Some Poison for your Pain? Chapter 1 in Medicine Quest: In Search of Nature’ Healing Secrets. Wolfe (1992) Can animals teach us medicine? British Medical Journal 305: December 1992 (pages not cited) (PDF) • Week 6 (10/13/09): Ethnopharmacology and drug discovery I. • PowerPoint presentation: Medicine Quest: The search for plants that cure • Powerpoint Presentation: Ethnopharmacology meets the Receptorome: Searching the Amazon Rainforest for Cures for Mental Illness 6 . Discovery Channel Documentary Required reading: Philippe G. herbicides. White River Vermont. Ethnobotany/ethnopharmacology and mass bioprospecting: issues on intellectual property and benefit-sharing. PowerPoint presentation: Healing Poisons: Ethnotoxicology & Ethnozoopharmacology • Video: Stings. chronic and degenerative diseases. et al. and other useful poisons. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2005 100:85-91. (PDF) Plotkin. insecticides. ordeal poisons. and Spines. (PDF) Chelsea Green Publishing. Stephen (2002) The Environmental Impacts of Technological Medicine. Economic Botany 49:223-228. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2005. (PDF) Haefner. analgesics. pp. Viking Press. anti-infectious agents. Drug Discovery Today 8:536-544. Robert & Michael J. (PDF) Recommended reading: Newton. anti-AIDS & other antiviral agents. Ethnozoopharmacology: Animal-derived toxins and venoms and their uses. B (2003) Drugs from the deep: Marine natural products as drug candidates.Soejarto DD. Angenot L. Chapter 5. Recent developments in the field of arrow and dart poisons. Week 5 (10/6/09): Ethnotoxicology: Arrow poisons. M. (PDF) Recommended reading: Buhner. Balick (1995) The value of undiscovered pharmaceuticals in the rainforest. Fangs.

laboratory. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 2004 25:494-8. IN: Iwu. Advances in Phytomedicine 1. (PDF) Dixon AR. Bauer BA. In: Judith Sumner.csh. (PDF) Buenz EJ.edu/modules/botmed/index.umn. Paul Campus (Biosciences Bldg. McMillen H & Etkin NL (1999) Ferment this: the transformation of Noni. a traditional Hawaiian Medicine. Riddle JM.Required reading: Houghton. Techniques: Bioprospecting historical herbal texts by hunting for new leads in old tomes. (PDF) Week 8 (10/27/09): Mid-term exam Pictorial History of Herbs in Medicine and Mandrake root Pharmacy (PDF or handout) Mandragora • From Magic to Medicine: A Brief officinalis) History of Drugs (lecture) Medieval Woodcut • Phytotherapy: the most popular botanical medicines & their applications (handout) Required reading: Web site: “History” – Section 2 in CSH Botanical Medicines online reference module: http://www. • Powerpoint or PDF: Online resources and tools for ethnopharmacological research Required reading: Iwu.) Ethnomedicine and Drug Discovery. Room 875) • Field trip: Exploring the Herbarium. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmacology 51:493-503. Motley TJ. Field. Switzerland 7 . MU & Wootton JC (eds. Class will be held at the UMN Herbarium on the St. Schnepple DJ. pp. (1999) Radioligand-receptor binding assays in the search for bioactive principles from plants. Economic Botany 53:51-68. and library/herbarium research tools in ethnopharmacology. Curator of Vascular Plants Dr. • Live Demonstration: The Herbarium Amazonense at UNAP: A neglected resource for Amazonian Ethnopharmcological Research. (PDF) Recommended reading: Web site: Pictures from the Pharmacy Historical Museum in Basel. online resources in ethnopharmacological research. PJ (2001) Old yet new: Pharmaceuticals from plants. • PowerPoint slide show: Ethnopharmaceutics: New Medicines from Ancient wisdom. 125 – 144. M (2002) Ethnobotanical approach to pharmaceutical drug discovery: strengths and limitations. Elsevier. Journal of Chemical Education 78:175-184. Elkin PL. The Natural History of Medicinal Plants Chapter 6. (PDF) Week 7 (10/20/09): Ethnopharmacology and drug discovery II.html Significant Discoveries. George Weiblen will give a brief introduction to the herbarium and its resources. (PDF) Phillipson JD.

com/djmckenna/Site_3/Spring_2008/Pages/Phamarzie_Historische_Museu m. and stimulants. Mercury House Press. Papaver somniferum Week 10 (11/10/09): Plants and the Mind II: Hallucinogens & ritual intoxicants • PowerPoint presentation: Shamanic Medicine: Psychedelic Plants in Ethnomedicine • Video: From Peyote to LSD. Herbalgram #42. (1995) Power Plants: Green Allies. (PDF) Lake.http://web. IN: Pharmako/Poeia: Plant Powers. The botanical icons on the statue are thought to represent various sacred psychedelic plants. (2000) Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 6:36-60. • Lecture: Plants and the Mind: Ethnopharmacology of psychoactive agents • Powerpoint online: Natural Products in Psychotherapy: The Discovery of New Psychotherapeutic Medicines in Nature • Class discussion Required reading: Pendell. hypnotics. and the facial expression is that of a man in a psychedelic ecstasy 8 . narcotics. 1998 (PDF) Week 9 (11/3/09): Plants and the Mind I: Ethnopharmacology of psychoactive agents: Sedatives. the Aztec God of Flowers. Poisons. History Channel Show about the life of R. ISBN 1562790692.html A Pictorial History of Herbs in Medicine and Pharmacy. James. Psychotropic Medications from Natural Products: A Review of Promising Research and Recommendations. Schultes Xochipili. The search for natural substances useful in psychiatry and mental health. (PDF) Flower of Evil? The Opium Poppy.E. and Herbcraft.me. Dale.

Chapter 15 in: TIHKAL: The Continuation. Swain (eds. In L. A. 59.T.) Progress in Phytochemistry Vol. (PDF) Recommended reading: Shulgin. Reinhold. CA. (PDF) Griffiths RR. Richards WA.Required reading: Schultes. Transform Press. January 2006 Vol.E. A (1997) DMT is Everywhere. MJ.B. 7. Fate Magazine. McCann U. (PDF) Week 11 (11/17/09): Psychedelic Medicine Lecture: Healing Journey: Psychedelics in Neuroscience and Medicine Ayahuasca: An overview of its botany. Dennis J. (2006) Mescaline: A Molecular History. Harbourne & T. DJ (2007) The Healing Vine: Ayahuasca as Medicine in the 21st Century Chapter 2 pp. and pharmacology Video: Don Emilio & His Little Doctors (film by Luis Eduardo Luna) Don Emilio Andrade pouring Ayahuasca Required reading: Brown. R. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 30:333-41. Psychopharmacology 187:268-283. (1981) Phytochemical gaps in our knowledge of hallucinogens. DJ (December 2007/January2008) Psychedelic Healing? Scientific American: Mind pp. (PDF) McKenna. (PDF) Recommended reading: McKenna. E. 1 IN: Winkleman. (1969-70) The plant kingdom and hallucinogens Parts I – III). J. (PDF) Schultes. 21-44. chemistry. Berkeley. & Shulgin. Vol. Jesse R (2006) Psilocybin can occasion mystical-type experiences having substantial and sustained personal meaning and spiritual significance. Praeger Publishers ISBN: 0-275-99023-0 (PDF) 9 . Roberts TB Psychedelic Medicine: New Evidence for Hallucinogenic Substances as Treatments. Bulletin on Narcotics XXI: 3-52 (PDF) Metzner R (1998) Hallucinogenic drugs and plants in psychotherapy and shamanism. R. 66-71. Pergamon Press.

1-20. McKenna. Dennis J. Transform Press. The globalization of ayahuasca: harm reduction or benefit maximization? International Journal of Drug Policy. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs 37:231-234. 1 IN: Winkleman. & Shulgin. (Film by Jan Kuonen) Video: The Trees have a Mother (Film by Valiere Richard Auzenna & Juan Carlos Galeano) • Class Discussion Week 13 (12/1/09) The globalization of ayahuasca: drug tourism. religious freedom. Roberts TB Psychedelic Medicine: New Evidence for Hallucinogenic Substances as Treatments. MJ. Vol.Winkelman MJ (2007) Therapeutic Basis of Psychedelic Medicines: Psychointegrator Effects. A (1997) Cui bono? Chapter 24 in: TIHKAL: The Continuation. Chapter 1 pp. CA. Berkeley. Special issue of JPD devoted to Ayahuasca Use in Cross-cultural Perspective. Praeger Publishers ISBN: 0-275-99023-0 (PDF) Week 12 (11/24/09) Use of Psychoactive Plants in Shamanic Practice Video: Other Worlds: A Journey to the Heart of Shipibo Shamanism. A.T. ALL WRITTEN ASSIGMENTS DUE TODAY! Student Presentations 10 . Week 14 (12/8/09) Student Presentations Week 15 (12/15/09) LAST DAY OF CLASS. (2005) Ayahuasca and Human Destiny. 19:297-303. and the war on drugs Audio broadcast: In Search of the Divine Vegetal Pt. 1 & Pt 2.ca/ideas ) • Class Discussion Required reading: Tupper KW.cbc. Broadcast on CBC Radio “Ideas” (see http://www. 2008. Shulgin. cognitive liberty.