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Engineering Fly Ash-based Geopolymer Concrete

E. Ivan Diaz-Loya Ph.D. Candidate Erez N. Allouche Ph.D., P.E.

2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference, Dubai, UAE

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Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete

OUTLINE
• Geopolymers
▫ Structure ▫ Reactions ▫ Properties

• Sustainability • Engineering fly ash-based GPC • Results

• Conclusions

▫ Fly ash analysis ▫ Mechanical characterization of GPC ▫ Data analysis y

2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference, Dubai, UAE

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Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete

Geopolymers
• Geopolymers are cementitious materials that do not require the presence of OPC to harden g g or gain strength. • Geopolymers are formed by a 3d network of Si & Al mineral molecules linked through covalent bonds with oxygen molecules. • A positive ion must be provided to allow aluminum to become t t b tetravalent. l t

2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference, Dubai, UAE

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etc. • Water glass provides the monomers from which the polymeric chains grow. Dubai. metakaolin) or by-product ( g y (e.g. fly ash) ) • The positive ion is usually provided by a hydroxide solution of Na or K.g.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Geopolymers • The source of Si & Al for geopolymers can be any mineral (e. • In most cases a slightly elevated temperature i required to ki k is i d kick start the geopolymerization reaction 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference. UAE 4 .

takes l 3. Condensation/setting.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Geopolymerization Geopolymeric reaction occurs can be divided into three steps: 1. 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference. Dubai. 1 Dissolution of species . 2.Si and Al dissolve in the alkaline media providing monomers. Transportation/Initial gelation. UAE 5 .Hydrolyzed aluminate and silicate species policondensate and p p harden.Orientation of the th precursors t k place.

Dubai. ACTIVATOR SOLUTION FLY ASH FINE & COARSE AGGREGATES 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete MIXING Geopolymer paste can be mixed with the same aggregates used for Portland cement. UAE 6 . cement for its use as mortar or concrete.

Dubai. Ob Observe the hi h early strength of geopolymer ( to 12. 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete PROPERTIES COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH 80 Compressive strength (MPa) e 70 60 50 40 Geopolymer 30 20 10 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ag e (d ays ) OPC Typical compressive strength curve of Geopolymer vs. UAE 7 .000 h high l h f l (up psi after 3 day of curing). Portland cement.

UAE 8 .Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete PROPERTIES CHEMICAL RESISTANCE Geopolymer made from class C fly ash REMAINING COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH after sulfuric acid immersion test (pH = 0.6) 120 COMPRESSIVE STRE ENGTH (%) 100 Geopolymer made from class F fly ash 80 60 40 Class F fly ashbased geopolymer Class C fly ash-based geopolymer OPC 20 Ordinary Portland Cement 0 0 1 2 4 6 8 WEEK Geopolymer’s corrosion resistance to the attack of sulfuric acids is significantly greater than that of Portland cement. 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference. It is practically inert to sulfate salts attack. Dubai.

5 billion tons of CO2 per year. Dubai. p plants. coal-fired power p 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference. Approximately 5% of the total global emission of CO2 to the atmosphere.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Sustainability y POLLUTION AND ECOLLOGICAL FOOTPRINT Actual production of Portland cement p contributes 13. Geopolymer made out of waste materials like fly ash not only have a smaller footprint but help reduce the footprint of other industries namely. UAE 9 .

2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Sustainability ENERGY CONSUMPTION • Portland cement production requires heating raw materials over 2550 F • Fly ash based-geopolymers are a much less energy consuming alternative. UAE 10 . Dubai.

Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Sustainability • 480 Million Tons of fly ash produced in 2001 • World wide utilization ranges 20 to 80% 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference. Dubai. UAE 11 .

S. Dubai. Coal reserves in the U. UAE 12 .Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Sustainability Energy production sources in the U. • 72 million tons of fly ash produced in 2008 • Only 30 million tons were used sending around 42 million tons to the landfills 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.S.

S. In 2009 cents per kilowatt-hour Source: Ventyx Velocity Suite Updated: 5/10 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference. Electric Utilities 1995 – 2009. Dubai. UAE 13 .Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Sustainability y Monthly Fuel Cost to U.

Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Sustainability POTENTIAL RISKS OF FLY ASH STORAGE LAGOONS • In December 2008 a TVA’s fly ash storage lagoon ruptured in Kingston. UAE 14 . Dubai. TN • 1. of fly ash slurry were spilled into the Emory and Clinch Rivers • 300 acres of the surrounding land were contaminated • Estimated clean-up costs: 675 to 975 million 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.1 billion gal.

water efficiency. 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference. CO2 emissions reduction. and stewardship of resources and sensitivity to their impacts. improved indoor environmental quality. LEED Certification is aimed at improving p g performance across all the metrics that matter most: energy savings.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete New Opportunities in the US • Increasing Cost Of Fly Ash Disposal ▫ New regulations proposed by the EPA are expected to tighten fly ash disposal requirements increasing its cost. Dubai. • Fly Ash Only For Encapsulated Applications ▫ EPA’s new regulations may only allow fly ash to be recycled in encapsulated applications. • Green Construction Boom ▫ • Carbon Trading ▫ Geopolymer offers the possibility to offset carbon emissions. UAE 15 .

Dubai.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Challenges of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete •Fly ash Variability 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference. UAE 16 .

UAE 17 . Dubai.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Challenges of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Raw Materials • • • • • Limestone Sand Clay Shale Iron ore Calcination reactions Cement • • • • C3S C2S C3A C4AF Hydration reactions Add aggregates Cement paste • • • • C-S-H C-A-H AFt AFm Ordinary concrete • • • • fc’ fr Ec µ Fly ash Geopolymerization reactions Add aggregates ? Geopolymer paste • Poly-sialate • Poly-sialate siloxo • Poly-sialate disiloxo Geopolymer concrete • fc’ • fr • Ec •µ • Mostly amorphous 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.

Dubai. UAE 18 .Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Challenges of fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Raw Materials • • • • • Limestone Sand Clay Shale Iron ore Calcinations reactions Cement • • • • C3S C2S C3A C4AF Hydration reactions Add aggregates Cement paste • • • • C-S-H C-A-H AFt AFm Ordinary concrete • • • • fc’ fr Ec µ Fly ash Regression Model • Mostly amorphous Geopolymer concrete • fc’ • fr • Ec •µ 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.

UAE 19 . Evaluate the mechanical behavior of GPC made from each of the fly ash samples 3 3. fly ash fineness 2.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete 1. Dubai. Determine the feasibility of establishing a y g regression model to predict GPC’s mechanical properties using the characteristics fly ash 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference. elastic modulus Density vs. t C i tensile strength il t th Compressive vs. Identify the fly ash characteristics that significantly impact GPC Collect fly ash samples Keep mix design constant Full mechanical characterization of GPC samples Compressive vs.

000 435.616 308.040.080 750 438. TX HALLSVILLE. NH TILDEN. UAE 20 .920 WELSH PP FLINT CREEK PP NORTHEASTERN STATION U 3&4 OOLOGAH.760 265.980 1.464 1. TX BRYAN.A.000 CAPACITY (MW) 963 1871 1. AR THOMPSON. OHIO FARMINGTON. NM FARMINGTON.314.092. LA MANSFIELD.664 1.250 745 1. MANSFIELD LA MANSFIELD. GIBBON'S CREEK PP COLETO CREEK PP PIRKEY PP LOCATION BOYCE.051. LA TATUM. NM COURTLAND.400 421. AL TENNESSEE TENNESSEE BOW. PARISH PP TOTAL 11.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete COLLECTION OF FLY ASH SAMPLES SAMPLE 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 FLY ASH ORIGINS RODEMACHER PP RODEMACHER PP 2ND BATCH MONTICELLO PP DOLET HILLS PP DOLET HILLS PP 2/09/09 DOLET HILLS PP 3/16/09 DOLET HILLS PP 07/01/09 DOLET HILLS PP 08/10/09 MARTIN LAKE PP AVON LAKE PP SAN JUAN PP (LANDFILL) SAN JUAN PP UNIT 1 SAN JUAN PP UNIT 2 SAN JUAN PP UNIT 3 SAN JUAN PP UNIT 4 COUTLAND PAPER MILL TENNESSE TENNESSE REBURNED MERRIMACK STATION UNIT 1 MERRIMACK STATION UNIT 2 SAN MIGUEL ELECTRIC COOP.097.352 552.800 1.556 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.200 2. TX AVON L. LA MANSFIELD..064 977. OK W.136 350.565 1. LA MANSFIELD. FARMINGTON NM FARMINGTON. TX FANIN. LA BOYCE.880 FLY ASH PRODUCTION PER YEAR (TONS) 438. Dubai.920 227. NM FARMINGTON.097. TX ID CODE BY BY2 MO DH DH 2 DH 3 DH 4 DH 5 ML OH SJLF SJ1 SJ2 SJ3 SJ4 CL TN TNRB NH1 NH2 SM GC CC PK SE FC NE WA 459 390 454 600 721 1. NH BOW. TX MANSFIELD.674 528 946 3. NM FARMINGTON. TX HALLSVILLE.108. TX GENTRY. LA MOUNT PLEASANT.000 1.

80 2.78 17.72 16.95 0.14 0.10 0.36 1.41 55.96 0.24 0 24 0.31 0.04 0.01 0.02 1.27 1.16 0.16 0.46 3.86 0.10 6.03 0.84 Parameter Min SiO2+Al2O3 SiO2/Al2O3 CaO 36.03 0.84 3.11 6.59 1.73 1.26 0.85 1. UAE 21 .16 0.77 32.23 0.63 0.52 5.38 0.05 0.17 3.01 3.08 0.22 1.11 0 11 0.04 8.07 80.30 1.12 2.08 0.23 0.14 0.11 1.68 0 68 0.17 0.82 0.75 6.99 23.21 0 21 0.03 0.13 81.34 0.36 36.08 0.12 59.30 4.60 28.12 0 12 0.01 10.01 1.03 2.70 18.86 1.43 1.71 1.12 0.11 57.50 0.13 0.21 BY2 MO DH DH 2 DH 3 DH4 DH5 ML OH SJLF SJ1 SJ2 SJ3 SJ4 CL TN TNRB NH1 NH2 SM GC CC PK 56.04 0.33 2.80 0.15 24.03 0.04 0.43 81.87 20.28 1.67 3.34 1.48 79.23 0.04 65.14 0.23 0 23 0.61 58.26 1.93 0.20 2.00 2.53 26.50 39.47 0.15 71 15 2.08 0.61 3.26 Max 85.09 19.54 1.72 27.73 0.49 2.28 0.73 1.27 1.90 0.03 0.18 0.05 5.01 0.01 0.43 1.52 5.88 1.43 0.07 56.93 0.83 12.07 0.09 3.95 0.29 1.99 4.63 69.06 2.33 0.90 57.30 83.92 2.80 7.21 0.75 0.72 0 72 0.35 37.00 0.72 0.45 0.91 0.36 0.69 4.18 1.13 1.91 23.52 61.30 0 30 0.25 0.00 0.07 0.21 0.06 19.01 0. Dubai.50 0.24 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.57 1.79 17.54 53.12 0.17 37.26 0.41 5.03 0.73 0.40 19.15 27.30 85 30 3.63 36 63 1.22 3.30 60.18 0.23 62.67 0.28 0.97 0.50 5.53 1.11 0 11 0.63 1.19 0.80 0.20 0.10 0 10 0.22 0.50 0.76 10.50 0.68 27.37 1.22 2.07 2.90 18.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Elemental analysis of fly ash via XRF ID Code BY Oxide SiO2 Al2O3 SiO2/Al2O3 SiO2+Al2O3 CaO Fe2O3 MgO SO3 Na2O K2O TiO2 MnO2 P2O5 SrO BaO Moisture content Loss On Ignition 0.27 2.64 7.19 0.13 55.18 0.34 52.17 0.79 2.23 0.79 2.28 0.25 19.06 2.59 1.21 0.37 83.15 6.11 2.19 1.04 3.08 5.06 0.21 0.06 5.29 85.25 33.90 75.03 0.74 0.23 1.80 1.78 Sta Div 13.00 0.81 1.20 19.09 0.38 2.22 0.19 1.05 0.35 0.46 0.09 1.73 3.86 1.75 36.20 0.01 0.84 77.72 4.18 0.43 3.01 6.44 2.22 2.77 0.10 0 10 0.97 0.42 1.92 0.68 22.92 0.48 7.93 1.19 0 19 0.20 0.04 2.18 66.26 4.82 0.04 3.57 18.09 0.72 7.39 4.07 0.59 19.00 9.56 0.79 1.04 1.19 3.29 1.49 1.00 0.22 0 22 0.22 0 22 0.75 85.22 1.24 0.79 22.19 28.97 1.45 28.56 40.22 56.34 1.83 52.23 5.69 3.08 0 08 0.03 0.36 28.05 1.77 0.61 25.28 0.93 3.35 0.35 1.62 0.07 0.01 2.39 57.47 1.03 1.97 6.93 7.45 0.36 1.60 56.35 9.37 13.88 2.18 0.26 4.23 0.14 5.63 1.76 2.89 0.28 83.07 12.90 2.21 0.71 79.02 0.05 1.13 0 13 0.06 0.21 0 21 0.00 0.64 2.02 1.16 0.02 59.05 0.03 1.10 0.18 27.88 85.82 1.54 0.48 44.62 0 62 0.33 4.14 1.50 1.16 9.65 0.49 0.85 0.93 13 93 .12 1.80 21.91 0.00 0.09 0 09 0.09 0.20 0 20 0.19 1.14 0.49 2.13 18.59 8.56 1.63 1.09 0.02 0.17 4.14 0.18 4.61 20.31 0.67 0.82 5.01 61.16 0.46 17.35 63.03 0.70 55.32 48.08 0.41 0.07 Avg 71.00 3.44 5.82 18.35 0.06 0.52 0.68 82.21 0.63 0.08 0 08 0.

00 0. Dubai.3 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.00 75.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Crystallographic characteristics of fly ash Amorphous Other Mullite Quartz 100.41 74.3 Max 75.1 86.00 50.46 8.9 55. UAE 22 .44 Std Dev 12.00 25.8 Avg 62.00 Sample Parameter Min Amorphous FA Amorphous GP 27.

Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Particle size distribution of fly ash 100 OPC BY 90 MO DH 80 DH2 DH3 DH4 70 DH5 ML OH 60 SJ1 SJ2 % Passing 50 SJ3 SJ4 NH1 40 NH2 GC PK 30 CC SM 20 SE FC NE 10 BY2 WA 0 0.1 1 10 100 1000 TN TNRB Size (µm) 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference. Dubai. UAE 23 .

UAE 24 . Dubai.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Particle M h l P i l Morphology Fly Ash Before Activation Fly Ash After Activation (Geopolymer) 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.

Compressive Strength 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference. UAE 25 . Dubai.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Correlations Within the Mechanical Properties Flexural vs.

Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Correlations Within the Mechanical Properties Elastic Modulus vs. UAE 26 . Dubai. Compressive Strength • The ACI equation: was design for normal weight concrete (2300 kg/m3)while the GPC samples ranged from 1890 to 2371 kg/m3 • Therefore the density was included in the regression model: • Compared to ACI equation: 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.

Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Correlations Within the Mechanical Properties Elastic Modulus vs. Dubai. UAE 27 . Compressive Strength & Density 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.

UAE 28 . Dubai.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.

UAE 29 . Dubai.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Development of a Prediction Model FLY ASH VARIABLES: • • • • • • Reactive Silica Reactive Alumina Reactive Calcium Loss on Ignition Fineness Specific Surface Area GPC RESPONSE: • Compressive Strength 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.

13 1.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Development of a Prediction p Model Elemental Analysis BY Introduction of Silica.90 22.45 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.77 19. Alumina and Calcium Content to the Model SiO2 Al2O3 SiO2/Al2O3 SiO2+Al2O3 CaO 37. UAE 30 .97 56. Dubai.

Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Development of a Prediction Model 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference. Dubai. UAE 31 .

UAE 32 .Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Development of a Prediction Model Model with all possible variables Stepwise regression 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference. Dubai.

Dubai. UAE 33 .Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Development of a Prediction Model 2nd model (Al not included) 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.

UAE 34 . Dubai.Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Model Adequacy Sample 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference.

Engineering fly ash-based geopolymer concrete Conclusions • Geopolymer concrete possesses a very similar mechanical behavior to that of ordinary Portland cement concrete. Dubai. • Si il or i some cases the same equations given Similar in h i i in the ACI building code can be used for the design of GPC structures. fineness & SSA 2010 International Concrete Sustainability Conference. • The model is based on the fly ash variables: SiO2. • A model t predict th mechanical properties of d l to di t the h i l ti f GPC based on characteristics inherent to the fly ash is put forward. UAE 35 . CaO. Loss on ignition.