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ALCOHOL a) Ethanol also called drinking alcohol a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid.

d. A psychoactive drug and one of the oldest recreational drugs known produces a state known as alcohol intoxication when consumed. Best known as the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. Uses of Alcohol Over 90% of the UK adult population drinks alcohol. It is widely associated with socializing and relaxing and studies have shown some possible health benefits. Methanol and ethanol can be used as an alternative to fossil fuels as they burn very cleanly, producing only carbon dioxide and water. Ethanol is considered a renewable fuel as it can be made from renewable sources such a sugar cane. It's really useful for countries without an oil industry as it reduces their dependence upon imports of petrol. As ethanol is the least toxic of the alcohols it is used in perfumes to stop the plant and animal extracts from going off. The amount added depends on whether you are making a perfume, toilet water or cologne. As ethanol is the safest of the alcohols it is often used to dissolve chemicals that are insoluble in water. Examples include perfumes, cosmetics and vegetable essences such as vanilla extract. Processes of Alcohol 1. Fermentation i. Where all alcohol is created. The sugar is converted to alcohol and carbon dioxide by the addition of yeast. With the addition of yeast to the sugar, the yeast multiplies producing carbon dioxide which bubbles away and a mixture of alcohol, particles and congeners, or the elements which create flavour to each drink. In all cases, fermentation must take place in a vessel that allows carbon dioxide to escape but prevents outside air from coming in. This is because exposure to oxygen would prevent the formation of ethanol.

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Distillation i. where the alcohol is separated and removed.The alcohol, grain particles, water and congeners are heated. The alcohol vaporises first, leaving the water, the grain particles and some of the congeners in the boiling vessel. The vaporised alcohol is then cooled or condensed, to form clear drops of distilled spirits.

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Types of Alcohol 1. Spirits (made by distillation) i.gin -a colorless alcoholic beverage made by distillation or redistilling rye or other grain spirits and adding juniper berries or aromatics such as anise, caraway seeds, or angelica root as flavoring. ii.vodka -originally distilled from fermented wheat mash but now also made from a mash of rye, corn, or potatoes. iii.rum -distilled from cane juice, or from the scummings of the boiled juice, or from treacle or molasses, or from the lees of former distillations. also, sometimes used colloquially as a generic or a collective name for intoxicating liquor. iv.whiskey -distilled from grain, potatoes, etc., especially in scotland, ireland, and the united states. in the united states, whisky is generally distilled from maize, rye, or wheat, but in scotland and ireland it is often made from malted barley. v.tequila -alcoholic liquor distilled from the fermented juice of the central american century plant agave tequilana. vi.brandy -alcoholic liquor distilled from wine or fermented fruit juice. 2. Liqueurs (made by distillation) - Liqueurs are flavored spirits prepared by infusing certain woods, fruits, or flowers, in either water or alcohol, and adding sugar, etc. Others are distilled from aromatic or flavoring agents.

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Wines & champagne (made by fermentation) i. Red wine -wine having a red color derived from skins of dark-colored grapes. ii. White wine -any wine of a clear, transparent color, bordering on white, as madeira, sherry, lisbon, etc.; -- distinguished from wines of a deep red color, as port and burgundy. iii. Rose wine -pinkish table wine from red grapes whose skins were removed after fermentation began. iv. Champagne -a sparkling white wine made from a blend of grapes, especially chardonnay and pinot, produced in champagne. v. Sparkling wine -any of various effervescent wines, such as champagne, produced by a process involving fermentation in the bottle. vi. Vermouth -a sweet or dry fortified wine flavored with aromatic herbs and used chiefly in mixed drinks. Ale(made by fermentation) i. Lager - a type of beer of german origin that contains a relatively small amount of hops and is aged from six weeks to six months to allow sedimentation. Cider(made by fermentation) Beer(made by fermentation)

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Effects of Alcohol Brain a. Short term: Alcohol directly affects the central nervous system (CNS) and slows down its functions. Therefore drowsiness, depression, nausea and lack of awareness are the common effects of alcohol. Alcohol depresses nerve centers in the hypothalamus that control sexual arousal and performance. Although sexual urge may increase, sexual performance decreases. By acting on the medulla, alcohol induces sleepiness. It can also slow breathing and lower body temperature, which can be life threatening. b. Long term: Memory loss, blackouts, and exaggerated states of emotion Problems with coordination and muscle movement Brain shrinkage Thiamine deficiency Sleep impairment, as alcohol decreases REM sleep and sleep apnea Peripheral neuropathy, leading to a loss of sensation Lungs a.

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Short term: In the case of an alcoholic, the vessels are relaxed and the muscular power of the lungs is greatly reduced. So when, the change in seasons is around, there is congestion in lungs which causes breathing problems for the person. Long term: Increased fluid accumulation in the lungs Pneumonia, lung collapse, and other pulmonary infections

Heart a. Short term: The protective covering of membranes that line the walls of the heart are degenerated. Blood vessels lose their power to pump blood and feed the heart. Muscular fibre are replaced by fatty cells at many places all over the heart and hence, the power of contraction is greatly reduced. b. Long term: Valvular disorder, a commonly seen disorder is a side-effect of unhealthy consumption of alcohol. In alcoholics, valvular disorder may become permanent. Heart disease and heart attack High blood pressure Enlarged heart (cardiomyopathy) Irregular or rapid heartbeat Coronary artery disease

Stomach a. Short term: The secretion of digestive liquids is inhibited by alcohol. Dyspepsia is also commonly seen in alcoholics. Alcoholics suffering such symptoms will gradually start to lose their appetite and tend to drink more, although the shift in eating patterns is slow enough to recognize. b. Long term: Ulcers Gastritis (inflammation of stomach lining) Acid reflux Intestinal bleeding Risk of stomach cancer Diarrhea and vomiting Hypoglycemia (chronic low blood sugar) Calories in alcohol make chronic drinkers less hungry, leading to malnutrition Liver a. Short term: A liver clogged with fat causes liver cells to become less efficient at performing their necessary tasks, resulting in impairment of a persons nutritional health. Fatty liver is the first stage of liver deterioration in heavy drinkers, and interferes with the distribution of oxygen and nutrients to the livers cells. b. Long term: Liver failure Fat accumulation in liver cells Hepatitis (inflammation and destruction of liver cells Cirrhosis (scarring and shrinkage of the liver) Hepatic encephalopathy, a serious brain disorder that can cause changes in sleep patterns, mood, personality, shortened attention span, anxiety and depression, and problems with coordination such as shaking or flapping hands (called asterixis). Some patients can slip into a coma, which can be fatal. Kidney a. Short term: Alcohol damages this delicate balance of the ions and water in the body by altering the filtering ability of the kidneys. The kind of alcohol damages caused by consumed can either increase or decrease the concentrations of certain ions in the blood stream. b. Long term: Kidney failure, which affects regulation of fluids and electrolytes in body

Fetal alcohol syndrome -Fetal alcohol syndrome is growth, mental, and physical problems that may occur in a baby when a mother drinks alcohol during pregnancy. Cause: o Using or abusing alcohol during pregnancy can cause the same risks as using alcohol in general. However, it poses extra risks to the unborn baby. When a pregnant woman drinks alcohol, it easily passes across the placenta to the fetus. Because of this, drinking alcohol can harm the baby's development. Alcohol during pregnancy: o A pregnant woman who drinks any amount of alcohol is at risk for having a child with fetal alcohol syndrome. No "safe" level of alcohol use during pregnancy has been established. Larger amounts of alcohol appear to increase the problems. Binge drinking is more harmful than drinking small amounts of alcohol.Timing of alcohol use during pregnancy is also important. Alcohol use appears to be the most harmful during the first 3 months of pregnancy; however, drinking alcohol any time during pregnancy can be harmful. Symptoms of baby with FAS: o Poor growth while the baby is in the womb and after birth.

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Decreased muscle tone and poor coordination. Delayed development and problems in three or more major areas: thinking, speech, movement, or social skills. Heart defects such as ventricular septal defect (VSD) or atrial septal defect (ASD). Problems with the face, including narrow, small eyes with large epicanthal folds, a small head, small upper jaw, smooth groove in upper lip and smooth and thin upper lip.

BLOOD ALCOHOL CONTENT (BAC) Blood alcohol content is usually expressed as a percentage of alcohol (generally in the sense of ethanol) in the blood. For purposes of law enforcement, blood alcohol content is used to define intoxication and provides a rough measure of impairment.

BAC 0.02 0.03 BAC

0.04 0.06 BAC

0.07 0.09 BAC

0.10 0.125 BAC

0.13 0.15 BAC 0.16 0.19 BAC

0.20 BAC

ANALYSIS No loss of coordination, slight euphoria and loss of shyness. Depressant effects are not apparent. Mildly relaxed and maybe a little lightheaded. Feeling of well-being, relaxation, lower inhibitions, sensation of warmth. Euphoria. Some minor impairment of reasoning and memory, lowering of caution. Your behavior may become exaggerated and emotions intensified (Good emotions are better, bad emotions are worse) Slight impairment of balance, speech, vision, reaction time, and hearing. Euphoria. Judgment and self-control are reduced, and caution, reason and memory are impaired (in some* states .08 is legally impaired and it is illegal to drive at this level). You will probably believe that you are functioning better than you really are. Significant impairment of motor coordination and loss of good judgment. Speech may be slurred; balance, vision, reaction time and hearing will be impaired. Euphoria. It is illegal to operate a motor vehicle at this level of intoxication in all states. Gross motor impairment and lack of physical control. Blurred vision and major loss of balance. Euphoria is reduced and dysphoria is beginning to appear. Judgment and perception are severely impaired. Dysphoria predominates, nausea may appear. The drinker has the appearance of a "sloppy drunk." Feeling dazed/confused or otherwise disoriented. May need help to stand/walk. If you injure yourself you may not feel the pain. The gag reflex is impaired and you can choke if you do vomit. Blackouts are likely at this level so you may not remember what has happened. All mental, physical and sensory functions are severely impaired. Increased risk of asphyxiation from choking on vomit and of seriously injuring yourself by falls or other accidents. STUPOR. You have little comprehension of where you are. You may pass out suddenly and be difficult to awaken. Coma is possible. This is the level of surgical anesthesia. Onset of coma, and possible death due to respiratory arrest.

0.25 BAC

0.30 BAC 0.35 BAC 0.40 BAC and up

ALCOHOLISM a) Stages of alcoholism

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The first stage is described as having access to alcohol rather than use of alcohol. In that stage, minimizing the risk factors that make a person more vulnerable to using alcohol are an issue. The second stage of alcohol use ranges from experimentation or occasional use to regular weekly use of alcohol. This or any of the higher stages of alcoholism may involve binge drinking. The third stage is characterized by individuals further increasing the frequency of alcohol use and/or using the substance on a regular basis. This stage may also include either buying or stealing to get alcohol. In the fourth stage of alcohol use, users have established regular alcohol consumption, have become preoccupied with getting intoxicated ("high") and have developed problems in their social, educational, vocational, or family life as a result of using the substance. The final and most serious fifth stage of alcohol use is defined by the person only feeling normal when they are using alcohol. During this stage, risk-taking behaviors like stealing, engaging in physical fights, or driving while intoxicated increase, and they become most vulnerable to having suicidal thoughts.

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Rehab and treatment 1) Relapse prevention uses methods for recognizing and amending problem behaviors. 2) Individualized drug counseling specifically emphasizes short-term behavioral goals in an attempt to help the individual reduce or stop the use of alcohol altogether. 3) Cognitive-therapy techniques, like helping the individual with alcohol dependence recognize what tends to precede and follow their episodes of alcohol use, are often used to address alcohol abuse. Some treatment programs include drug testing. 4) Motivational enhancement therapy encourages the person suffering from alcoholism to increase their desire to participate in therapy. 5) Stimulus control refers to a treatment method that teaches the alcohol-dependent person to stay away from situations that are associated with alcohol use and to replace those situations with activities that are contrary to using alcohol. 6) Urge control is an approach to changing patterns that lead to drug or alcohol use. Support group 1) Alcoholics Anonymous - www.alcoholics-anonymous.org i. states that its "primary purpose is to stay sober and help other alcoholics achieve sobriety".The members and groups remain anonymous in public media, altruistically help other alcoholics and include all who wish to stop drinking. AA generally avoids discussing the medical nature of alcoholism; nonetheless AA is regarded as a proponent and popularizer of the disease theory of alcoholism. 2) Al-Anon/Alateen - www.al-anon.org i. an international "fellowship of relatives and friends of alcoholics who share their experience, strength, and hope in order to solve their common problems." They "help families of alcoholics by practicing the Twelve Steps, by welcoming and giving comfort to families of alcoholics, and by giving understanding and encouragement to the alcoholic."Alateen is part of Al-Anon and is their Twelve-step program of recovery for young people affected by another's drinking, generally aged 13 to 19 years. 3) National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism - www.niaaa.nih.gov/ i. supports and conducts biomedical and behavioral research on the causes, consequences, treatment, and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems. It funds approximately 90 percent of all such research in the United States and promotes reductions in the per capita consumption of alcohol. NIAAA also provides leadership in the national effort to reduce the severe and sometimes fatal consequences of these problems. 4) Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration - www.samhsa.gov i. charged with improving the quality and availability of prevention, treatment, and rehabilitative services in order to reduce illness, death, disability, and cost to society resulting from substance abuse and mental illnesses. Their mission is to reduce the impact of substance abuse and mental illness on American's communities. How to quit drinking 1) Talk to your doctor. If you choose not to, bear in mind that alcohol withdrawal can potentially be deadly. If you start experiencing severe withdrawal symptoms (panic attacks, severe anxiety, the shakes, rapid heart beat) you should seek immediate medical assistance. The condition could potentially deteriorate to deadly delerium tremens if left untreated. 2) Try to pick some significant date to quit. Be ambitious, but reasonable. If you are very heavy drinker you must first slow down to avoid withdrawal symptoms (in this case it is best to have your doctor help you plan your quitting date).

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Get rid of all bottles, cans, etc. And don't feel that just because you are having guests over that you need to offer them a beer, wine, or cocktail. It is perfectly fine to offer people tea, lemonade, coke, or the like. 4) Feel your feelings. Cry when you need to. Laugh when you can. Eat when you are hungry. Sleep when you are tired. This is going to be really weird at first, but embrace it. You haven't felt your feelings for a long time. You will have a learning curve. 5) There's an old saying about 'Playgrounds and Playmates' - look at yours - you may need to leave some of your old drinking buddies and watering holes behind. That said - It can be quite a revelation to find out that the friends you used to drink with were drinking with you only occasionally and were having two beers or two glasses of wine to your five. 6) Drink a lot of water. Water will help keep you hydrated, make you feel better, and help flush out toxins from your body. Men are advised to drink 12 cups (3.0 liters) of water a day, and women are advised to drink 9 cups (2.2 liters). 7) Ask for support, tell family or spouse what you are going through and what you are trying to achieve. 8) Consider joining a support group like Alcoholics Anonymous or SMART Recovery. But do not feel guilty or defeated if you do not find AA to be a fit for you. It is not for everyone. Most people who quit do so without the help of AA. The vast majority of people who have quit drinking and put that phase of their lives behind them have done so by making a conscious commitment to themselves to stop drinking once and for all - and never look back. 9) Do not avoid all situations where you would normally drink. Instead approach them with a good attitude and remember that you can have a good time without drinking. 10) Take a B-vitamin supplement daily for your first week off alcohol. Alcohol affects the ability of the body to absorb these (specifically thiamine). Deficiency can cause severe cognitive impairment (Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome or wet brain). 11) Have food before you drink. This will reduce your interest for drinking. 12) In the initial stage, reduce the quantity of alcohol intake. Imagine that due to excess alcohol, you are vomiting and having head ache on the next day and stop drinking any more.