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Note: - The readers of the Guardian Magazine, the only English Language Magazine in Burma with Burmese outlook, have come to know the historical background of the Rohingyas of Arakan. Now I have a pleasure in writing about the events for which the Rohingyas are alleged to be disloyal, Mujahid insurgents supporters, communal minded, smugglers, importers of illegal immigrants from Pakistan. To ascertain whether there is an iota of truth in these allegations certain facts and figures are to be brought in light. ----------they've (Rohingyas) done us well enough. They have had to put up with two British withdrawals, and yet they have come back with us and fought, and died with and for us. I sometimes wonder if any other people in like circumstamees can tell the same story of loyalty 1 and patience as can these Mussulman Arakanese. Anthony Irwin. Revenue Collected from Akyab District When there was a campaign for non-payment of revenue started by the Maughs throughout Arakan in 1945 the Rohingyas refused to join them in the campaign. On the contrary they have been paying all the revenues to the Government of the Union of Burma loyally till today in spite of tyranny and tortures by the Mujahid insurgents and the Maugh Government personnel's. In this connection the answer given by the honourable Finance Minister to a question asked by Mr. A. Ghaffar, Member of Parliament , in Parliament about the revenues collected from different townships in Akyab district clearly show that Maungdaw and Buthidaung townships are the only townships where 99% of the Rohingyas have been paying land revenues loyally and regularly. It is for the Government to find out how loyal the Rohingyas are in comparison with the Maughs of other townships in the Akyab district even in spite of constant suppression, oppression, subjugation, and molestation committed on them by the Arakan Maugh officials whose aim was and is to black-mail and exterminate the Rohingyas from the soil of Arakan, and in order to fullfil their aim have raised the false slogan that they (Rohingyas) are 2 Pakistani-minded . The following tables show the comparison of revenue collected from different townships of Akyab district. In Percentage
NAME OF TOWNSHIPS YEAR PUNNAGYUN 1945-46 1946-47 1947-48 75.09% 19.79% 0.19% PAUKTAW 94.94% 50.78% 13.15% MYOHAUNG 63.26% 8.44% 9.51% KYAUKTAW 21.64% 5.68% 56.58% 82.60% 85.25% 56.53% 95.23% 60.90% 35.09% MINBYA AKYAB RATHEDAUNG 95.81% 40.50% 60.12% BUTHIDAUNG 100.00% 97.74% 99.39% MAUNGDAW 100.00% 100.00% 98.39%

1. 2.

Anthony Irwin: Burmese Outpost. P.23 Memorandum Presented to the Regional Autonomy Enquiry Commission by Sultan Ahmed and others (May 1949)

In Kyats
NAME OF TOWNSHIPS YEAR PUNNAGYUN 1949-50 1950-51 1951-52 1952-53 2018 2055 1446 609 PAUKTAW 4705 3562 2147 513 MYOHAUNG 8215 4627 710 KYAUKTAW 26576 11225 1556 18650 8996 4913 29618 23518 30803 25418 MINBYA AKYAB RATHEDAUNG 2307 2269 2669 333 BUTHIDAUNG 44897 138480 118138 127181 MAUNGDAW 134861 138317 172701 160422

Mujahid Movement In 1947 Bo Letya the then Defense Minister paid a visit to Maungdaw, Buthidaung and he praised the Rohingyas for their loyalty and devotion to the Union because there were no insurgents in these townships while multicoloured insurrections among the Maughs started in early 1945 all over Arakan. So the Maugh leaders who have had hands directly or indirectly with the Maugh Communists were agitated by this praise of loyalty of the Rohingyas. They caused the Maugh insurgents to set up propaganda that if the Rohingyas would start the insurrection they would be given a Rohingya Autonomous State west of Kaladan River and the rest of Arakan would be ruled by the Maughs after the overthrow of the AFPFL (Anti Fascist Peoples Freedom League) Government. One Tun Aung Pru ( Maugh ) of Buthidaung township who was well versed in Rohingya Language was charged with this duty. He persuaded one Jafar to take arms against the Government, who was then brought to the Maugh Communist Camp and was welltrained. Being an uneducated young man he fell an easy prey to this plan of the Maughs. Taking a few innocent illiterate young Rohingyas and some disgruntled V Force Personnel and Policemen who were discharged when the Burma Government returned from Simla the Maughs with the co-operation of Jafar started Mujahid movement activities early in 1948 to take revenge on the Rohingyas, not to speak of a Rohingya State in order to prove them to be disloyal in the eyes of the Government as well as Burmese public. Then Ghaffar became the chief leader of the Mujahid insurgents while Tun Aung Pru remained with them as a chief instructor; and demanded for a Rohingya State under the Union of Burma in accordance with the instruction of the Maugh 3 leaders and Communists who had made a Pact with the Mujahid insurgents in every respect. As he succeeded in his plan Tun Aung Pru surrendered from the insurgents. The Deputy Commissioner of Akyab district asked some Rohingya leaders and elders in the month of July 1948 to see the Mujahid leaders at Kyaundaung village of Buthidaung township where they camped and to ask them to withdraw their demand for State when the government would be willing to concede to the other demands such as citizenship as an indigenous race, their amnesty, recognization of their organization as a legal one, and introduction of Urdu in schools. As the Mujahids did not give up their first demand for Statehood on account of the influence of the Maugh Communists and leaders over them this delegation was 4 not crowned with success. 3. 4. Mr. A. Ghaffar: Memorandum Presented to the Chief Secretary to the Govt, of the Union of Burma on the 20th November, 1948. Ibid

In the same year the Rohingya leaders asked Prime Minister to give them arms to fight against the Mujahid insurgents. But U Nu did not pay any attention to their request because of regular mischievous reports made by the Maugh leaders and officials. Again in 1950 Mr. A.Ghaffar brought U San Tun Aung, President of AFPFL of Buthidaung at the former's expense and both of them requested Bogyoke Ne Win while he was Defence Minister for arms to fight against the Mujahids. He also turned a deaf ear to their request. If they were given arms to fight 5 against the Mujahids, no doubt, the Mujahid insurgents would be crushed long ago. On the 25th September 1954 U Nu stated, in a speech made over the radio about the introduction of the Religious lessons in the State schools, that in North Arakan there are two townships Maungdaw and Buthidaung where most of the people are Muslims known as Rohingyas whose leaders asked him for arms to fight against the Mujahids. Some of the Maugh leaders are making false propaganda against the Rohingyas that they are supporting the Mujahid insurgents. Whenever the Mujahids demanded for money the Rohingyas bitterly refused it as a result of which several headmen and many noted men were killed mercilessly. Nyaungchaung Rohingya village tract of Buthidaung township and Naingchaung Rohingya village tract of Maungdaw township were burnt to ashes. Besides these, many Rohingya villages and villagers in these two townships were burnt down and killed respectively by the Mujahids because the Rohingyas refused to give money and to co-operate with them. In August 1959 the headman with five other Rohingya civilian people of Indin village of Maungdaw township were killed and many houses were burnt to ashes by the Mujahids. When the Mujahids do not find any man in a village which is demanded for money they drive away the young girls and women. For these brute forces the defendless Rohingyas had to give money to the Mujahids for the sake of their lives, honesty and property, except which they could do nothing while the government totally failed to give them any protection and to crush the Mujahids. Several times township head-quarters even district head-quarters were captured by the Maugh communists. The Rohingya police and military personnel, except 4 or 5, did not desert from their respective forces while hundreds of Maugh Police and UMPs ( Union Military Police ) had deserted with arms in Akyab district. Not a single Police Outpost or Military Outpost could be captured by the Mujahids during last 13 years after Independence because the Rohingyas did not co-operate with them while the Government of Burma was confined in Rangoon in 1948, 6 1949 and 1950. If the Rohingyas were disloyal they could have easily conquered at least half of Arakan when there were plenty of arms and ammunitions left by the British and Japanese armies in their hands during the Second World War. In March 1950 when U Nu, Prime Minister of Burma visited Akyab and Maungdaw it is said that he advised the Maugh leaders and public not to oppress and tyrannise the Rohingya population and not to take offending attitudes towards Pakistan. If Pakistan would to be aggressive, he said, it could have conquered whole of Arakan when the Union Government was quiet helpless to offer any assistance to the Maughs of Arakan. I take pity on the government that a handful of Mujahid insurgents could not be crushed even after 13 years. If the Government really wants to crush the Mujahids, the Burma Army have to take the co-operation of the Rohingyas giving them arms and training, without whose co-operation the Burma Army are blind in this area as the British soldiers were during the second war. 5. 6. Mr. A. Ghaffar: Press Conference given on the 21 . April, 1960 Ibid

Major Anthony Irwin writes, "Without these people we would have been blind and deaf. With them we have eyes and ears and continual entertainment. They make wonderful material for fairminded and farseeing coloniser. They make equally good material 7 for the grabbing, selfish and dishonest moneymaker." In the second great world war the enlisted, armed, trained and proud British soldiers had run while the enlisted, unarmed and untrained Scouts or V Force, drawn from the Rohingyas, under the command of Major Anthony Irwin were so brave and so intelligent that no gun worried them or any shot and that whenever they were sent to watch a Japanese road, they would come back and be able to tell the number of vehicles whether these vehicles were old British captured stuff or Japanese proper. If they were enlisted in any requirement, were they well-trained and were they given arms; and were they band together in a group I do not know what will be their real strength and bravery. In this respect Anthony Irwin again writes, They do not band together in clams but keep to their homes and their small villages, and thus their real fighting strength is unknown. But were they to get together, were they to be regimented and trained, I would go so far as to say that I would as soon take a battalion of them into the fighting line as any other Native 8 Battalion that Ive seen or fought with. In this great war V Force had stood as a rock against the advancing Japanese Army who wanted to occupy North Arakan. They made advances again and again to occupy Maungdaw and Buthidaung area which is entirely Rohingyas, but their attempt was fruitless because the latter were against them (Japanese). They occupied Southern Arakan within a few days with the help of the Maughs whose hearts were captured by them but not that of the Rohingyas. Whenever as they pushed North, so they met up against stiffer and more organized resistance that not only held up their progress but also forced them to retreat. They sacrificed their lives and property, and fought with blood and sweat in resisting the Japanese, their enemies, for the freedom of Burma. Why the Rohingyas resisted the Japanese the reasons were:- The Japanese wholeheartedly supported the Maugh community in order to harm all the rest; they had no regard for religion; they had no respect for men of any position; they were mannerless and dirty in habits; and they did not interfere with the false hopes and aspirations of the Maughs and with their deeds and sentiments . But the chief cause was that after the occupation of Southern Arakan the Japanese wanted to occupy Northern Section to bring the Rohingyas to their control with the help of BIA ( Burma Independence Army ). The Rohingyas at first welcomed the BIA, but later as this army ill-treated them, saying that they came there to root out the Kalas or Muslims they were not successful. The B.I. Army not only oppressed the Rohingyas but also tyrannize other minority racial groups of Burma. When they forced the Karen Christians to become Buddhists changing their religion, Karen Burmese communal trouble took place in Delta Region, in which many Karens were slaughtered. They ate green mangoes with the blood of the throats of the Karens. It came to an end when the Japanese brought reconciliation between the two 9 communities. 7. 8. 9. Anthony Irwin : Burmese Outpost, pp.27 Anthony Irwin: Burmese Outpost, p.25. Yangon Ba Swe : An article entitled State Religion Opposed appeared in the Flambeau Daily of April, 1960. (

About the B.I Army, we have an excellent description written by Mr. Zaimuddin, which is : - When the communal war was in progress here, Burma Independence Force with a few Japs arrived. They claimed to be the harbingers of Japanese troops. Instead of trying to appease the communal riot and restore peace and confidence, they rallied all available groups of Arakanese rebels and launched an organized attack on the Muslims of Maungdaw and Buthidaung. This attitude convinced the Muslims that they had no hope of getting justice from the Japs. Their survival depended solely on their own effort. In desperation they fought in a manner as the British army had never fought. Their defeat would mean not only the disappearance of the Muslims from this area but also an open gateway to India. By their victory, they successfully checked, for the time being, the enemys inroad to India. So far, the British or 10 the Indians remained as passive on lookers of the game. The B.I Army arrested and killed several Rohingya Leaders and elders as a result of which the Rohingyas became very bitter and did not co-operate with them, the news of which reached the ears of the Japanese commander in chief at Akyab and called back the B.I Army and sent them to Burma; and then sent again the Muslims leaders Mr. Sultan Mahmud, Mr. Yasin and U Pho Khine to Mg.daw-Buthidaung area because they believed that without the co-operation of these Rohingyas they could not make any headway to India. These Muslim Leaders of Akyab town also were not crowned with success as the Rohingyas had no confidence in Japanese in getting right and justice because they once sent the B.I Army to oppress them and now they wished to secure co-operation of them so as in later they ( Japanese ) could do easily anything they would like. In fact 90% of Rohingyas were against the Japanese. It shows that they were resisting the Japanese from the very beginning. Certainly their heroic records would go down in the history of Burma. In this connection Mr. Anthony Irwim says, -------and it is on these areas that we have to base our whole system of intelligence, and the Jap likewise, for he uses or tries to use the Maughs in the same way as we use the Mussulmans, but fortunately not to the same effect. Added to the fact that the Mussulmans are the more trust - worthy and in my opinion the more courageous, is the point that at the moment the Jap has had to fight in an area the Northern Section of which is entirely Moslem. We can work in the full knowledge that nine out of ten men 11 in our sector are for us, and that if we ever see a Maugh, he is against us-----------.

Massacre of 1942
In 1825 Arakan became a British territory with a population of only one lakh souls, (Maughs 60,000; Muslims 30,000, Burmese 10,000).In 1835 this had risen to 211,536. In 1845 the population numbered 309, 608 and in 1855 reached 366,310. The total population of Akyab district was 95,098 souls in 1831, which had risen to 109,645 in the following year, thence forward the increase was very rapid. The Muslim population of Akyab district, who numbered 154,887 in 1901, which at the census of 1911 had increased to 178, 647 while the Maughs were only 209,432. At the census of 1921 the Muslims in the district were 208,961 while the total population was 576,430 including Arimists, Hindus, Muslims, Christians and others, and 315,140 Buddhist which includes Maughs, Shans,Burmese and Baruas. 10. Mr. Zaimuddin: Political Development in Burma ( Unpublished ) 11. Anthony Irwin: Burmese Outpost, p.23

The Maughs had been decreased by 30,217 in 1911 due to different speaking dialect while the Muslims had been increased by 23,760 at the census of 1911 because the Muslims intermarry freely with the women of other faith of the country who became Muslims whilst nonMuslims rarely do this. The children of mixed marriages between Muslims and non-Muslims generally adopt the religion of Islam while the children of mixed marriages between two races of different religion assimilated by one of them as the early Hindus of Arakan were assimilated by the Tibato-Burmans. Before 10th century A.D in Arakan there were all Bengali Hindus but not a single Maugh was there. Arakan was invaded, in A.D. 957, by Tibato-Burmans who must have been early. Burmese . They mixed with the Indians ( Hindus ) and created Maugh race. Then the proper history of the Maughs began, which lasted eight centuries until 1784 when the country was conquered by Bodaw Paya of Ava " True, before A.D. 957 Arakan was a Hindu State. " 12 writes Maurice Calls. Islam allows the Muslims to take more than one wife. Early marriage is common to them. The age-group 14-16 in the following table extracted from the Census Report of 1931 will show clearly that 465 per 1000 of the Muslim females are married, and it is much more higher than the proportion married among the Maugh females which are of only 141. The other two age-groups are also higher. Birth rate is much higher than the Maughs, Married Persons per 1000 of each sex
AGE AT NEAREST BIRTHDAY S. No. RACE 14-16 M 1 2 MAUGHS MUSLIMS 15 14 F 141 465 17-23 M 333 401 F 632 821 24-23 M 830 817 F 796 836

and the children of mixed marriages between Muslims and Maughs adopt the religion of Islam. Rohingyas are the followers of Islam. By the above facts and figures the Rohingya population is increasing year by year. The Maughs have an eye on them. They waited for a chance to drive away the Rohingyas from the soil of Arakan; they did not get any opportunity. But in 1942 while the Burma Government evacuated to Simla and before the arrival of the Japanese the Maughs were favoured with a chance. Japanese aircrafts bombed Akyab. The British Indian forces retreated Akyab. The rebels known as Maugh Thakhins organized themselves into many groups. The withdrawal of the legal government removed from them the fear of armed resistance. Thousands of Maughs joined them in the attack on the Rohingyas. U Kyaw Khine, the thein Deputy Commissioner took charge of Arakan division from the Commissioner, an English man, of Arakan, and he himself a Maugh then supplied the Maugh population with guns, and all guns under licence were taken by force back from the Rohingyas who were then helpless, defendless and they could do nothing against the well-armed and wellorganized Maughs. Mr. Zaimuddin writes, " U Kyaw Khine, the Deputy Commissioner of Akyab, was sole representative of the British Government present. He went east, west, north and south. He freely distributed arms and ammunitions exclusively to the Arakanese of Minbya, Myohaung, Kyauktaw and Buthidaung. His attitude and behaviour to the Muslims however did not suggest 13 in the least that he had any desire to protect them. " 12. Maurice Collis : Into Hidden Burma, p.137 13. Mr. Zaimuddin: Political Development in Burma. 6

Then in March 1942 the Maughs started the massacre and driving away the Rohingyas with the intention of rooting out the Rohingyas of Arakan with the help of arms distributed by U Kyaw Khine and arms received from the deserted Karen soldiers who were on the way from Akyab persuaded by the Maughs to join them to root out the Rohingyas. This was started from Myebon township, Kyaukpyu district. U Chit Pa, Ex-Member of Parliament of Minbya constituency in a speech in the Parliament Session of the 17th September 1950 opposing the creation of a new district comprising Maungdaw, Buthidaung and Rahtedaung townships, had admitted that this was started by the Maughs. In this massacre thousands of Rohingyas ( it is said that 80,000 of Rohigyas) were massacred and thousands of them were driven away mercilessly. And those Rohingyas who were once in the cream of Muslim society in Kyauktaw, Myohaung, Pauktaw, Punnagyun, Minbya, Rathedaung and Myebon townships were taken refuge and are now in Maungdaw, Buthidaung, Rathedaung and Akyab townships, and some of them were in Chittagong district. And twenty two thousand of them were in the refugee camp then opened in Shubirnagar in Rangpur district in India. In turn the Rohingyas who survived and took shelter in Maungdaw-Buthidaung area wanted to create trouble there. The Maughs timely ran away from this area to Kyauktaw and Myohaung townships and some of them, especially of Maungdaw township, were taken away to India and allowed them in Dimazpur Refugee Camp. So very few of them were killed. When the Second World War Came to an end all these Maugh refugees were brought to Maungdaw and Buthidaung townships and were resettled in their old places. In their resettlement Mr. A. Ghaffar and other Muslim officers took active part while they were the Township officers there, but 99% of them sold out their landed properties at abnormal high price and came to 7 other townships to enjoy freely the landed properties left by the Rohingyas there. In this massacre and drive 307 Rohingya villages wee totally destroyed in the nine townships shown below. All the villages in Maungdaw and Buthidaung townships were reoccupied and rehabilitated by the Rohingyas. Some of the Rohingya refugees after the war tried to go to their former places in other 7 townships but the Maughs did not allow them to occupy their villages as a result of which they had to come back to Buthidaung and Maungdaw again. All their landed properties were usurped and enjoyed freely by the Maughs to the present day who do not want to give up the usurpation of the lands of the Rohingyas. Rohingya villages destroyed in 1942 massacre
Name of Townships Villages Myebon 30 Minbya 27 Pauktaw 25 Myohaung 58 KyaukTaw 78 Punnagyun 5 Rathedaung 21 Buthidaung 55 MaungTotal daw 8 307

The 6000 Rohingya refugees of one camp are still in East Pakistan scattered all over Chittagong district because U Kyaw, the then Commissioner of Arakan at Akyab not only bitterly refused to take them back but also said to one Mr. Gundivia, the representative of the Indian Government, who came to Akyab and saw the former in connection with these refugees while the Indian Government decided to close down the refugee camps, that he would not allow 14 the steamer to enter the Akyab Port with the refugees in question. 14. Mr. A. Ghaffar Press Conference given on the 21st. April, 1960.

About this Rohingya slaughter Anthony Irwin says, " The Arakan before the war had been occupied over its entire length by both Mussulman and Maugh. Then in 1941 the two sects set to and fought. The result of this war was roughly that the Maugh took over the Southern half of the country and the Musslman the Northern. Whilst it lasted it was a pretty bloody affair. Where the Mauhg predominated whole villages of Moslums were put to the sword --- For weapons they ( Muslims ) used a great two - handred Dahs, with a blade in some cases four feet long. At first the Maughs had it all their own way, for they were both better organized and better armed, having a fair sprinkling of rifles. But as they pushed North, so they met up against stiffer and more organized resistance and were not only held, but forced to retreat, for they are man to 15 man, no match for the Mussulman Arakanese. " It separated the two peoples into two distinctive areas of influence. The Northern Section is predominated with the Rohingyas while the Southern Section is predominated with the Maughs. As in Maungdaw-Buthidaung area the Maughs have no chance to be returned in any election for the Union Parliament, the Rohingyas became an eye sore to them. In 1948, Bo Nyo Tun (Maugh) who was the them Minister for Minorities had attempted to start a campaign of exchange of population. He submitted a report in which he requested the Prime Minister to exchange ninety thousand Rohingyas with an equal number of Maughs from different area so that they could deminish and exterminate the Rohingyas, saying that they wanted Arakan to be joined 16 with Pakistan as the area is predominated with them. U Nu gave a heed to his request and the AFPFL (before split) Government uprooted the Rohingyas of Tulatuli village tract of Maungdaw township, who were for generations there, and the Maughs were settled there and the landed properties belonging to the Rohingyas were distributed to the Maughs who were imported from Pakistan and other places. The Rohingyas, therefore, were deprived of justice and landed 17 properties. The same plan will be carried by the ANUO (Arakan National United Organization) leaders if Arakan Autonomous State is granted to them. They are always making false propaganda about the Rohingyas that the Bogyoke Ne Win Govt's plan was to shift about 200 Rohingya villages, into further interior of Arakan, which are situated along the Naaf River and border side, and an equal number of Maughs from different parts of Arakan would be settled there after the monsoon season in order to seal off the Naaf River to stop smuggling and illegal 18 immigrants from Pakistan. In this connection Mr. A.Ghaffar and other Rohingya leaders saw U Khin Maung Phyu, Minister for Home Affairs in the Caretaker ( Bogyoke Ne Win) Government, who replied to them that there was no such plan made by the government. Many Rohingyas had migrated to Saudi Arabia and 30,000 of them went away to 19 Pakistan in 1949 and 1950 because of local tyranny from various sources especially due to the oppression of the Maugh BTFs ( Burma Territory Force ), and Maugh Police. They were extorting money from the well-to-do Rohingyas who were arrested under section 5 POPA; and 20 many elders, for instance Master Azhar Hussain and Moti Rahman, Headmen of Kannyobyin and Kasaribil ( lower Purma ) village tracts of Buthidaung and Maungdaw townships respectively, were killed by them. 15. 16. Anthony Irwim: Burmese Outpost, p.21. Memorandum presented to the the Regional Automny Enquiry Commission by S.Ahmed 17. Mr. A. Ghaffar: Press Conference given on the 21st April, 1960 18. The Nation Daily dated 8th July,1959. 19. Mr. A.Ghaffar: Press Conference given on 21-4-60 20. Mr. A.Ghaffar: Address Presented to U Nu on 10-3-50 at Maungdaw.

Besides, there was another organized attack on the Rohingyas in 1934 in Rathedaung township, in connection with which the Maugh leaders of Akyab town made vigorous attempt to defend the inhuman crimes of the Maughs of Rathedaung township and they expressed the 21 feelings against the Rohingyas, which are still fresh in the mind of every Rohingya. Failing in these two drives and killing the Maugh leaders applied the latest method to uproot the Rohingyas, in which they were successful in driving away mercilessly over 13,000and over 10000 Rohingyas from the Northern regions of Maungdaw and Buthidaung townships respectively in the months of July and August 1959. These two inhuman drives were done by the Immigration Officers who were inclined to the Mauhgs. These people still have taken refuge in East Pakistan. All the Rohingya refugees who are still in East Pakistan are waiting for 22 repatriation.

Smugglers in Arakan
It is impossible to stop smuggling by sealing off the Naf River only. Smuggling in Arakan is carried on through the Kaladan and Mayu, the mains rivers of Akyab district. These two rivers are flowing from north to south touching Akyab township. Paddy and rice are being smuggled from the 8 townships of Akyab district, excluding Maungdaw township, from the mouth of Kaladan and Mayu Rivers, and through Panchakhali Chaung, a creek in the extreme south of 23 Rathedaung township, through which more than 95% smuggling are carried on. Except Panchakhali Chaung there are no other natural water ways for boats and sampans from Rathedaung and Buthidaung to Maungdaw township to carry out smuggling easily. Paddy and rice of Maungdaw township are smuggled by some Rohingyas and Maugh smugglers with the cooperation of Mujahids and Government officials. All the roads and passes between Maungdaw and Buthidaung, and Maungdaw and Rathedaung are heavily guarded by military and police personnals without whose co-operation no smuggling can be carried out. In fact 99% smugglers are Maughs of Akyab district. About three or four years ago a big gang of about 250 smugglers 24 was arrested by the authorities concerned everyone of whom was a Maugh . To prove it certain news item under the Caption, " Smugglers Composed of Port Police officers were Arrested " appeared in the Daily Mirror dated 29th May 1960 is to be considered. In Akyab the smugglers had taken rice permits for broken rice from the Deputy Commissioner at Akyab by making understanding with AFPFL ( before split) bosses to sell them in Akyab district, but instead of selling them in Akyab district they smuggled broken as 25 well as good rice to Pakistan. Fearing the Burma army and Security Council of Akyab the smugglers were in silence during the period of Bogyoke Ne Win government. In April 1960 when the clean AFPFL returned to power Rice Permits were not issued to stop smuggling, but the Maugh brokers and merchants who had connection with Pakistanis started rice smuggling with the co-operation of the Port Police, CLD, Custom and Excise officials of Akyab. The smugglers had bought broken rice at Ks.15/- per bag from the Rice Miller of Khit Thit, Bulawt Brothers, La Yaung Win, Aung 26 Sin Ho Ah Teik and Mya Rice Mills which are all along the Satroegya Creek. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. Mr. Zaimuddin: A Cursory Survey of Muslims' Position in Akyab District ( Unpublish ). Mr. A. Ghafar: Press Conference given on the 21st. April,1960. Mr. A. Ghaffar: Pres Conference given on the 21st April, 1960. The Burman Daily dated 22nd March, 1959. The Mirror Daily dated 29th May, 1960. Ibid.

On the night of 24th May 1960 at 7 p.m. the boats and sampans which were hired by U Ni Tun, Headman of Aungdaing village and broker U Pho Thi were ready at the Aung Sin Ho Ah Teik and La Yaung Win Rice Mills to smuggle rice to Pakistan. The Electricity Supply of Akyab was closed at that night from 7 p.m. to 11 p.m. and Akyab was enveloped by the darkness. Within one and a half hours time two boats loaded with 148 rice bags coming along the Satroegya creek of Akyab were arrested by the Burma Navy No.401 and Inya which were on duty at the mouth of that creek. The 12 boatmen gave their statements that these rice bags belonged to brokers Kyaw Tha and Maung Pru who were arrested immediately with the document connected with rice smuggling and they admitted that they were smuggling rice. With these documents there were also some letters with the signature of SIP U Myint Tu of Akyab Port Police Station addressed to the Burma Navy Officers and one Aung Khin who was in charge of Burma Navy No. 304 at Akyab, in which the SIP had requested them to release these boats without enquiry. U Myo Than BSI officer was enquiring the Police Officers, Custom Officers, Excise Officers, Brokers and Merchants in connection with smuggling. Some brokers of Akyab also had smuggled rice, loaded in 10 boats, in the first week of May 1960. Specially some of the Akyab Port Police Officers had contacted with smugglers even they had shares with them who smuggled rice and dried chillis to Pakistan. 27

Illegal Immigrants
There are no Muslim illegal immigrants in this part of the world from Pakistan. It will be recalled that in June 1959 some two hundred persons were arrested by the Immigration officers in Akyab district, on suspicion that they were Pakistanis, out of whom seventy eight Muslims were brought to Rangoon under the orders of the Ministry of Immigration for settlement at Gwaduthaung in Pyapon district. On arrival in Rangoon they were lodged in the Rangoon Central Jail under the detention orders passed by an Immigration officer under section 7(2) of the Immigration Act. All the detenus had claimed that they were citizens of the Union of Burma and 28 applied to the Supreme Court for writ. On the 4th November 1959 Their lordships of the Supreme Court pointed out that the Immigration officer was not an authority that could pass detention orders under subsection (2) of section (7) of the Immigration Act. Their lordships added that this section 7(2) is only applicable to persons whose status as foreigner is beyond controversy. All the detenus were released, but Hason Ali and Meher Ali of Buthidaung township were re-arrested at the jail gate by the orders passed by the Secretary in the Ministry of Immigration, who could only say that the applicants were Pakistanis in appearance and that they had no knowledge of Burmese Language, and that they could not reply properly to the questions put to them by the Immigration Officers relating to the events which had happened in Arakan during the period of ten years after the Independence. 29 The Secretary also could not positively say that they were in fact Pakistanis. Their lordships pointed out that they were the citizens of the Union in accordance with section 4(2) of the Union Citizenship Act 1948 that:- " Any person descended from ancestors, who for two generations at least have all made any of the territories included within the Union their permanent home and whose parents and himself were born in any of such territories shall be 30 deemed to be a citizen of the Union. " Their lordships went on saying that today in Burma there are people who are totally unlike the Burmese in appearance and who are unable to speak Burmese Language, but who are citizens of the Union under the Union Citizenship Act. These 31 applicants claimed to be citizens of the Union belong to this category and they were released. 27. Ibid. 28, 29 & 31. Guardian Daily dated 9th January 1960. 30. The Union Citizenship Act, 1948. 10

It guided the Immigration authorities to cancel the detention orders passed against the other detenus, but they failed to take this guidance given by Their lordships, and they continued to hold the 23 persons in detection who were rounded up by the Immigration Officers in Maungdaw township in 1959. They also claimed the citizenships of Burma and applied to the Supreme Court for writ as the seventy eight detenus did. On 26th October 1960, Their lordships directed to release them as they were the citizens of Burma according to the section 4(2) of the Union Citizenship Act. Their lordships reminded both the Immigration and the Sub-divisional Officers of Maungdaw to use their power very carefully in future. The Immigration Officer only could say at the Secretary in the Ministry of the Immigration said and filled up the printed deportation forms which were them signed by the S.D.O. To pass deportation order against a 32 Burmese Citizen is like putting him to death. It enlightened the Immigration authorities and on the 12th December 1960 the twenty eight Muslims who were among several Rohingyas who had been detained from time to time 33 were released from the Rangoon Jail. Many indigenous races of the Union cannot speak Burmese. They are totally unlike the Burmese in names, in dress, in maners, in customs and in traditions. While I was at the University I had friends belonging to other races of the Union who could not speak Burmese Language properly. So no questions can be put to the race or community who have no knowledge of Burmese language and who are distinctive from the Burmese in appearance to prove them citizens of the Union of Burma. All the detenus, no doubt, belong to an indigenous race, Rohingyas of Northern Arakan, who have no knowledge of Burmese Language, according to section 3(1) of the Union Citizenship Act 1948 that;" For the purposes of section 11 of the Constitution the expression ' any of the indigenous races of Burma ' shall mean the Arakanese, Burmese, Chin, Kachin, Karen,(Kayah), Mon or Shan races and such racial group as has settled in any of the territories included within the Union as their permanent home from a period anterior to 1823 A.D (1185 B.E.) " 34 These Rohingyas in a group existed in Arakan as a race since 7th century A.D. and their religion of Islam was propagated by their Arab ancestors since then. They have their own peculiar names, dress, maners, customs and traditions, which are in no way inferior to those of other races. But the Maughs say that the Rohingyas should Burmenise or Arakanise all these before they claim to be regarded as Burmans. In Arakan many Maughs have had been seen in European costumes. Were or are they regarded as non-Maughs or Europeans. Dress and names have nothing to do with nationality. It is not necessary to surrender these for the gains of society, politic and economic. I think that the Maugh will say to the Rohingyas in future to give up their religion of Islam also. On the other hand, tens of thousands of Anukthas or Pakistani Maughs who now are enjoying the privileges of nationally had been recently imported by the Maugh leaders of Akyab district into Arakan from Rangamati, Maushkhali, Chakaria, Ramu, Ukhia, Teknaaf and Cox's Bazar in Chittagong, and Barishal district. There are about one dozen big villages of these new influx of illegal immigrants in Akyab town alone. Many of these immigrants were also 35 distributed and resettled in the Rohingya villages of 7 other townships, who were driven away and who took shelter in Maungdaw, Buthidaung and Akyab townships in 1942. " There would have been some measure of truth to and included in the two lakhs Pakistanis who are alledged to 36 have entered into Arakan. But still the number would have been ten times exaggerated," writes Sultan Mahmud. 32. The Guardian and the Nation Daily dated 27th October, 1960. 33. The Guardian Daily dated 12th December, 1960. 34. The Union Citizenship Act, 1948. 35+36 The Burman Daily dated 22nd March, 1959. 11

The Maugh leaders of Akyab district are shouting at the top of their voices that there are 37 two lakhs illegal immigrants in Maungdaw-Buthidaung area from Pakistan. It is a pure lie befitting a born lier to utter this sorts of lies. In fact the people who were driven away mercilessly from the 7 other townships in 1942 and who took refuge in Maungdaw and Buthidaung are alleged to be Pakistani illegal immigrants. To black-mail the Rohingyas the Maugh leaders invented a slogan that they wanted Arakan to be amalgamated with Pakistan. They never wanted to join with Pakistan. But in 1946 one Omra Meah who was born and brought up in Maungdaw from the Chittagonian parents tried to persuade some Rohingyas to join him in demanding this area to be joined with Pakistan. Finding no one to support him he left Maungdaw for good, because the Rohingyas were against his demand for joining with Pakistan. 38 They know it very well that it will ruine them not only economically but also will lead to starvation. If there is any foreign aggression they will stand as a rock against them even Pakistan as they stood against the Japanese in the Second World War for freedom of Burma.

Arakan State
In consequence of 1934 and 1942 massacres of Rohingyas the golden opportunity of unity between the Maughs and the Rohingyas was lost. It is high time now for the people of Arakan to forget the past events and to reunite with each other, more than ever before, for the sake of peace and development of their country. But there seems no possibility for the unity unless there is a radical change in the attitude and behaviour of the Maughs towards the Rohingyas. It is deplorable that in 1934 and 1942 the general cruel killings of Rohingyas took place in Arakan, in which thousands of Rohingyas were killed in cool blood, as a result of which Mr. Sultan Ahmed and Mr. A. Ghaffar were authorized by the Rohingyas to demand for a Rohingya Autonomous State under the Union to avoid the molestation, suppression and extermination by the Maughs, but due to the assassination, on the 19th July 1947, of our beloved leader Bogyoke Aung San and his colleagues they did not press their demand in order to keep the solidarity of the Union in 39 tact. In 1949 they demanded for a Separate District under the Union, but it was also in vain because the Maugh leaders vehemently opposed it simply because that the Rohingyas will get a chance for development if a separate district is created and the Maughs will not be in a position to exploit the Rohingyas of Maungdaw and Buthidaung townships in future as they have done along. The Maugh leaders are making false propaganda that the Central Government has put them backward in education, in economic, in communication, in politic etc. But their main aim and object of demanding for Arakan Autonomous State is to oppress, suppress and exterminate the Rohingyas, and to replace them by the Pakistani Maughs. To oppress a people mean to make him to talk against his ( oppressor ) will. " They ( Rohingyas ) are living in a hostile country, and have been for hundreds of years, and yet they survive. They are perhaps to be compared with the Jews. A nation within a nation, and the apple tree hating the growth of the mestletoe but not being able to destroy it. They are stoic to a degree. No amount of bullying will make them talk against their will. Bully them and they will shut up like clams. Be kind to them and treat them as 40 human beings and they will prove loyal and intensely hospitable, " says Anthony Irwin. 37. 38. 39. 40. Activities of Mr. A. Ghaffar in Parliament and Outside, p. 90. Mr. A. Ghaffar: Memorandum Presented to the Chief Secretary to the Union Govt: on the 20th November 1948. Ibid. Anthony Irwim: Burmese Outpost, p.25-26


If Arakan State is granted to the Maughs the Rohingyas will be deprived of rights of equality, freedom and justice as they were in previous times. In pre-war days few Muslims ( Rohingyas and Kamans ) were appointed in the office of the commissioner of Arakan at Akyab, which was watched with jealous eyes and scornfully called a Kalas' Court, and the National High School of Akyab was called a Kalas' School due to the Superintendent and the two members of the Managing Committee of it were Muslims. In 1934 U Tha Ban stated in a speech made in a meeting of the Landlords' Association held at Akyab that they ( Maughs) could not tolerate to see a Kala nominated for I. C.S ( Indian Civil Service) in Burma. It was again stated by U San Shwe Bu in the Burma Legislative Council that the Kalas Burmanising their names and dress were getting nomination for the I.C.S in Burma. The Maugh prominent leaders regarded the Muslims of Arakan as Kalas without whose votes U Shwe Tha and U San Shwe Bu could not return in any election. Their desire was not to employ the so called Kalas in any employment they held in Arakan except the hewing of wood and the drawing of water. They had decided in the meeting not to allow any Kalas to sell shops at the Win Kaba Kwin on the occasions of their festivals, as a result of which two Muslim ladies were turned out of the ground during the Thadingyut and the Tazaungdine festivals. The Municipality of Akyab had contributed Rs. 100/- annually for the improvement of this field. This sum was not the money of the Maugh tax-payers alone, but the 41 right of using the field was exclusively reserved by them. In 1948 the authority concerned called about two hundred Rohingya youths from Maungdaw and Buthidaung townships to Akyab for the recruiting in U.M.P. ( Union Military Police) but not a single of them was recruited by one Kala U the then O.C. of the UMP saying 42 that they were Kalas. It is contrary to section 14 of the Union Constitution, which is " There shall be equality of opportunity for all citizens in matters of public employment and in the 43 exercise or carrying on of any occupation, trade, business or profession. " Education is the most important for the development of a community. An uneducated man is blind in every thing. He can do nothing for the improvement of his community. So the cherished desire of the Maughs is to keep backward the Rohingyas in education. In 1952-53 two hundred candidates for the Primary Emergency and for the one year Teacher Training Course, 100 for each course were selected from Akyab district. But they were not selected justly or populationally. Eight and seven candidates were selected from Maungdaw and Buthidaung 44 townships respectively where the population is nearly four lakhs while 19 and 17 candidates were selected from Kyauktaw and Myohaung townships respectively, the population of which is 45 about 120,000 combined. Candidates selected for the Emergency Teachers Training Course from the different townships of Akyab district
Name of township Canditates Maugdaw 8 Buthidaung 7 Kyauktaw 19 Myohaung 17 Akyab 19 Pauktaw 7 Rathedaung 8 Punnagyun 6 Minbya 7 Others 2



41. 42. 43. 44. 45.

Mr. Zaimuddin: A Cursory Survey of the Muslims' Position in Akyab District. Memorandum Presented to the Arakan Enquiry Commission by the General Secretary, Jamiotu-ul-Ulema, North Arakan, 1950. The Constitution of the Union of Burma, p.3 Activities of Mr. A. Ghaffar in Parliament and outside, p.54+55 Mr. A.Ghaffar: Address Presented to U Nu on 10th March 1950.


Arakan Autonomous State is strongly opposed by the Rohingyas in order to keep the solidarity of the Union and to avoid the oppression of the Maughs. One of the Muslim leaders of Akyab was once opposing statehood for Arakan. He wrote in the local English news papers that: - " They ( Rohingyas ) will never be a party to a further fragmentation of the country. They will stautly and steadfastly resist the plea for an Autonomous State for Arakan as they have already merged themselves within the major community to the extent of self-effacement without even 46 asking to be recognized as a separate racial entity------- . Is it any wonder that we now 47 strenuously resist the demand for an Autonomous State for Arakan? ---- The Moslems of 48 Arakan do not crave a Moslem State for Burma nor a Separate State for Arakan " . But now he turned to the Arakan Maughs and supported Arakan Statehood. He also dividing blood among the Rohingyas saying that there are no distinctions between the Rohingyas and the Arakanese 49 Muslims. I vehemently opposed it saying that there are no other Muslims in Arakan except Rohingyas, Myedus and Kamans. All this clearly show that he is not a faithful leader to the Rohingyas. Not faithful to a community means not faithful to the country. Now it is high time for every Rohingya not to fall an easy prey to his misguidance. He is also making false propaganda that Frontier Administration is a Military Administration in connection of which on 9th September 1960 Prime Minister U NU said, in replying to a cut motion of U Ba Sein, ( ANUO ) leader when Budget demand of Ks.42,78,000 was made for Frontier Administration, who objected to the inclusion of 49 villages in Ratheduang township in the Mayu Frontier Division, the villagers of which were Maughs, that the Frontier Administration was in fact in the interests of the Maughs. U Hla Tun Phyu (ANUO) said that they had nothing to say against the inclusion of Maungdaw and Buthidaung townships in the Mayu Frontier Division, but the 49 villages would be left out, and he feared that the Frontier Administration would become a Military Administration. In replying to this U Nu assured the Chamber of Deputies that Frontier Administration would never become a Military Administration though its director was Colonel Saw Myint and that it would remain Civil Administration. The 49 villages included in Mayu Frontier Division were used by the Mujahid insurgents as their hiding places from which they harassed the people and these villages are situated along the Mayu Range. U Ba Sein said that the Mujahids would tyrannize the villagers 50 of these 49 villages. The Mujahids harmed and tyrannized the Rohingyas. If the Mujahids do any harm to the Maughs it got immediate publicity where as the helpless Rohingyas suffered in silence and cannot give any publicity on account of many reasons that some local news papers especially the Nation which is inclined to the Maughs refused it. If the tyrannies given by Mujahid insurgents to the Rohingyas is compared with that of the Maughs it will clearly be a ratio of 99 to 1 that is 1/100. Not a single Maugh Monastery was burnt down while several 51 mosques of the Rohingyas were burnt to ashes by the Mujahids who are hated by the Rohingyas. 46. The Burman Daily dated 22nd March, 1959. 47+48. The Nation Daily dated 7th +12th April 1959. 49. Activities of Mr. A. Ghaffar in Parliament and outside, p.103. 50. The Guardian Daily dated 10th September, 1960. 51. Mr. A. Ghaffar: Press Conference given on 21 st April, 1960.


On the 3rd November 1957 Prime Minister U Nu made it clear that Autonomous state could not be granted to the Maughs. But now he turned to the ANUO leaders and promised with them to grant Autonomous State to them if they supported him and if the people of Arakan desired. In this connection Arakan Enquiry Commission has been appointed and the enquiry is in progress. It will be very painful for the Rohingyas if their wishes and aspirations and demands are overlooked by the commission. If the government really wants to know the will of the people of the Mayu Frontier Division it is advisable to the government to hold plebiscite in this Division as a separate district in Arakan. If the majority of the people of this newly created division do not want Arakan State, it would be left out of the Autonomous State for Arakan, and it would be created a Rohingya Autonomous State on the same line of Arakan State, or a Rohingya Special Division like Chin special Division, or a Separate District under the direct control of the Union to safeguard the Rohingyas so that they can live and build up a society in accordance with their own values and the cultural traditions and achievements. Anthony Irwin added to the fact that: - " Their ( Rohingyas' ) future is in our hands. We have a chance of Making a happy people and a fair State out of Arakan. Any fairness, any kindness will be repaid us one hundred fold. I wonder very often whether the fairness and help that they have shown us will be repaid as fully as it would have been had the boot been on the 52 other foot." After the reoccupation of Arakan in 1945 the British Government declared the area Comprising Maungdaw, Buthidaung and Rathedaung townships as a Philip's District or a Muslim National Area. U Khin Maung Phyu, the former Commissioner of Arakan Division had recommended the creation of a new district consisting of these three townships. 53 But it is now left to the Union Government to establish peace and tranquility permanently in Arakan by making Mayu Frontier Division as a permanent district under the direct control of the Union of Burma. It is advisable that the area west of Kaladan river may be included in the Mayu Frontier Division in order to check smuggling and to avoid communal friction. U Kyaw Min rightly wrote in his booklet " Arakan State " in Burmese Language that the Government of Switzerland which is not bigger than Arakan gave satisfaction to its peoples speaking French, German and Italian by creating states, and that they live together with each 54 other satisfactorily. So, if two states are granted in Arakan one for the Maughs and the other for the Rohingyas it will become a developed country and its peoples can live together having satisfaction; or at least one State East of Kaladan for the Maughs and one District West of Kaladan for the Rohingyas are created and kept directly under the Union of Burma, the racial prejudice will die down and peace and harmony will be restored. The Rohingyas are not so fool as the Maughs think. They are loyal, law abiding, peace loving and an interesting racial group in Burma.

52. 53. 54.

Anthony Irwin: Burmese Outpost, p.27. Memorandum Presented to the Arakan Enquiry Commission by the General Secretary, Jamiat ul Ulema, North Arakan, 1950. U Kyaw Min: Arakan State ( in Burmese ), p.32. 17. 12. 60


Reference:---1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Burmese Outpost by Anthony Irwin. Into Hidden Burma by Maurice Collis. The land of the Great Image by Maurice Collis . Burma Gazetteer Akyab district Compiled by R.B.Smart. Political Development in Burma by Mr. Zaimuddin ( Unpublished ). Activities of Mr. Ghaffar compiled by him ( 1960 ). Address Presented to U Nu by Mr. A. Ghaffar and others ( 10 March 1950 ) Memorandum Presented to U Ka Si the Chief Secretary to the Government of the Union of Burma by Mr. A. Ghaffar ( 20th Nov: 1948 ) 9. Memorandum Presented to the Regional Autonomous Enquiry Commission by Mr. Sultan Ahmed and others ( May 1949 ) 10. Press Conference Given by Mr. A. Ghaffar ( 21st April 1960 ) 11. Memorandum Presented to the Arakan Enquiry Commission by the General Secretary for Jamiot-ul-Ulema, North Arakan ( 8th June, 50 ) 12. Memorandum Presented to Arakan Enquiry Commission by the Rohingya Elders ( 18th October, 1960) 13. The Union Citizenship Act, 1948 14. The Burma Immigration ( Emergency provision ) Act, 1947. 15. The Daily Guardian, Nation, Burman, Mirror ( and 16. 17. Flambeau ( A Cursory Survey of the Muslims' Position in Akyab District by Mr. Zaimuddin ( Unpublished ). Arakan State ( in Burmese ) by U Kyaw Min.