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MO1OR CONCLP1 CONSUL1ANC\ & 1RAININGS

DRIVING ~ SAlL1\-RLLIABIL1\-COMlOR1
Vehicle Actie & Passie
Saety leatures
Volume
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MO1OR CONCLP1 CONSUL1ANC\ & 1RAI NI NGS
Vehicle Active & Passive 8afety
Features
Noel Concept
lall 4 2 L, 1win city Complex laizabad llyoer Islamabad. Pakistan
L-Mail : tanirgyahoo.com








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Introduction
Active safety features can help prevent crashes by providing
the driver with better means of controlling the vehicle and
avoiding hazards. Many vehicle features make an obvious
contribution to active safety, such as well maintained tires,
brakes, lights and steering. Others are not so obvious, like
seats and air-conditioning.
While active safety features can help reduce the chance of a
crash, unfortunately not all crashes are avoidable.
In the event of a crash, passive safety features are designed to
prevent or minimize injury to the vehicle's occupants. Some
features help absorb crash forces; some restrain occupants
from colliding with the vehicle interior, and others prevent
objects inside the vehicle from striking the driver or
passengers.
It is important to choose a vehicle with both good active and
passive safety features.

Active safety Passive safety
Crash avoidance
Tyres
Brakes
Anti-lock Braking Systems
(ABS)
Traction control and four
wheel drive
Handling and stability
Audible warning devices
Seeing and being seen
Adjustability and comfort
Minimising driver distraction
Crush zones and safety
cages
Frontal impact protection
Side impact protection
Safety belts
Air bags
Seats
Head restraints
Safe vehicle interiors
Load restraint
Fire prevention & protection

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Active safety: Crash avoidance
The most effective active safety feature is the driver.
Even vehicles with the best active safety features can still crash, and it
is almost always a driver who is responsible. The best thing you can do
to avoid a crash is to drive your vehicle safely.
You may want to refresh your safe driving skills by doing a course with
a qualified driving instructor. Also check out the latest version of the
Road Code - it contains excellent advice on safe driving for people at
all experience levels.
TYERS
Tires are one of a vehicle's most important active safety features.
Whenever a vehicle accelerates, corners or brakes, it imposes forces
on its tires. Good tires grip the road to allow a vehicle to stop, go and
corner safely, which can be crucial in avoiding crashes.
Choosing the right tire depends on the type of vehicle it will be fitted
to and how the vehicle will be used. Tires that may be suitable for a
passenger car used for city driving could be unsuitable for a vehicle
carrying heavy loads or used off-road. The tires fitted by the vehicle
manufacturer are suitable for the everyday operation of most vehicles,
but it is a good idea to discuss tire choice with the vehicle dealer or a
tire specialist.
Here are some tire safety issues you should consider:
Select tires with an approved standards mark. It is illegal to use
or sell tires that do not comply with an approved standard
Every tire has a maximum speed rating. A tire with a high speed
rating will generally grip better and probably perform better at
higher speeds than one with a low speed rating.
A tire has a load index that indicates its maximum carrying
capacity. Ensure vehicles carrying heavy loads have tires capable
of safely bearing the weight.
Check the tire inflation pressure often to ensure it is correct. This
will optimize the tires performance, load-bearing and wear and
fuel economy.
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Tires made of hard compounds usually last longer, but may not
grip as well as softer tires.
Tire specialists recommend all tires on a vehicle should be of the
same construction. Mixing tire types on a vehicle compromises
driving control. At the very least, the same type of tire should be
fitted to the same axle (front or rear).
Having tires of different construction or size fitted to the same
axle is dangerous and illegal.
Car manufacturers recommend that replacement tires be the
same type as those originally fitted, to maintain all-round driving
performance.
Ideally, tires should be replaced in sets of four (or at least in
pairs on the same axle) to maintain consistent vehicle handling
and responses.
If the size of a replacement tire differs from that of the original
tire, ensure the new size is compatible with the wheel rim size
and that adequate clearance exists in all conditions (including
when snow chains may need to be fitted).


Brakes
A good brake system has the following features:
The vehicle should be able to stop in the shortest possible
distance and still maintain stability.
The vehicle can be easily controlled during braking.
Braking performance should be consistent with brake pedal
pressure.
Drum brakes offer very good braking on the rear axle, but are not as
effective on the front axle where better heat dissipation is needed.
When disc brakes are used on the rear axle, a drum handbrake is
usually incorporated.
Disc brakes offer better performance than drum brakes during long
braking, repeated braking, and when braking at high speed, because
disc brakes are better able to dissipate the heat generated. Braking
hard or frequently can create high temperatures where the brake
surface and brake frictional material touch each other. The heat causes
the frictional material to be less effective, reducing the brake's
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efficiency. This is called 'brake fade'. Fluid in the brake calipers can
also boil under repeated braking, causing the brakes to fail altogether.
The best disc brakes are ventilated - this cools the brakes and
increases their resistance to break fade.
Good brakes are essential for controlling a vehicle and so must be well
maintained. Brake fluid may absorb water over time, which reduces its
boiling temperature, so regular brake fluid replacement is essential. To
help with maintenance, it is preferable to have brakes with an open
design so that wear of the brake lining and pads can be easily
checked. Any repairs or replacements must be made to the whole axle
set, not just one end of the axle, otherwise braking may be uneven
and unsafe. It is also necessary to regularly check the condition of
brake hoses and replace them as necessary.


Anti-lock Braking System (ABS)
The main safety benefit of ABS is vehicle stability and steering during
hard braking. With better control of the vehicle, the driver of an ABS-
equipped vehicle has a better chance of avoiding a crash.
An ABS-equipped vehicle has a computer with sensors that monitor
wheel speed and detect when a wheel is about to lock up under hard
braking. The computer sends a signal to valves that reduce and
reapply brake pressure on that wheel several times a second, allowing
the wheel to keep rolling. By preventing wheel lock-up, ABS lets the
driver brake hard and still retains steering control.
In an emergency the ABS is activated by pressing the brake pedal as
quickly and firmly as possible, maintaining pressure until braking is no
longer needed. It may also activate during moderate braking on
slippery surfaces. The brake pedal may vibrate or there could be a
thumping noise - this is normal when ABS is functioning. Pumping or
easing off the brakes, which good drivers normally do to avoid
skidding, stops ABS from working? It is a good idea to do a practical
driving course to become familiar with how ABS works.
There are some misconceptions about ABS. Many drivers believe ABS
decreases stopping distances, so they drive faster or closer to vehicles
in front. While stopping distances will tend to be shorter on wet and
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slippery roads, ABS can actually increase the distance it takes to stop
on shingle or soft snow.
Another misconception is that ABS can prevent skids on corners. This
is not the case if skidding is due to excessive speed. Some drivers may
expect ABS to work automatically, without the brakes being applied,
when a vehicle starts to skid. ABS only works when the brakes are on.


Traction control and four-wheel drive
Some new vehicles are equipped with a traction control system. These
systems optimize grip and stability on the road during acceleration by
measuring wheel rotation. If one wheel loses traction and starts
spinning faster than the others, the system stops wheel spin by
reducing engine power or temporarily applying the brakes to that
wheel. The wheel regains traction and the vehicle can accelerate
smoothly, even on slippery surfaces. Limited slip differentials also help
provide a more even distribution of traction forces when the vehicle is
on a slippery surface.
Four-wheel drive can also enhance traction. The power of the engine is
delivered to all the vehicle's wheels, so traction and steering forces are
spread more evenly among the tires. This improves grip and stability,
particularly on surfaces two-wheel drive vehicles may not be able to
handle safely.


Handling and stability
A vehicle with good handling and stability is not only a pleasure to
drive, it is also safer to drive. The vehicle holds the road and is more
responsive to the driver's commands. This is achieved through a
combination of the vehicle's steering, suspension, braking,
acceleration, body characteristics and weight distribution.
Each manufacturer has its own system of improving vehicle stability,
road-holding ability and handling performance. It is worth test-driving
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several vehicles to get a better idea of which one best offers you safe,
efficient and comprehensive control on the road.


Seeing and being seen
A safe car should have features that enable the driver to see clearly
and identify possible risks, and also allow other road users to see the
vehicle and judge what it is doing. Some of these features are
described below.


Windows
Windows should be a good size and allow clear vision in all directions,
including a view of the vehicle's extremities. The rake of some
windows may cause glare or reflections. Blind spots created by front
and rear pillars should be minimal. Tinting windows can reduce driver
vision, particularly at night or in poor weather conditions, and the level
and position of tinting is restricted by law, so think carefully before
buying a car with tinted windows. Consideration should also be given
to how your ability to see could be affected by loads carried in the
vehicle.


Mirrors
Good mirrors will help minimize the car's blind spots and enable you to
see potential hazards when reversing, parking or changing lanes.
Mirrors should be easily adjustable from inside the car (preferably
electrically) to suit different driving positions. Some vehicles have
heated mirrors to stop them fogging up in bad weather. Dipping
interior day/night mirrors can be quickly adjusted to prevent you being
dazzled by the lights of vehicles behind. You should be familiar with
the characteristics of the mirrors fitted to the vehicle you are driving.
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For example, convex mirrors that reduce blind spots make vehicles
appear more distant than a flat mirror would.


Wipers and demisters
Wipers and demisters help maintain clear visibility, and should be on
the front and rear windscreens. Multiple-speed wipers are most
effective in variable weather conditions. The blades should be replaced
regularly to ensure the wipers work well both in bad weather and when
cleaning the windscreens. Demisters for side windows can further
enhance visibility. The most efficient demister of all is a good air-
conditioning system.


Lights
Good headlights are an important safety feature for driving at night
and in poor light conditions. They should give you a good view of the
road and roadside without distracting oncoming traffic. Fog lamps are
designed to improve visibility in fog but should only be used in foggy
conditions.
Some cars have wipers or water jets to keep the headlights clean.
Large, well-positioned tail lights, brake lights, high-mounted stop
lamps, reverse lights and indicators let other road users know that the
vehicle is there and what it is doing, so crashes are less likely to
happen.
Daylight running lamps are credited with preventing multi-vehicle
daytime crashes in Canada and Scandinavian countries, but their cost-
effectiveness in New Zealand's brighter ambient light conditions has
not been determined.


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Audible warning devices
Horns are fitted to all cars as warning devices, but you may also like to
consider buying a vehicle with a warning beeper that sounds when the
vehicle is reversing. These beepers can prevent many crashes in areas
with a lot of pedestrians and cyclists, such as city streets and car
parks.

Adjustability and comfort
Vehicle fittings must be able to be easily adjusted so you are
comfortable and in control on the road. All adjustments should 'lock' in
place until the occupant wants to change them. Mirrors have already
been mentioned; here are some other features.

Seats and safety belts
The driver's seat should be able to be moved forward and backward,
up and down, and the seat back reclined at different angles. This helps
you to be comfortable, to see well and to operate all controls easily.
Many seats have an adjustable lumbar region to further improve
comfort.
Head restraints must be permanently fixed or adjustable to a position
high enough and close enough to the back of the head to provide
support and protection for taller occupants. Safety belts should be
comfortable and supportive to wear - adjustable safety belt
anchorages will help them fit properly.


The steering wheel
Adjustable steering wheels can be moved forward and backward, up
and down, and tilted to different angles. A correctly positioned steering
wheel can help maximize your control of the vehicle.

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Air-conditioning
You should be able to adjust the temperature and ventilation to suit
climatic conditions. Air conditioning helps prevent driver fatigue by
keeping you comfortable and also demists the windows in wet or
humid weather. Air conditioning is not just a comfort feature; it
provides real safety benefits.


Minimizing driver distraction
If a vehicle's instruments and controls are difficult to see and use, your
attention is taken away from the road. This is when crashes can
happen.
Well-designed instrument panels allow you to see the speedometer,
fuel gauge, clock and warning lights at a glance. Items that require
adjusting, such as the stereo or air-conditioning, should be placed
within easy reach, and their controls need to be simple enough to be
used without looking. Some people prefer cars that have knobs and
dials as controls because they are easier to locate by feel than push
buttons. Placing controls on the steering wheel is another way to
minimize driver distraction.








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Passive safety features
In frontal, rear and offset crashes, modern vehicles protect occupants
by absorbing crash energy and reducing the forces transmitted to the
driver and passengers.
The front and rear of a vehicle act as crush zones designed to crumple
in a controlled and progressive manner, allowing the occupant
compartment to decelerate more slowly.
Slower deceleration means less force reaches the occupants, so there
is a lower hence of injury.

Safety cages
The occupant compartment is a robust safety cage that diverts and
dissipates crash energy and preserves the occupants' 'survival space'
as much as possible.
The safety cage should include strong pillars to stop the roof from
collapsing in roll-over crashes, as well as barriers to prevent the
wheels, bonnet or engine intruding into the occupant compartment.
Door locks and hinges also form part of the safety cage and should r

Frontal impact protection
Every new car sold in World must comply with one of the approved
performance-based frontal impact protection standards. These
standards ensure the front crush zone, safety cage and other occupant
protection features work together to provide a prescribed level of
driver and passenger safety in a frontal crash.




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Side impact protection
Side impact crashes can be particularly dangerous because there is no
room for large crush zones to protect an occupant from crash forces.
The door can be smashed into an occupant or the occupant's head
may be struck, causing potentially fatal injuries.

Side intrusion beams
To minimize this danger, most new cars have sturdy side intrusion
beams, cells, bars or other protection within the door structure. This
provides a solid energy-absorbing barrier, while the safety cage helps
to divert forces away from the occupant.

Padding
Most vehicles also have padding on the inside door panels. This
padding should be effective at absorbing impact energy, rather than
merely cosmetic. Some vehicles have crushable structures in the doors
to further absorb energy.

Side air bags
An increasing number of manufacturers install side air bags in some of
their models. The side air bags deploy from the seat, the roof, the
door or a pillar and protect an occupant's head and upper body.
They must deploy faster than air bags designed for frontal impact
protection, as forces will reach the occupant sooner in a side-on crash.
Although side air bags are currently uncommon, the significant
protection they offer to an occupant's head, chest, abdomen and pelvis
in a side-on crash makes a car equipped with this technology worth
considering.


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Safety belts
Three-point lap and shoulder safety belts are the best means of
occupant protection in almost all types of crash. Wearing a safety belt
can halve the risk of being injured or killed in a crash.

How safety belts protect you
Safety belts offer protection in three key ways:
They prevent or minimize the 'second impact' in a crash - the
impact of the occupants against the vehicle interior and each
other. It is this second impact that causes injuries and fatalities.
They stop the wearer from being thrown from the vehicle.
They help absorb the wearer's inertial energy, allowing the
wearer to slow at a rate similar to the occupant compartment.
In a 50 km/h crash, an average-sized occupant not wearing a safety
belt would hit the vehicle interior with a force of three and a half
tones.

Three-point lap and shoulder safety belts preferred
It is preferable that three-point lap and shoulder safety belts are
installed in every seating position in a vehicle, although this is not
always possible in the centre rear seat of some cars. While two-point
lap safety belts are much better than wearing no restraint, they do not
provide the same protection as three-point safety belts.

Fitting safety belts
Safety belts should fit the wearer's body without any slack. The safety
belt retractor usually makes this adjustment for the wearer and locks
the safety belt in place if there is sudden movement.
Adjustable safety belt anchorages allow the shoulder sash to be moved
higher or lower so that the safety belt can be worn more comfortably
and safely.
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New safety belt technology
Although safety belts cannot stop forward movement completely, new
technology designed as part of the vehicle's frontal impact protection
system can further improve their effectiveness at restraining
occupants.
Webbing clamps grab the safety belt webbing to prevent more of
the safety belt reeling out as it tightens on the spool in a crash.
Pretensioners use a spring, compressed gas or small explosive
charge that activates on impact to pull the safety belt tight
before the occupant starts to move.
Unloaders allow the safety belt to slacken in a controlled way so
the wearer can slow progressively while still being safely
restrained.
Remember that individual safety belt features by themselves do not
necessarily make a vehicle safer. Safety belt design and technology
has to be integrated into a vehicle's overall occupant protection
system to be effective.

Importance of complying with a standard
It is a vehicle's compliance with a performance-based frontal impact
occupant protection standard that is important, not the presence or
absence of particular safety belt features. However, within the range of
a single model of vehicle, the addition of these items will increase the
level of protection over the base model.
Air bags
An air bag is a supplementary restraint that works in combination with
a safety belt to protect an occupant in a frontal crash. It is stored in
the steering wheel hub or dashboard and inflates very rapidly in a split
second after impact.
As an occupant moves forward in a crash, the air bag protects them in
several ways:
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It slows the occupant's deceleration by deflating at a controlled
rate. This does not mean it takes a long time for an air bag to
deflate; inflation and deflation occurs faster than a person can
blink.
It prevents the occupant's head and chest from striking the
steering wheel, dashboard or top of the windscreen.
There is a large surface area to restrain the occupant's forward
movement compared to a safety belt alone, so compression of
the occupant's chest is reduced.

Air bags work with safety belts
Air bags are designed to supplement safety belts, not replace them.
Some air bags will only deploy in crashes severe enough to threaten
safety-belted occupants.
Air bags are of limited benefit in side impact (unless they are side air
bags), rear impact or roll-over crashes, or in crashes where there is
more than one collision. A safety belt can protect an occupant in all of
these crashes.
Any driver or passenger in an air bag-equipped vehicle must still wear
a safety belt for their own protection.

Misconceptions about air bags
There are several misconceptions about air bags. Not all air bags are
the same; there are different sizes for different markets. Driver's air
bags in European cars are usually about 30-45 litres, whereas
American models may be up to 70 litres. Passenger air bags are
typically much bigger.
Air bags cannot be added to a vehicle like some other equipment. They
must be designed to work in conjunction with the safety system of a
specific vehicle model.
An air bag will not block the driver's vision in a crash - it inflates and
deflates in approximately one tenth of a second. Nor are air bags like
soft pillows - to provide protection in a crash they must inflate
incredibly quickly, which means the front of an air bag will deploy
towards an occupant at between 160 to 320 km/h.
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Potential for injury

Because of this deployment speed, there is the potential of injury from
an air bag. New types of air bag deploy less aggressively, and air bags
under development detect the size and position of occupants or take
account of different crash speeds and adjust air bag deployment to
offer the best protection.
There are several simple ways that occupants can avoid the risk of
injury from an air bag:
Always wear a safety belt.
Do not sit too close to the steering wheel or slide the seat a long
way forward. Shorter drivers should sit back from the steering
wheel, but in a position that still gives them full control of the
vehicle.
Do not rest anything over the air bag cover, nor place anything
between the air bag and an occupant (except a safety belt).
Never put a rear-facing infant restraint in the front seat of a
vehicle with a passenger air bag.
Read the vehicle manual for any other information regarding the
vehicle's air bag or air bags.
If you buy an air bag-equipped vehicle, follow these precautions
as well as any advice printed on warning labels in the vehicle.
Despite some risks, air bags are passive safety features that have
reduced the injuries and saved the lives of thousands of people in
serious crashes.

Seats
A vehicle's seats can be very effective passive safety features. A seat
should be comfortable, but must also be sturdy enough to withstand a
lot of force and protect its occupant in a crash.


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'Anti-submarining' seats
Most new cars have front 'anti-submarining' seats designed to prevent
the occupants slipping under the lap section of the safety belt and
suffering abdominal injuries in a crash.

Strength of the seat
The seat back is often the only thing between the occupant and other
passengers and objects in a crash: most new vehicles have seats built
to comply with an international strength and safety standard.
Safety standards for vehicles
A seat should be strong enough to act as a barrier against impact
coming from behind the occupant. Some new vehicles have seats with
deformable crossbars and padding to absorb crash energy.
Many seats also provide an element of side impact protection.

Seats
A vehicle's seats can be very effective passive safety features. A seat
should be comfortable, but must also be sturdy enough to withstand a
lot of force and protect its occupant in a crash.



'Anti-submarining' seats
Most new cars have front 'anti-submarining' seats designed to prevent
the occupants slipping under the lap section of the safety belt and
suffering abdominal injuries in a crash.

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Strength of the seat
The seat back is often the only thing between the occupant and other
passengers and objects in a crash: most new vehicles have seats built
to comply with an international strength and safety standard.
Safety standards for vehicles
A seat should be strong enough to act as a barrier against impact
coming from behind the occupant. Some new vehicles have seats with
deformable crossbars and padding to absorb crash energy.
Many seats also provide an element of side impact protection.

Head restraints
Head restraints are important safety features and should preferably be
fitted to all seats - front and back.

Preventing whiplash
Head restraint position is critical for preventing whiplash in rear impact
crashes. Whiplash is caused by the head extending backward from the
torso in the initial stage of rear impact, then being thrown forward.
To prevent whiplash the head restraint should be at least as high as
the head's centre of gravity (eye level and higher) and as close to the
back of the head as possible.


Risks associated with poorly positioned head restraints
A low head restraint can act as a pivot that will cause the head to
extend even further backwards. If the head restraint is too far away
from the back of the head it won't minimize movement. A poorly
positioned head restraint may present up to six times the risk of
whiplash injury of a safely positioned one.
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Unfortunately, many head restraints cannot be adjusted high enough
or close enough to the back of the head to protect taller drivers. Even
adjustable head restraints that can be positioned correctly are often
left at their lowest setting where their protection is minimal.
Fixed head restraints tend to be safer because they do not depend on
the occupant to adjust them to the correct position.

Safest adjustable head restraints
The safest adjustable head restraints offer protection to most drivers
even at their lowest setting, can be tilted forward and lock into place
when adjusted.

New developments
A new development is a head restraint that moves forward and up if a
pressure plate in the seat is pushed back by the torso in a crash.
Other vehicles position the head restraint automatically when the seat
is adjusted by different sized occupants.

Head restraints
Head restraints are important safety features and should preferably be
fitted to all seats - front and back.


Preventing whiplash
Head restraint position is critical for preventing whiplash in rear impact
crashes. Whiplash is caused by the head extending backward from the
torso in the initial stage of rear impact, then being thrown forward.
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To prevent whiplash the head restraint should be at least as high as
the head's centre of gravity (eye level and higher) and as close to the
back of the head as possible.

Risks associated with poorly positioned head restraints

A low head restraint can act as a pivot that will cause the head to
extend even further backwards. If the head restraint is too far away
from the back of the head it won't minimize movement. A poorly
positioned head restraint may present up to six times the risk of
whiplash injury of a safely positioned one.
Unfortunately, many head restraints cannot be adjusted high enough
or close enough to the back of the head to protect taller drivers. Even
adjustable head restraints that can be positioned correctly are often
left at their lowest setting where their protection is minimal.
Fixed head restraints tend to be safer because they do not depend on
the occupant to adjust them to the correct position.

Safest adjustable head restraints
The safest adjustable head restraints offer protection to most drivers
even at their lowest setting, can be tilted forward and lock into place
when adjusted.

New developments
A new development is a head restraint that moves forward and up if a
pressure plate in the seat is pushed back by the torso in a crash.
Other vehicles position the head restraint automatically when the seat
is adjusted by different sized occupants.


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Safe interiors
Most injuries in a crash occur when an occupant collides with the
steering wheel, dashboard, door or other interior surface. Improving
the safety of the interior of the occupant compartment, can reduce
injury severity.

Steering wheel and steering column
Hitting the steering wheel can give drivers serious head injuries. An air
bag and safety belt can help prevent these injuries, but the steering
wheel can also be designed to lessen the impact.
The steering column should collapse to absorb crash energy and to
minimize its intrusion into the passenger space. The steering wheel
should deform to absorb energy if it is hit by the driver's head or chest
in a crash.
Any other hard components the driver might hit should be covered by
energy-absorbing padding.

Padding and edges
All surfaces an occupant may strike in a crash should be as safe as
possible. For example, the dashboard, door panels, roof, sun visors,
mirrors, header rail and pillars should have thick energy-absorbing
padding with no sharp edges underneath.
Jutting objects and hard edges must be kept to a minimum. All interior
fittings, controls and surfaces must comply with safety standards from
the major vehicle manufacturing countries.
Safety standards for vehicles

Knee bolsters
A knee bolster is an energy-absorbing crushable barrier under the
dashboard that stops an occupant's knees from striking hard
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components and surfaces beneath and behind the dash, lessening the
severity of leg injuries to front seat occupants.

Load restraints
Load restraint is an essential consideration if the vehicle you are
buying is likely to be heavily laden with parcels, equipment or
baggage, as these can cause serious injuries in a crash if they are not
restrained. Even a small object left on the parcel tray behind the back
seat can become a dangerous projectile.


Vehicle boot (or trunk)
The vehicle boot should have tie-down hooks or eyes so heavy objects
can be secured with rope. Ratchet-tensioned straps can also provide
excellent load restraint. Station wagons in particular may have a
luggage cover or net, which can offer reasonable load restraint
provided the material can be securely fastened and does not stretch
too much.

Stowage boxes and compartments
Plenty of stowage boxes or pockets are a real advantage. Loose items
can be safely held or locked up so that they do not pose a risk. Some
stowage compartments may be located under the load floor, so
occupant space is not reduced.





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Cargo barriers
A cargo barrier can be a vital vehicle feature for protecting people
from loose loads in a crash. Cargo barriers usually have a steel tube
frame, with steel mesh or polycarbonate preventing items from
striking occupants. They are placed between the cargo and the front or
back seat.
When buying a cargo barrier ensure it meets standard AS/NZS 4034:
1994, or later standards as they are developed.

Fire prevention and protection
Fire prevention and protection is an important factor in vehicle safety.
The fuel tank and pipe connections should be designed and positioned
to minimize any likely damage in a crash.

Excess flow valves
An excess flow valve in a fuel injection system can prevent the fuel
pressure pump discharging petrol if there is a rupture 'downstream'
from the fuel tank. Some vehicles automatically shut off fuel flow in a
crash.
Flame resistant materials
In the occupant compartment, flame resistant materials slow the
spread of a fire.