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Variables Separable DE: Arrange through manipulation such that the form below is achieved: f ( x)dx = g ( y )dy Integrate subsequently to yield the required solution. Example: Solve SOLUTIO :

dy = 1 − y for y<1. dx

dy 1 dy = 1− y ⇒ =1 dx 1 − y dx −1 −∫ dy = ∫ dx 1− y − ln | 1 − y |= x + C Since y < 1, − ln(1 − y ) = x + C

∴

1 − y = e − x+ B y = 1 − Ae − x

where A = e B , B = −c

(shown)

This solution is commonly termed the GE ERAL SOLUTIO , where A is unknown. When initial conditions are provided, eg y =0 when x =0, then A assumes a specific value and the solution is termed the PARTICULAR SOLUTIO . When we use the GC to plot out a series of graphs for various values of A , the result is that we produce a family of solution curves.

b. Reduction through substitution: The introduction of an intermediate variable aids in reducing the original differential equation to a far simpler version which is readily solvable. Example: Use the substitution y= vx , where v is a function of x, to solve the dy differential equation x = 3x + y . dx SOLUTIO : dy dv y = vx ⇒ =v+ x dx dx Substituting into the differential equation gives dv x v + x = 3 x + vx dx

dv dv 3 = 3x ⇒ = dx dx x 3 ∫ dv = ∫ x dx ∴ v = 3 ln | x | +C y = 3 x ln | x | +Cx (shown) x2

2. Second order differential equations: Second order DEs are typically of the form d2y = f ( x) , whereby running the dx 2 DE through two iterations of integration will yield the required solution. Example: d 2s = −g dt 2

ds = − gt + A dt gt 2 s=− + At + B (shown) 2

Integrating twice wrt t gives: and

3. Modelling a problem through the usage of a differential equation: Typically the question demands the student to first formulate a DE relating to the context of the situation, and subsequently solve it. Realise that the formulation of a DE involves the following considerations: (i) Constants of proportionality (ii) Net rate, which is usually composed of an “in” rate and “out” rate, eg birth rate - death rate Example: The growth of a particular species of insect is studied in an experimental environment. The rate of death is proportional to the number in thousands, x , of insects, at any time t days after the start of the experiment. The rate of birth is proportional to x 2 . When x = 2, the number of larvae hatched is equal to the number of insects that dx died. Show that = ax( x − 2) where a is a constant. dt SOLUTIO :

dx = Birth rate minus death rate dt = ax 2 − bx dx When x = 2, =0 dt

a(2) 2 − 2b = 0 ⇒ b = 2a dx ∴ = ax 2 − 2ax = ax( x − 2) (shown) dt

Example: A rectangular tank has a horizontal base. Water is flowing into the tank at a constant rate, and flows out at a rate which is proportional to the depth of water in the tank. At time t seconds the depth of the water in the tank is x metres. If the depth is 0.5m, it remains at this constant value. Show that dx = − k (2 x − 1), where k is a positive constant. dt SOLUTIO :

dx = flowing in rate minus flowing out rate dt

= k − Ax When x = 0.5,

k− dx =0 dt

1 A = 0 ⇒ A = 2k 2

∴

dx = k − 2kx = −2kx + k = − k (2 x − 1) (shown) dt

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