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has been incorporated into the buildings of settlements or colonies in distant locations.
Colonial Era (1500 AD—1947 AD)
The Chepauk Palace at Chennai, once the residence of the Nawab of Arcot Further information: Indo-Gothic Architecture an emblem of power, designed to endorse the patron. Numerous outsiders invaded India and created architectural styles reflective of their ancestral and adopted homes. The European colonizers created architecture that symbolized their mission of conquest, dedicated to the state or religion. The British, French, Dutch and the Portuguese were the main powers that colonized India.  British Colonial Era: 1615 to 1947 The British arrival in 1615 overthrew the Mughal empire. Britain reigned India for over three hundred years and their legacy still remains through building and infrastructure that populate their former colonies. The major cities colonized during this period were Madras, Calcutta, Bombay, Delhi, Agra, Bankipore, Karachi, Nagpur, Bhopal and Hyderabad. St Andrews Kirk, Madras is renowned for its colonial beauty. The building is circular in form and is sided by two rectangular sections one is the entrance porch. The entrance is lined with twelve colonnades and two British lions and motto of East India Company engraved on them. The interior holds sixteen columns and the dome is painted blue with decorated with gold stars. The staple of Madras was Fort St. George, a walled squared building adjacent to the beach. Surrounding the fort was White Town settlement of British and Indian area Black Town later to be called Georgetown. Black Town described in 1855 as “the minor streets, occupied by the natives are numerous, irregular and of various dimensions. Many of them are extremely narrow and ill-ventilated…a hallow square, the rooms opening into a courtyard in the centre." 
built as a monument in tribute to Queen Victoria’s reign. Bharuch. with domed tombs. The memorial stands on 26 hectares of garden surrounded by reflective pools. Venrula. French styled villas were styled with long compounds and stately walls. Kochi and Sadras. . The Victoria Memorial in Calcutta. deserting the fort in the 19th Century. Yanam in Andhra Pradesh. Karaikal in Tamil Nadu and Mahe in Kerala with a French atmosphere of quiet towns around beaches. Venrula: a warehouse was built for 3000 Guilders by Leendart Janszoons and a castle for the protection of the Dutch. An Englishwoman noted in 1750 “the banks of the river are as one may say absolutely studded with elegant mansions called here as at Madras. Infrastructure such as banks. French: 1673 to 1954 The French colonized a fishing village (Pondicherry) in Tamil Nadu and transformed it into a flourishing port-town.” Esplanade-row is fronts the fort with lined palaces. lined houses with verandas. French Quarter (Ville Blanche) and the Indian quarter (Ville Noire). The town was built on the French grid pattern and features neat sectors and perpendicular streets and divided into two sectors. Indian villages in these areas consisted of clay and straw houses. Calcutta – Madras and Calcutta were similar bordered by water and division of Indian in the north and British in the south. Each corner holds a smaller dome and is floored with marble plinth. Ahmedabad. French expanded their empire by colonizing coastal towns. they colonized Surat. To preserve Pondicherry an organization names INTACH was formed. Ahmedabad: The Dutch cemetery lies on the bank of Kankaria lake. Nonetheless. the garden house became ideal a full-time dwelling. During their 200 years in India. The plan of the building consists of one large central part covered with a larger dome. police station and Pondicherry International Port still hold the French presence. Authorization is needed from INTACH. Dutch: 1605 to 1825 The Dutch entered India with the only interests of Trade in the early 17th Century. Malabar Coast. French spelling on signage and traffic signs still remains. large French doors and grills. Colonnades separate the two chambers. garden houses.Garden houses were originally used as weekend houses for recreational use by the upper class British. to annihilate any original French Architecture. It holds a mix of Indian and European styled graves. Surat – a Dutch factory in 1630’s Bharuch: Trading Post of the Dutch East India Company had a Dutch cemetery. later transformed into a metropolis of brick and stone. is the most effective symbolism of British Empire.
it holds the body of St.pyramids. Front doors were lined with columns. visual and performing artists. It holds 104 tombs that visually narrate the Dutch influence in Architecture during the era. walled and plain grave stones. basilicas and seminaries. Sadras – 17 km (11 mi) from the rock cut temples of Mamallapuram is another Dutch settlement.Francis. it fell into the hands of the Dutch when the Portuguese lost control of Kochi. Malabar Coast Kochi: The Dutch Palace (Mattancherry Palace) – The palace was originally built by the Portuguese. Bastion bungalow – This Dutch styled building near the Fort Kochi beach was built to protect the harbor. The interior is built in a MosaicCorinthian style and adorned with wood and gold leaf. Their missionary spirit built many magnificent cathedrals. The Basilica of Bom Jesus (Good Jesus). Bold colours were painted on houses constructing distinct identity. allowing the sailors to recognize their houses from sea. former capital during the Portugal rule. The walls embrace old painting of saints as the floor is laid with pure white marble. The cemetery is guarded by heavy walls and the entrance pillar still carries the original calligraphic inscription “1724” David Hall – which was the residence of the famous Dutch Commander and Governor of Kochi. symbolizing life and death. Thakur House – the Dutch built this bungalow overlooking the sea as a club. The Portuguese . having 76 tombs. They built two cemeteries. Portuguese: 1498 to 1961 The Portuguese arrived as merchants in the 1498 and were more driven by a Catholic missionary zeal than gaining powers in India. Dutch cemetery – The cemetery runs parallel to the beach and is the oldest European cemetery in India. The walls are painted with bright colours contrasting to the earthy coloured furniture. Adriaan van Reed lot Drakestein was built in 1695. Pullicat – Pullicat lake 55 km north of Madras is a million years old and the second largest lagoon in India. and railings were popular in embellishment. The hall has been restored as a cultural centre and art café for young. Old Goa. Images of skeletons are carved onto the gravestones. The Portuguese gained a foothold Goa and ruled for 400 years. The covered porches and verandas were designed for socializing contrary to the Hindu styled housing. The three storied Renaissance styled church was built of plaster and laterite in 1605. It was the most important trading post of the Dutch.Catholic houses faced the street with unique large ornamental windows opening onto verendahs. The interior of Goan-Portuguese houses consisted of elaborate patterns created with tiles imported from Europe and a false ceiling installed of wood. churches. . Portuguese dominance in Goa still remains. One was ruined due to negligence and at the entrance is flanked by stone pillars.
The walls were made of out mud or laterite stone and coloured with vegetable and natural dyes. BRITISH INDIA . Gateposts and compound walls were craved with great detail. Indian Architecture further shaped as they combined the colonial influences with traditional Architecture. Indian Architecture continued to flourish as they took influence from the colonies.
etc. the rise of the prodigious NeoGothic style secularized for the buildings of the state and the many attempts to create an 'Indian' imperial architecture. Italian. and the efforts to construct a 'self' in the context of the Empire. Roman .straight sloping roofs .stylistic revivals in Europe considered a response to the Industrial Revolution .outlying houses (servants.revived styles were what came to India . incorporating shade devices .several town halls .early Raj stuff is neo-classical . the main aim of the presentation is to provide a way to look at the architecture of colonial India in its context and its meaning in the course of empire building. However. which architects tended to shun .imitating Classical Greek style. Colonial Architecture .British believed that the power of a civilization was reflected in the grandeur of their structures .British Architecture in Colonial India reflects two major themes: the evolving notions of authority in the development of a colony.they often used "pattern books" . The presentation shows slides of important colonial buildings exhibiting early attempts at adapting the classical idiom in an Indian context.) common . Dalvi . M.much of early design done by military engineers rather than architects .engineers were on cutting edge of technology.Prof. would separate themselves from the locals .wrap-around porches common .East India company was precursor of the Raj .started adapting to hot climate.I.E.
Jain temple in Calcutta really sucked up the Raj influence .the British documented everything about the Indian empire very well.) ..British architects started building in "Indo-Saracenic" style.the university libray looks _so much_ like the University of Toronto University College building (~1864) (detailing more than outside structure) .university buildings. but not context (ie.Convocation hall looks very like a church.neo-Gothic buildings fronting rail sheds . Islamic. many other styles . details of physical arrangements.common in cathedrals in Britain. last Mughal emperor exiled. _lots_ of photographs...period 1869-78 .Gothic style very widely used ."Saracenic" in quotes because the British used it rather widely . and eventually supplanted by "Saracenic" .some Saracenic was built in Britain .cobbled together Islamic -> Brighton Beach House .sheds using new materials . who cares about the religion and its iconography. gorgeous .Gothic and neo-Gothic in India was attacked. uprising was suppressed.George Gilbert Scott (architect) .seen both in England and India (Victoria Terminus) .British architect .patron was Indian (for the library) . again Indian patron .. secular buildings here .I. a collage of Gothic.allows shade and protection from rain .in 1857.some street arcades . E. disbanded . etc.
The British followed various architectural styles – Gothic. English Renaissance and Victorian being the essentials. the Corinthian pillared hall and the Porte da Mer (sea gate). The French gave a distinct urban design to its settlement in Pondicherry by applying the Cartesian grid plans and classical architectural patterns. The Danish influence is evident in Nagapatnam. The Portuguese adapted to India the climatically appropriate Iberian galleried patio house and the Baroque churches of Goa. The Church of Sacred Heart of Jesus (Eglise De Sacre Coeur De Jesus).Neo-Classical. Indo-Saracenic was dying.Wittet did both . schools. Most of the buildings were adaptations of the buildings designed by leading British architects of that time like Wren. However. The initial structures were utilitarian warehouses and walled trading posts. . Wittet (as example) went back to neo-classical European colonists brought with them to India concepts of their "world view" and a whole baggage of the history of European architecture --. Gothic and Renaissance. Imperial. The Bassein fort is famous for the Matriz(Cathedral of St Joseph).by 1920s. which were ordinary structures built by garrison engineers. municipal halls and dak bungalows came up. as opposed to others we saw) .Central Post Office in Mumbai a spectacular example (relatively attractive to me. A deeper concern with architecture was exhibited in churches and other public buildings. They saw themselves as the successors to the Mughals and used architecture as a symbol of power. Romanesque. The Portuguese also built the fort of Castella de Aguanda near Mumbai and added fortifications to the Bassein fort built by Bahadur Shah. is believed to be the first church built by the Europeans in India. giving way to fortified towns along the coastline. Christian. The first buildings were factories but later courts. Adam. it was the British who left a lasting impact on the India architecture.. the Sultan of Gujarat. Francis Church at Cochin. Se Cathedral and Arch of Conception of Goa were built in the typical Portuguese-Gothic style. the Eglise de Notre Dame de Anges and theEglise de Notre Dame de Lourdes at Pondicherry have a distinct French influence. built by the Portuguese in 1510. The St. which was laid out in squares and canals and also in Tranquebar and Serampore. in 1532 AD.Prince of Wales Museum another example and Gateway of India (1911) .
which were symbols of colonialism. designed by the architect Frederick Willaim Stevens modelled on the St. Neo-Gothic architecture flourished in different parts of India under the British. built in a perpendicular style by Major Kitoe from 1847 to 1852.Nash and others in London and other places. is the finest example of Gothic architecture with a subtle hint of the Indo-Saracenic motifs. All these factors led to the development of Indo-Saracenic architecture towards the end of the 19th century. the Indian Government Mint in Calcutta is a half-scale replica of the Temple of Minerva at Athens and the Pachaiyappa's Hall in Chennai was modelled on the Athenium Temple of Theseus. Telegraph Office and the Victoria Terminus all followed the Victorian Gothic style. decorated tile marble and stained glass. Rajabai Tower. built with stones. Victorian in essence. All Saints Cathedral. one of the true Gothic monuments is Queen’s College. New materials like concrete. The Secretariat. Unlike Europe. similar to buildings in London. John at Calcutta was built in 1787 inspired by St. these buildings were built mostly of brick and stuccoed with lime or chunam. The British also started assimilating and adopting the native Indian styles in the architecture. an extravaganza of polychromatic stone. In Allahabad. the High Court and the Mayo College. Undoubtedly. sometimes "facades" incised to look like stones. In Varanasi. The Howrah Bridge (1943). During his reign the old town walls were broken down and the Gateway of India was built in the Gothic style of architecture. For instance. The earliest example is the St. In Calcutta. glass. were built in great style. the Government House in Calcutta was built by Capt. Churches. the rise of Indian nationalism and the introduction of Railways were the watersheds in the British Colonial Indian architectural history. Governor Sir Bartle Frere tried to give a truly imperial ambience to the city of Bombay. Some later buildings were. the Church of St.Pancras Station. Based on London prototypes. it borrowed heavily . Fort William. wrought and cast iron opened up new architectural possibilities. Colonel Thomas Cowper built the town hall in Bombay during 1820 to 1835. The passing of power from the East India Company to the British Crown. several churches evolved with variations as highly original works. with its red brick facade surrounded by eight square towers represents a combination of the Oriental and Roman styles. Mary's Church in Fort St. Stephens Church at Walbrooks. George in Chennai. Stevens also designed other buildings like the Churchgate Terminus and the Municipal Building opposite the Victoria Terminus. the British built a series of edifices including the University. a High Court was constructed following the Gothic style. the Victoria Terminus. designed by Sir William Emerson. however. University Library. the stronghold of the British in mid 19th century that took 13 years to construct at a cost of more than $3. are probably the most imposing of all British structures in India. Charles Wyatt modelled on the Kedleston Hall of Derbyshire.5 million and the Victoria Memorial in Calcutta (1921). inspired by the Houses of Parliament in London. however.
a hybrid style that combined in a wonderful manner diverse architectural elements of Hindu and Mughal with gothic cusped arches. F. The architecture of New Delhi was the crowning glory of the British Raj.Chisholm and H.F. In fact it was a pot pouri of architectural styles. Herbert Baker added the imposing buildings of the South Block and the North Block.from the Islamic style of Mughal and Afghan rulers. minarets and stained glass. Presidency College and SenateHouse of Chennai.Irwin were the pioneers of this style of architecture. The Chepauk Palace in Chennai designed by Paul Benfield is said to be the first Indo-Saracenic building in India. tracery. Napier Museum at Thiruvanthapuram. R. Victoria Memorial Hall. spires. the Maharaja's Palace at Mysore and M. the Western architecture with Oriental motif was realised with chajjas. Thus. domes.S.Growse. Muir College at Allahabad. The British built New Delhi as a systematically planned city after it was made the capital in 1911.S. Robert Byron described New Delhi as "The Rome of Hindostan".University and Lakshmi Villas Palace at Baroda. . He was specifically directed to "harmonise externally with the traditions of Indian art". the Post Office. The British Viceroy made Sir Edward Lutyens responsible for the overall plan of Delhi. jalis andchhattris. Prince of Wales Museum and the Gateway of India in Mumbai. which flank the Rashtrapati Bhawan. Another Englishman called Robert Tor Tussell built the Connaught Place and the Eastern and Western Courts. as stylistic devices in the Viceroy's House (now Rashtrapati Bhawan). The Indo-Saracenic style was Indian on the outside and British inside since the facade was built with an Indian touch while the interior was solely Victorian. Other outstanding examples of this style of architecture include the Law Courts. Sir Swinton Jacob.
Instead. the items traded in Dutch India include precious stones. as there has never been a political authority ruling all Dutch India. The Church is a huge monolith with a high square tower and deeply sunken window ledges reminiscent of Dutch and German architecture. and pepper in Dutch Malabar. DUTCH Dutch India is a term used to refer to the settlements and trading posts of the Dutch East India Company on the Indian subcontinent. saltpeter andopium in Dutch Bengal. notably Pulicat. the commandment Dutch Malabar. Dutch India was divided into the governorates Dutch Ceylon and Dutch Coromandel. which refers to the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia) and the Dutch West Indies (present-day Suriname and the former Netherlands Antilles). and silk across India. Merchants of the Dutch East India Company first established themselves in Dutch Coromandel. Indian slaves were imported on the Spice Islands and in the Cape Colony. Apart from textiles. The term should not be confused with the term Dutch Indies.St Martin’s Garrison Church marks the culmination of the British architectural ventures in India. After the Dutch conqueredCeylon from the Portuguese in 1656. and the directorates Dutch Bengaland Dutch Suratte. Dutch Suratte and Dutch Bengal succeeded in 1616 and 1627 respectively. as they were looking for textiles to exchange with the spices they traded in the East Indies. they took the Portuguese forts on the Malabar coast five years later as well. It is only used as a geographical definition. to secure Ceylon from Portuguese invasion. . indigo. History A View of Chinsura the Dutch settlement in Bengal Dutch presence on the Indian subcontinent lasted from 1605 to 1825.
Although Dutch Coromandel and Dutch Bengal were restored to Dutch rule by vitue of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1814. all transfers of property and establishments were to take place on 1 March 1825. therefore. and Pulicat. Masulipattam. In the famous Battle of Colachel (1741). The coins were all modeled on the local coinages.In the second half of the eighteenth century the Dutch lost their influence more and more. PORTUGESE . the Dutch had lost their last trading posts in India. at Cochin. By the middle of 1825. Pondicherry (for the five years 1693-98 when the Dutch had gained control from the French). Under the terms of the treaty. they operated several mints. Nagapatam (or Negapatam). resulting in the complete eclipse of Dutch power in Malabar. The Kew Letters relinquished all Dutch colonies to the British. they returned to British rule owing to the provisions of the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824. Coinage During the days when the Dutch were commercially active in India. to prevent them from being overrun by the French.Travancore king Marthanda Varma's army defeated the Dutch East India Company.
so the influence is still very obvious. There is generally some kind of show at 8 PM or if staying in the snooty area. ask your concierge.. French Another fine example of 19th century French Colonial architecture. Dutch and English successively colonized the area.Today. the once Saigon Opera House. The Portuguese. and left very late. . has now been blandly renamed the Municipal Theater. situated on the north bank of the mouth of the Vellar river at a distance of 30-km from Cuddalore. There are many villas with Portuguese names. Porto Novo was an important trade centre during the colonial era. and reminded me a lot of Miami – being by the beach. Parangipettai is mainly a fishing village and a pilgrimage centre for Muslims The Portuguese colonized Goa. especially architecturally. is a panchayat town in Cuddalore district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.Parangipettai... the venue now showcases popular music acts as well as Vietnamese theatrical productions. historically called Porto Novo. and churches EVERYWHERE! It’s beautiful. with gorgeous Western architecture. Much befitting this name change..
Don Afonso de Albuquerque landed in Goaduring the early 16th century and began creating settlements. factories. Attempts to regain Pondicherry was made by the French under the command of Lally Tollendal but in vain. Bellanger set up his residence in the Danish Lodge in the region of Pondicherry. The reign of the region returned to the French in the year 1699 after the countries Holland and France signed an alliance. Evolution of Colonial Architecture in India September 21. it was the Portuguese and not the British who were the first to build major construction projects in India. It was in 1816 that the French gained supremacy over Pondicherry. Pondicherry became a part of the conflicts between the French and the English. The first governor of Pondicherry was Francois Martin who assumed office in the year 1674. The invitation was forwarded to raise competition in trade between the French and the Dutch who had already settled in the region and set up their business unit. . the territory of Pondicherry is returned to the French.The French rule in Pondicherry started in the 17th century when the French officer. The French rule in Pondicherry lasted till 1954 when the territory acceded to the Union of India. The efforts of the governor converted Pondicherry into an emerging port town from a small fishing village. The British captured the region in 1760. The French had been invited to start trading units in Pondicherry by the ruler of Gingee. After a peace treaty is signed between the English and the French in 1765. forts. 2012 By Eric Jogga 2 Comments Contrary to popular belief. and domestic buildings. The Dutch occupied the territory of Pondicherry in the year 1693 and fortressed the territory. The plunders of the British army led to the devastation of Pondicherry. The ambitious plans of the Governor Dupleix were ruined with the arrival of the English governor Lord Robert Clive.
in 1766 the British destroyed the Baroque Government House in Pondicherry. It was not until the middle of the 18th century when European colonials would begin building to the east. Inside these rudimentary complexes were courtyards. the Dutch. Soon thereafter.Bombay Victoria Terminus – Colonial Architecture that looks like St Pancras railway station in London Photo from Flickr The earliest buildings were entirely wood and heavily fortified. Danes. the British became the dominant faction on the eastern sea boarder. The French established very exquisite structures at Pondicherry in Tamil Nadu and in Bengal. with long fences and gates. Notably. and English followed suit. Because of the perceived danger from locals. French. It was from this vantage . and warehouses. public administrative buildings. In the mid-16th century. which was both systematic and symbolic. even the factories were built in a defensive posture. After this victory. built in 1752 by Marquis Joseph de Dupleix. the Portuguese began building with stone as their regional influence increased and they gained access to quarries.
undoubtedly a symbol of triumph. One may view this hybrid architectural type as a representation of India’s vast and interesting culture but also of its attempt to move forward in exploring new types of thinking. others were Irish and Italian. the British moved learned citizens into Bengal and began influencing local labor forces which meant the colonial government had a hand in most new architectural construction projects of the era. He built an imambargah to the north. replacing the old clay and thatch bungalows. and governmental projects to begin.point that the British paved the way for a new generation of architectural. Nawab Feridun Jah hired the famous architect Sadiq ‘Ali Khan to design the add-on. More European buildings. economic. Between the years 1829 and 1837. The outskirts of major cities became grounds for new colonial housing and architectural projects. Stone walls and roof tiles became the standard. this meant drawing upon traditional Mughal architecture to build a standard (albeit massive) Shia Muslim communal space as part of a Palace complex that was built by Europeans. The British centralized governments locally and regionally in town halls which would be fortified with troops and modern weaponry. Fort William was constructed. Interestingly. after the construction of the palace. Because of the mercantile explosion catalyzed by new markets and trade goods. . and monuments to colonial figures were erected throughout the countryside. Duncan McLeod designed the Palladian palace. such as churches. after a victory in the Battle of Plassey. In the mid-19th century. Although most military engineers were British. The main entry way has the typical rounded arches flanked by Doric columns. This structure commemorated military victory. tombs. The south facade faces the palace and has two storeys. Its pediment is triangular and sits on giant columns. architectural planning was primarily in the hands of military engineers and civil servants who were trained in and traveled from England. One enters the palace through a massive portico. The imambargah was deliberately built to match the European design style. like many other monuments built in a Grecostyle with pillars. Nawab Feridun Jah added onto the structure. outside of Calcutta. One notable monument in Calcutta proper was the domed Rohilla Monument. Wealthy locals who cooperated with the British started to mimic the British colonials with their own private residences. ten years after its vision was first conceived by the architect Duncan MacLeod. During the late 18th century. The palace and its subsequent addition represents a new shift in thinking in Indian architectural terms. India was heavily colonized but still attempted to maintain a traditional element. For the Nawab. built in 1817. houses became larger and required many servants to maintain. but by 1758. military engineers constructed a beautiful palace at Murshidabad. It was in these types of large residences that modern conveniences such as fans (pankha-s) were installed. This communal gathering space for Shia Muslims is the largest in all of Asia. 1690 saw the founding of the East India Company in Calcutta. Until the middle of the 19th century.
Still today most of the buildings can be obviously viewed as Grecian influenced. India was not alone in developing a Neo-Classical style.N. Most of these types of buildings that imitated famous architectural forms in Europe were redesigned completely from illustrations. Madras eventually became known as a “Greek city” because it exhibited so many Neo-Classical features. Washington D. as mentioned above. is an excellent example. there was St. even in their own dilemma. In Pune. Andrew’s (1818). there was St. a way to connect to the masses of the colonized Indians and symbolize their blatancy of rule.The St. Andrew’s Church (1818). in Madras there was St. John’s (1787) and St. The architectural undertakings in the colonial empire also just . itself a wondrous feat considering many engineers were not as superb as those actively constructing monuments in London. in Calcutta. Architects became re-enamored with ancient Grecian architecture and sought to emulate ancient architectural tropes in India. the architectural manifestations also had a colonial aim of representation. Mary’s (1825). Martin-in-the-Fields church in London inspired many similar architectural formations throughout the Indian subcontinent. W. In Europe and the United States a similar trend began to emerge. George’s Cathedral (1816) and St. Forbes was one of the first to really reintroduce this line of thinking. supremacy and yet somewhere. Representation of power. the developments were for the colonizers and not for the ruled. for instance.. At a young age. The Doric order on the Silver Mint was inspired by viewing drawings of the Greek Parthenon. The 19th century also saw an increase in what has been called Neo-Classicism.C. The Colonial Culture Reflecting In the Architecture: The infrastructure in India without the giving of the industrial revolution was negligible for the British. he drafted the Calcutta Mint (1824).
was their sculptural ornamentation. that of Indian Office was decorated with busts and statues of” celebrated worthies. “The great peculiarity of a tropical climate is that it is very hot…and that is one point an architect must never forget.” Innovation did not stop here. a goorkha. T. however.”6 British architects who worked in the empire. designed by Scott and aligned with the Foreign Office. . Walter Cranville fused the Classical and Baroque. For instance. Both structures. represented not the nations but “Indian tribes”. connected with the Indian empire. Most revealing. It is probably for the thought that. “to know was. politically driven. an afghan. such as France and Italy. The topmost story of the Foreign Office was decorated with a series of sculpted figures emblematic of different countries. social categories identified by the British as significant for their rule of the sub continent. shared a set of attitudes very different from their colleagues’ home. Their views together formed the colonial style. which more or less were inflicted with a concern of making visible Britain’s imperial position as ruler. however. had different needs to subside to. Roger Smith stated.”6 With his Calcutta General Post Office. hence the imperial architecture was – “architecture both of knowledge and of power. both civil and military.like in their own nation. were classical in their architectural form. regardless of their choice. a Maharatt. Similar figures set on the India Office. the colonial and India office buildings in white hall. in some measure. already to rule”. While the inner court of the foreign office was plain. themselves indicated something of the distinctive character of empire. and so on”. the British thought process was based on the allegory that. in fact. Since. a Malay.
Encircling veranda – shaded the main structure. Though this expression and culture of colonialism did not confine only to the architectural manifestations like the bungalow or other public buildings but it was prominently visible at the urban level in the form of many settlements. as the British created separately demarcated spaces for themselves. The Demarcations And The Results These settlements probably borne out of some kind of a racist fear. Early Colonial Bungalow (Sanatarium in Kinnur) It had thick walls and high ceilings – to provide ample ventilation. In cities these areas were labeled ‘civil lines’. with associated ‘cantonments’ for the military. which ideally combined the climate and political fantasies – ‘of social distinction’. The superiority further emphasized by an impressive drive way and with access regulated by walls. also It provided an arena for a carefully regulated intercourse with that world. The placement of the bungalow in a large compound – emphasized a social distance and of superiority. . To satisfy those imperial whims were adopted the bungalow form.The Thought Materializing Together with the Imperial Apparition of Pre-Eminence: The Indians had of course over the centuries developed ways to accommodate the country’s climate in their building and the English men even with full realization of the fact did not adopt the same means but set their work different from that of the Indians. The building of these areas went hand in hand with a increased number both of settled families. in mountains they established ‘hill stations’ that served as summer refuges not only for individuals but for the colonial governments. gates and watchmen.
J. and alarming diseases and epidemics. one of the earliest. With the establishments of sanitary commissions and municipal councils. References A. is a classic example of the way health and safety drove urban design. Here. were the remedies thought but whatever measures were taken at the urban development level were in to the English privilege. looked inwards and were densely built. The British feared itinerancy in all forms so that Allahabad seemed a particularly dangerous site for health and safety. The houses mixed together with shops and warehouses. but from these a labyrinth – as the British saw it – of narrow streets led off to distinct neighborhoods.their presence made easier by improved communications of the day. 3 Though at the urban level there was a concern about the break down in sanitation. capital of the United Province. 1968) T. 1902) . as part of lived experience. 1750–1850 (London. some still with gates fastened at night. an association of British culture with ‘modern’ in contrast to the older sections of the city seen as ‘medieval ‘ or ‘traditional’ – always the necessary foil to modernity. 1976) S. rail line was strategically used as the defence for European population. and so it ran through the city forming a barrier between the civil lines and the areas inhabited by the native population. but resources were disproportionately directed towards the European areas. whose poor health was evident from the fact that more soldiers died from diseases than from the battle. The ‘colonial city’ was predicated on such duality. efforts were made to improve sanitation in the old city. “sanitary concerns focused on the military. Drainage. In fact. its population varied tremendously along the course of the year. One of the most celebrate pilgrimage places. moreover. They represented. to just like in the case of Delhi. Nilsson: European Architecture in India. Till Walsh: A History of Murshidabad District (London. The old city had two or three main streets. removal of refuse. King: Colonial Urban Development (London. The city of Allahabad. and of British military personnel. safe water supply. These spaces communicated racial difference as well as the threatening disorder and ‘putrid air’ understood to characterize the old cities.
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