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**Graphs of the form y = Example: y =
**

ax + b cx + d

x +1 x −1 The asymptotes for this equation are x = 1 and y = 1 ; this is achieved by having y → ±∞ and x → ±∞ respectively.

The workings are as follows: x −1 = x +1 ; as y → ±∞ , x − 1 → 0 ⇒ x = 1 is a vertical asymptote y

1 1 1+ x + 1 x x ; as x → ±∞ , y → 1 + 0 = 1 ⇒ y = 1 is a horizontal y= = 1− 0 x − 1 1 1 − 1 x x asymptote

Using this information, coupled with the relevant x and y intercepts, allows the graph to be realised rather easily: y

1

-1 0 -1

x +1 x −1

1

x

y=

**ax 2 + bx + c 2. Graphs of the form y = ex + f
**

Example: y = x2 + 2 x −1

To find the asymptotes:

x −1 =

x2 + 2 ; as y → ±∞ , x − 1 → 0 ⇒ x = 1 is a vertical asymptote y

y=

x 2 + 2 x( x − 1) + ( x − 1) + 3 3 = = x +1+ ; as x → ±∞ , x −1 x −1 x −1

y → x + 1 + 0 ⇒ y = x + 1 is an oblique asymptote.

**The graph is presented below:
**

y

y = x +1

1 -1 0 1

x

x2 + 2 y= x −1

x =1

Note: The turning points (1 + 3, 2 + 2 3 ) and (1 − 3, 2 − 2 3 ) can be dy obtained by setting = 0 . This graph has no intersection with the axes. dx

**3. Graphs of the form y = ax 2 or y 2 = ax (Parabolas)
**

y

y = a2 x 2

y = a1 x 2 0 a3 < 0 < a1 < a 2

y = a3 x 2

x

Note that while the graph is symmetrical about the y -axis, this symmetry can be altered via a transformation, eg y = a( x − 5) 2 is now symmetrical about the line x =5.

y

0 y 2 = a1 x

y 2 = a3 x

x

y 2 = a2 x

a3 < 0 < a1 < a 2

4. Graphs of the form

( x − a ) 2 ( y − b) 2 + = 1 (Ellipses) A2 B2

y

B A

( a,b)

0

x

Note that if A = B , then the ellipse becomes a circle centered at (a, b) with radius A units. When an ellipse is presented in a quadratic form, completing the square is required to fashion the equation into the structure above for extraction of its relevant characteristics. Example: 9 x 2 − 54 x + 4 y 2 + 32 y + 109 = 0 9( x 2 − 6 x) + 4( y 2 + 8 y ) + 109 = 0 9( x − 3) 2 − 81 + 4( y + 4) 2 − 64 + 109 = 0 9( x − 3) 2 + 4( y + 4) 2 − 36 = 0 9( x − 3) 2 + 4( y + 4) 2 = 36 ( x − 3) 2 ( y + 4) 2 + = 1 (Divide both sides by 36) 4 9 ( x − 3) 2 ( y + 4) 2 + =1 22 32 5. Graphs of the form ( x − a) 2 + ( y − b) 2 = r 2 (Circles)

y

r

(a, b)

0

x

6. Graphs of the form Example:

x2 y2 − = 1 (Hyperbolas) a 2 b2

x2 y2 − =1 4 9

When x = 0, y 2 = −9 ⇒ there are no y -intercepts. When y = 0, x 2 = 4 → x = ±2 Hence, the graph has 2 x -intercepts at (2,0) and (-2,0) x2 y2 y2 x2 − =1⇒ = −1 4 9 9 4 y2 x2 3 When x → ±∞, → ⇒ y = ± x are oblique asymptotes. 9 4 2

y

-2 0

2

x

x y − =1 4 9

2 2

y=

3 x 2

3 y=− x 2

B. Transformation of graphs 1. Operations on y -coordinates: Considering the original graph y = f ( x) , y = af ( x) → Scaling of graph y = f ( x) parallel to the y -axis by a factor of a . y = f ( x) + b → Translation of graph y = f ( x) parallel to the y -axis by b units.

y y = f ( x) + b (b > 0)

y = af ( x) (a > 1) y = f ( x)

x

0

**2. Operations on the x -coordinates: Considering the original graph y = f ( x) ,
**

1 . a y = f ( x − b) → Translation of graph y = f ( x) parallel to the x -axis by b units

y = f (ax) → Scaling of graph y = f ( x) parallel to the x -axis by a factor of y y = f ( x)

y = f (ax) (a < 1)

0

x

y = f ( x)

y = f ( x − b) (b > 0)

0

x

Note: for (1) and (2), both a and b can assume the set of real values ℜ , although specific instances of the various graph transformations (eg for y = af ( x) , only a > 1 was considered ) were illustrated due to space constraints. A combination of transformations can exist as well, for example, y = f [a( x − b)] implies the graph is 1 scaled parallel to the x -axis by a factor of , and subsequently translated horizontally a along the x -axis by b units.

**3. Miscellaneous transformations: Considering the original graph y = f ( x) ,
**

y =| f ( x) |→ Reflection of all graph segments below the x -axis about the x -axis, keeping all other segments unchanged.

**y = f ( x ) → Erasure of graph segment for x < 0 , followed by a reflection of the
**

graph segment for x > 0 about the y -axis.

To obtain y 2 = f ( x) , (i) Erase all graph segments below the y -axis. (ii) For the graph segment above the y -axis, draw a guiding line y = 1 . (iii) All points with y -coordinates =0 or 1 will remain invariant (unchanged). (iv) The new graph will exist above the original for y < 1 , and subsequently below the original for y > 1 (v) Reflect the resulting graph about the x -axis.

y=x

Example:

y

y2 = x 1 graph above the original

graph below the original

1 0

x

To obtain y =

1 , f ( x)

(i) All x − intercepts will become vertical asymptotes, and vice-versa. (ii) All maximum points will become minimum points, and vice-versa. (iii) Graph segments which were decreasing with x will now increase with x , and vice versa. (iv) All y values shall be inverted, with the exception of x − intercepts. (v) Graph segments that were originally above the y -axis shall remain in the same region; this applies to graph segments below the y -axis as well.

Example:

y

0

y = f ( x)

x

y=

1 f ( x)

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