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Generators

array in megawatt level permanent magnet synchronous

generators (PMSGs) for wind turbine applications.

Conclusions derived from the machines linear approximation

are applied here on the cylindrical PMSGs. An analytical

model is used to model the machines performance when a

Halbach and a conventional array are considered. The

Halbach array displayed superior fundamental flux density

after design manipulation through the analytical equations.

Finite Element Analysis simulation has been used to verify the

analytical equations and findings. Discussion of the results is

provided and future research direction is briefly described at

the end of the paper.

Machines, Wind Energy.

I. INTRODUCTION

Permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSGs) are

well established as a robust technology for wind turbines.

Their direct drive (gearless) operation and low maintenance

characteristics due to the absence of excitation windings

have made them very attractive especially for offshore

applications [1-5]. At megawatt (MW) level, however,

direct drive PMSGs tend to be rather heavy, large in

diameter, and, consequently, costly [4], [6-8]. In [9] it was

argued that the high capital cost of PMSGs could be

downgraded by robust and reliable lifetime operation

expected of direct drive PMSGs.

This increase in cost, weight, and diameter, was

challenged in many different and interesting ways. To

outline a few, in [8], a one-stage gearbox is placed between

the turbine blades and the PMSG to make it smaller though

taking away the direct-drive advantages. In [4] a novel

stator design with lightweight material is proposed with

70% weight reduction. For above 90% efficiency, however,

this stator needs a larger diameter and more magnets than a

typical PMSG. In the design of [10], the inner rotor is

replaced with an outer rotor to improve the compactness.

However, outer rotors require special care regarding the

thermal characteristics of the machine [6]. Another good

solution to address transportation and installation issues,

which are directly related to weight and size, is to use a

modular design. The machine in modular design is

manufactured of independent smaller sections to be

transported easily and get assembled on-sight [11-13].

Continuing on this line of design alterations, the purpose

of this paper is to report on the investigation of the use of a

Halbach array as a technology to reduce the diameter and

weight of megawatt level PMSGs.

The next two sections give a brief description of the

Halbach array (Section II) and the preliminary investigation

performed on a linear model (Section III). Section IV

presents the parameters and the geometric characteristics of

the machine that underwent the application of Halbach

array in FEA simulation. Sections V and VI discuss the

analytical equations their application and results

respectively. Section VII verifies those results through FEA

simulation. Finally, section VIII revisits the analytical

equations for further variation after which a section on

future work precedes the conclusion.

II. HALBACH ARRAY

The Halbach array was first thought of as A Magnetic

Curiosity that made the flux intensify in one side when

horizontal magnets are alternated in an array with vertical

ones [14]. Klaus Halbach, whom it is named after, later

utilized the array in the 1980s through experiments on

electron accelerators in the Laurance Berkeley National

Laboratories [15-17].

The Halbach array produces higher power density with

less magnet volume [18-20], which reduces the cost

associated with the permanent magnet (PM). It also holds

on to most of its flux density without the back iron [20-22].

This makes it possible to replace the heavy iron yoke of the

rotor with less expensive lighter non-magnetic material.

Fig. 1 presents the formation of a Halbach array from

conventional array with the associated flux lines.

Fig. 1 . Flux lines of (a) conventional magnet array and (b), Halbach array.

(a)

(b)

978-1-4673-0141-1/12/$26.00 2012 IEEE

57

The flux lines of a conventional array are plotted in Fig.

1(a). Fig. 1(b) shows the concentration of flux on the upper

side of the magnet in a Halbach arrangement, which

translates into higher fundamental air-gap flux density.

Also, the absence of backside fields in a Halbach array of

Fig. 1(b) indicates the possibility of using non-magnetic

material instead of the back iron. These plots were

generated through the finite element analysis (FEA)

software Ansys Maxwell [23], which is also used

throughout this paper for FEA simulations.

III. PRELIMINARY LINEAR ANALYSIS

Before applying Halbach array to the magnets of a

cylindrical PMSG, their application was tested on a

simplified linear approximation of the machine. This linear

representation allows faster processing time and easier

adjustment of geometric parameters. Fig. 2 shows this FEA

model with Halbach array.

Various Halbach array advantages were investigated and

verified through this modelling; including higher

fundamental flux density, low total harmonic distortion

(THD), same flux density to conventional array with less

magnet volume, and robust operation with non-magnetic

rotor yoke. All of this justified carrying on with the

investigation to the more laborious cylindrical FEA model

of the machine.

One more thing was learned from the linear model that

performance with less than unity pole-embrace is more

suitable for a conventional array than a Halbach array.

When the pole embrace was set to 0.7, which is typical of

large PMSGs, the Halbach array was inferior to the

conventional array. Therefore, for the Halbach array to

maintain its advantages the pole embrace must remain at

unity and the design of the machine stator must be adjusted

accordingly. In this paper, all of these findings are applied

to the cylindrical model.

IV. PMSG SPECIFICATIONS

To examine the effect of applying the Halbach array to

MW level cylindrical PMSGs, a conventional PMSG was

selected [24], the rotor magnets of which were replaced by

the Halbach array. The objective was to preserve the

original magnetic volume and reduce the machine radius.

The machine radius was reduced down to render the pole

embrace as unity. This means that a reduction of radius by

30% is suitable for a machine with a 0.7 pole embrace. The

length of the machine is kept the same. The fundamental

component of the flux density is tested with both arrays

under unity pole embrace.

Fig. 2 . Linear approximation of the cylindrical PMSG.

Reference [24] was the primary source from which the

initial machine design data were derived such as power

rating, frequency, rated speed, machine length, rotor and

stator diameters, number of poles and magnet height.

Table I summarizes machine specifications, while, Table

II summarizes major dimensions. Fig. 3 displays the PMSG

as modelled in FEA. With 0.7 pole embrace, and as was

expected from the linear model, when the magnet array of

the above PMSG was replaced by Halbach array the

machines flux density went down. Therefore, the pole

embrace has to be turned to unity. By scaling down the

stator and rotor inner and outer radii, while keeping the

magnet volume the same, the desired unity pole embrace

was achieved. However, and contrary to the findings of the

linear model, the fundamental component of the air-gap

flux density of the conventional array, at unity pole

embrace, outperformed the Halbach array.

TABLE I

PMSG SPECIFICATIONS

Number of Phases 3

Rated Power (kW) 2000

Rated Voltage (V) 660

Rated Speed (rpm) 22.5

Rated Frequency (Hz) 11.25

Number of Poles 60

Pole Embrace 0.7

Number of slots 288

Slots/Pole/phase 1.6

TABLE II

PMSG GEOMETRIC DIMENSIONS

Stator Outer Diameter (mm) 3800

Stator Inner Diameter (mm) 3480

Air-gap minimum clearance (mm) 5

Machine Axial Length (mm) 1300

Magnet Height (mm) 22

Magnet Length (mm) 125

Stator Slot width (mm) 17.2

Stator Slot Height (mm) 80

Fig. 3 . A portion of the PMSG as modelled in FEA software.

58

The conclusion asserted here was that while the Halbach

array, under linear approximation, achieved very promising

results, under full PMSG model of this particular design

with these specific dimensions its performance was inferior

to the conventional array. Whether under different PMSG

specifications such conclusion would change is too time

consuming to test with FEA simulation. Analytical

equations are the better choice of methods in this case. The

next section deals with this method.

V. ANALYTICAL REPRESENTATION OF A HALBACH ARRAY

Halbach arrays literature does assert the superiority of

the Halbach array over the conventional array in both linear

and cylindrical machines and in both slotted and slotless

formats [18], [21], [22], [25]. It is intriguing to find the

reasons for the contradictory findings mentioned above. It

has led to a speculation on whether there exists a critical

diameter after which Halbach array ceases to be

advantageous and whether involved design modifications

are required with the Halbach array. This research aims at

answering some of these questions as existing literature

provides no information about them.

Two useful analytical equations to be utilized for the

analytical study were found in [25]. The first equation

defines the fundamental flux density of a conventional

slotted surface mounted permanent magnet machine and is

given here as,

(1)

where

p

is the pole embrace and B

p

is the peak air-gap flux

density defined as follows:

(2)

where B

r

is the remanent flux density of the permanent

magnet , which is 1.23 for the NdFeB magnets used in this

simulation, R

r

is the rotor outer radius or inner magnet

radius, R

m

is outer magnet radius, and R

s

is air-gap radius or

inner stator radius.

The second equation defines the fundamental flux density

of the same machine but with Halbach array.

(3)

where p is the number of pole pairs, and K = 1 for air-cored

rotor, while for iron-cored, K is defined by the following

equation:

(4)

Halbach array here is always defined with unity pole

embrace while the conventional machine has the option of

varying this value.

Under the eight pole PM machine presented in [25], the

Halbach array was reported to achieve superior torque by

up to 33% due to the increase in the fundamental

component of flux density augmented by the reduction of

back-iron losses. Therefore, it is not expected that all the

33% come from the fundamental flux density, yet some

significant increase must have been recorded there.

In this paper, these equations were approached

differently. For our study, the number of pole pairs, magnet

height, and air-gap length are kept constant while the inner

magnet radius was varied from few millimetres to 2000

mm. It should be noted here that the air-gap or the stator

radius, R

s

, can be made a function of the outer magnet

radius which itself is a function of the inner magnet radius,

R

r

. These relations are presented in the following equations:

(5)

where is the air-gap length, which is kept constant here at

5mm, and R

m

is defined as follows:

(6)

where h

m

is the magnet height and is kept constant at 22mm

according to the specifications of the PMSG used in this

paper and described in Section IV.

R

r

is then become an independent variable which was

varied from 1mm to 2000mm, and the fundamental flux

density of both Halbach and conventional arrays is

calculated for the range from equations (1) and (3). The

pole embrace here was kept as unity for both conventional

and Halbach representations to assure same magnet volume

at each radius.

Fig. 4 plots the fundamental flux density of Halbach

array and conventional array as function of rotor radius as

described above. The results were very much enlightening

and helped to understand the relation between machine radii

and air-gap flux density of Halbach array.

It should be noted from Fig. 4 that there exist a region in

which the Halbach array outperforms the conventional

array. As the machine gets larger in radius, the conventional

array is more advantageous. This explains the FEA results

that came in favour of the conventional array, which was at

1713mm or 1200mm with unity pole embrace.

Fig. 4 Plot of the fundamental flux density with conventional array vs.

that with the Halbach array for a range of machine sizes while keeping air-

gap length, magnet height and number of poles constant.

0 500 1000 1500 2000

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

Radius (mm)

F

l

u

x

D

e

n

s

i

t

y

(

T

)

Halbach

Conventional

!

B

1h

=

2B

r

p

( p +1)

1" R

r

R

m

( )

( p+1)

[ ]

K R

m

R

s

( )

( p+1)

!

K = 1" R

r

R

m

( )

2p

R

m

R

s

( )

2p

[ ]

("1)

!

R

s

= R

m

+"

!

R

m

= R

r

+ h

m

59

For the Halbach array to significantly outperform this

fundamental flux density the radius has to be at 439mm. At

this value the Halbach plot is at its maximum. But this

decrease in radius (around 60%) will negatively affect the

no-load output voltage as it is directly related to stator inner

radius R

s

. The no-load output voltage of a PMSG is defined

with the following equation from [8]:

E

p

= 2k

N

s

m

R

s

L

e

B

g1

(7)

where, is the winding factor, N

s

is the number of turns

m

is the mechanical angular frequency, R

s

is the stator

radius, L

e

is the core length, and B

g1

is the fundamental flux

density.

According to equation (7), a decrease with more than

half of the radius would compromise the voltage in exactly

this portion provided that other stator conditions are the

same. A 60% increase in the fundamental flux density is

required then to compensate for the loss radius. But this

increase is too much for Halbach array to achieve even at a

linear level.

Therefore, from Fig. 4 it could be concluded that for a

PMSG with the specified air-gap length, number of poles,

and magnet height, there exists an optimum radius for the

Halbach array. It will outperform the conventional array

significantly when the machine radius is equal to this

optimum value. Above this radius value, the Halbach array

gets less effective until up to a critical radius where its air-

gap flux density is equal to the conventional array

(1000mm for the studied case). Above this critical radius,

the Halbach array will lose its advantage over the

conventional array.

VI. VARIATION OF NUMBER OF POLES

From equation (1) and (2), it can be deduced that the

conventional fundamental flux density is independent of the

number of poles. The pole embrace, air-gap radius, and the

magnet height define it. The Halbach fundamental flux

density is defined similarly, but always with unity pole

embrace as well as the number of pole pairs (equations (3)

and (4)). This number of poles was varied at each radius

and the effect on the Halbach fundamental flux density was

observed.

The PMSG used for this research has an inner magnet

radius of 1713mm with pole embrace of 0.7. This

corresponds to 1200mm radius with a unity pole embrace to

preserve the magnet volume. Fig. 5 plots the outcome of

varying the number of poles on the Halbach fundamental

flux density for the PMSG with 1200mm inner magnet

radius. It can be observed that the increase in pole number

strengthens the fundamental flux density for Halbach array.

The original number of pole pairs was 30, which results in a

fundamental flux density below the conventional array. By

doubling the number of poles to 60 the flux density

increased to significantly surpass that of the conventional

array. Dotted vertical lines in Fig. 5 indicate the flux

density value at 30 and 60 poles. The new number of poles

was adapted and the flux density was revaluated for a range

of radii. Fig. 6 replots the flux density for the conventional

array and the Halbach arrays with 60 and 120 poles.

Fig. 5 Effect of increasing the number of poles on the fundamental flux

density with Halbach array compared to conventional array at 1200mm

rotor radius. For clarity, the dotted vertical lines indicate the value of the

flux density at 30 and 60 poles.

Fig. 6 . Plot of the fundamental flux density with conventional and

Halbach array (60 and 120 poles) for various machine radii. The dashed

vertical line indicates the radius of the PMSG with unity pole embrace.

The dashed vertical line in Fig. 6 indicates the radius by

which the same magnet volume is preserved with unity pole

embrace. It should be noticed that the Halbach array with

the larger number of poles out performs the conventional

array for a wider range of radii. Therefore, for the PMSG

specified in section IV Halbach array advantages will be

realized only after taking a further step of increasing the

number of poles.

VII. FEA VERIFICATION OF ANALYTICAL CALCULATIONS

To verify the validity of the analytical equations used in

the previous two sections, FEA simulation was carried out

for the PMSG under the same conditions. In essence, it is to

test the improvement of the performance after increasing

the number of poles and reducing the radius to create a

unity pole embrace that can take the Halbach array. Equally

important was to test the error of the analytical equations

when compared to FEA simulation and whether it is

consistent to rely on for a more elaborate final design guide.

Table III displays the FEA results of the fundamental

flux density when compared to the analytical equation

results and the discrepancies between the two.

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120

1

1.05

1.1

1.15

1.2

1.25

1.3

1.35

1.4

Number of Pole Pairs

F

l

u

x

D

e

n

s

i

t

y

(

T

)

Halbach

Conventional

0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 2000

0

0.5

1

1.5

Radius (mm)

F

l

u

x

D

e

n

s

i

t

y

(

T

)

Halbach

(120 poles)

Conventional

Halbach

(60 poles)

60

Table III shows that the analytical equations always

produced higher flux density. The discrepancy was a bit

large especially for the first three machine types. The

inaccuracy of flux density in the analytical equations is due

to the assumptions that stator and rotor iron material has

linear B-H characteristic, there is no saturation and stator

slot has negligible effects on air-gap flux density.

Nonetheless, the trend of the results was consistent with

FEA. The Halbach machine with 60 poles failed to

outperform the conventional machine at 1200mm radius in

FEA as well, while it outperformed it at the smaller radius.

When the number of poles was doubled, the Halbach

machine was able to outperform the conventional machine

as in the analytical equations. Therefore, these analytical

equations do serve as a quick guide to save time and inspire

design direction before FEA simulation. Table IV displays

the Halbach advantage (or the percentage increase of air-

gap flux density) calculated from the analytical equation

and from the FEA simulation under the various machine

design criteria.

TABLE III

COMPARING FUNDAMENTAL FLUX DENSITY WITH ANALYTICAL EQUATIONS

TO THAT WITH FEA FOR VARIOUS PMSGS

Fundamental

Flux Density

(T)

P

o

l

e

E

m

b

r

a

c

e

N

u

m

b

e

r

o

f

P

o

l

e

s

R

a

d

i

u

s

Array

A

n

a

l

y

t

i

c

a

l

E

q

u

a

t

i

o

n

s

FEA

Error

(%)

0.7 1713 Conventional 1.128 0.708 37.2

Conventional 1.262 0.844 33.1

1200

Halbach 1.226 0.768 37.4

Conventional 1.239 1.049 15.3

60

439

Halbach 1.368 1.277 6.6

Conventional 1.262 1.062 15.8

U

n

i

t

y

120 1200

Halbach 1.358 1.182 12.9

TABLE IV

COMPARISON OF HALBACH ADVANTAGE USING ANALYTICAL EQUATIONS

AND FEA FOR VARIOUS DESIGN CONDITIONS

Halbach Array Advantage

Comparison Condition

Analytical FEA

60-pole Halbach machine vs. 0.7 pole

embrace conventional machine

8.0% 7.7%

120-pole Halbach machine vs. 0.7

pole embrace conventional machine

16.9% 40.1%

60-pole unity pole embrace machines -3.0% -10.0%

120 pole unity pole embrace

machines

7.0% 10.1%

439mm radius machines 9.4% 17.9%

Finally, Fig. 7 plots the FEA calculated flux density of

the air-gap for both the Halbach and the conventional 120-

pole PMSG. Notice how the Halbach flux density is more

sinusoidal with less Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) than

the conventional array.

From the FEA simulation it can be concluded that the

Halbach machine with 120 poles and 1200 mm produced

better flux density than the original conventional machine

with the same magnet volume and 0.7 pole embrace by

almost 40%. This advantage is enough to compensate any

drop of no-load voltage resulting from reducing the

machine radius.

VIII. ANALYTICAL VARIATION OF OTHER VALUES

In order to examine the effect of varying other design

parameters such as air-gap length on air-gap flux density of

a PMSG with Halbach array, the analytical calculations

were performed. First, the air-gap length was reduced to

half and the comparison between the Halbach and the

conventional array was replotted in Fig. 8. As expected,

when the air-gap was narrowed to 2.5mm, the flux density

increased. Incidentally, it was also noticed that the Halbach

array exhibited stronger advantage over the conventional

array and over a wider radius region than with a 5mm air-

gap.

In order to investigate further, a new PMSG with

different characteristics was adapted. This new machines

specifications were taken from [8]. The new machine was

rated at 1.5 MW. In addition to the power rating, it differs

from the PMSG of section IV by the following features: It

has a bigger air-gap radius, a larger number of poles, and a

smaller magnet height and width. Fig. 9 compares the two

machines fundamental flux density with and without the

Halbach array when the radius is varied.

Fig. 7 FEA generated Air-gap flux density plots of (a) the 120-pole PMSG

with conventional array, and (b) with Halbach array. THD is total

harmonic distortion.

0 180 360 540 720

1.5

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

F

l

u

x

D

e

n

s

i

t

y

(

T

)

0 180 360 540 720

1.5

1

0.5

0

0.5

1

1.5

Electrical Degrees

F

l

u

x

D

e

n

s

i

t

y

(

T

)

THD: 16%

THD: 29%

(a)

(b)

61

Fig. 8 . Comparison of the fundamental flux density of Halbach (red) and

conventional arrays (blue) with 5mm air-gap (dashed) and 2.5mm (solid).

Fig. 9 . Comparison of the fundamental component of the flux density with

Halbach (red) and conventional (blue) arrays for a range of rotor radii for

two different conventional machine designs; (a) and (b).

The new PMSG, Fig. 9b, exhibited a wider range of radii

for which the Halbach array has an advantage, albeit with a

peak slightly lower than the PMSG of Section IV (Fig. 9a).

This peak, however, occurred around 800mm, which was

much larger than the one in Fig. 9a.

One can conclude from this comparison that optimal and

critical radii of the Halbach array depend also on other

machine design parameters. This stresses the need for an

optimization algorithm that takes into account all the design

parameters to provide optimized machine dimensions for a

Halbach array PMSG.

IX. CONCLUSION

In conclusion, the Halbach array could be a viable

alternative to the conventional PMSGs at MW level in the

direct drive wind turbine applications. However, it is very

important to optimize the machine dimensions for the

Halbach array so that its advantages can be fully utilized.

This paper presents a study by which the application of the

Halbach array was calculated through analytical equations

available in the technical literature. Certain modifications of

an existing PMSG design allowed the Halbach array to

produce superior performance while keeping the magnet

volume constant. A critical rotor radius was first observed

at which the Halbach array starts to lose its advantages to

the conventional arrays. By increasing the number of poles,

it was possible to shift this critical radius to larger sizes.

This allowed a positive utilization of the Halbach array at

MW level. FEA simulation has been used to verify the

analytical equation findings.

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torque production in Halbach and conventional surface-mounted

permanent-magnet synchronous motors," in Industry Applications

Conference, Thirtieth IAS Annual Meeting, Conference Record of the

IEEE, 1995, pp. 657-663 vol.1.

0 500 1000 1500 2000

0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

Radius (mm)

F

l

u

x

D

e

n

s

i

t

y

(

T

)

Halbach with 5mm airgap

Conventional with 5mm airgap

Halbach with 2.5mm airgap

Conventional with 2.5mm airgap

0 500 1000 1500 2000

0

0.5

1

1.5

Radius (mm)

F

l

u

x

D

e

n

s

i

t

y

(

T

)

0 500 1000 1500 2000

0

0.5

1

1.5

Radius (mm)

F

l

u

x

D

e

n

s

i

t

y

(

T

)

Halbach

Conventional

Halbach

Conventional

(a)

(b)

62

[19] Z. Q. Zhu, "Recent Development of Halbach Permanent Magnet

Machines and Applications," in Power Conversion Conference, PCC

- Nagoya., 2007, pp. K-9-K-16.

[20] Z. Q. Zhu, Z. P. Xia, K. Atallah, G. W. Jewell, and D. Howe, "Novel

permanent magnet machines using Halbach cylinders," in Power

Electronics and Motion Control Conference Proceedings, IPEMC,

The Third International, 2000, pp. 903-908 vol.2.

[21] J. F. Gieras, Advancements in Electric Machines: Springer, 2008.

[22] R. Krishnan, "Permanent Magnets and Machines," in Permanent

Magnet Synchronous and Brushless DC Motor Drives, ed: CRC

Press, 2009, pp. 3-133.

[23] "Ansys Maxwell," 13th ed: Ansys Inc.

http://www.ansoft.com/products/em/maxwell/.

[24] H. Shoudao, L. Xin, C. Luoqiang, H. Keyuan, and G. Jian, "An

engineering design of a 2MW direct-drive permanent-magnet wind-

power generation system," in International Conference on Electrical

Machines and Systems, 2008, pp. 2337-2342.

[25] K. Atallah and D. Howe, "The application of Halbach cylinders to

brushless AC servo motors," Magnetics, IEEE Transactions on, vol.

34, pp. 2060-2062, 1998.

XI. BIOGRAPHIES

Salem Alshibani earned his bachelors degree in Electrical Engineering

from the University of Hartford, Connecticut, USA in 1999. He then

jointed the Ministry of Electricity and Water in Kuwait where he worked

in the maintenance of power transmission Networks. Through a study

leave in 2005 he acquired his Masters Degree in Advanced Technologies

in Electronics from the University of the West of England. In 2007 he

joined the College of Technological Studies as a lecturer of Electrical

Power Engineering. He is currently working toward his PhD at the

University of New South Wales in Sydney, Australia.

Rukmi Dutta has received the PhD degree in electrical engineering from

the University of New South Wales, Australia, 2007 and the Bachelors of

Engineering degree in electrical engineering from Assam Engineering

College of Guwahati University, India, 1996-95. She is currently working

as a lecturer at University of New South Wales, Australia. Before this, she

had worked as an Electrical Engineer at CMG Pty Ltd, and as an associate

lecturer at University of New South Wales. She also worked at Institute of

Industrial Science, Tokyo University and Reliance Industry Ltd, India.

Her research interests are PM machine design and control, electromagnetic

analysis of electric devices, renewable energy, distributed generation.

Vassilios G. Agelidis was born in Serres, Greece. He received the B.Eng.

degree in electrical engineering from Democritus University of Thrace,

Thrace, Greece, in 1988, the M.S. degree in applied science from

Concordia University, Montreal, QC, Canada, in 1992, and the Ph.D.

degree in electrical engineering from the Curtin University of Technology,

Perth, Australia, in 1997. From 1993 to 1999, he was with the School of

Electrical and Computer Engineering, Curtin University of Technology. In

2000, he joined the University of Glasgow, Glasgow, U.K., as a Research

Manager for the Glasgow-Strathclyde Centre for Economic Renewable

Power Delivery. From 2005 to 2006, he held the inaugural Chair of Power

Engineering in the School of Electrical, Energy and Process Engineering,

Murdoch University, Perth. From 2006 to 2010, he held the Energy

Australia Chair of Power Engineering at the University of Sydney,

Sydney. Currently, he is the Director of the Australian Energy Research

Institute and Professor of Power Engineering with the School of Electrical

Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales,

Sydney. He has authored/coauthored several journal and conference

papers, as well as the book Power Electronic Control in Electrical Systems

(Newnes, 2002).

Dr. Agelidis received the Advanced Research Fellowship from the

U.K.s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC-UK)

in 2004. He was an Associate Editor of the IEEE POWER

ELECTRONICS LETTERS from 2003 to 2005, and was the Power

Electronics Societys (PELS) Chapter Development Committee Chair

from 2003 to 2005. He was the Vice President of Operations within the

IEEE Power Electronics Society during 20062007, AdCom member of

IEEE PELS during 20072009, and Technical Chair of the 39th IEEE

PESC08, Rhodes, Greece. Currently, he is an Associate Editor of the

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS.

63

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