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Free Grammar E-Book Level 1
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Table of Contents
Present Simple: To Be…………………………………………………………………… 4 Possessives…………………………………………………………………………………… 6 Articles: A, An, The ……………………………………………………………………… 7 This, That, These, Those……………………………………………………………… 8 Present Simple……………………………………………………………………………… 10 Can / Can't / Have to / Don't Have to………………………………………… 14

Prepositions: In, At, On………………………………………………………………… 15 Past Simple: To Be………………………………………………………………………… 17 Past Simple: Regular Verbs…………………………………………………………… 18 Past Simple: Irregular Verbs………………………………………………………… 20 There is / There are……………………………………………………………………… 22 Present Continuous………………………………………………………………………… 23 Present Simple or Continuous……………………………………………………… 26 Countable and Uncountable………………………………………………………… Future with Going To…………………………………………………………………… 27 29

Comparative Adjectives………………………………………………………………… 31 Superlative Adjectives…………………………………………………………………… 34 Adverbs…………………………………………………………………………………………… 36 Present Perfect: Verb be…………………………………………………………………38 Present Perfect: Other Verbs………………………………………………………… 40 Present Perfect or Past Simple……………………………………………………… 42

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Present Simple: Be
Positive: I am you / we / they are he / she / it is I’m you’re / we’re / they’re he’s / she’s / it’s from Japan. from Brazil. from India.

Negative: I am not you / we / they are not I’m not You’re not / You aren’t We’re not / We aren’t They’re not / They aren’t He isn’t / He’s not She isn’t / She’s not It isn’t / It’s not married. happy.

he / she / it is not

a student.

Question: Am Are Is I you / we / they he / she / it beautiful? a teacher? tall?

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espressoenglish. He’s Italian. My mother is 65 years old. Grammar Exercise: Present Simple: Be www. They’re Aki and Yuta. Jobs: I’m not a student. How old are you? She’s 15. Are they from Australia? Age: I’m 27 years old. I’m a teacher. Country: I’m from the U.S. My husband is from Italy.net . You’re angry. He’s Paulo. She’s excited. Emotions: I’m sad.~5~ Present Simple: Be Name: I’m Joanna. she’s Vietnamese. She’s not Korean. We’re happy. Are you a doctor? He’s a journalist. They’re artists. I’m American.

Its illegal for a 17-year-old to buy alcohol. so its engine isn’t powerful. My car is old. and blue. white.espressoenglish. Grammar Exercise: Possessives www. It’s illegal for a 17-year-old to buy alcohol. My cat’s name is Ginger.net . My parents sold their house. The boy’s clothes are dirty. My friends’ names are Patrick and Gloria. Our apartment is in the city center. Her computer is fast. What’s your name? His name is John. My country’s flag is red. Mary’s phone number is 555-4321. Joe’s favorite color is green.~6~ Possessives NOUN I you he she it we they Mary Joe the boy friends cat country POSSESSIVE my your his her its our their Mary’s Joe’s the boy’s friends’ cat’s country’s EXAMPLE My name is Sandra. Don’t confuse its (possessive) with it’s (contraction for “it is”)! The cat ate it’s food The cat ate its food.

The new Chinese restaurant is very good.espressoenglish. a / an general (one of many) I want to buy a car. An.net . Do you have a bike? She is an old woman. The girl in the red dress is beautiful. I’m reading the new book by J. The I’m going to eat an apple.K. I’m going to eat the red apple. the specific (one specific) Tokyo is the capital of Japan. www.~7~ Articles: A. Rowling. He’s eating an apple. We like the blue car. I’m reading a book.

An. i. An. She likes pizza.espressoenglish. Do not use “the” with things in general: She likes the pizza. e. The Use “an” if the word starts with the sound of a. She like the pizza from Tony’s Restaurant. (specific) Grammar Exercise: A. u: an apple an egg an ice cream shop an open door an umbrella an hour Use “a” if the word starts the sound of any other letter.net . Do not use “the” with countries or cities: I live in the China. The www. o. I live in China.~8~ Articles: A.

These books are new.~9~ This. That apple is red.net . Those books are old. www.espressoenglish. Those This That These Those 1 thing – near 1 thing – far 2+ things – near 2+ things – far This apple is green. That. These.

-ch. They go to English class on Wednesday. -ss. Other verbs like this: watch. Bill studys English at school Other verbs like this: cry. Dana studies English at school. My sister works at the hospital. we add -es. -x. He works at the university. I / you / we / they he / she / it Examples: I work in a bank. try.~ 10 ~ Present Simple: Positive Use the present simple for things that happen regularly or things that are generally true. She goes to cooking class on Saturday.espressoenglish.net . Special Case 1 For verbs that end in consonant + –y. we remove the –y and add –ies: I study English at school. fix work works www. fly. carry Special Case 2 For verbs that end in -o. -sh. kiss. -s. teach. We work every day. She gos to cooking class on Saturday.

John doesn't like pizza. Martha doesn't like to dance.net . www. Pete doesn’t like bananas. My mother doesn't like to travel.espressoenglish.~ 11 ~ Present Simple: Negative Use the present simple for things that happen regularly or things that are generally true. I / you / we / they he / she / it don’t doesn't like like Examples: I don't like coffee. do not add -s: Martha doesn't likes to dance. Common Errors 1) In the present simple negative. John and David don't like milk. 2) Other common errors: Pete no like bananas. Pete not like bananas.

net . don't use -s: Does she lives close to the beach? Does she live close to the beach? 2) Don’t forget DO or DOES: Clara live in a big city? Does Clara live in a big city? www.~ 12 ~ Present Simple: Questions Use the present simple for things that happen regularly or things that are generally true.espressoenglish. Do Does I / you / we / they he / she / it live in a city? live in a city? Examples:     Do you live in Brazil? Does Adam live in England? Do they live in a big house? Does she live near the beach? Common Errors 1) In questions.

he doesn't. he does. / No.espressoenglish. Do they understand English? Yes. Grammar Exercises: Present Simple Positive Present Simple Negative Present Simple Questions www. she doesn’t. we do. they don't. she does. I don't Do I look fat in these jeans? No. / No. we don’t. Does she like rock music? Yes. / No.~ 13 ~ Present Simple: Answering Yes/No Questions Do you have a dog? Yes. / No.net . / No. you don’t! Does John speak Italian? Yes. they do. I do. Do we watch too much TV? Yes.

~ 14 ~ Can / Can’t Have to / Don’t have to Can Can’t Have to Don’t have to It’s OK It’s not OK It’s necessary It’s not necessary You can ride your bike here. You can’t smoke here. www. FREE FOOD! You have to stop here.espressoenglish. You don’t have to pay for the food.net .

espressoenglish.net . At. On TIME PLACE Cities and countries In Tokyo In Japan Rooms and buildings In the kitchen In the supermarket Closed spaces In the car In a park IN Months In January In October Seasons In the summer In the spring Years In 2004 In 1986 Periods of the day In the morning In the evening (exception: at night) www.~ 15 ~ Prepositions: In.

At www. On.net .~ 16 ~ TIME Dates and days PLACE Transportation On the bus th ON On Monday On February 14 On a bike (exception: in a car) A surface On the table On the wall TIME Times PLACE Contexts At school At work At a party AT At 6:00 At half past three At noon Grammar Exercise: Prepositions: In.espressoenglish.

born in 1982. Question: Was Were I / he / she / it you / we / they a famous artist? a famous artist? Common words used to talk about the past: Yesterday Last Sunday / last week / last month / last November / last year 1 hour ago / 5 days ago / 3 months ago / 10 years ago When I was a child Grammar Exercise: Past Simple: To Be www.~ 17 ~ Past Simple: To Be Positive: I / he / she / it you / we / they was were born in 1982.espressoenglish. born in Europe.net . Negative: I / he / she / it you / we / they was not (wasn’t) were not (weren’t) born in Europe.

~ 18 ~ Past Simple: Regular Verbs Positive: I / you / he / she / it / we / they worked yesterday Negative: I / you / he / she / it / we / they didn’t work yesterday Question: Did I / you / he / she / it / work we / they yesterday? How to form the past simple for regular verbs: Verb listen play like decide stop Past listened played liked decided stopped Spelling Add -ed Add -d One vowel + one consonant = double the consonant and add -ed One consonant + y  -ied study try studied tried www.espressoenglish.net .

net . Jill didn’t stay in a hotel last summer. They didn’t want to join us for coffee. Did you studied for the test? Did you study for the test? Examples: I talked with my mother last night. We enjoyed the party on Saturday.espressoenglish. He didn’t listen to the teacher’s instructions. Mary didn’t like the movie.~ 19 ~ Past Simple: Regular Verbs In past simple negative and questions. She finished the test early. Did you watch the news yesterday? Did they remember to turn off the lights? What time did your father arrive? Grammar Exercise: Past Simple Regular Verbs www. do not add -ed: Mary didn’t liked the movie.

espressoenglish.~ 20 ~ Past Simple: Irregular Verbs Infinitive be buy can eat get go have leave make meet say see take think understand wear write Positive was / were bought could ate got went had left made met said saw took thought understood wore wrote Negative wasn’t / weren’t didn’t buy couldn’t didn’t eat didn’t get didn’t go didn’t have didn’t leave didn’t make didn’t meet didn’t say didn’t see didn’t take didn’t think didn’t understand didn’t wear didn’t write www.net .

net . When did he leave the meeting? He left the meeting an hour before it finished What did you make for dinner? I made some vegetable soup. What time did he eat breakfast today? He ate breakfast at 6:00 AM. he only wrote a few magazine articles.~ 21 ~ Past Simple: Irregular Verbs Examples: Where were you last month? I was in France. When did you get married? We got married in July. Did you have any pets when she was a child? Yes. Did you see Brad at the football game? No. What did he wear to the wedding? He wore a suit. When did you meet your best friend? I met my best friend 20 years ago. Why did she go to London? She went to London to study English. I had a dog. Did he write a new book last year? No. but we saw Peter and Henry. What did the teacher say? The teacher said that she loved our class. Grammar Exercise: Past Simple – Irregular Verbs www. What did your sister buy at the mall? She bought new shoes.espressoenglish.

~ 22 ~ There is / There are Singular (+) There’s a pillow on the sofa. (-) There isn’t a mirror in the bathroom. there are. Plural There are two pillows on the bed.net . Are there any chairs? No. There’s a pillow on the sofa. There aren’t any windows in the bedroom.espressoenglish. there aren’t. There are two pillows on the bed. there is. / No. www. / No. there aren’t. there isn’t. there is. Yes. (?) Is there a table? Are there any chairs? Yes. Is there a table? Yes.

espressoenglish. He is studying at the moment. believe. You can use contractions: I'm watching TV right now. I’m believing in God. I believe in God. They are playing baseball. It is raining today. He's studying at the moment. need.net . want. We are thinking about you. It's raining today.~ 23 ~ Present Continuous: Positive Present continuous is for things happening now. Some verbs are never used in the present continuous: like. I you / we / they he / she / it am are is watching watching watching Examples: I am watching TV right now. We're thinking about you. at the moment. She’s wanting a soda. They're playing baseball. She wants a soda. www.

net . Both forms are OK! www.~ 24 ~ Present Continuous: Negative I am not (I’m not) are not (aren’t) is not (isn’t) listening you / we / they listening he / she / it listening Examples: I am not working at the moment. You’re not listening to the teacher. Pete and Jan are not watching TV.espressoenglish. You aren’t listening to the teacher. You are not listening to the teacher. There are two ways to use contractions: She’s not wearing a hat today. She is not wearing a hat today. She isn’t wearing a hat today.

~ 25 ~ Present Continuous: Questions Am Are Is I you / we / they he / she / it working? working? working? Examples: Are you writing a letter? Is Pedro sleeping right now? Are the children playing a game or reading a book? Is the computer working? You can put a question word at the beginning: What are you doing? I’m writing an e-mail. Who are they talking to? They’re talking to the teacher. Grammar Exercises: Present Continuous Positive Present Continuous Negative Present Continuous Questions www.net .espressoenglish. Where is Sarah going? She’s going to the store. Why is he running? Because he’s late for work.

Take an umbrella. right now. They always talk to their boss in the morning. We usually go to Europe in the summer.net .~ 26 ~ Present Simple or Continuous? Present simple for things that happen in general or regularly. They’re talking to him now. sometimes. Words that are often used with the present simple or continuous: With present simple: always. Mark studies English every Tuesday night. Present Simple I work from 9:00 AM to 5:00 PM every day. No. usually. at the moment. we’re going to the supermarket. currently. Does it usually rain in the winter? Present Continuous I’m currently working on a new project.espressoenglish. at the moment. never. It’s 9:00 AM. Mark is studying the present continuous this week. today Grammar Exercises: Present Simple or Present Continuous? www. or current/temporary projects. this week/month/year. Present continuous for things happening now. Right now. every (day/night/Monday/summer/year) With present continuous: now. often. but it’s raining at the moment.

or can’t divide into separate parts: Liquids and some foods . My friend has three cats. safety Information . house. My sister has two cats. friend. peace. television. banana. teacher. jewelry. work. child.man. water information work www. shirt. sister.espressoenglish. flour. table. butter. computer. People .water. boss.music. fun. uncle.advice. rice.book. knowledge Categories .~ 27 ~ Countable and Uncountable Countable nouns are things we can count – for example. news. information. furniture.love.net . woman. equipment. cats: My brother has a cat. Uncountable nouns are words that we can’t count. money. Other examples of countable nouns: Things . meat Countable dollar song table bottle report job Uncountable money music furniture wine. milk Ideas and concepts .

Grammar Exercise: Countable and Uncountable Nouns www.net . He gave me two pieces of advice: eat less and exercise more. I need some information about the course.espressoenglish.~ 28 ~ Countable and Uncountable Don’t add -s to make uncountable nouns plural: I need some informations about the course. You can use other words to help: She bought three bottles of wine and five boxes of rice.

Positive: Full Form I am You are He / she / it is We are They are Contracted Form I’m You’re He’s / She’s / It’s We’re They’re going to take a test tomorrow. www. It’s going to rain soon. I’m going to have a baby next month.~ 29 ~ Future with Going To Use “going to” to talk about future plans and predictions.espressoenglish.net .

She’s not going to watch TV. They’re going to get married in June.net . She not going to watch TV. Grammar Exercise: Future with “Going to” www.~ 30 ~ Future with Going To Negative: Full Form Contracted Form 1 I’m not You’re not He’s / She’s not It’s not We’re not They’re not Contracted Form 2 --You aren’t He / she isn’t It isn’t We aren’t They aren’t I am not You are not He / she is not It is not We are not They are not going to take a test tomorrow.espressoenglish. I’m going to buy some new shoes next week. They going to get married in June. Question: Am Are Is Are Are I you he / she / it we they going to take a test tomorrow? Don’t forget “am/is/are”! I going to buy some new shoes next week.

Ben is younger than Phil.net . I'm older than my brother. For One-Syllable Words Add –er Tall Old Fast Long New Taller Older Faster Longer Newer My new car is faster than my old car. Traveling by bike takes longer than traveling by motorcycle www.~ 31 ~ Comparative Adjectives Use comparatives to compare two things: Phil is older than Ben.espressoenglish.

~ 32 ~ Comparative Adjectives For Words that end in consonant + vowel Double the last letter and add –er Big Hot Thin Bigger Hotter Thinner An elephant is bigger than a cat. People today are busier than in the past. For Words that end in consonant + y Remove -y and add -ier.espressoenglish.net . My sister is thinner than me. Brazil is hotter than Sweden. Easy Happy Busy Easier Happier Busier Reading English is easier than listening. www. Maria is happier than Dave.

For Irregular Words Good Bad Far Better Worse Farther Eating fruit is better for your health than eating hamburgers.espressoenglish. Michael Jackson's music is more popular than country music. Cancer is worse than the flu. Watching a movie is more interesting than studying grammar. Grammar Exercise: Comparative Adjectives www.~ 33 ~ Comparative Adjectives For Words with 2+ syllables Add “more” before the adjective: Expensive Popular Interesting More expensive More popular More interesting A car is more expensive than a computer.net . One mile is farther than one kilometer.

Kelly is the youngest person in the family. Adjective Old Big Easy Friendly Beautiful Expensive Good Bad Far Superlative the oldest the biggest the easiest the friendliest the most beautiful the most expensive the best the worst the farthest www.~ 34 ~ Superlative Adjectives Use superlatives to compare three or more things: Jim is the oldest person in the family.espressoenglish.net .

Don’t forget “the”! I read newest lesson from Espresso English. I like all sports. I read the newest lesson from Espresso English. Barry is the friendliest guy in the class. The most expensive shoes in the world cost 1. but I like soccer the best. This is the easiest test I've ever taken. Donna is the most beautiful woman I've ever seen. Russia is the biggest country in the world.5 million dollars. Superlatives are often used with the present perfect + ever: This is the best sushi I've ever eaten. Australia is the farthest I've ever traveled. Picking up garbage was the worst job I've ever had. Jan is the friendliest person I've ever met.espressoenglish.~ 35 ~ Superlative Adjectives Examples: My grandmother is the oldest person in my family. What's the most expensive car you've ever driven? The longest book I've ever read was 500 pages. Grammar Exercise: Superlative Adjectives www.net .

~ 36 ~ Adverbs Use adjectives to describe nouns (things or people).espressoenglish.net . Use adverbs to describe verbs (how a person does something): That was a terrible game. (adverb – describes “played”) Common adverbs: Adjective slow quiet bad beautiful dangerous careful easy healthy good fast hard Adverb slowly quietly badly beautifully dangerously carefully easily healthily well fast hard www. (adjective – describes “game”) The team played terribly.

We wrote the letter carefully so as not to make a mistake.espressoenglish. Evan lives dangerously. Adverbs usually go after the verb: Ruth is a quiet person. She arrives at work early and leaves late. but I drive fast. Soccer players need to eat healthily to stay in good shape. He loves radical sports. Janet works very hard.~ 37 ~ Adverbs Examples: My grandfather drives slowly. I can read English well. (“quiet” describes “person”) Ruth speaks quietly. I opened the jar easily. Adjectives go before the noun. The teacher spoke so quietly that I couldn’t hear her.net . but I speak badly. (“quietly” describes “speaks”) Grammar Exercise: Adjective or Adverb? www.

net . Examples: How long have you been married? I’ve been married for five years. He hates sports. How long has John been a teacher? He’s been a teacher since last January. I don’t like hot weather. I haven’t. he hasn’t. I’ve been there three times. www. when we don’t know exactly when the experience happened. Has Diana been to a rock concert? Yes. Examples: Have you been to Italy? Yes.espressoenglish. 2) To talk about an action that started in the past and continues to the present. Have you been to Rio de Janeiro? No.~ 38 ~ Present Perfect: Verb be Use the present perfect in two situations: 1) To talk about experiences in the past. many times! Has your brother been to a big sports event? No.

Question Full Form Have Has Short Form I / you / we / they he / she / it been to Paris? been to Paris? www.~ 39 ~ Present Perfect: Verb be Positive Full Form I have You have We have They have He / she / it has Short Form I’ve You’ve We’ve They’ve He’s / she’s / it’s been to Paris. Negative Full Form I have not You have not We have not They have not He / she / it has not Short Form I haven’t You haven’t We haven’t They haven’t He / she / it hasn’t been to Paris.espressoenglish. been to Paris.net . been to Paris.

We’ve passed our English test. She hasn’t watched the movie yet. Irregular verbs Verb break buy do eat get give go know leave make meet see take tell think write Past broke bought did ate got gave went knew left made met saw took told thought wrote Past Participle broken bought done eaten gotten given gone known left made met seen taken told thought written www.espressoenglish.net .~ 40 ~ Present Perfect: Other Verbs Regular verbs Verb travel watch pass try stop Past Participle Example traveled watched passed tried stopped I’ve traveled to 15 countries in my life. Have you tried restarting the computer? They’ve recently stopped smoking.

Have you ever gotten lost while driving? No. Have you ever broken a bone? Yes. but we haven’t told our kids.~ 41 ~ Present Perfect: Other Verbs Examples: I can’t find my car keys. I broke my arm when I was a child. I haven’t – but my mother has! Kristin has never taken singing classes. Have you ever thought about moving to another country? We’ve thought about it. Sorry. Have you seen them? No. she hasn’t. Has she ever eaten Vietnamese food? No. My cousin has met a lot of famous people in her life. Camilo has made a lot of mistakes in his life. Grammar Exercise: Present Perfect www.espressoenglish. I haven’t. We’ve written more than 100 e-mails in the past week.net . The teacher hasn’t given us any homework yet. I have.

“Have you seen the new Mission Impossible film?” “Yes.espressoenglish.|-------|------------------------------------| past last week present future www.~ 42 ~ Present Perfect or Past Simple Use the present perfect to talk about a general experience in the past. |------------------------. I have. Use the past simple to talk about a specific moment in the past.” Use the present perfect for “unspecified” time: I’ve seen the new Mission Impossible film.net .” “When did you see it?” “I saw it last week. |-------------------?--------------|------------------------------------| past present future Use the past simple for “specified” time: I saw the new Mission Impossible film last week.

~ 43 ~ Present Perfect or Past Simple Use the present perfect to talk about an action that started in the past and continues to the present. Use the past simple to talk about an action that started and finished in the past.espressoenglish.” (and I don’t live in Brazil now) |-------|>>>>>>>>>>|--------|-----------------------------------| past period of 3 years present future Grammar Exercise: Present Perfect or Past Simple? www. Use the present perfect for “unfinished” time: “I’ve lived in Brazil for three years.” (and I live in Brazil now) |----------------|>>>>>>>>>>|------------------------------------| past 3 years ago present future Use the past simple for “finished” time: “I lived in Brazil for three years.net .

~ 44 ~ The End! Thanks for reading  Did you like this grammar e-book? Please e-mail me with any questions or comments! Click here to get all the new English lessons by e-mail. and I really enjoy helping my students communicate better. I am 27 years old and married. and in my free time I like to read. play soccer. I’m from the United States. About the teacher My name is Shayna. and do capoeira. I also love to travel and learn about different countries and cultures – please write to me and tell me where you are from. I have a CELTA certification to teach English to adults. where I work as an English teacher and translator. write.net . and I currently live in Brazil. I hope you enjoy Espresso English! www. and please share this e-book with all your friends. go hiking.espressoenglish.

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