:CT>

PRINCIPAL W. R. TAYLOR

COLLECTION
1951

FIRST STEPS IN ASSYRIAN

FIRST STEPS IN ASSYRIAN
A BOOK FOR BEGINNERS
BEING

A SERIES OF HISTORICAL, MYTHOLOGICAL, RELIGIOUS, MAGICAL, EPISTOLARY AND OTHER TEXTS PRINTED IN CUNEIFORM CHARACTERS WITH INTERLINEAR TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION
AND

A SKETCH OF ASSYRIAN GRAMMAR, SIGN-LIST AND

VOCABULARY

BY

L.
ASSISTANT
IN

W. KING, M.
BRITISH

A.,
ANTIQUITIES,

THE

DEPT. OF EGYPTIAN

AND ASSYRIAN MUSEUM

522645
LONDON
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH, TROBNER &
1898.
[ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.]

CO., LTD.

PATERNOSTER HOUSE, CHARING CROSS ROAD

SEEN BY PRESERVATION
SERVICES
FEB
*

'" 2

DATE..

PJ
32SI

Re

Printed by Adolphus Holzhausen, Vienna.

PREFACE.
THE aim
all

of the present

work

is

to furnish the beginner with

the materials which he

will require in his earliest studies of
It

the Assyrian language and the cuneiform inscriptions.
tains a sketch of the

con-

most useful

facts

concerning the cuneiform

of Assyrian system of writing, and an outline of the principles

grammar
series

;

a

list

of the

more common
printed
in

signs

and ideograms

;

a

of texts

and

extracts

the Assyrian cuneiform

character with interlinear transliteration and translation, ranging
in date

from about B. C. 2250 to B. C. 260
all

;

and

a full voca-

bulary to

the texts printed in the book.

To

enable the reader
first

to apply the

knowledge he can obtain by a perusal of the

294 pages, and to give him practice in independent decipherment, a few untransliterated and untranslated texts have been
added.

For the convenience of the beginner

all

the Babylonian texts

included in this volume have been transcribed into the Assyrian
character.
It is

of the greatest importance for
as

him

to

become
for

master of the so-called Ninevite script

soon as possible

almost every work found in Ashur-bani-pal's Royal Library at Nineveh is written in it. His Babylonian studies should begin

when he
ease.

is

able to read

the ordinary Assyrian character with

The

texts

here chosen represent

all

the

main

divisions

of

Babylonian and Assyrian literature and include examples of histor-

VI

PREFACE.
mythological, religious, magical, epistolary and
other do-

ical,

cuments, and care has been taken in selecting them to include those which are of importance from an historical point of view.

Among

these

may

be specially mentioned

the account of the

siege of Jerusalem

by Sennacherib

in

701 B. C. and of the taking
Students of Eastern cosmo-

of Babylon by Cyrus in 588 B. C.

gonies will be glad to have in a handy form the Babylonian

legends of the Creation and the Deluge.
here given,
viz.

The

other

legends

the Descent of Ishtar into
Zii,

Hades and the Loves

of Ishtar, the Treachery of the god

the story of the Eagle

and the Serpent, and of Etana's flight to heaven with the Eagle, etc. illustrate the stories with which the early dwellers on the
plains of

Mesopotamia amused

their leisure in the childhood of

their race.

Recent discoveries are illustrated by some extracts from the now famous correspondence between the kings of Egypt and their Babylonian allies and vassals in the fifteenth century
B. C. as found in the Tell

el-Amarna

tablets.
literal

The

translations

have been made as
exists

as

is

consistent

with the difference which

between the Assyrian and English

languages, and usually the meaning of every word will be found In the few passages in which this is not the case beneath it.
reference to the vocabulary will

enable the reader to identify
In

the words and their meanings.

the full vocabulary which
;

follows the texts the words are arranged alphabetically

words

clearly derived from the same root are placed together, but where-

ever this might cause the beginner difficulty cross references have

been added.

It

may

be remarked, in passing, that the reader
will find
it

who

possesses a

knowledge of Hebrew
;

most useful

in his Assyrian studies

such knowledge, however, on his part,

has not been assumed anywhere throughout the book.

The remarks
to

that Dr. Wallis

Budge has made

in

the Preface
scarcity

his First Steps in Egyptian

with reference to the

of

material

for study at the disposal

of the beginner in Egyptian

PREFACE.
are true, mutatis mutandis, for Assyrian.
his
I

VII

undertook

this

work

at

suggestion and
in

I

have carried
I

it

out practically on the lines

adopted
for

his book.

take

this

opportunity of thanking him

many

valuable suggestions and for his friendly advice which
at

he has freely placed
work.

my

disposal

during the course of the

L.

W. KING.

London, May 2nd, 1898.

CONTENTS.
PAGE.

Preface

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

v

PART
Introduction
:

I.

Cuneiform inscriptions Cuneiform writing

...

...

...

...

XVII

XXI
...

The

Assyrian method of writing

...

...

XXVI
XXXII

Syllabic signs

Ideograms
Determinatives and phonetic complements
.,.

XXXV
XXXIX

Phonetic changes

XLV
...

Pronouns

...

...

...

...

...

XLVIII
LIII

Nouns
Adverbs

...

...

...

...

...

...

...

LXI

Prepositions

LXIV
..

Conjunctions

...

...

...

...

...

LXVI

Verbs
List of Assyrian signs List of
...

LXVIU
...
... ... ...

LXXXVIII
CXXXIII

numerals

...

...

...

...

...

...

List of determinatives List of List of
List

CXXXIV
...
... ...

ideograms for the months ideograms

CXXXV
CXXXVII

for the principal deities

...

...

of ideograms for the principal countries, cities

and

rivers

CXXXVIII

X

CONTENTS.
PAGE.

PART

II.

Texts with interlinear transliteration and translation
1.

:

NAMES AND TITLES OF EARLY BABYLONIAN AND
ASSYRIAN KINGS
1

4

2.

INSCRIPTION FROM A CYLINDER OF HAMMURABI, KING OF BABYLON, ABOUT 2200 B. C.
See Strassmaier and Winckler,
II, P1

Zeitschr. filr Assyr.,

75

f.

57
I,

3.

THE MEMORIAL TABLET OF RAMMAN-NIRARI OF ASSYRIA, ABOUT 1825 B C.
See Cun.
pi,

KING

Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.), and Jastrow, Am, Journ. of Sem. Lang, and 3g,

Lit.,

Vol. XII, pp.

i

43

if.

817
I,

4.

THE HUNTING-EXPEDITIONS OF TlGLATH-PILESER KING OF ASSYRIA, ABOUT noo B. C.
See Cun.
Inscr. of West. Asia,

Vol.

I,

pi.

14

...

18

21

5.

INTRODUCTION TO THE ANNALS OF ASSUR-NXSIRPAL, KING OF ASSYRIA, 884

860 B. C.
I,

See Cun.
6.

Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol.

pi.

17

...

22

28

THE ENDOWMENT OF THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD.
See Cun.
Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. V, pi. 60

f.,

7.

and Jeremias, Beitr. zur Assyr., I, pp. 268 ff. ... THE SIEGE OF DAMASCUS BY SHALMANESER II AND

29

36

THE TRIBUTE OF JEHU, KING OF ISRAEL, 842
See Cun.
8.

B. C.

Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol.

Ill, pi. 5,

No. 6

37

3g

EXTRACTS FROM THE RECORDS OF TIGLATH-PILESER
III.

See Cun.

Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol.

Ill, pi. 9,

No.

3,

and

pi.

10,

No. 2; and Rost, Die
22
f.,

Keilschrifttexte
ff.

Tiglat-Pilesers III, pp.
9.

26

f.,

78

4046
pll.

EXTRACTS FROM THE ANNALS OF SARGON.
See Botta, Monument de Ninive, Vol. IV,
145,

CONTENTS.
PAGli.

XI

82 and 65, andWincklcr, Die Keikthrifttextc Sargoru,
I,

pp. 38

tf.,

100

f.,

II,

pll. 9, 14,

3o

f.

...

4751

10.

SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE AND THE
SIEGE OF JERUSALEM, 701 B. C.
See Cun.
Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol.
I,

pi.

38

f.

...

5266

11.

THE MURDER OF SENNACHERIB,
See Abel and Winckler,

681 B. C.
p.

Keilschrifttexte,

48;

Scheil, Recueil de travaux, Vol. XVIII, p.

17,

and

Messerschmidt
sellschaft,

,

Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen GeI,

1896,

pp. 24

f.,

73

...

...

...

67

69

12.

THE DESTRUCTION OF
See Cun.
Inscr.

SlDON BY ESARH ADDON.
I,

of West. Asia, Vol.

pi.

45

...

70

76

1

3.

THE SACK OF THEBES BY ASHURBANIPAL.
See Cun.
Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. V,

pi. 2

...

77

80

14.

THE EMBASSY OF GYGES, KING OF
See Cun.
Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol.

LYDIA.
pi. 2
...

V,

8187

15.

THE CUTTING OF THE CANAL OF
POLASSAR, KING OF BABYLON,
See Strassmaier and Winckler,
II,

SlPPAR BY NABO-

625604
Zeitschr.

B. C.
Assyr.,

fur

pp. 69

ff.

88

90

1

6.

THE COMPLETION OF THE WALLS OF BABYLON BY
NEBUCHADNEZZAR
561 B. C.
See Cun.
Inscr.
Zeitschr.
II,

KING OF BABYLON, 604
and
...

of West. Asia, Vol. V,

pi. 34,
...

Winckler,
17.

fur

Assyr.,

II,

p.

143

gi

94

THE DEFEAT OF ASTYAGES BY CYRUS.
See Cun.
Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. V,
zur Assyr.,
II,

pi.

64;

Hagen
f.,

and Delitzsch,
1

Beitr.

pp. 218

248

95

102

8.

THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS.
See Cun.
Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. V,
zur Assyr.,
II,

pi.

35

;

Hagen
f.,

and Delitzsch,
248

Beitr.

pp. 210

ff.,-222

io3

114

X

CONTENTS.
PAGE.

PART

II.

Texts with interlinear transliteration and translation
1.

:

NAMES AND TITLES OF EARLY BABYLONIAN AND
ASSYRIAN KINGS
1

4

2.

INSCRIPTION EROM A CYLINDER OE HAMMURABI, KING OF BABYLON, ABOUT 2200 B. C.
See Strassmaier and Winckler,
II,

Zeitschr.

fur Assyr.,

p.i 75

fI,

57
KING

3.

THE MEMORIAL TABLET OF RAMMAN-NIRARI OF ASSYRIA, ABOUT 1825 B C.
See Can.
pi.

Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.), and Jastrow, Am. Journ. of Sem. Lang, and Sg,

Lit.,

Vol. XII, pp. 143

ff.

817
I,

4.

THE HUNTING-EXPEDITIONS OF TlGLATH-PILESER KING OF ASSYRIA, ABOUT noo B. C.
See

dm.

Inscr. of West. Asia,

Vol.

I,

pi.

14

...

18

21

5.

INTRODUCTION TO THE ANNALS OF ASSUR-NASIRPAL, KING OF ASSYRIA,

884860

B. C.
I,

See Cun.
6.

Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol.

pi. 17

...

22

28

THE ENDOWMENT OF THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD.
See Cun.
Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. V, pi. 60

f.,

7.

and Jeremias, Beitr. zur Assyr., I, pp. 268 ff. ... THE SIEGE OF DAMASCUS BY SHALMANESER II AND

29

36

THE TRIBUTE OF JEHU, KING OF
See Cun.
8.

ISRAEL, 842 B. C.
Ill, pi. 5,

Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol.

No. 6

37

3g

EXTRACTS FROM THE RECORDS OF TIGLATH-PILESER
III.

See Cun.

Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol.

Ill, pi. 9,

No.

3,

and

pi.

10,

No. 2; and Rost, Die
22
f.,

Keilschrifttexte
ff.

Tiglat-Pilesers III, pp.
9.

26

f.,

78

4046
pll.

EXTRACTS FROM THE ANNALS OF SARGON.
See Botta, Monument de Ninive, Vol. IV,
145,

CONTENTS.
PAGD.

XI

82 and 65, and Wincklcr, Die
I,

Keilschrifttexte Sargons,

pp. 38

tf.,

100

f.,

II,

pll. 9, 14,

3o

f.

...

4751

10.

SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE AND THE
SIEGE OF JERUSALEM, 701 B. C.
See Cun.
Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol.
I,

pi.

38

f.

...

5266

11.

THE MURDER OF SENNACHERIB,
See Abel and Wincklcr,

681 B. C.
p.

Keilschrifttexte,

48;

Scheil, Recueil de travaux, Vol. XVIII, p.

17,

and

Mcsserschmidt
sellschaft,

,

Mitteilungen der Vorderasiatischen GeI,

1896,

pp. 24

f.,

73

...

...

...

67

69

12.

THE DESTRUCTION OF SlDON BY ESARHADDON.
See Cun.
Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol.

I,

pi.

45

...

70

76

13.

THE SACK OF THEBES BY ASHURBANIPAL.
See Cun.
Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. V,

pi. 2

...

77

80

14.

THE EMBASSY OF GYGES, KING OF
See Cun.
Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol.

LYDIA.
pi. 2
...

V,

8187

15.

THE CUTTING OF THE CANAL OF
POLASSAR, KING OF BABYLON, See Strassmaier and Winckler,
II,

SlPPAR BY NABO-

625604
Zeitschr.

B. C.

fur Assy r.,
88 90

pp. 69

ff.

1

6.

THE COMPLETION OF THE WALLS OF BABYLON BY
NEBUCHADNEZZAR
561 B. C.
See Cun.
Inscr.
Zeitschr.
II,

KING OF BABYLON, 604
and
...

of West. Asia, Vol. V,

pi. 34,
...

Winckler,
17.

fur

Assyr.,

II,

p.

143

gi

94

THE DEFEAT OF ASTYAGES BY CYRUS.
See Cun.
Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. V,
II,

pi.

64;

Hagen
f.,

and Delitzsch,
1

Beitr. zur Assyr.,

pp. 218

248

95

102

8.

THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS.
See Cun.
Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. V,
zur Assyr.,
II,

pi.

35

;

Hagen
222
f.,

and Delitzsch,
248

Beitr.

pp. 210

ff.

r

io3

114

XII

CONTENTS.
PAGE.

19.

INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS, KING OF BABYLON, 521

485 B. C.
See
t.

Schulz, Jotirnal Asiatique, Troisieme Serie,
pi. VIII,

IX,

Col.
f.,

a,

and Bezold, Die Achdmeniden... ... ... ...

inschriften,

pp. 36

y3, 87

115

116

20. INSCRIPTION

OF ANTIOCHUS-SOTER, KING OF BAB. C.
pi.

BYLON,

280260
Inscr.

See Cun.
21.

of West. Asia, Vol. V,

66

...

117

121

THE CREATION OF THE
Vol. IV, p. 362
p.

GODS.
Soc.

See George Smith, Trans, of the
f.,

of Bibl. Arch.,

and Chaldean

account of Genesis,

62

f.

;

Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier, pp.

268
p.

ff.;

Zimmern
f.;

in Gunkel's Schopfung

und Chaos,

401

and Delitzsch, Abh.
Bd. XVII, pp. 22

der konigl. Gesellsch. der
f.,

Wissensch.,

92

...

...

...

122

123

22.

THE REVOLT OF TIAMAT, THE DRAGON.
See S. A. Smith, Miscellaneous Texts, pp.
i

5;
cit.,
.,.

Zimmern,
pp. 32
23.
if.,

op.

cit.,
ff.

pp. 407
...

ff.;

and Delitzsch,
... ... ...

op.

100

124

136

THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON.
See E. A. Wallis Budge, Proc. of the
Arch.,
Soc.

of Bibl.

Vol.X,

p.

86

(six plates); Delitzsch, Assyrische

Lesestiicke

(3nd

ed.), pp.

97

ff.;

Jensen, Die Kosmologie
in

der Babylonier,

pp. 278

ff.;

Zimmern
ff.
;

Gunkel's

Schopfung und Chaos, pp. 410
Abh. der konigl.
Gesellsch.
...

and Delitzsch,
Bd. XVII,
...

der Wissensch.,

pp. 22
24.

f.,

92

137157

THE CREATION OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES AND
THE SEASONS.
See George Smith, Trans, of
Vol. IV, p. 362
f.,

the Soc. op.

of Bibl. Arch.,
cit.,

pi. 2;

Jensen,

p.

288
op.

f.,

Zimmern,
pp. 46
ff.,

op.

cit.,
f. ...

p.

414; and Delitzsch,
...
... ...

cit.,
...

108

...

158

160

CONTENTS.
25.

XIII
I'ACil
.

THE STORY OF THE DELUGE.
See Cun.
48
f.
;

Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.),
babylonische Nimrodepos, pp.

pi.

Haupt, Das

184

n.

;

George Smith, Chaldean account of Genesis, pp. 264
Jensen, Die Kosmologie der Babylonier, pp. 368
ff.;

ff. ;

and
pp.
161

Zimmern
428
26.
ff.

in

Gunkel's Schdpfung und Chaos,

181

THE DESCENT OF ISHTAR INTO HADES.
See Cun.
Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. IV,

pi.

3i

;

and

Jeremias, Die babylonisch-assyrischcn Vorstellungen vom
Leben nach dem Tode, pp. 10
27.
ff.
...

...

...

182

185

THE LOVES OF
See Cun.
;

ISHTAR.
of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.),
ff.
;

Inscr.

pi. 41 Haupt, Das babylonische Nimrodepos, pp. 42 and Jeremias, Izdubar-Nimrod, pp. 24 f., 51 f.

...

186

191

28.

THE TREACHERY OF THE GOD
115
ff.

Zu.
Genesis, pp.
II,
...

See George Smith, Chaldean account of
;

and E. T. Harper,
ff.,

Beitr.

zur Assyr.,

pp. 409
29.

467

ff.

192199

ETANA'S JOURNEY TO HEAVEN WITH THE EAGLE.
See E. T. Harper,
449, 453
f.
...

Beitr.
...

zur Assyr.,
...

II,
...

pp. 3g6
...

ff.,
...

200

2o3

30.

THE STORY OF THE EAGLE, THE SERPENT, AND
THE SUN-GOD.
See Morris Jastrow,
Beitr.

zur Assyr.,

Ill,

pp. 363

ff.

;

George Smith, Chaldean account of Genesis, p. i3g f

.

;

and E. T. Harper,
439
3
1.
ff.
...

Beitr.
...

zur Assyr.,
...

II,
...

pp. 3g2
...

ff.,
...

...

204

214

How
WIND.

ADAPA BROKE THE WING OF THE SOUTH-

See Winckler, Der Thontafelfund von El-Amarna,
pp.
II,
1

66 (a and
ff.

//);

and E. T. Harper,

Beitr.

zur Assyr.,

pp. 418

215218

XIV
32.

CONTENTS.
PAGE.

THE SONG OF URA, THE PLAGUE-GOD.
See George Smith,
p.
1

Chaldean account of Genesis,

33

f.

495
33.

f.;

E. T. Harper, Beitr. zur Assyr., II, pp. 432 f., and King, Zeitschr. filr Assyr., YA, pp. 53, 56, 61 219
;

222

LEGEND CONCERNING THE BIRTH AND BOYHOOD OF KING SARGON I.
See Cun.
Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol.

Ill, pi. 4,

No. 7 223

225

34.

EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS.
See Haupt, Akkadische und sumerische
p.
pi.
1 1

Keilschrifttexte,

6

f.

;

Cim. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.),
pi.
op.

26,

No. 8;
Haupt,

27,

No. 3;
'/.,

pi.
;

29**, No. 5;
Cun. Inscr. of

pi.

24;

p.

i22f.

West. Asia, Vol.

IV (2nd

ed.), pi. 59,
,

No. 2

;

pi.

54,

No.

i

;

and
f.,

Zimmern
f.,

Babylonische
52, 100
f.,

Busspsalmen,

pp. 33
35.

85

i

f.,

62

ff.,

89

f.

...

226240

HYMNS AND PRAYERS.
See Cun.
pi.

Inscr.

of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.),
a" Assyriologie,

20, No. 2; Bertin, Revue
ff. ;

Vol.

I,

pp. 157
ed.),

Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd

pi.

29,

No.
ff.,

i

;

King, Babylonian Magic and
4
3
;

Sorcery, pp. 16

pi.

f.

;

Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia,
Zeitschr.

Vol. IV,
Assyr.,

pi. 20,

No.
ff.,

and Briinnow,

fur

V, pp. 66

79

241251
assyrische

36. _

INCANTATIONS.
See
Maqlu,
Tallqvist,
I,

Die

Beschworungsserie
p. i3,

pp. 48

f.,

58

f.,

38

f.

;

II,

19

f.,

7

;

Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. IV (2nd ed.),

pi.

51

;

and Zimmern,
Religion,
I,

Beitriige

zur Kenntnis der babylonischen

p.

4

f.

252260
Letters,

37.

ASSYRIAN LETTER-TABLETS.
See R. F. Harper, Assyrian and Babylonian
I,

p.

42,

III,

pp. 276, 327, IV, p. 350;

S.
i,

A. Smith,
pi.

Proc. of the Soc. of Bibl Arch., X,

No.

VIII

;

CONTENTS.
and
198
38.

XV
PAGE,
I,

Delitzsch,
ff.,

Beiir.

zur Assyr.,

pp.

189

ff.,

212

ff.,

222

ff.

26l

269

LKTTKUS FROM TELL EL-AMARNA.
See Budge and Bezold, The
in the British

Tell el-Amarna Tablets
f.
;

Museum,
f.,

pp. 6

f.,

24

Bezold, Oriental
Keilinschriftliche

Diplomacy, pp. 3

i3;

and Schrader,
48
f.

BiWothek, V, pp. 14
3g.

ff.,

270281
Ill,

OBSERVATORY REPORTS.
See
Cun. Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol.
pi.

51,

Nos.'i, 3, 6,
40.

and 7

282

285

REPORTS FROM ASSYRIAN ASTROLOGERS.
See Cun.
Inscr. of West. Asia, Vol. Ill, pi. 51,
pi. 58,

Nos.

I

and
'41.

II

;

and

No.

i

286288
V,
pi.

SOME ANCIENT BABYLONIAN LAWS.
See Cun.
Inscr.

of

West. Asia, Vol.

25

...

289

292

42.

PROVERBS AND SAYINGS.
See \}&\\tz&ch,AssyrischeLesestucke($Td
ed.), p.

134;

Cun

Inscr.

of

West. Asia, Vol. II, pi. 16;

and Bezold,
Kouyunjik
... ...

Catalogue of the Cuneiform
Collection,

Tablets
...

in
...

Ihe

Vol. IV, p. 1742

2g3

294

PART

III.

Texts to be transliterated and translated

...

...

295

314

PART
Vocabulary to
texts in

IV.
III
...

Parts

II

and

...

3 15

399

A

LIST OF ASSYRIAN

GRAMMARS AND

DICTIONARIES.
Jules Oppert.
Elements de la grammaire assyrienne. First edition
(Paris,

1860).

Second
of

edition, Paris,

1868.

Edward Hincks.
Menant.

Specimen

Chapters

an Assyrian

Grammar,

London, 1866.
J.

Expose

des elements

de la

grammaire

assyrienne,

Paris, 1868.

Eberhard Schrader, Die
zig,

assyrisch-babylonischen Keilinschriften,

Leip-

1872.

A. H. Sayce.

An An

Assyrian Grammar,

London, 1872.

Do.

Elementary Grammar, London, 1875.

George Rertin.

Abridged Grammars of the Languages of the Cuneiform Inscriptions,

London, 1888.
Berlin,

Friedrich Delitzsch. Assyrische Grammalik,
translation by R. S.

1889.

English
1889).

Kennedy (London,
Parts
I

Edwin

Norris.

Assyrian

Dictionary.

III,

London,

1868
J.

72 (unfinished).
1886.
Leipzig,

N. Strassmaier.

Alphabetisches Verzeichniss, Leipzig,

Friedrich Delitzsch. Assyrisches Worterbuch.

Parts

I

III,

R. E.

Bmnnow.

18871888 (unfinished). A classified List of cuneiform
Leyden, 1889;
Indices,

ideographs,

etc.,

1897.
the Assyrian

W.

Muss-Arnolt.

A

concise Dictionary

of

Language,

Berlin,

1894. (In progress.)

Friedrich Delitzsch. Assyrisches Handworterbuch, Leipzig, 1896.
B. Meissner.

Supplement

zu

den

assyrischen

Worterbiichern,

Leyden, 1898.

INTRODUCTION.
Assyrian
is

the

name

that

now
of
to

indicates the language once The

spoken

by

the

inhabitants
It

Mesopotamia,
the
is"

Assyrians

and

Babylonians

alike.

belongs

northern

group

of the

Semitic family of languages and
;

closely akin to Phoenician

or Himyaritic,

and Hebrew, Syriac and Chaldee these are distinct from Sabaean Arabic and Ethiopic, which form the southern

group.

The language
on stone and
;

is

made known
number of
cities

to

us by numerous inJ

scriptions

clay, written in "cuneiform"

or wedge-

shaped characters

the greater

these inscriptions have

been unearthed from the buried
the present century.

of Mesopotamia during

The decipherment
Persian

of the Assyrian

inscriptions

is

a natural The

deci-

result of the labours of scholars

cuneiform inscriptions.

who have investigated the old The Achaemenian kings who
to the fourth

P herment
of the inscriptions.

ruled over Persia from the sixth

century before
at that

Christ, after the fashion of other races in

Western Asia

period, borrowed from the Babylonians the idea of cuneiform

writing ;
1.

2

they, however, considerably simplified the Babylonian
"Keilschrift"

In

German

;

the Arabs

call

it

^.l^c*-* (mistnarl)
lived

"nail-

writing".
2.

The

Susians, the Elamites,

and the people

who

around Lake Van,
1888 of the "Tell
diffu-

for instance, all used cuneiform characters.

The

discovery

in

el-Amarna

Upper Egypt showed the wide sion of Babylonian cuneiform throughout Western Asia as early as the
tablets" at Tell

el-Amarna

in

XV th

b

XVIII
system,

INTRODUCTION
employing
in

their

inscriptions not

more than

thirty-

nine groups
character.

of wedges
their

As

and each group formed an alphabetic empire was not confined to Persia, but
to

embraced the important countries of Susia and Babylonia,
the greater

number of

their

inscriptions

they appended Susian

icriptions.

and Babylonian translations written in the cuneiform characters employed by these two nations. After the fall of the Achae-

menian empire the Old Persian cuneiform

fell

into disuse,

and

the inscriptions in this character, as well as those in the other

kinds of cuneiform writing, in the course of time ceased to be

understood.

Those

records, however, that

were engraved upon

the stone walls of buildings and on the faces of rocks did not
perish, but

remained as permanent though unintelligible monu-

ments of the kings

who

set

them

up.
era,

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries of our

however, travellers in the East began to turn their attention to
these inscriptions, especially those at Persepolis,

and we

find in

the accounts of their journeys
1 expressed concerning them.

many

strange views and opinions
until

It

was not

the beginning of

century B. C. At this period not only in Egypt but from the coast of the Mediterranean to Elam, and from Armenia to the Persian Gulf, Babylonian cuneiform

was the language of
needs, but
I

official

correspondence.

It

was not unnatural therefore
which would lead us

that

other races should have modified this widely diffused system to meet their

own

do not see any

sufficient evidence

to

assume

that the Phoenician alphabet

was formed by the modification of

certain cunei-

form characters.
i.

1665)
1711)

See Pietro della Valle, Viaggi (Rome, 1662; English translation, London, en Perse, et autres lieux de I 'Orient (Amsterdam, Chardin, Voyages ;
.
.

de Bruin, Rei\en over Moskovie, door Persie en Indie (Amsterdam, 1714; English translation, London, 1787); and Niebuhr, Reisebeschreibung nach Ara;

bien

und andern umliegenden Ldndern, Bd.
by

II

(Copenhagen, 1778).

For de-

scriptions

travellers at the beginning of the present century,
in
in

see Morier,

A

journey through Persia (London, 1812); Ouseley, Travels of the East (London, 1819 23); R. Ker Porter, Travels
etc.

various countries

Georgia, Persia,

(London,

182122)

;

and Burckhardt, Travels

in

Arabia,

etc.

(London, 1829).

CUNEIFORM INSCRIPTIONS
the

XIX
was made towards

nineteenth

century

that the

first

step

deciphering them correctly.

Of

the three kinds

of cuneiform writing
in

(t.

e.,

the Persian,

the Susian, and the Babylonian),

which the Achaemenian
it

kings inscribed their trilingual records,
the Persian should
as
it

was most natural

that inthedeci

first

hermcnt engage the serious attention of scholars, P

is

by

far the simplest

of the three.

The

credit of

having
in
Grotefend

first

discovered

the

method by which the Persian column
belongs
to

these

inscriptions
in

might be deciphered
x

Grotefend

who
rius,

1802 succeeded in reading the names of Hystaspes, Da-

and Xerxes.

Other scholars followed on the

lines

laid
all

down by him, and made contributions
-of the

Rask, Saint Martin, Burnouf and Lassen

to the further identification of the characters

Old Persian alphabet.

Up

to

the year 1887, however,

the decipherers had merely succeeded in reading a

names, and they had not been able to

few proper make accurate and con-

nected translations even of the short inscriptions they had studied.
i.

Grotefend announced

his

discovery in the
left

Gottinger

Gesellschaft

der

Wissenschaften, Sept. Hth, 1802, and he has

a lengthy description of the

process by which he arrived at his results in Heeren's Historical Researches
(English translation, Oxford, i833), Vol.
II,

pp. 3i3ff.

The

process by which

both he and Sir Henry Rawlinson obtained the clue to reading the inscriptions was the same in each case and may be briefly described. Grotefend took for
analysis two short inscriptions in which he noticed the characters corresponded throughout with the exception of two groups of signs in each. As the rest of the inscriptions tallied, it was not unreasonable to suppose that the groups of the name of the man signs in each which differed represented proper names

who

set

up the
its

inscription and possibly that of his father.

But

in

these

two

inscriptions the

group which occupied the second place
position looked as though
set
it it

in

one inscription, and

which from
of the

represented the
first

name

of the father

man who
now

up, occurred in the
that

place in the

other inscription.

As he already imagined
Grotefend
inferred

the inscriptions were set

that these three

up by Persian kings, groups of signs gave the names of

three consecutive generations of the Persian monarchy.

On

trying the

names

Hystaspes, Darius and Xerxes he found they

fitted

the various signs exactly.

At a

later period Rawlinson, working independently on two other inscriptions, succeeded in reading the same three names by a similar process of reasoning.

b*

XX
awlinson

INTRODUCTION
for the late Sir

This achievement was reserved
son> G. c. B.,
Persia,
tails
first

LdtheBe-

who

in 1885,

and whilst stationed

Henry C. Rawlinat Kirmanshah in

ription.

turned his attention to the subject. Unaware of the de-

of Grotefend's discovery, he independently obtained similar

results
later

by making an analysis of two short inscriptions two years he succeeded in climbing the rock at Bahistun (Pers. Bagi;

and in copying the greater part of the Persian text of the Annals of Darius Hystaspes which was engraved upon its face.
stan)
In the winter of

1887 he sent a

first

instalment of his transla-

tion of these texts to the

translation of the Behistun inscription

Royal Asiatic Society. His complete was published in 1846 in
it

Vol.

X

of the Journal of that Society, but

was on the

original

translation

made

in

i83y

3g that Rawlinson himself based his

Apart from his correct identification of the entire Persian alphabet, he was also able, from his knowchief claims to originality.

ledge of Zend
inscription
literal
;

and Pehlevi, to arrive
first

at

the meaning of the

he was thus the

to

present to the world a
lines of cu-

and correct translation of over two hundred
1

neiform writing.
he deci-

The decipherment
Qf

of the Babylonian cuneiform followed that

lerment
'

^Q

Persian cuneiform.

The

writing:

in

the third

column of

Babylotne an cu;iform

g r ^at trilingual inscription of Darius Hystaspes had been

already identified as Babylonian from the fact that
characters were identical with those
slabs that
i.

some of the

on the inscribed bricks and
and Babylonia. The
first

had been found

in Assyria

The

fullest description
is

of Rawlinson's

own achievements and

those of his

predecessors

given in his

memoir The Persian Cuneiform
from those of Spiegel

Inscription at Be-

histun (Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. X).
translations differ in but few details

His transliterations and
in

Die altpersischen

Keilinschriften (Leipzig, 1881). See also Flemming's article Sir

Henry Rawlin-

son und seine Verdienste urn die Assyriologie in the Beitrdge %ur Assyriologie,
Vol.
II,

pp.

i

ff.

;

Nature, Vol. LI,

p. 536f.,

Vol. 58, pp. XLIVff., and Prof. G. Rawlinson's

Proceedings of the Royal Society, Memoir of Sir H. C. Rawlinson
is

(London, 1898); a

list

of the Persian cuneiform inscriptions

given by Weiss-

bach, Die altpersischen Keilinschriften (Leipzig, 1893).

CUNEIFORM WRITING
step
in

XXI

the decipherment

was made by comparing the proper

names occurring

in the Persian text of the Behistun inscription

with the corresponding groups of characters which

represented
this

them

in

the

third

or Babylonian

column.

Starting with

point as a base, Rawlinson, Hincks, Norris and Oppert gradually

worked out the values of the Babylonian and Assyrian signs. The principal steps in the work of decipherment are marked
by the discovery of the polyphony of the Babylonian signs a pointed out by Rawlinson and by Hincks' proof of their syllabic nature. For the determination of the Assyrian sylfact first

labary these scholars obtained considerable aid from the ancient

Assyrian

lists

of signs which
this

had been recently excavated

at

Kuyunjik and brought to

country, while for help in the

interpretation of the inscriptions they

depended upon the close

resemblance of roots in Assyrian with those in Arabic, Hebrew,
Syriac and Chaldee.
1

The method
Assyrians
is

of writing employed

commonly

called "cuneiform"

by the Babylonians and Cuneifor w from the Latin cuneus

"a wedge". Each character or sign consists of one or more wedges
arranged in a variety of ways, while the characters themselves
are written from left to right.

Strangely enough, however, the

wedge, though

its

most

distinctive characteristic,
;

no part

in its

composition

its

existence

is

had originally entirely due to the
is

material for writing employed by the scribes. There
that the cuneiform system of writing, like all others
i.

no doubt

which have

See Rawlinson's paper

On

the Inscriptions of Assyria

(Journ. of the Roy. As. Soc., Vol. XII), and his

Memoir on

the Babylonian

and Babylonia and
scientifique en

Assyrian Inscriptions
actions of the

(ibid.,

Vol. XIV), Hincks' numerous papers in the Trans-

Royal
II

Irish

Academy, and Oppert's Expedition
;

Mesopotamie, Vol.

(Paris, 1859)

Norris' principal contribution to Assyriology

his great Assyrian Dictionary which he did not live to complete. For the decipherment of Susian, the language of the second column of the Achaemenian trilingual inscriptions see Norris, Memoir on the Scythic Version of the Behi-

was

stun Inscription (Journ. of the Roy. As. Soc., Vol.

XV) and Weissbach, Die

Achdmenideninscliriften ^welter Art (Leipzig, 1890).

XXII
origin
'"

INTRODUCTION
its
1 origin in picture-writing. All pri-

developed naturally, had

mitive races employ the same rude means

when
first

they begin to
of
all

iting.

record their names

and

actions,

and they

scratch

rough pictures on any substance that may come to hand. After certain pictures have become associated with certain words the
pictures
their
,

are used
;

to

express the

sound of the words without
used phonetically.

meaning

in other words, they are

The

forms of the characters themselves, from being written rapidly

I

become more and more
or characters
it

simplified,

until

in

the resulting signs

j

is

hard to recognise the originals from which

!

they have

descended.

This

is

particularly

the

case

with the

cuneiform writing of the Babylonians.
of the country
in
|

The

primitive inhabitants
of pictures, tracing

made

their records

by means

rough outline the various objects they wished to represent, and in course of time employing many of their picture-signs to
represent sounds merely, apart from ideas.

I

record stone would naturally suggest
preserving an inscription,

itself as
it

For any permanent most suitable for
so

ie

deve-

and we find

was
soil

employed

in

jment of

Babylonia
of
its

;

but the alluvial nature of the
as
it

was not

in favour

extensive use,

had generally

to

be imported from

some other country.

These early Babylonians therefore adapted

themselves to their surroundings and from the fine clay of their
soil

they fashioned tablets on which they continued to outline

their picture-characters.

But

it is

possible to write faster on soft
lines,

clay than

on

stone,
stilus,

and straight

pressure of the
i.

tend to become wedges.

when made by a The pictures

single there-

two

tablets in the British

That the Assyrians themselves believed this to be the case is proved by Museum. These tablets are lists of picture characters

arranged in groups, and opposite each sign or group the scribe has written
the cuneiform character to which he supposed
it

corresponded.

The
the

tablets are

numbered

K

8520 and 81

7

27, 49

+ 5;

a

photograph of

former

is

published by Houghton in the Trans, of the Soc. of Bibl. Arch., Vol. VI, p. 454; a copy of the latter is given in Cuneiform Texts from Babylonian tablets etc.
in

the British

Museum, Part

V

(1898).

CUNEIFORM WRITING
fore soon
1

(XXIIl)

lost

their original

lines

and became mere groups of
characters, however, The picto-

wedges.

From
it

the archaic forms of

some of the

is

still

possible to recognise the objects for

intended.

The
is

assyrian

sign

for
*->^f-,

which they were instance, which means

"*
characters
sti11

"heaven",

the

descendant of the archaic sign

^

in

which

rec g-

nisable.

we may
The
when

possibly see a star with eight points,

or a representa-

tion of heaven as a circle devided into eight equal portions

(^.

archaic form of the sign
set
2

for

"ox",

:|,
etc. is

is

^>, which
in the earlier
circle

vertically,

thus

W,
in

certainly suggests the head of an

ox with horns.

The

sign for "the sun, day"

^|,

inscriptions written

5^>,

which we may

see a

rough
is

O,

representing the sun's disk.
the
earlier

The

sign for "corn"

inscriptions
vertically,

is

written

^^>

and

^; m ^/j^?

this in

which,

'when written

we may perhaps see a representation of a blade of corn. Some signs for new ideas were formed by The a combination of two other signs already in existence.
u "mountain" placed within ox", gave the new " a mountain -ox". The sign |^ sign t^$$> (= mod. Ass
sign

V

l>

-

t^)

"water" when placed within
>~Hfj|T "to drink";

^J^J

"mouth" gave the new
"to eat"
is

sign

similarly

>-Hy[

formed from

^p^ "food", and forms of *-*$
combination of

^^"J

"mouth". One of the commonest archaic
is

"month"

X^>,
and

which we may explain

as

a

j* "day"

^^ "thirty".
later

To

trace the pic-

1.

In the characters

employed by the

Assyrians and Babylonians the
different

signs are formed by various combinations

and repetitions of
|,

wedges,
,

those of most frequent occurrence being the upright

the horizontal *

and the diagonal wedge /, which

frequently
written
ri

interchanges

with

the

sloping
s y llable
sl

wedge

\

,

e.

g. the

syllable
f

di

is

as

/T>t

an ^ T^fc' lhe

bu as >-T^T and >-TT

the

syllable
in

as

>-TT^T
few

and *"TTI'

The

P in S

wedges

f

and
in

y/

are employed

only a

signs. In writing

on clay the

differences

the shape of the wedges could be produced by slightly shifting

the position of the stilus in the fingers.
2.

Some

archaic inscriptions are written vertically.

XXIV
torial

INTRODUCTION
origin of the majority
inscriptions,

of the
is

signs

,

however

,

even in

the

most ancient

quite impossible,
J
;

because

we

cannot identify the objects which they represent
later periods of

while in the

Babylonian and Assyrian history the signs befor
it

came

still

less like pictures,

was but natural

that the scribe

writing quickly on his soft clay tablet should tend to simplify
the characters.

The

inscriptions engraved
in

on stone

reflected the

changes which took place

the inscriptions on clay and the
latter

forms of the characters on the
in stone he
in-

were carefully reproduced
one that
while

by means of the
-

chisel,
is

The
o
j^

subject of the invention of cuneiform writing

;ntors

meiformriting.
it

as g- yen r se to a considerable
is

amount of controversy,

for,

generally agreed that

it

was due

to the early inhabitants of
is

Babylonia, the nationality of this people
still

disputed; some scholars

hold that this race were the Semitic Babylonians themselves,

though the majority now admit that the Semitic Babylonians borrowed their method of writing from an earlier race of non-Semitic
origin.

The

point at issue

may

be best stated by briefly indicating
it.

the course of the controversy that has taken place around

Among
many

the literary remains of the Babylonians and Assyrians are

compositions that are inscribed in the
but, to judge
in
\

same cuneiform

characters,

from the forms of the words, are clearly not written
language.

the

Assyrian

Many

of

these

compositions

are

furnished with interlinear Assyrian translations while the words
i.

A

theory has recently been put forward by Dr. Delitzsch, who, while reattempts to explain the rest as

cognising the pictorial origin of certain signs,

formed from them
signs

artificially.

Instances have been

given above of

how new

were formed by combinations of signs already in existence, but Dr. Delitzsch goes further and asserts that new signs were formed by combinations
and variations of simple wedges or rather lines. He distinguishes some fortyfive Urbilder or signs with a "motive" and thinks the majority of the characters were developed from them. Of the methods of combination he sets forth the
is that in which the meaning of a simple sign was intensified this process the Sumerians by the addition of a number of extra wedges termed gnnu. Few people will, however, accept his theory in its present form.
;

most convincing

CUNEIFORM WRITING

XXV

and forms employed are explained in a number of tablets containing lists of words with Assyrian explanations compiled by the Assyrian scribes. Moreover the monumental and documentary
inscriptions of the

early rulers
Isin

of cities in Babylonia, such as

Shirpurla or
idiom.
Sir

Lagash, Ur,
first

and Larsa,

are

written in

this/

The

to

detect the existence of this language

wag The
]

Su-

Henry Rawlinson,

who

in

1852 concluded that

it

was tht

menan
question

tongue of the early non-Semitic inhabitants of Babylonia amor whom the Semitic Babylonians had settled, and from the fad
that Babylonian kings,
in

addition to their other

titles,

style(

Xfecmselves king of

Sumer and Akkad, he concluded
of the

that th<

were Akkadians who spoke this language which he styled "Akkadian". Oppert, however, while accepting the existence of the language, contended that
primitive
inhabitants

land

was the language of the "Sumerians". 1 Others reconciled these views by tracing dialectic differences in the inscriptions, which
it

they supposed to represent differences of pronunciation exhibited

by the Akkadians and Sumerians, the primitive inhabitants of northern and southern Babylonia respectively others again,
;

though they recognised the existence of dialects, did not attempt
to define their geographical

distribution.

In 1884 the problem

assumed a new form and the question in deGate was modified

somewhat by Halevy who denied the
absolutely.
as the

existence of the language

He

asserted

that

what_had

hitherto

been regarded

Sumerian or Akkadian language was merely a traditional
scribes

i.

The Assyrian
in

merian"

describing the ancient non-Semitic

employed both of the names "Akkadian" and "Sucompositions which they edited

and translated into Assyrian; see the tablets K 11856, where "Akkadian" is mentions^" iC 14013, where both "Akkadian" and "Sumerian" are referred to,
8
1

7

27, i3o,
it

where mention

is

made of

li-sa-an Su-me-ri, "the

Sumerian

language";

may

be added that on the tablet S 1190, inscribed with incan-

tations and prayers,

two of these are
(cf.

referred to as II

i-pat Su-[me-]ri,

"two
in

Sumerian incantations"

Catalogue of the Cuneiform tablets the Kouyunjik Collection, pp. 1200, 1354, 1469 and 1805).
Bezold,

XXVI
cabalistic

INTRODUCTION

method of writing invented by the
priests.

early Semitic Ba-

bylonian

the Semitic Babylonians

According to Halevy's assumption therefore were the inventors_jDJMthe cuneiform

method of

Halevy devoted himself vigorously to developing his theory and for a time-A^eded in making many
writing.
converts.

The

excavations,

however^thathave been

carried

on

in Babylonia during the last fifteen years,

have yielded thousands of cuneiform inscriptions written entirely in this ancient tongue

and proving the existence of
indications of Semitic origin.
able
that
;

a

powerful race

who

betray no
it

To

these "Sumerians"

is

prob-

the

invention

of

cuneiform

writing

should
it

be

as-

signed

with
calic
}"

much

from them the Semitic Babylonians received of their early civilisation and culture.
a,

together

The
1
i,
il,

Assyrian language possesses the vowel sounds
at

e,

i,

u, a,

e,

fttcll

and the diphthongs m^^^*
b,

and
n, s,

ia. It

also possesses the consonantal
s

ands in
syrian.

sounds
are

g, d, z, h,

t,

k,

/,

m,

p,

s, k, r,

and L These consonants
,\
'"*

j^g
2
,

arran ged in the order of the

Hebrew alphabet and they
J,

correspond to the
h,
3,

Hebrew
p,
^1,
ttf

characters D,

1,

I,

PI

(Arabic

),

tD,

D,

D, S,

ii,

and

n
I

;

as reference will be

sometimes

t

made

to the

Hebrew alphabet

here give a
:

list

of the

Hebrew

If
(j

characters with their transliteration

w

THE ASSYRIAN METHOD OF WRITING
(13) (14)
(15)

XXVII

&
3

m
n
*

(18) (19)
(

it

f

p

D
y

20 )

1
tf

'
f
/

(16)
(17)

(21)

s

/

(22)

n

With regard
Assyrian J
it

to

the pronunciation of consonantal sounds in Pronunciatlc

may

be remarked that the sound represented by the

consonantai
in

symbol h is a guttural ch ; t is a harder dental than t; k and k were both pronounced by the Assyrians as k, but the Babylonians pronounced k as g; s is pronounced as is and S as sh.
a special character In the sign ^^>^>^- the Assyrians possessed
for markirig"~TrIe breathing, but in use
it

sounds
Assy-

rian,

especially at the beginning of a word.

was generally omitted, The Assyrian method of

writing, moreover,

was

ill-adapted for the expression of peculiar
find that the consonants K,
!"1,

Semitic sounds, and

we

H

(c),

&(,)

y

(,)>

1

an d

V

f r

which

special characters exist in the other Semitic
its

languages, were not distinguished in
root, for instance,

syllabary.

If a

Semitic

commences with any one of these consonants form of the word is without the consonant altothe Assyrian 2 g. 75K ('*/) "to eat" gether and commences with a vowel,
.

= Assyr. akdlu;
1.

3

TOP! (haldkP) "to go"
is

= Assyr.

alaku ; t^*lH (hadh aty

Of

these

consonants K

aspirate

corresponding to the English h

employed to indicate the breathing; .1 is an H had two sounds distinguished in ;
,

Arabic by the characters

^ and
and
1

the

nounced with

friction, the latter a guttural

former representing a strong h proch y also had two sounds cor;

responding to the Arabic
latter a guttural
2.

g or

r

;

=

^,

the former a softer guttural sound,
^

the

w, and

= y.

In the transliteration of the

Hebrew words here
the

cited the softer

pronun-

,

ciation of the letters

nSDIIQ, when without

Daghesh

lene, is indicated
It is

by

\
I

the addition to the letter of a small h printed above the line.
in

possible that

Assyrian the corresponding consonantal sounds were softened
in the

when

they

came between two vowel sounds but

Assyrian method of writing there

was no means of marking
3. In this list

this difference of pronunciation.
s.

and

in

the following paragraph the 3 m.

Perf. of

Hebrew

verbs

is cited

while the corresponding verbs in Assyrian are given in the Infinitive.^-.

XXVIII
"to be

INTRODUCTION

new"

= Assyr.
D*1JJ

ed'e^u ;
1 ,

ID^
e.

(ab

h

ar,

i.

e,

_^)

"to cross"
sun),

=
to

Assyr. eberu;

grow dark"

= Assyr.
its

Assyr. alddu ; pJJ

^) "to = (yanak) "to suck"
('drab'
i.

enter
,

(of the

h erebu; *TT (yalad

i.

e.

ibl) "to bear"
Similarly

Assyr.

en'eku.

when

one of these consonants occurs
a Semitic

as the second or third

letter in
e.

root

= Assyr.
It

D!T"J (rahani)

"to

love" =

place

is

taken in Assyrian by a vowel,
Assyr. rdmu ; $?t# (Zdma) "to

g.

hear"

semu.

has been already stated that the Assyrian language belongs
of the Semitic languages.
Its

to

the northern group

affinities

with Hebrew however are closer than with the other languages

which make up the group. The following examples of words whidr-t5ccuf both in Hebrew and Assyrian will suffice to indicate the close resemblance

between the two languages, and will

further illustrate the inability of Assyrian to represent the
itic

Sem-

consonants referred to in the preceding paragraph:
Assyrian
]
'eb h

Hebrew

IX

'06*

a-bu

DK

en

fc

TMI
'ahaz
'el

'arba

THE ASSYRIAN METHOD OF WRITING
Hebrew
nritf 'alia

XXIX
Meaning

Assyrian

^Ej
h

ai~ ia

ITT

thou (m.) house

Hebrew
and Assyrian compared.

TO

bayit

band

ba-nu-u
be-e-lu

to build

lord

bir-ku

knee
lightning

bdrak

bir-ku

hM

gam-ma- lu
di-i-nu
dal-tu

camel

judgment
door

^
PIT
zera

zik-ru
zi-e-ru

name
seed
friend

^ffl

ib-ru

DPI

e-mu
ha-du-u
J

father-in-law
to rejoice

1C

1

IW

ha-ta-nu
ta-a-bu
i-du

son-in-law

good
hand, side

u-mu
ydrriin

day
right

im-nu
i-sa-ru

hand

righteous
star

kak-ka-bu
kal-bu
lib-bu

dog
heart
to clothe
to learn
to take

la-ba-$u

-ET ET

la-ma-du
la-ku-u
h'-Sa-a-nu

tongue

XXX
Hebrew
Hebrew
ind
rian

INTRODUCTION

mdhas

Assy-

com-

1

sdhap'

nna
^it selem

Up

kol

IP *&.

kerm

THE ASSYRIAN METHOD OF WRITING
Though

XXXI

the Assyrians possessed the consonantal sounds al- Assyrian
'

ready described, their method of writing did not include separate signs for each consonant.

They

did not employ an alphabet

but a syllabary
racter,
letter

;

in

other words each cuneiform sign or chais

witnthe

exception of the vowel signs,
itself a

not a single
if

but represents in

complete
the

syllable.

Thus

an As-

syrian

wished to write

down

word

akshud "I

conquered",

he would employ three signs only >-^f ^EJ ^J, i, e. ak-$u-ud, or, if he wished to write down abu "father", he would employ only

two
is

signs

y^r

^>-

a-bu.

Each of the

signs here
is

employed
it

is

what
S 7 llables -

termed a simple syllable, that

to say, in sound

consists simple

of one vowel and one consonant, or of a vowel by

itself.

In

H ^7 M'
"in"
;

the following words each sign represents a simple syllable: " ~ *--* "i"; t^TTT at ta thou "; ^ a ~ ma - fu " word "to"

sT

>

flf

~ry,

a-na,

;

flf

Ej

^=[,
}}

>

,

ba-la-ti, "life"
,

;

|
;

gt^f
-

^J<,

ma-ta-a-ti,

"lands"
;

;

ba-a-bu, "gate"

si-i-ru,
,

"exalted"

;

^ ^JJ ^, ^r-3,
On
p.

^J| ^S-

<, ra-bu-u, "great"

6=Ej|
;

"I entered"

ta-a-ru, "to return".

XXXII
line

f.

is

a table of simple

syllables,

arranged alphabetically.

It

will be seen that the table

runs across both pages.

The

first

gives the signs for the

vowels by themselves
the syllables which

J
;

the rest of the table gives the signs for

begin or end with the various consonantal
these are arranged in the order of the Heleft

sounds in Assyrian

;

brew alphabet.
tains syllables

The
which
in

half of the table (on p.

XXXII) cong, d,
etc.

begin

with the consonants
a,

b,

and
e.

which contain
ba,

addition the vowels
; da,
di,

i

(and e\ and

u,

g.

table

gt, gu (and be), on the opposite page contains a similar arrangement of the syllables which end with the various consonants, e. g. ab, ib,

bi

bu ; ga,

du.

The

right half of the

ub

;

ag,
In

ig,

ug;

ad, id,
to

ud.

The
for

list

may

be considerably simpligiven the signs for the

i.

addition

the

signs

the vowels there

diphthongs should be here noted,

i

i

ai and

il?

XXXII

INTRODUCTION

A
Initial

V
Value
I

I

u
Value

consonant
List of

Sign

Value

Sign

Sign

simple syllables ar-

TJ
\

ranged al'

phabetically.

3,
3,

B

G D

TTA

n,

n,

ha
ta

II

,

K

ka

a,
3,

M
N

ET
n
ne

D, S

sa

<

8,

P

pa
sa

Pi

P, n,

K
R
S

ka ra

-TTZ

tt,

Sa
se

n,

T

TT

la

SIMPLE SYLLABLES
I

XXXIII

U
Value
Sign

Final

Sign

Value

Sign

Value

consonant

-

List of

simble syllables aral-

ranged

a*

tu
Ug
id
iz

B,

3

phabetically.

ud
uz

z,t
e,
T,
ID

AHPFF
SET
ik

uk

K,

m
an
n

um

M,
N,
3

II

en

S,

D

ap
as

HI
is

up
us

p,

a

ak

ik

uk

K, p

ir

IH

er

at
e~s

at

ut

,

n

XXXIV
lied

INTRODUCTION

for

by observing that the signs for ab, ib, ub are also employed that the signs for ag, tg, ug are ap, ip and up respectively
;

also
ad,

employed
id,

for ak,

ik,

uk and ak,
at,

ik,

nk
ut

;

that the signs for

ud are also employed for
iz,

it,

and

at,

it,

ut ;

and

that the signs for az,
as,
is,

uz are also

employed

for as,

is,

us

and

us.

The

student should familiarize himself with the forms
list

of the characters until he can write out the

of signs by heart,

ompound
rllables.

In addition to simple syllables

sent

w iat
j

h ave been called

many compound

signs in Assyrian repre-

syllables, that

is

to say,

sounds consisting of a vowel between two consonants, such as
///,

kun, mar.

The word
is

t=|f

^f^i

lud-lul, "let

me bow down",
:

for instance

written in
are

compound
employed
appointed"

syllables.
in
;

compound
"let

syllables

the

Both simple and following words
lil-ma-da,

g= ^y^^yy^
him
learn";
dan-nu, "strong"
;

as-kun, "I

<^><

t&Zw^lt]]]],

in-na-bit,

j ^J, "he fled"
; ;

S^ ^-,
^<(

^^E E^J| ^~,

har-ra-nu, "road"

M^ff
for

^1 ^^1?
he length

man-da-at-tu, "tribute",

This syllabic method of writing was not well adapted

vowe
nd the

s,

accurate iy marking the difference between the long and the short

aubling f conso-

vowels, or for distinguishing between single and doubled consonants.
In the

case of

open

syllables

there are

however two
is

ways
(i)

in

which

it is

possible to indicate that the
to write
;

vowel

long

:

One method
it

is

after the

syllable the sign for

the

vowel which
nd
is

contains
nd,

thus to indicate the a of the syllable
it

long

(i. e.

not no]

may
>

be written *~^~| J^, na-a,
T]f

e.

g.

ndru "river"
Id,

is

generally written

^"J
J^,

^TT,

na-a-ru. Similarly

"not",
>~<

can

be

written
be-e-lu ;

^E|

la-a; belu,

"lord",

can

be

written

^^ ^ETJ^
ni-i-ru ;

riiru,

^E

illL

nunu,

"fish",

"yoke", can be written ^yy~ can be written +^- ^yyy^: >^A.
in a
is

nu-u-nu.

It

must not be assumed however that the vowel
is

simple syllable
not added, for
b'elu

short

when

the corresponding vowel sign
*~^~\

we

find ndru written
+~<

^IIL na

~

ru

>

fa

written

written

be-lu ; niru JEJJ,

written ^yy~ "^JJJ, ni-ru;

IDEOGRAMS
written
the
**f-

XXXV
other

+^-,

nu-nii.
is

(2)

The

method oj^indicating
j

length of a vowel
"distant"
is

to

double the following Consonant,

e.g. riiku

written
is
it

^JTT E^V^T
in

~^
is

ru-uk-ku.

Whenj

a consonantal

sound

sharpened
is

pronunciation and should

be doubled in writing
e.
.

generally doubled by the Assyrians,
is

iUakin,

"he was placed",
however, the

written

i*-*a-kin ;

sometimes,
in writing.

doubled

consonant

not

indicated

The
The

Assyrians,

however, did not always write
itself to

in

syllables, Ideograms

but often used one sign by
reason of this will
of the signs
idea
.be

represent a complete word.

readily seen

when

it

is,

remembered

that each

was originally
syllabic

a picture

representing a
characters

complete

and that the

values of the

were only subsequently developed. The Assyrians, then, while

employing
netically,

their

characters

as

syllables

in writing

words pho-

continued to use

many

of

them
;

in their old sense as

pictures or symbols for a

whole idea

in other

words they used
for instance,

many
"son"

of their signs as ideograms.
as

The

sign
;

^E|,

was used
;

an ideogram for abu "father"
ilu

the sign J^ for aplu

the sign >~>^- for
list

"god"

;

the sign

^^J|

for alu "city".

The
them

following

of some of the

common

ideograms should be

learnt by heart

;

this can best be done by writing out a few of

at a time.

Ideogram

Pronunciation

Meaning

Ideogram

kakkabu

star

^*

E

fff

amelu
$arru

man
king
nobl<

^

>-^

rubu
belli

lord

XXXVI

Ideogram

XXXVIII

INTRODUCTION

they pronounced the Assyrian

word which corresponded

to

it

in

.meaning;

in fact

they regarded these Sumerian words as sym-

bols for their Assyrian equivalents in meaning.

A
in

similar use of
certain

borrowed words or expressions may be seen
bols

sym-

employed by "that is", or

at the

present day,

when

a reader renders "i. e."

"e. g."

by "for example".

In

each

of these
relation

phrases the Latin original stands in precisely the
to
its

same

English rendering as the Sumerian word used as an ideoto
its

gram
them
signs,

Assyrian equivalent. This

fact,

though explaining the

existence of ideograms, does not help the learner to understand
;

he must content himself with remembering that certain
or groups of signs, were
for certain

regarded by the Assyrians as

symbols

words. reasoa that the Assyrian
is

Perhaps
writing
Polyphons. that
is

the

principal

method of

somewhat complicated
signs are
syllabic

to

be sought in the fact

many

than one

polyphons, value and are used

in other

words they have more as ideograms for more
a,
is

than one word. Thus YI, which has the syllabic value
as

used
1

an ideogram for aplu "son" and mu "water"
is

;

the sign T^T V*'

has the syllabic values ku, dur and tus and

used as an ideo;

gram

for subatu

"garment" and asdbu "to dwell"
tarn, pir,

^J

has

the

syllabic values ud, tu,

lah,

his

and

is

used as an ideo-

gram

for

Samtu "sun", umu "day" and pisu "white".

The

exi-

stence of this polyphony

may be explained by supposing that the same sign might be used as an ideogram for synonymous or closely connected words (it being easy to trace, for instance, the ;e, me
connection between "sun", "day" and "white"), and subseq
for

"fetjfc

words of similar sound

;

while from the meanings so

tained various syllabic values were developed.

To what

exent mt

tl^^6^

Assyrian signs are polyphonous, the student

may

judge for himself

by referring

to the List of Signs at the

end of the Introduction.

From

the above brief

summary

of the various
characters
it

methods
will

in

which the Assyrians employed

their

be ob-

DETERMINATIVES
served that a sign
(a) as a syllable

XXXIX
ways
:

may
in

possibly be used in one of three

a

word written

phonetically, or (b) as an
(c)

ideogram representing a whole word, or
group of two or
for a

as

one sign

in a

more
It

whole word.

signs which together form an ideogram will be obvious that this method of writ'

ing

would often be ambiguous, and
felt
it.

that the Assyrians them-

selves

it

to

be so

is

proved by the means they took to
tfcey

simplify

To many words

attached certain signs, which
class of thing Deter'

have been called determinatives, to indicate the
to

which the word belongs. The majority of these determinatives are placed before the words to which they refer they
;

are never

pronounced but are intended

to

help the reader to
the following
their
list
:

understand the word that follows them.
.of

In

determinatives examples

are

added
is

illustrating

use

for ilu "god") ^p- (the ideogram of deities, e. g. -*f

placed before the names Deter-

<^J,

Marduk ;

^f-

*J, Sama! ;
word

mdnu; ^-^- ^jj, Nabu;

-HP
>~<
is

IU

F C3&

^^JL^,

Assur ;

+-+^-

^W,

Rtar;

-

Tal-me-tum;

^f

^fcf

<JEJ

y,

Dam-ki-na.

placed before male proper names,

j^
y

*~1^ ^>^yy Sin-aheP -er-ba, Sennacherib; y>-^- >-^yy ^.^y,
l

e.

g. y >- >^-

'^yyyy E^TT> r****w *&-y jEy ^y< E- Sar-ra, Tiglathpileser y ^< }} JEJJ y^ ^}}]^, Ha;
r

^^y
;

A
>

za-ki-a-u,

Hezekiah

y *-J][

^^]

y

^yyj^

^:,

Hu-um-ri-i,

Omri
is

y ^TTT^ Tf placed before female proper names,
;

t\]

Ia ~ u ~ a

Jehu>

e.

g. ">-

^Sy.^PF

^TT! <!MTI t^TTT $&
Stratonice.
(the
is
e.

>~ll* I^f, As-ta-ar-ta-m-ik-ku,

ideogram

for

matu "country", and

Sadii

"mountain")
Ku-u-

placed before the
g.

V^

names of countries and mountains,
;

<f!2,
;

M"-*r, Egypt

V Jgf < ^|J,
.

st,

Ethiopia

V ^= >-fJ

XL

INTRODUCTION

Lab -na-

na,

Lebanon

;

^< yy^ EJ *~^y> %?& - m a -

#,

Mt.

Amanus.
(the

ideogram
tribes

for

names of

amelu "man") and professions, e.
;

is

placed

before

the

g.

KaS-ti-i, the Kassites

^yyfy
;

Ni-ba--a-ti, the Nabataeans
*~*
r

the Macedonians y yi yi, Ma-ak-ka-du-na-ai,
,

;

>TTT ^.TTT, &*, "priest" g ^p ^ w ?" sa ^^yy, <w, "physician"; ESy ^TIT

M-, "governor";
ideogram
e.

;

f'

Wrtf

il

r "-

(the

for alu "city")

is

placed before the names
;

of

cities,

g.

^->^\ >yy" ^f- f^, Nt-nu-a, Nineveh

^^y
; ;

% Ur-sa-li-im-mu, Jerusalem
,

Is-ka-al-lu-na, Askelon

[,

Gar-ga-mis, Carchemish.
is

(the

ideogram

for
e.

naru "river")
g.

placed

before

the

names of
Tigris
;

rivers,

^ jj
"wood") wooden
;

-

>^-, Idiklat or Diktat, the

^

^T

yi

^y>^,

Puratu,

the Euphrates

;

yi T^f

^y

(the

ideogram

for isu

is

placed before the names
e.

of trees, woods, and

objects,

g.

^ ^~^"^yy
"cedar";

^^^^yy,

buraXu,
datiu,

"pine"

^ j^J^E^yy^,
^y ^yyy^
y
is

erinu,

^ ^y^,
"beams".

"door";

^yj,

ga-^u-n',

y^

(the

ideogram

for
e.

Sammu "plant")
g.
;

placed before the
+^- ^f\-> maStakal,

names of
the

plants,
-

^^^L ^E^yy
^yyy^: JEf

mdStakal

plant

^^
is

^--^, ku-un-gu,

(the

ideogram

for

abnu "stone")
Efj-^f
]f|

placed

before

the

names of stones, e.g.
^iT

"V* uknu, "lapis lazuli"',

^^^

ET*^? paruiu, "alabaster".

DETERMINATIVES
(the

XLI
is

ideogram
stuffs

for subatu

"garment")
e.

Deterplaced before the

names of
a

and garments,
;

n
g.

JEJ x^kX^E: |^
a

fruHu,
;

,

ceremonial garment

JEJ

*J-, kilu,

kind of cloth

cede the

I!0

IiU -Mfflk
ideogram
for

HT<

fc-^'-", "garments".

word

'

IEJJE

(

tne

Sipatu "fleece,

wool")
'

is

placed
e.

be-

fore the

names of wools and woollen
ta - kil' tu >

stuffs,
j

g.

sHTT
^yyj^

n ^T
^

JEJjE

"P ur P le

wo

r

ISIE

<MTI
a-da-gur,

>^-, ar-ga-man-nu,

"crimson wool".
is

for karpatu "vessel") E^yf^ (the ideogram names of vessels, e. g. f^ ^>^yy

placed before the

^f^

^^J"^^!*

a vessel for incense.

Jl^T^

(the

ideogram

for imeru "ass")

is
e.

placed before the names
g.

of

some of the
;

larger animals,

l^T

"horse"

^^

\

tflp, gammalu,

"camel"

;

fl-/i,

"dromedaries".

(the

ideogram

for immeru

"lamb, sheep")
JE^f

is

fore ~>vprds

for sheep, e.g.

t^]]
is

^

placed beW-///,

J^I,

"sheep".
(the

ideogram

for siru "flesh")
e.

sometimes placed bekiSddu,

fore parts of the body,

g.

t^^*^< >f2^
is

"neck";

fc^^< t^,
(

irtu,

"breast".

tne

ideogram

for

arhu "month")
e.

placed

before the

names of the months,

g.

^^"^
e.

ET^J Nisannu, Nisan.
is

y- (the ideogram for kakkabu "star")

placed before the
*
>~<,

names of
bat,

stars
;

and planets,

g.

^z^z^>^-

Dil-

Venus

^z^z^^- ^yy^^.
for a$ru "place")
districts,

Mars. ^yy^y, Karradu,
:

A

few determinatives follow the words to which they refer
(the
01

Deter-

ideogram

is

minatives placed after the names
that fol-

many towns and

even

when preceded by
e.

the ow
j

t j ie

determinatives

V

("country") or

VHW ^M'
Nineveh
;

Babilu,

*J

t<_

Babylon g, Larsam
;

^J| ("city"), ^^Rj ^Jgf,
;

g.

^K

word.

Ninua,

INTRODUCTION
Sippar
;

>
?> s

j,

.Efcwi/tt,

Elam

;

V
*-|^,-

^I^f>
>~yj

^'^7, Akkad.
vr
"bird")
w
is

(the "ideogram for

placed after the names

of birds,
nuniu,

e.

g.

E3^J

*~|J,

^rw

>

"eagle";

^J^

"swallow"; ^^fEJ *~J][, summatu, "dove". nunu "fish") is placed after the names ^r^ (the ideogram for
of fish but
eteris

of rare occurrence.

Natives
r

ter

numand

-4^*^ are used as determinatives after num bers, while the sign-groups TI >nJf- and ^TTT TI >-i4- are
signs

The

^E:

an<^

2rs

placed as determinatives after numbers and measures.

icasures.

The
signs

plural

of words

is

also

indicated
are

by means of certain
after

or

determinatives which
refer.
ihij

placed

the words
is

to

[ethods
F

indicat-

tg

the

which they ^ g ^,JL

The commonest
>1

sign for the plural

j^*,
mark

lural.

V

I

"god",

JL T ^*^, fldni,
The
TT
sign
is
j

"gods"

;

V,

mdtu, "land",

-,

matati,

"lands".

|

frequently used to
e.

the plural of things which occur regularly in pairs,

g.

^E|, kdtu,

"hand", ^EJjy,

kdtd,

"hands"; ^J>-, mu, "eye", 4^>-]],
idd,

ina,

"eyes";

,/^,"side",^^|yy,
plural.

"sides".

The

signs j>-, >^-, and
it

are also placed after a

word

to indicate that

is

in the

Another method of indicating the plural of a word

exg.

pressed by an ideogram
>->Jf-, ilu,

was

to write the
tldnit

ideogram twice,
md/u, "land",

e.

"god", >-*^- *~*f~,

"gods";

V>

^^

matati,

"lands".

Such are the principal determinatives employed by the Assyrians and they prove of great assistance to the reader by simplifying his analysis of the text.

Many

ideograms, however, are

not furnished with determinatives and the reading of these would
often be uncertain or

ambiguous were

it

not for an ingenious
in

honeiic

icnts.

adding to the ideogram a phonetic sign expressing the final syllable of the word which the ideogram is intended to represent the syllable so added has been conveniently named the ideogram's phoneticl
;

device of the Assyrian scribes.

This consists

j

complement.

A

fevv

examples will

illustrate

the use

of the! I

DETERMINATIVES AND PHONETIC COMPLEMENTS
phonetic complement.

XLIII
Phoneti<

both for
lable

ilu,
e,

:[ |,

The sign *~*^~ is used as an ideogram and Samu (pi. Zame\ "heaven" when the syl"god" T TT e. it indiis added to the ideogram (/. >~>j- ^| y)
;

merits.

cates that

***$-

in that

passage

is

not to be read as

ilu,

"god",

but as Same, "the heavens".

The
when

sign

^EJ
irsitu

is

used as an ideo-

gram

for

/'///',

"with", a$ru, "place", and
irsita)

(with the accusative

termination,
(t.
e.

"earth"
it

;

the syllable

^JfJ,

ta,

is is

added
to be

^JEJ ^^y[J)
irsita.

indicates that

^JEJ

in that passage

read

The when

sign

^J-^

is

used as an ideogram both for

the substantive Jumku, "favour" and for the adjective damku, "fa-

vourable"

;

the sign ^|,

indicates that the

ideogram

is

^J>~^f ^|) it to be read as damiktu, the feminine
tu,
(i.
e.

is

added

singular of the adjective damku. In the case of a verb expressed by

an ideogram the particular verbal inflection intended by the writer
is

frequently

We
and
fied

by means of the phonetic complement. have now seen how words in Assyrian could be either
indicated

written out phonetically in syllables or expressed by ideograms

how

this rather

complicated system of writing was simpli-

by the use of additional signs as determinatives and phocomplements,
the former indicating the general character
Analysis extra

netic

of words, the latter furnishing clues to their actual readings.

We
how

will

now

take a passage from an Assyrian

text
is

and

see

from an

the signs are there employed.

The

following

an extract

Assyriar
text
-

from a historical inscription.

T

IH
HF-

tTTT^

^

E!

T

^7

JT

^

XLIV

INTRODUCTION

The

first

point the reader will observe

is

that the

signs run

on and are not

clearly divided into words, though a line in the
It
is

inscriptions always ends with a complete word.

true that

some

scribes, especially in writing religious or poetical

tions, leave a clear space

composibetween each word, and when special

attention
^is

is

to be called to the division of

two words the

sign

placed between them. As a general rule however the signs

run on without clear division and the correct division of words
is

one of the
will

first

difficulties

to

be overcome by the beginner.

We

now

break the passage up into words indicating under

each sign the

way

it

ii

to be read

and

its

meaning.

ina

$ane(e)

gir

-

ri

-

ia

a

-

na

matu

Mu-sur

u

In

second

my

expedition

to

Egypt

and

matu

Ku-u-

si

-

/e
I

-

es -

se

-

ra

har

-

ra

-

nu

Ethiopia

directed

the way.

r
m

IH
Ur
-

da

ma Urdamane

ni

-

e

alu

Me

-

im

-

pi

Memphis
1
f

HfTT=
u
-

HF-

-<^
-

ET
ma
and

JT ^TT
su
-

^
-

ma$

Sir

-

a

-

na

zu

ub

abandoned

to

save

I
naptitim
his
-

=TTTT
in
-

^^
The

T

(tini)

su

na

-

lit

Warrant? 1

life

he

fled.

kings

DETERMINATIVES AND PHONETIC COMPLEMENTS

XLV

'

pahatiP

1

amglu

ki

-

pa

-

a

-

ni

ina

tarsi

-

ia

from an into

governors

prefects

my

presence Assyr an
;

*'/

-

/*'

-

ku

-

u

-

nim

-

ma
and

u

-

na

-

a

came

kissed

my
The
the
translation
to

feet.

runs:

"In

my

second expedition

I

directed

way

phis and
fects

fled to save his life.

Egypt and Ethiopia. Urdamane abandoned MemThe kings, governors and pre-

came

into

my

presence and kissed
x

my
,

feet."

The

determinatives are marked

by
+
;

the

phonetic

comple-

ments by

%

and the ideograms by

the rest of the signs are

simply employed phonetically as syllables. In the transliteration
it

will be observed that the determinatives are printed in smaller
*.

type above the line,

g.

mdtu
,

the determinative for lands,
f

alu
,

the

determinative for

<*meiu

cities,

t

h e determinative for classes of

men and m

,

corresponding to
;

proper names

which is placed before male |, the signs for the plural, P I and 7/ are similarly
,

printed above the line
parentheses.

;

phonetic complements are printed within

This system of transliteration has been employed

in the texts in the

Now
it

that the Assyrian

main body of the book. method of writing has been described,

will be convenient, before passing to the consideration of the

separate parts of speech, to refer briefly to the principal phonetic

changes which take place

among

the consonants in Assyrian.

nncl P a
phonetic

These changes are due
in Assyrian

to the fact that certain consonantal sounds changes

when coming

amon g together were not easy to pronounce
in

th<

consonant:

or were unpleasant to the ear, the result being that other sounds,
easier to

Assy _

pronounce or pleasanter to the

ear,

were substituted,

rian.

INTRODUCTION

The
out

reader need not delay over the
the
texts

list

here given, for through-

in

the

main body of the book those phonetic
in foot-notes;

changes that
the following

might prove puzzling are explained
list

of the principal phonetic changes

among
is

the

consonants
'rincipal

I

is

given for reference

only

:

\.' b

at the

end of a verb followed by the copula ma
assimilated
to

fre-

KjptJUmj

quently

the m,
is
/

e.

g.

~erub,

"he entered",

mong

the

followed by the copula ma,

often written erumma,
or X
is

onsonants

u d immediately followed by
/
,

assimilated

to

the

<t

or

s,

e.g. kardu, "strong", fern, karitiu (for karidtii}; edefu,

^

"to be -new", eshi (for edsu), "new".
III.

m

is

frequently changed to n before

d, /,

/,

s, $,

and

k,

e.

g.

L*J*A

mundahse (for mumdahst), "warriors", the

Ifteal,

Part. plur.
;

from mahdsu, "to smite"
(for nakamtti), "treasure" (for hamSit], "fifth"
s
;

;

hantu (for hamtti), "swift"
;

nakantu
;

"1

unsu (for umsii), "hunger"

han$u
before
assi-

*
\

dunku (for dumkii),

"favour"
is

;

the n that has taken the place of
S,
e.

m
is

sometimes

0"

milated to the
ha^u.

g. hanSu, "fifth"

sometimes written

IV. n immediately followed by a consonant

is

frequently assithis

milated,

e.

g. libittu

(for libiniv), "brick"

;

assimilation

of n

is

invariable in the Nifal

and

Ittafal,

of the verb, and
first

generally takes place throughout verbs of which the
radical
v
is

n (see below, VERBS).
(see below, p.

V.

s

XLIX), when 2 immediately preceded by a dental or sibilant, becomes
of the pronominal suffixes
g.

e.

mat-su (for mat-sti], "his land".

A

further change geis

nerally takes place, for the preceding dental

frequently
is
1

assimilated to the

s,

and the preceding

sibilant

always

1.
it

Of

may
2.

the phonetic changes that take place among the vowels in Assyrian here be noted that after a preceding i or e the a of the feminine terf.).

mination, sing, and plur., tends to become e (see below, p. LVII

The consonants

d,

t,

and

t

are "dentals",

\,

s,

s,

and

are "sibilants".

PHONETIC CHANGES
assimilated
or sibilant,
kds-su
;

XLVII
Principal

the
is

s,

which has taken the place of the dental
e.
if.

=

kdt-su

=

then dropped,
kdt-$u), "his

kdtu,
;

"hand", ka-su

(for

pc
changes

hand"

dan-na-su (for dannas-su

= dannat-su = dannat-$u),

dannatu, "foundation", am ong the
"its

foun- consonants
in

Assv

dation";

lirhis,

"may he overwhelm",

li-ir-hi-su (ton lirhis-su

rjan

lirhis-su ==.

Krhis-$u\

"may he overwhelm him".
VERBS)

VI.

/

in

the Ifteal and Iftaal of the verb (see below,
:

undergoes the following changes
(a)

when

it

follows
Ifteal,

z, s,

or

s

it_js

assimilated,

e.

g. issaJmr (for
;

-j

<S

5f

istahur],

Pret.
Pret.
g_\\.

from sahdru, "to turn"
from
sabdtu,
?.

ussabbit (for

ustabbtt\
(b)
i>

Iftaal,

"to take".
g.
.

when
Ifteal,

it

follows

becomes^/,

f>

.Pret.

and

Pres.,

from
Iftaal,

igdamar (for igtamar}, rt-*y*cr/ gamdru "to complete" ;
Pres.

*4-f

ft"

*p

ugda^ar

(for

ugtaMar),

from ga$dru, "to

strengthen".
(c)

when

it

follows m^ or n
Ifteal,

it

may

become^/,

e.

g. imdahis (for
;

'

_. 171
J J
~wJt^
A

imtahis),

Pret.

from mahasu, "to smite"
Iftaal,
e.

umdaUir

"^^

(for umtdStir),

"he

let loose",
it

Pret.

from [8aMr].

(d)

when

it

follows ^

may

become^/,

g. ikterib (for ikterib},

p

/>

*f

Ifteal, Pret.

from

kardbu, "to approach".
is

VII.

A

sibilant

which immediately precedes a dental
to
/,

frequently
(for
,

changed
rapaStu)
;

e.

g. "rapsu,

"broad",
Ishtafal,

fern,

sing, rapaltu
elu,

uUeli (for jiMelt),

Pret. from

"to be
the
Pret.

^^
jf-.^rrf

high".

Similarly,

when two
/,

sibilants
e.

come

together,

former frequently becomes

g. ilsi (for

ztoz'),

Kal,

from

Sasu

t

"to
//,

speak".

The combination
ss

4
s,
e.

instead
g.

of

changing

to

sometimes becomes

or

issapar,

isapra (for iUapar, iltapra}, Ifteal, Pret.

from Xapdru, "to send".

VIII. In

place of doubling a consonant,
after thg^.preceding vowel,
e.

m
g.

or_g_js__sQJiielirnes

added

inamdin for inaddin

=

inddin (see below,

VERBS), Kal, Pres. from.

ittananmar

for

ittanammar

=

ittandmar (see
see".

below, VERBS),

Ittanafal, Pres.

from amaru, "to

XLVIII

INTRODUCTION

PRONOUNS.
Personal

The personal pronouns
Sing.
^
i.

to express the
I.

nominative are:
rilnu,

pronouns
to

express

andku
at/a

Plur.

amnu, amni,
attunu

nini

the nominative.

2m.
2
c
f.

2 m.

ath

3m.
3
f.

$u

3

m. Sunu, Sun
f.

n

3

h'na

The

following examples illustrate their use

:

"may

I

thy servant live";

^^X
iluNin
-

bi a-na-ku

f^yy
art

^ ^
;

Sum-ma, "I spoke as follows";

^

thou-

^JTT s^T ^I< Ey

ib

tu-ra-du

^y HP ^T
-ti-id,

//-fl na-an-na-raname(e),

"thou

^
/-&,
;

U

Ninib, a hero

^Hf- -Tf

a/-

art the light of

heaven"; ^Ef

^yy^
;

u as for him, he fled"

<*-

um-ma, "she (Ishtar)

informs thee thus"

^^I,
stand"
;

a-m-ni m-U-la-ka, "we are going"; ^E ?rf~^ ^ n *~*~d* nt-t-m, "we do not under-

^^

K^

-^ ^
,

^^Hf^E^I!
I

^^HP 5^H Hfl
;

T Jl^JE, at-tu-nu kakkabani sar-hu-tum, "ye mighty stars" >^*u - nu bi- nu - ut a-ra-al-K f Jif *-> ^X ^T T^ E^TT

^

su-nu, "as for

them, the offspring of Hades are they"
par-sa-a-tum Si-na, "lies are they".
to express

;

Personal

The personal pronouns
tiye are

pronouns
to express

_

the genitive and accusa-

the geni-

Sing.

I.

idti,

taSt

Plur.

I.

Matt, nidsi

tvc
accusatve.
,,

2

m.
.

katu, kaSu, kasa
kali,

2

m. katunu, kdtunu

2 f
3

ka$i
,,

m.
f.

$d$u

3

m. MSunu,

T>

3

PRONOUNS

XLIX

The

following examples illustrate their use:

^y- ^
unto me"
"thee
I
;

E

t]} y{
;

-|<,

&-*/-*

/rt-fl-//,

"Hearken (O goddess)

^^J ]} ^ ^Mf ^TTT ^tJ
}} *~*~]

^--^
<J>-

ap-kid-ka,

have commanded"

^J^f J^

JgJ E^t:
may
I

^fcyf^ *", 0-0
there be peace"
carried off
;

ka-a-$i lu-u $ul-mu t

"unto thee (O queen)
to-a-j^ ^-/w-/a,
I

"
;

^ ^ ^
]}
;

|^

J

g= ^fj ^J,
>-<,

"him

^^T
"us";

^-a-fa ^-^/, "her

ST ^E^ w-J<,
a-Xu-nu, "like
lu-ni,

ni-ia-ti,

<JEJ Ej

you" J^J ^J^ "them did they bring".

^

-^H ]] \ ^ ^^ JglJ J^I, Xa-a-Xu-un

captured"

;

ki-ma kaub-

The pronominal
.

suffixes attached to nouns are:
2,

Pronominal sutfixes at-

i.

a,ia

Plur.

i.

ni

2

m. ka
f.

2

m.

^,
Sina,

kun

tached to

nouns.

2
3
3

tf
$u, $
$a, $
,,

m.
f.

3m.
3 f.

Sunu (rarely Sunuti)

$m
:

The

following examples illustrate their use
f7/-w,

-*f- SrEjf
J^,
/>/

"my god";

^

^,

fe/*-w,

"my

lord"

;

^-

^
;

mali-a, "in

my

land"

;

| J^ ^JJJ,

ma-a-ri,
;

"my

son"

<2S
>-^y,

^TTT

^tT,

zik-ru-ka,

"thy name"

<|^i ^b ppJJ
an-ni-ki,

di-pa-ra-ka,

"thy torch"; >->^- gyT ^I^f>
aS-ri-$u,

"thy
2W ~
;

mercy"; g^' ^JIJ ^E|,

"its

place"

;

^^J|

A^ L
?

;wr-^, "his body"; ^J>- gj
?yy

^g^J ^^|,
blood"
;

h'-ma-tu-u$, "his destiny"
;

<

^J|,

da-mi-*a, "her
be-ili-ni,

^^
;

^,

ia-&, "her

eyes"; >-X ^yy~ J^I,

"our light"

;

^ ^yy

"our lord" >^JfHf J^ ^yy~ nu-ur-a-ni,

>-<y<

JEy i^-

,

hi-ta-ti-ku-nu,

"your sins"
\ +J-,

;

Ey

^TTT Jgf t:|^, ma-ru-ku-un, "your son"
;

^^

^f

bu-

Xa-Xu-nu, "their property"

heart"

;

^H ^g^TJ <y^
,

^jy ^^y
^^^J,

J

^^,

lib-ba-3u-un, "their

ka-li-si-na,. "all

of them"

;

t

-/a-A, "their boundary".

INTRODUCTION

The pronominal
Sing.
i.

suffixes attached to verbs are
t'nni,

:

anm\

ni

Plur.
,,

i.

annaSi kunu$i
kina&i

2 2
3

m.
f.

ka, akka
ki,

2m.
2 f
3
.

akki
$,

,,

m.

Su,
Si,

,,

m. sunu, sunuti
ftna,

3 f.

X,

,,

3 f.
:

Sinati

The

following examples illustrate their use

?T>

li-bi-ban-ni,

"may he

purify

me"

;

^
eat"
;

-&z-&-/a-*-/', "they made me ^>3^y KTX ^ J^I, id-din-u-ni, "they gave to me"
;

>-t^J,
cried
to

as-hur-ka, "I

have turned to thee"
;

;

J^

pJJ
/--^, "I have
u-ba-'-ak-ki,

a-da-nak-ka, "I shall give to thee"

^J<J
1

thee"

;

^JJlt
;

^J A^ ^
+j- \,
u-$e-ri-ba-a$,

"I

have sought thee"

^>3^J ^J^^

id-di-nu-su,

"they gave

him" ^]]]^
;

*

^jyy^

^

^ ^^J ^ T^
^^,
"I placed

>-]]\

^^J ^,
j,

"he brought him in"; u-h-frba-a$-$u, "he made him sit";
"let
;

lik-kil-me-ti,
it

him look upon her";

^5y

.^./i?, "i fined
i-kar-ra-ban-na-ti,

(f.)-

EE *}}} E^
;

"he blessed us"

fc|

^JJ
;

<T<

at-ta-din-ku-nu-M, "I

have handed you over"

^= Ty

a$-ku-na-$u-nu,
ku-mi-$u-nu-ti,
>~<y^,
'Reflexive
/

upon them"; "burn them" >-^y ^z
;

^=

^^^ ^: J ^^yy ^
Assyrian but
is

la tap-pa-li-$i-na-a-ti,

"do not answer them".
exist in

The
pressed

reflexive

pronoun does not
suffixes

ex-

un
'l

by the substantive ramami "self"

in

combination with
to

\the pronominal

which

are

attached

nouns,
,

e.

g.

\E^y
Demon-

E! tpP Tf ra-ma-m-a, "myself";
;

E^ff tf
:

^

tjfl ra-ma-

nu-uS, "himself"

E^TT El ^Fh I */"

ra-ma-ni-su-nu, "themselves".

The demonstrative pronouns
m.
f.

are

Sing.,

Zuatu, Sdtu
Siati

PRONOUNS
Plur.,

LI Demonstrative

m. hiatunu, Sdtunu
f.

Xuafina, Satina
:

pronouns.

For these the following forms are sometimes used
Sing. m. $u
Plur.
;

f.

Si
Zuniiti
f.

m.

Sunu,

;

h'/id/i,

Sinatina

The

^1! JT
y^ >-^Ey
place
$i~a-/i,
I

following examples illustrate their use " that cit alu ht ~ a - /u y" ; !if

:

^T'
1

>

^IIT^

^T*"~
;

^ ^S
;

^ ^TI V
"that

a *~ ra *a ~ a ~ tu u-pi-hi-ir, j

strengthened"
"in that

*

>4^

^J>^ || ^^J^,

M

$a//i-ma

same year"

>-^y
"those kings"; "those

"those districts"; i^-, na-gi-i su-a-tu-nu,
,

sarraniP 1 hi-a-tu-nu,
?

VV
;

mdtati?

1

hi-a-ti-na,
?

lands"

^
^y
T{
(b)

E^f

^
^E,

^^
ekallum(lum)

^y
h'-f,

^//j// U-ti-na, "those palaces";
;

S^yy^, paraMu

Su-u, "that shrine"

"that palace";

>^-,

mu-ra-ni $u-u, "those
1

young

lions"

;

^

J

sdbeP su-nu-ti, "those people"; ~<y<,

~<y<,

babani si-na-a-ti,

"those

gates"

;

^y^- >~^y -<y<

^^y,

zr-r/-//

si-na-U-na, "those curses".

<,

"this"

Sing.,

m. annu (Nom.)
f.

;

anni (Gen.)
;

;

anna (Ace.)
;

anriitu

(Nom.)

anriiti

(Gen.)

anmta (Ace.)

Plur.,
,,

m.
f.

anniiti

annati
:

The

following examples illustrate their use

\, Siptu an-nu-u, "this incantation"
?

;

>

^y
*"E^I

ina u ~ mi <-ni-i, "at this

time"

;

I

had done this"

;

^ ^^yy ^
;

^

^H ^>-

J,

/-/

-KT~

4^\

e-/ap-pu-$u, "after

>^HF~

/-/, "this letter"
/ an-ni-ti,

^y^^yy -f^<
;

"because of this dream"

d*

LII
>
*

INTRODUCTION
y*~ ^p\
an-ni-ta ina $e-me-'$a,

"when
1

she heard this";
;

+j- |

*~*^~
y^r

^~

*~<y^>

salmani? an-nu-ti, "these images"
>~<y<,

y^

^

>~<y<

^^-

^y ]}
;

a-ma-a-H an~na-a-ti, "these

things".
(c)
ullu,

"that"
ulli

Sing, ullu (Nom.)
Plur. ulluti

(Gen.)

The

following examples illustrate their use

:

^
<i-a

[Ely ^yyy^,
,

ud- mu

/-/-, "that race"

a-fcul-K-e,

"on that side";

^

;

"those buildings".
(d)

0,

"this"
is

The form

used for

all

numbers, genders and cases

;

the following forms also occur:
Sing.,
Plur.,
f.

agdta

m. agannutu
f.

aganeti

The
^y

following examples illustrate their use:
y^

^
V

^yyy^

y^,

u- mu a-ga -a, "this

day"

*
;

y^^yyy^y^
}}

u inakak-kara-ga-a, on this ground";

^ITT^
y^f

T^ fe^TTT'

ir-^~ tim

"'ga-a-ta,

"this earth"

;

^

^yy^ >^- ^y, ^yy^ S^ ^^
pronoun
is
:

^-<5z' a-ga-nu-te,
,

"these words"

;

matatia-ga-ni-e-tu, "these lands".

The

rela-

The
Sa

relative

dve pr noun.

"who, which"
relative
is

The
and

pronoun
all

sa

is

always

written

^

or

used for

relative sa

numbers, genders and cases. When the has the force of a genitive and would be trans-

lated in English

by "whose", the substantive in the relative
suffix,
e.

clause takes the corresponding pronominal

g.

V

I

NOUNS

LI 1 1

ha-ru ka-bal-hi,

"whose (m.) onslaught

is

unequalled"

;

*~Ej
"a

TI

Ey, Sarru rabu $a

ilu

Bel u

tltl

Nabu ir-a-mu
and Nabu

pa-la-a-$u,

mighty

king

whose

reign

Bel

love"

>~<
;

be-el-tum

$a par-su-$a

Su-tu-ru,

"a

lady

whose

command

is

";t:TTTE!^JI
u-ta-ad-dn-u ni-ba-Su-un,

"his troops

whose number

is

not to

be known". Similarly,

when

Sa has the force of

an accusative

or dative, the governing verb in the relative clause generally
takes the

pronominal

suffix,

while a preposition invariably

does
^ET,

so,
jfa

,.,.xp
hattu

tTtM VET ^T f ET ^T t^TTT
T

ellitu(tii}

na-ad-na-ta-su,

"to

whom
his

is

given a

shining sceptre"

;

^

f

-

\

$a ilu-$u itti-$u zm-u-u, "(a

man) with

^\ -J|^ ^whom
god
is
;

tJITt,
angry".

NOUNS.
In Assyrian, as in
r

Hebrew and

the other Semitic dialects, roots Roots.

or stem-w ords consist of two, three
triliteral roots,

and four consonants

of these,

or roots of three consonants are by far the most

common.
are

meaning or idea from which formed both the verb and the noun (substantive and adroot contains in itself a
;

A

jective)

the root in fact

may

be compared to a skeleton, which

when

clothed with different vowels and sometimes with addigives expression
to

tional consonants

the various nominal and

verbal forms of

its

inherent meaning or idea.

The

triliteral

root

NMR,

for instance, contains the inherent idea of brightness or be-

ing bright, and forms the skeleton or base of the verb namdru
"to be bright", of the adjective namru "bright", and of the substantives namirtu

and namurtu "brightness".

LIV

)

INTRODUCTION
the student's
is

In examining an Assyrian word, therefore,

first

duty

is

to

identify the root

from which

it

derived.

1

In the

case of nouns he will find

little

difficulty in

doing

this after

he

has grasped the principal forms which they assume. These
be briefly described under the following five divisions:
I.

may

ManyjQouas
the
first

afe-

formed merely by the internal addition

of vowels to the root. As the nouns SQ_Jbrmed begin with
letter of the root

and do not contain other cone.

sonants, their roots are easily^ recognised,
_f

g.

Saknu
zikru

"governor", from sakdnu "to

set,

appoint".

"name",
"peace",

,,

zakaru

"to name".

Zulmu

Salamu "to be complete,

prosperous".
nakaru "hostile",

nakdru "to be different,
hostile".

zaktpu
lubutu

"post",

zakapu "to set up, erect".
labatu to

"garment",
in

"to cloth oneself".
internal
itu,

Many nouns
also
p.
+

addition

their
a/u,

vowels take

the feminine terminations
f.),
e.

or tu (see below,

LVI

g.

nisirtu

"treasure", from nasdru "to watch, guard",

f
II.

puluhtu "fear",

paldhu "to fear".
third
letter of the root

In
is

some nouns the second or the
doubled,
e.

g.
dictionaries

1

In

most Assyrian

the

words are arranged

as far

as

possible

under their respective roots and not necessarily according to the consonants or vowels with which they happen to begin. As Assyrian possesses no alphabet it is impossible to cite in cuneiform a root composed only of consonants. A

common
roots,

expedient therefore
the

is

to

use Hebrew characters

in

citing

Assyrian

as

Hebrew alphabet

contains

consonants which correspond to the

in

consonantal sounds in Assyrian (see above p. XXVI). As however the consonants themselves are incapable of being pronounced the Infinitive of the verb is

frequently cited as the root. characters as the root
"IDS,

Thus
or (2)

the root
in

NMR may
as

be cited (i)

in

Hebrew
in

transliteration

namaru.

Here and

the Vocabulary the latter plan has been adopted.

NOUNS
"to bewitch". kaUapu "magician", from \ka*apu\
pilakku
III.

Nominal
forms.

"axe",

[paldku] "to strike, slay".

Some nouns
of the

are formed by the addition of prefixes.

The

than those roots of these nouns are less easy to identify nouns in sections I and II, as they do not begin

with the

first

letter of the root.

The

prefix

may

take the

form of
(a)

a vowel, e.g.,

*W

kardbu "to bless, "prayer", horn

j

to
(b)

pay homage to".
(or
,

m

when
g.

the root contains_a labial,

/.

c.

b^jii

orj>),

e.

+

matkanu "place",
mdlaku

from sakanu "to
alaku
[eXiru]

set".

"way",
"righteousness",

"to go". "to be straight".

miUru
4

narkabtu "chariot",

rakabu "to ride".

naramu "love",
napharu "totality",
(c)
$,
e.

ramu

"to love".

pahdru "to collect".

g.

Uhluktu "destruction", from haldku "to be deSurbii

Ttroyed";
(d)
/,
e.

rabu "to be great". "great", from
;

tamharu "fight", from maharu "to oppose" Tdmhu "sighing", from [andhu\ "to sigh".
g.

IV. In a few
root,
e.

nouns

a

/

is

inserted after the

first

letter of the

g.

+

gitmdlu "perfect",
ritpa&u

from gamalu "to complete".
rapaSu

"wide",
are

"to be wide". terminations,

V.

Some nouns

provided with

special

of

which the principal are
(a)

the termination dnu,
karabu "to pay

e.

g.

kurbdnu "offering",

from

homage
,

to".

termination (b) the
"to be behind"
;

e.

g. arku "future",

from

\ardku~\

mahru "former", from maharu "to

oppose, to

be opposite".

LVI
(c)

INTRODUCTION
the termination utu,

by which abstracts are formed
e.

from a few concrete nouns,

g. belutu "lordship",

from

belu

"lord"

;

iliilu

"divinity",

from

ilu

"god"

;

sarrutu "royalty",

from Sarru "king".
first

A

few nouns, derived from stems the
1

radical of

which

is

weak, have dropped the initial vowel and begin with the second from abalu "to bring"; lidu and littu radical, e.g.
&22U"tribute",
"child", from alddu "to bear"
;

simtu

"adornment", from asamu "to

be adorned"
Assyrian
majority

;

subtu "dwelling",

from aSdbu "to dwell".

possesses

two genders masculine and feminine. The

of substantives are either masculine or feminine, but

some
of

are of

common

gender.

The feminine
is

of adjectives and

some masculine substantives
form

formed by the addition of
the nominal stem,
e.

atu or of the shortened

tu to

g.

Sarru

"king",

Sarratu

"queen".

malku "prince", malkatu "princess".
ardu
kalbu

"slave",

ardatu
kalbatu

"handmaid".
"bitch".

"dog",
"son",

mdru
bukru

mdrtu

"daughter".
(f.),

"first-born" (m.), bukurtu "first-born"

rubu

"great",

fern. rubalu.

dannu "strong",
nakru
"hostile",

dannatu.
nakirtu.

gamru "whole", damku "favourable",
kabtu

gamirtu.
damiktu.
kabittu.

"heavy",
"broad",
"green",

raptu
arku

rapa^tu.

aruktu.

i.

The

stems, from which these nouns are derived, begin in other Semitic
1 ;

languages with the consonant

this

consonant
(see

is

only represented in the corp.

responding Assyrian words by

a

vowel

above,

XX VII

f.).

NOUNS
*-

LVII
tdbtu.
riiktu.

tabu
rukii

"good",
"distant",
e^ the
e.

fem.
,,

After a preceding
aiu,

^pr
t,

a in the

feminine termination

generally becomes
.

g.
ellitu.

ellu

"bright", fem.

(LXJu
sihritu

4..

n

_

sihru "small",

and

sihirtu.

zinu

"angry",

,,

zimtu.
fimriitu.

riminu, rimnu "merciful", fem.
*-

elu

"high", fem.

elitu.

Some
ceded by

adjectives
/

form
g.

their

feminine in

ilu

though not pre-

or

e,

e.

rabu

"great",

fem. rabilu.
naditu.
daritu.

7t*A-^-

--

A>^>^*-^

nadu "fallen",
~ ddril "lasting",
x\

few adjectives form their feminine

in utu,

e.

g.

Zurbu "great", fem. Surbutu.

Uku "high",

Xakulu.
is

The

plural of

nouns

in Assyrian

formed by the addition The
Substantives in
'"'

Plural

of various terminations to the nominal stem.
the plural take the following terminations:
(a)
e,
e.

stantives.

g.

Samu

"heaven", plur. same.
"water",
"prince",
,,

mu
s malku

me.
malke.
m'Se.
e

^
N. B.

nitufi "people",

The
this

interchange of the vowels

and

i al-

ready referred to (see above p.

XXVI)
e.

is

especially fre-

quent in
malku

form of the plural,
yy~|

g. the plural of

may
ilu

be written

KiH
ildni.

ma ^~^

tnat

Eff= <|>-, m-ti.
(b)

dm,

e.

g.

"god",

plur.

hursu "mountain",
ardu
"slave",

hur^dni.

arddni.

LVIII

I

NTRODUCTION
body which occur

(c) a,

especially the plural of parts of the
in pairs,
e.

g.

^

inu

"eye",

plur. ind.

/
/
(d)
dti,

uznu "ear",
idu

uzna.
idd.

"side",

the plural of substantives with

the

feminine termi-

nation in the singular; should the preceding syllable
contain

an

i

or

e,

the
e, e.

d
g.

of the

plural

termination

generally becomes

^
^
,

Sarralu
kibratu

"queen", plur.
"region",
"sea",
,,

Sarrdti.
kibrdti.

tdmtu
beltu

tdmdti.
beleti.

j
Some
though

"lady",

substantives

form

their

plural

in

dti

or

tti

in the singular they are
e.

without the feminine

termination,

g.

ndru

"river",

plur. ndrdti.
kandli.

kanu
ff-f-f-r-r
-

"reed",

kudurru "boundary",

kudurreti.

Many

substantives have
$a-di-e
(i.
e.

^ \|-P ^y{
(i.
e.

more jhan jane form of >>> sade\ and tff^ |

plural,

e.

g.

^
;

**

saddni ?

l

(/'),
ir~ ri ~ e

occur as plurals__of_^7^, ^mQuntain"
girre),

^yy^

*~
]\
(*

1 *~\i
>

and ^flk ^TII

^"1^

K^I^

gir-n-e-ti

e

girreti)

occur

as plurals of girru, "expedition".

The masculine
the termination

plural^pf_adjectives_
//,

is

formed^ by means of
dti,

the feminine plural by the termination
eti

which generally becomes
adjective

after a

preceding

/'

or

e,

e.

g,

masc. plur.

fern. plur.

damku "favourable",
rabu

damkuti,
rabuti,

damkdti.
rabdti.

"great",

gasru
_
ellu

"strong",
"bright",
"distant

gasruti,
elluti,

gatrdti.
elleti.

ruku

rukuti,

rukdti

and

ruketi.

NOUNS

LIX
it

The
refers,

adjective
e.

generally follows the substantive to which
EJfflf
?

Position
1

g.

fcjjgS
E|*- y

^

Sarru
r*

dan-nu,
?',

"mighty
great

king";^
gods"
;

^

*-*y~

y

?//

ra$w//

"the

^1

T

^TT
the

3!L^
is

-J<,

tt-me ru-ku-ti,

"distant days".
it

When
placed
-

special

emphasis

to

be
e.

laid
g.

upon

the adjective
r

is

before
1

substantive,

fc^f

*~^fe=]

4^**-fl

^^|

"V %r?yy>

da-li-ih-tu mat-su,

"his disordered land".

Substantives and adjectives in the singular end in one of the Casethree vowels
as
u,
i

and

a,

which

as a general rule

may

be regarded

Cl

marking the nominative, the genitive and the accusative case respectively, e. g. ^] ^JEf ^]] ^E ^JH, ^-mu-ki si-i-ru,

^
;

"thy name

is

exalted"
;

>~<

<^^~

5^^ ^< ^Jl^,
^E
>-^\\

^-lit ia-ha-zi,

"lady of battle"
"a
cry

Jl^ >-+i\
To
this

*>-

^,

ku-la i-kab-bu-u,

they

utter".

rule,

however,

exceptions

con-

stantly occur, the case endings being often
ately,
e.

employed indiscrimin-

g,

^yyy

^y <jEy
;

"may thy
mination

heart have rest"

^ ^]]
The
teris

^

nu-u-ru id im-ma-ru,
i

"the light they do not behold".

in

substantives in the

nominative or accusative
first

frequently not the case-ending but the suffix of the
singular,
e.

person
light

g.

^- *~^\

nu-ri lim-mir, tf>- Ejjfcj,

"may my

shine"

;

<y>-

^^ ^:]}

JtJ

^^yy >^y<,

si-mi-e tas-li-ti,

"hear

my prayer". To substantives and
form
nij

adjectives the particle ma, or

its

shortened Mimation.

is

frequently appended.

Whatever may have been the
as
it

original so
far

use

of this

nftmation,
its

is

termed,

it

has

been

weakened that
the

omission

ojr_iiiseniQ.n
it

in

no

way

alters
its

meajiing of a word,
or
indefinite

nor does
e.

affect in

definite

signification,

g. *~<

^Tf*

be-lu,

any way and

^<

^^

^^,

be~lum,

both

mean "a lord"

$ur-bu-tum,

-E^y, beltu sur-bu-tu, and *g both mean "a mighty lady" or "the mighty lady"

^

or

"the

lord";

^
beltu

*>-

^^,

;

*

-

LX

INTRODUCTION

J/-/HW,

both
a

mean "on

earth" or "on the earth".
itself,
it

When
it

noun stands by

is

said to be in the
is

absoit,

lute state.
is

When

a substantive in the genitive

joined to

said to be in the construct state.

In consequence of the

close connection of

two nouns
is

so

joined they are pronounced

together
first

and there

a

tendency to lighten and shorten the

of the two.

A noun

in the construct state, therefore, (i.) geif it
is

nerally drops the mimation, and,

a singular

noun

in the

nominative or accusative,
ing
(in

it

also generally drops the case

end

some words

a

short

dropped
reappears,
(2.)
if

out before the case-ending
e.

vowel of the stem has already and this in the construct
in the construct

g.

zikru,
is

"name",
in

becomes
the
i

zikir)

;

the

noun

the
;

genitive,
(3.) in
dti,

however,

of the

genitive does not disappear

the case of a plural noun
uti

the plural terminations am,
tively an,
at,
it

eti

and

may become

respec-

and
:

ut.

The

following examples will illustrate

the above rules

fcz=^
;

AE^

Ef

]}

^1^

nap-har ma-a-ti, "the

whole of the land"
"sun-rise"
;

^]] gg^y HP"

*| <J^,
bu-kur
ilu

&#

ilu

$amh{

^JJ^ E^<
;

V \ E^f,
>-^f- y^

zi-kir mati-su-un,

"the

name
first-

of their land"

^*:

A^-

4^\^

A-nim, "the

born of

Ann"

;

V
J
>
,

^E

^] ]} **-]{,
his

^ laf

i-la-a-tt,

"goddess
zik-ri

of goddesses"; f} *~*~]
su-mi-sa, "at the
*~->^-

^<^T >-]]\ ^]
name"
;

mention of

^^ f ^f

J,

a-na

t\ JEJ ^^|<
"with the

J

f J>-

t-na tukulti(ti] ildniP 1 rabiitiP 1 ,

help of the great gods";

na-at nu-uh-$e, "years of plenty".

casionally broken,

e.

g.

-<

^^^ ^ ^ ^ ^^
These
rules,

AHfflf

^

*a ~

however, are oc-

y{

>-]]\
r

<Hlf^

be-lum a-ba-ri u dun-ni, "lord of Syy~,

pow er

and might".
it

When

two substantives

are

in

apposition

is

not essential

that they should agree in number, a substantive in the singular

frequently standing in apposition to one in the plural,

e.

g.

*"v^y
royal

y

S=yy

^EjflT^^-y^ alamP

l

bit

Urru-ti,

"cities,

ADVERBS
dwellings"
(Y.
e.

LXI
rule applies to parti-

"royal cities").

The same

cipial expressions sition

which_ma^be

in the singular
e.

thoughjn appo-

to substantives in_lhe plnraJ,
>-Jl

g.

^Ejjf^
u the

Jw--

|^

^Vj

>-^TT
before

T

t
(i.

J^, $armnij^a-lik mah-ri-ia,
e.

kings,

who went

me"

"my

predecessors").

ADVERBS.
The
following
are

the

principal

adverbs

in

Assyrian

;

the

examples appended
hi' am

illustrate their use:

"so, thus",

am

^JEJ J^ parseP'-Xa, "so are her
g.

e.

^^

^^"f" J->- ^,
-

ki-a- Adverbs of manner.

commands";

J

ia-mu$ Sarru ki-a-am
ia
J

i-kab-bi,

"thus saith Darius the king".
e.

umma

]

^ >^
ma-a,
ilu

"thus, as follows",

introducing direct speech,

g.

^

^J ^J ^JTT fff ^T If "news they brought me as follows"

ti-e-mu ut-te-ru-ni
;

z

E-JTT

I$tar u-sab-ru-u-^u u-$a-an-na-a ia-a-ti um-ma, "a vision

of the night IStar caused
(it)

him

to see,

(and)

he related

to
e.

me

as follows".

adu "now",

}} j|]t a-du-u u-mu-us-su *"E|
g.
5

^|

^ ^ ^-JJ ^|| ^6=
u-sal-lq,

Adverbs
time
'

"now

daily do

I

pray".

uma "now",

e.

g.

^
"now
to
is

mdt-su ni-ha-at,
eninna

his land at rest".
e.

"now" (opposed

"formerly"),

g.

^\
am * lu
.

,

tf-/-tf
to

ia-a-ti

mar-$ipri-Xu
for

$a sul-me iS-pu-ram-ma,

"now

me

his

messenger

greeting he sent".

matima

\

"whensoever,
e.

at

any time"; with negative, "never",

matema

)

g.

^<< ^

^

^

^

ma ~

LXII

INTRODUCTION
ti-ma ina ah-rat n-me,

"whensoever

in future

days"

;

-ET
"who had
fathers".

^TT *~

EtTT,
la

-

my

fe-e-ma a-na sarrani? 1 abeP l-ia amslu mar-sipri-$u

i$-pu-ra,

never sent his messenger to the kings,

uiverbs.

a-na-ku-ma mi-i-nu a-kab-bi,
w/w'
}

"how

shall

I

speak?".

ana

mem

\

"why?",

e.

g.

}}

ammen

a-na me -i-ni

il-la-ak,

"why

is

he going?"

;

^,
kakkadi-ia,

am-me-ni ta-at-bal

ago,

raba(a]

$a

"why
?".
e.

hast thou taken

away
*" X

the mighty

crown

for

my

head

adi mati

"how long ?",
long?".
e.

g.

^ ^t^r^TI^ m: n:{a)

Ej

J^

a ~^1 ma-ti,

"how

Fhe nega./a jvc, and
S C

"not",

g.

^

^
a na
.

^I
"

T

^T
good";

Sf ^TTI
1

^!f
to

fa, nu ,$u

w ho

had not submitted

my

!rohibi-

yoke"

;

ion -

tabiitiP 1 ,
/
-/^///,

"sorceries that are not
"I

t
e.

have not eaten".
is

la

in

prohibitions

followed, by the Present,

g.

-//,

"thou shalt not hearken to them".
of prohibition
is

J^K)t",

particjg

followed

'

bv the

Preterite,

si-pat-ki ai ik-ri-ba,

"may
I

thy incantation not approach"

;

* ET- -E^IT ^T<
ai ar-h', "a foe
e

may

If If not possess".
is
e.

<MTZ <K
^]]^

>-e<*M-'

"not", particle of_rjrohibition,
sing,

employed with the 2nd
g.

pers.

of

the

Preterite,

]

ADVERBS
>:[

LXIII
e

j

tf] 4^,

ana mar-$i

la-at-hi,

"to the sick

man
id verb

do not draw near".
lu "verily",
is

sing,

sometimes placed before verbs (3rd pers. masc. and plur., and i st pers. sing, and plur., of the
;

of

mphasis;
(recall ve

Preterite)

it

was no doubt,
in use

originally
it

emphasize the verb, but

employed to has been so weakdoes
not
affect

ncj co hor-

uive P ar ~
clcs.

ened
the

that

its
.e.

insertion
g.

or

omission

sense,

^KJ y\*
e/c.)

JETf JfcJ, al-lik, IH U al-Ukj both mean "I went". simply
fcCj
~

and

^JU^ When

1

the verb begins with the vowel
lu

it

(as in the Piel, Iftaal,

e-

YY
8I

Y

may combine with it to form a single word, fclY^Jr tY / TfcrYT Y xx AYTT IS] H~ fc>rj!l] *E| *T~ %J' ', 4-*ar-htr*u

^

lu-ma$-$e-ru (for

/

umaSh'ru), "their place they deserted".
is

as a precative particle
terite

employed with the Preexpress
a

/

and the Permansive

to

wish (see be-

low, VERBS).
i

"come!", cohortative

particle,
e.

is

employed with the
fr"

ist pers.

plur. of the Preterite,
t

g.

t^E

^ ^C\\
let

W S=

El'

ni-pu-us

$a-a$-ma,

"Gome!

us

join

battle!";

al-ka-mm-ma

i

m'-rid-ma

hr nmi

an-ni-e

i

ni-ku-la

ni-nu,

"come!
ox
e
i

let

us go

down, and of the

flesh of this

wild

let

us also eat!".
is

\

"up!", cohortative particle,
sing, of the Imperative,
e
e.

employed with the 2nd

pers.
7

j

g. t^J^r

^JH
to the
:

^J ^^y{}|
wood!".

rid ana

kitti,

"Up! go down

The
ma,

following adverbs are appended enclitically
for

Adverbs
appenc

appended
/7

emphasis to pronouns, nouns, verbs and ad-

verbs, e.g. Ez^J

J .^^f- ^J, SamaS, "thou art like the Sun-god"
|
;

^JJI

<^

T

at-ta-ma kima

ally.

>^
;

j

<J>-

|Y

^1^

ina satti-ma Si-a-ti, "in that

same year"

^TTT^

LXIV
ma
Sarrani P l
"ultu

INTRODUCTION
Hat-ti, "I

gathered together the kings of

the land of Hatti".
;//',

appended

for

emphasis to verbs, especially in relative clauses,

yj

^ ^$1
my
as

mi-i-nu $a a-ma-ru-ni $a

a-Sam-mu-m

ina pa-an

$arri beli-ia a-kab-bi,

"as

I

shall see

and hear, before the

king
u,

lord

I

will repeat".
e.

appended

an interrogative particle,
uznd ^,
^.

g.

^]J$-

>-gy ^^P >-^J
wilt thou

uP

l

-ia

tu-pat-tu-u,
?"
;

J> "my
J

^
ears

open
ilu

(Y.

inform me)

4$?\

a-na-ku-u mar-ti

B'el,

"am
is

I

not the daughter of Bel?"

The
cndin

ad-

The

verbial
CT

adverbial ending YYY J J yy j
,

i$

(or eS)

of very
i

common
TT
**Y
"*,
.

occurrence,
//
.

^~*\i
t

T*

"
y

/^

Q
;

^/-//?,

"below"
is

f

^-

ma ''~^ "much". This
e.

adverbial termination
,

frequently employed for comparison,
"like a

g.

,

"like a bird";
,

>-ET

^<<

t^?

XaI~la-ti-X, "as booty";

da-bu-u-e$, "like a

hog".

Such forms

as

ti-$am-ma, "yearly",
y~ *^yy][ ^yyy^, verbs ending in iS

^^yfj ^^ ^-UT^

ar-hi-$am, "monthly",

da-ri-sam, "for ever",
t

may

be explained as ad-

their terminations being strengthened

by ma

or m.

PREPOSITIONS.
Preposi-

The

following are the principal prepositions in Assyrian, to-

gether with their ideograms and the forms they most

commonly

assume when written phonetically:
ina "in". Ideogr. *
;

written phonetically

^ *~>

i' na ">

rare ty

^SS

in

-

ana "to". Ideogr. y

;

written phonetically y

PREPOSITIONS
iUu
ultu
I

LXV

"from". Ideogr.

;

written phonetically

^
:J^

^^,
//-//.

Preposi-

|

#-/; <{*>-^=y,

ul-tu.

////"with". Ideogr.

^JEJ

;

written phonetically
;

E^J *^J<,

*//"on, upon". Ideogr.
<?-///

^~r^lj
*/*,

written phonetically

^^^=J|,

ina or

aa

"upon, concerning, against".
Ideogr.

sir

"on,

upon, against".

ff^^y

;

written

phonetically

muhhi

in

combination with
phonetically

//m or ana.

Ideogr.

^~^J*J

;

written

^-^^[
to,

^^, muh-hi ;

ina or ana muhhi, "on,

concerning,

against".

adi"up

to, to,

together with". Ideogr.

^JJ

;

written phonetically

gddu "up

to, to,

together with". Written phonetically

^yj|^ J^J,

ga-du.
arki

"after,

behind".

Ideogr.

^JE^

;

written

phonetically

balu "without".

Written phonetically

^rj

JETf, ^fl-/,

^^J

^^

?

/t/

"like, as"

Written phonetically

"like". Ideogr.

K^JJ
g=

;

written phonetically
to,

"concerning, with a view
tically
^w/
kirib

because of". Written phoneJ, af-f,

g=

\,

^EJ,

>-

>- ^:5^, flMww.
ku-um.
ina kirib,

"instead of". Written phonetically
"in, within".
kirbi,

JEJ^]jy,
5

Written phonetically ^JEJ ^JJ^
;

ma

"in"

ana

kirib,

ana

kirbi,

"to"

;

iUu

kirib,

ultu kirib,

"from, from out of".
libbi "in,

within". Ideogr. ^JIJ
"in"
;

;

written
//^/,
//

^Jjy
libbi,

^,

/i3-^i ;

ina

libbi,

a0 libbi,

"to";
;

?'.?/

"from, from out of.

pani "before". Ideogr. ^J>- written phonetically ina pan, iUu pan, lapan, "before".

^z

E^I, pa-ni;

LXVI
Preposi-

INTRODUCTION

mahar "before". Written phonetically
har "before"
;

^
^
;

^Er* ma-har ;

ina

ma-

ana mahri, adi matin, "into the presence of".
:<*<

&z&z/ "in the midst of". Ideogr.

written phonetically

^J

ka-bal ; ina kabal, "in the midst of". fr-j^-J^,

kabalti"'m the midst

of. Written

ka-bal-ti; ina kabaUi, >-<|<,
birit

<*<"]r *^|<, kabal-ti, *^J "in the midst of".
bi-rit;

^J^
"be-

"between". Written ^~< ^TT,
tween, within".

ina

birit,

ina

birti,

ina biri

"between".

Written
{-

*
bi- e - ri-

^

*"TTI

ina

^~ n

>

^E ^^!

^<
ana
tarsi

-Tf ^TTI

na

"against". Written |^ ^"^j

^r

^-ETT'

a ~ na tar~^-

ina tarsi "opposite, into the presence of;

in the

time of". Written

titu

tarsi

"from, since".
far-si.

Written

put "opposite".

Written phonetically

^S~

ina put, ^J, pu-ut ;

"opposite".

CONJUNCTIONS.
Conjunc-

The

following are the principal conjunctions in Assyrian

:

u "and", the copula most frequently used in connecting both
sentences and nouns
;

written

Kj^OJ

an d ^.
first

ma "and", the copula between two
it

verbs, to the

of which
it

is

appended
if
it

verb enclitically_j__lhe-,
is^

to

which

is

appended,

without^ a

suffix,

usually takes the

additional vowel a (see_below, p.

LXXVI).
'

enuma
z>m

"wnen "when",

^[
I

pjf Y~ ^-^T ^JTT, e-nu-ma
,

e.

g.

R

R= W

'

>E|

M F M F
I

I

d$-ru $u-u u-$al-ba-ru,

"when

that

inum

place shall have

inuma

^|J^ ^>manded"
y,
;

-

^,

grown old"; pp" j^^^f~ ^Jl<^| ilu Marduk ik-bu-u, "when Marduk com-

^yy~ ^filu

i-nu-um

*^\ Marduk

^HF~ ^c^<^i
id-di-na,

Ea^y

^y^f1
gave".

"when Marduk

CONJUNCTIONS
ki
\

LXVII

"as,

when",

e.

g.

>-f

V^
*

ki-t

ak-bu-u,

and
had

Conjunctions '

ki $a

I

E

f
-'

Vs&* a-na
ilu

,

*

*-*-,

u as

I

ASSur am-nu-ru, "as

I

to ASSur

had

prayed"

;<JEJ t E

Cfi^-ffSpff

JHPT
"when thou

^T
shalt

Ej ^TTI

^"^ ^^"" war^ *u ~ a ~ tu tam-ma-ri,

see that inscription".

"as-,
a-^/-/ &Z t-/i-'-u,
<//

"as he wishes".
till,

"while, so long as

;

until",

e.

g.
^

/r/w

Z>a-$u-u,

"while

heaven and earth exist"
al-la-ku,

;

"until
..

I

go".

snce,
//
(

^.

ib-na-an-m, "since he created

me"

;

^^|-

^gJ

^yy

/, "since
fa "after", ,
,

I

completed the palace".

* t

<IJ

^
^ man

J^

^J
"after
I

ar-ki $a a-na Sarri a-tu-ru,

became king".

,

$um-ma a-me-lum ar-da

i-gu-ur-ma im-tu-ut, "if a

hires a slave

and he dies"

;

^ET
Sum-ma
gate!'.

-ET

tfTTKVtHTTn --TTf^.
"if

la ta-pat-ta-a ba-a-bu,

thou dost not open the

aSXu Sa

"because",

e.

g.

^ ^-^ ^JTT,
times aSSu
is

^\ ^
a^-^
fo a-wa/

]}
ilu

V
AHur
e.

^HP

A
-W
my

^T
"be-

la is-su-ru,

cause he had not kept the

command
fa,

of ASSur".

SomeTf

used without

g.

feE^ -<T< tEj^
$arru-ti-ia la is-su-ru,

-ET
is

^T

^S ^in,
itself in

^=

J

V

1

a-mat
royal

"because he had not kept

command"

;

rarely $a

used by

the sense of

LXVIII
Conjunctions -

INTRODUCTION
"because",
is-su-ru,
e.

g.

^J|

^J
ii

t]

"^
ii

^TTT,

$a

la

"because he had not kept".

~nr
y
J^f,

-*H E-PII
;

u<

m

EI EI
"a bitter

na-ka-ra a-ha-a lu

ma-ma

sa-na-a,

foe

or

any other man"

i-pa-ar-ri-ku,

"who

shall hinder or display force against".
lu

u

is

often

combined with

in the sense of "or",

e.

g.

m
tablet".
lu ... lu ...
lu ...
\

^i -HI
"whoof

$u-me Sa/-ra i-pa-$i-tu u lu na-ri-ia u-sa-a?n-sa-ku,
ever blots out the record

my name

or conceals

my

"either ... or
a

.

.

.,

whether ... or
"neither
. . .

.

.

."

;

with
. .

u

...

/
J

following

negative,

nor

.",

/."../...

e.g.

JgJ<

t^l
i

IJ<

t^- !,/
^in
^ Wfl

maru-^u lu-u martu-$u, "either his son or his daughter";

m

<

i

^a ^

-u

<

-

/w ' w

ram-m'-$u

utdru(ru} u
u-hal-la-ku,

ma

minima

ab)Ul

$i-pir limuttim(tim^

nara su-a-tu
or
;

"whether he appropriates
evil

(a royal gift),

through

m<
^n~
I

any

device

destroys

this

monument"

]

*i
*

XIV
1

K AN lu-u umu
the

XV

KAN

itti

ilu

Samti

Id

innamir(ir),

"when

moon

neither

on the i4th day nor on the

5th day has been seen with the sun".

VERBS.
Under the heading NOUNS
syrian consist of two,
it

was remarked

that roots in As-

three

and four consonants. These roots

VERBS
are not in

LXIX
are

themselves words

but

the

skeletons

of words.

Each root or skeleton contains some inherent idea which can
be traced throughout the various words in which
it

is

found,

the words being formed by clothing the root with vowels and

sometimes with additional consonants.
been given of the principal ways
in

Examples have already which nouns are formed
the addition of other

from

roots.

It

will

now
The

be seen

how by

vowels and

consonants to the root the various

meanings of the
tri-

verb are obtained.
literal,
/'.

majority of verbs in Assyrian are

e.,-

they have three consonants in the root.
the Preterite, the Tenses of
verb>

The

Assyrian verb possesses five tenses:

the Present, the Imperative, the Participle, the Permansive and the

Infinitive. Past action

is

expressed by the Preterite, present and

future action by the Present, while the Permansjve expresses a

root

Taking as an example for conjugation the which conveys the inherent idea of "conquering", the KD, forms which these tenses assume in the Kal or simple stem of
state or condition.

the verb will be seen from the following paradigm.

Paradigm of the simple stem of the regular verb.

Paradigm
of the Kal

LXX
The
vowels of
j

INTRODUCTION
paradigm the vowel u occurs of the Preterite and in the first and second

It

will be seen that in the above

n tne seconcj syllable

rite,

Pre-

syllables of the Imperative,

and the vowel a
is

in the

second and

sent and

third syllables of the Present. This
ity

the case with the majorits

of Assyrian

verbs

;

the

rule

with

exceptions

may

be

stated as follows:
(i.)

Most verbs have the vowel u
the Preterite and in the
first

in

the

second, syllable of
syllables of the

and second
in

Imperative,

and the vowel a
e.

the

second and third

syllables of the Present,

g. Zaparu, "to send", Pret. tipur,

Imper. supur,
in the

Pres. isapar;

a few verbs
Pret.,
e.

however, with u

second syllable of the
syllable of the
Pres.
ilabir',

have_/ or u in the
lt

third

Pres

,

g. labaru,

tQ__gfow old",

Pret. ilbur,
ibalut.

h&latu,

"to live",

PreL/a/,

Pres.

(2.)

Some
the

verbs have the vowel
in

i in

the second syllable of
syllables

Preterite,

the

first

and second

of the
e.

Imperative, and

in the third syllable of the Present,

g.

pakadu, "to care for,
pikid,
(3.)

inspect, entrust", Pret. ipkid,

Imper.

Pres. ipakid.
in

A

few verbs have a

the second syllable of the Presyllables of the Imperative
e.

terite, in the first

and second

and

in the

second and third syllables of the Present,
isbat,

g.

sabatu,
Inflection

"to seize", Pret.

Imper. sabat, Pres. isabat.

In the above
jg

paradigm

it

will also be observed that the person^

to express

the person.

ex p resse d by certain additions which are either prefixed or af-

\

fixed to the

stem

;

in the Preterite

and Present they
thus the syllable
plural

are prefixed, in

the Permansive they are affixed. These additions are significant
parts of the personal
in

pronoun

;

ta

is

prefixed

the second person singular and

of the
are
first

Present and
in

Preterite

and the

syllables
is

ta,

ti

and tunn

affixed

the

Permansive; the syllable a

prefixed in the

person singular
affixed in the

of the Preterite and Present and the syllable ku

is

VERBS
first

-LXXI

person

singular of the Permansive;
first

prefixed in the

and the syllable ni is person plural of the Present and Preterite
of the Permansive.
It

and

is

affixed in the first person plural

may

further be noted that the second person feminine singular
Preterite,

of the

Present

and

Imperative ends in *;

that the

third person masculine plural of the Preterite, Present and Per-

mansive and the second person masculine plural of the Preand Imperative end in w; and that the third terite, Present
person feminine plural of the Preterite, Present and Permansive and the second person feminine plural of the Preterite, Present

and Imperative end in a. In the paradigm syllables which are sometimes added or omitted are placed within parentheses. An
accent
is

placed on the second syllable of the Present to indi-

cate that in pronunciation the tone falls

upon
fr
i
<

this syllable;

in

writing, the accenting of this syllable

\*

*q T nt1y indififrd
p.

the

doubling

of the

fyowinp

radical
r

e.

ikAXad

ika&ad.

Sometimes the ^liable ni andy more

rarely, the syllable

nu are affixed to the third masculine plural of the Preterite and
Present, while the
syllable ni
is

sometimes affixed to the third

masculine plural of the Permansive and to the third feminine
plural of the Preterite
Participle

and Present. The
fern, plural

fern,

singular

of the

and

its

masc. and

are similar to those of
A-

the adjective (se$/ above pp.

LVI

ff.).

The verb

possesses ten principal

stems or

voices to

which the Stems

of

following names are assigned:

Kal
Piel

Ifteal

Iftaneal

Iftaal

Shafel
Nifal

Ishtafal
Ittafal

Ittanafal

The names

of the stems have been adopted from those given

to the verb in other Semitic languages.
is

Thus

the simple

stem

termed Kal from the Hebrew adjective kal (bp) "light", a term which the Jewish grammarians applied to the simple stem

LXXII
in

INTRODUCTION
to

Hebrew

distinguish

it

from the stems weighted with
;

for-

mative additions, which they termed "heavy"

the

other

nine

stems take their names from the paradigm of the verb "to do",
in

Arabic faala (jjw), in Hebrew paal

(7J?S).

The
that

signification

and formation of the stems of the verb may
It

be briefly described as follows.

should

be

noted,

however,
as

while

the

significations

here

indicated

hold

good

a

general rule,
special

the stems of a verb
;

have sometimes acquired a

meaning

thus lamddu,

"to learn", in the Piel signifies
fly,

"to teach"; abatu, "to destroy", in the Nifal signifies "to

to

escape"; naplusu, the Nifal of the verb

[pa/asu~\

which does not

occur in the Kal, has not a passive meaning but signifies "to
look upon, to behold".

The

significations of the stems,

how-

ever, given below, cover the majority of verbs as the student

may

see for himself

by reference

to the

Vocabulary

at the

end

of the book.

The Kal

is

the simple form of the verb.

Its

formation has

been already described.

The

Piel

has

an

intensive

signification

and

is

formed by

doubling the middle consonant of the root.

The Shafel The

has a causative signification
s.

and

is

formed by

prefixing the consonant

Nifal has a passive signification and

is

formed by pre-

fixing the consonant n.

From
The

these four stems are formed four

more by

the insertion

of a // they are
Ifteal,

which generally

is

not to be distinguished in mean-

ing from the Kal.

The

Iftaal,

Piel,

which sometimes has the same meaning and sometimes serves as its passive. which sometimes has the same meaning
its

as

the

The

Ishtafal,

as the

Shafel and sometimes serves as

passive.

VERBS

LXXIII
like

The

Ittafal

(/.

e.

Intafaf)

which

the Nifal

has a

passive

signification.

By

the further insertion of an n in the Ifteal and Ittafal are

formed two more stems which are

The The

Iftaneal,

which has an active
e.
(/'.

signification.

Ittanafal

Intanafat),

which has sometimes

a passive,

sometimes an active

signification.

From
and

the

Iftaal

and

Ishtafal

were

also

formed an Iftanaal

an Ishtanafal but these forms are of rare occurrence and
here be disregarded. 1

may

The

Ittafal

and

Ittanafal

stand re-

spectively for Intafal

tely followed by a consonant,

and Intanafal; n however, when immediais frequently assimilated, and the
/

assimilation of the n to the following
these

takes place throughout

two stems of the verb
following
is

(see the rule stated above, p. LXVI).

The
kaXadu

is

the scheme of the regular verb.

The

verb Scheme

c

selected as a convenient

model
It

for displaying the

forms
j

v

b

which the stems of the verb assume.
that all these forms

should be noted however

do not occur

in the inscriptions in the case

of any one verb. In the Preterite, Present, and Permansive the

3rd

pers.

masc. sing,

is

given,

in the Imperative the

2nd

pers.

masc. sing.

The

tenses are inflected in the other stems as in the
If-

Kal, the initial u in the Pret. and Pres. of the Piel, Shafel,
taal

and
In

Ishtafal being retained in those tenses.

i.

the sake of brevity,
Kal,

most Assyrian grammars and dictionaries the stems of the verb, for are cited by means of Roman and Arabic numerals. The
the Shafel and the Nifal are cited as
I r,

the Piel,

Hi,

IIIi,
I 2
,

and IV
II 2,

i,

re-

spectively; the Ifteal, the Iftaal, the Ishtafal and the Ittafal as

III 2

and

1

IV 2 respectively; the Iftaneal, the Iftanaal, the Ishtanafal and the Ittanafal as while the symbols employed for the Piel3, II 3, III 3 and IV 3 respectively
;

Shafel and the Piel-Ishtafal (see below)

are

III

HI and IIin 2

respectively.

This

system of abbreviation has the advantage of indicating the relations of the stems to one another but for the sake of simplicity it has not been adopted
here or in the Vocabularv at the end of the book.

LXXIV
Scheme
Stem

INTRODUCTION

of the R<

VERBS
signification, e.g.

LXXV

t\, pa-kid,
;

"he inspects";
/a-6fr,

na-Su-u', '"they carry";
AW-///;/,

^fj ^El^E,

"he

is

old";

^

<|-,

"he

is

safe"

^ ^"ITT ^Ef'
kat-ma-ku
has
a

S<*b-ta-at,

"it (f.)

was cap-

tured";

^-JJJ Ej JEJ,
*7^~

t

"I

am overwhelmed";
TnjJTg_Pjpl
signification,
.^hafnl
e.
;<//

*E=TT *~?f

$a-ak-nu, "they are placed".

^P"
g. ''/*

and

Nifal

the

Permansive
,

passive

nti-uk-ku-mu,
/--</,
i

"they were heaped
has been brought
"I

up";

"who

down";

na-al-bu-$a-ku,

am

clothed".
is

The

Precative, the tense for expressing a wish,
particle
lu

formed by The

Pre '

means of the

in

combination with the Preterite or
always precedes the verb, and,

the Permansive.

The

particle lu

when

the

first
it

syllable of the Preterite begins

with a vowel,

lu

unites with
(i)

and they form a single word.
first

Thus

the u of lu

uniting with the

rally
I

becomes

,

e.

g. lu unites

vowel of the ist person sing., genewith akSud to form luk$ud, "may
first

conquer";
it

(2)

uniting with the
/,

vowel of the 3rd

pers.

sing.,
liksud,

generally becomes

e.

g. lu unites
it

with tkSud to form

"may he conquer", with
lessen";
it

usahhir

unites to form HsahhtrJ
first

"may he
form

(3)

uniting with the
/,

vowel of the 3rd
with iK&udu to
unites to form

pers. plur.,
likhidu,

becomes u or

e.

g.

lu

unites
it

"may

they conquer", with upattiru
it

lipattiru,

"may

they release", with u^abbiru

unites to form lusab-

diru,
It

"may

they break in pieces".
Effect of

has been already remarked that the accenting of the second

syllable of the Pres. Kal frequently gives rise to the doubling of

lhe accenl *

the second radical,

e.

g. ikdSad is written tkaXSad.

In the

scheme of

the Regular Verb syllables that are similarly accented in pronunciation
(e.

g.

the syllable

ta in

the Ifteal and the syllable na in the

If-

taneal) are also

marked with an accent;
second radical
is

in these verbal forms, as
e.

in the Present, the

often doubled,

g. *~]\

***?

ik-tar-ra-bu.

"they blessed", 3

m.

pi. Pret. Ifteal

from

LXXVI
karabu;

INTRODUCTION

A^^fflf ^TTT
s.

^Mf ^T fcTTT
from
habatu.

fy-ta-nab-ba-ta,

"he

plundered", 3 m.
Additional

Pret. Iftaneal

In in

the Preterite,

Present,

andPermansive
in

all

forms ending

a

consonant

vowels.

vowels

^
u,

*/

^
s.

may

take
a

addition one of the three short
clause a final a
*'&

i,

or

a.

In
e.

principal

is

of most
" ne con-

g. *~\\ ^E| ^?II? Kal from kasddu g= JEff ^Ej, as-lu-la, "I carried off", i s. Pret. Kal from fo/a/ ^P ^<, /*>fa-ha, "let him be appeased", 3 m. s. Prec. Kal from paXahu.
>

frequent

occurrence,

~$u

~

^a

quered", 3 m.

Pret.

;

;

J^
first

The vowel
which
^ij

#

is

also ^generally

added

to the
e.

of two verbs

are joined

bv the copula ma,
is-ba-ta,

g.

JZ^TJ

E^

t^^

Ej
3

>-^| ^^111) i^-pur-am-ma
s.

"he sent and grasped",
clausej^_a_Jinal
to the verb,
e.

m.

Pret.

Kal from saparu.

In

relative

vowel
g.
3

^f
s.
I

[

Pret. Kal.

*~^\ ^y, from
set

fa

is-ba-tu,
saJbalu\

"who

(3

m.

s.)

had grasped",

m.

^f
I

^

JEJ
;

fa as-ku-nu, >^-,

"which

had
^

up",

i s.

Pret.

Kal from fakdnu
speak",
lit-bu^u
t

^
s.

J^

E^< ^t? ^HL
Kal from mkaru
clothed",
3
;

a-zak-ka-ru,

"which
^Ey,

i

Pres.
is

^yi
Perm.

4^_ ^SIfteal

U

"who

m.

s.

from

labaSu.

Verbs in subordinate sentences (except
take a final vowel, generally
;

conditional

clauses)

also

see

the examples to the conjunctions, pp.
\greement 3 ver an
subject.

LXVI

ff.

As
genc
j

a
er>

rule the

verb

agrees with

its

subject in
is

number and

yhe 3rd
3rd
fern,

masc. sine., however,
e.

often used loosely

for the

sing.,
ilu

g.

t^TT H^i*^Ffy>
goddess
iStar inclined
little

War
is

^JvT w-g--^

-TIT^-^

^T
(3

-T^
s.),

V

m.

"the

her ear".

Some

practice

required before the student will re-

cognise with ease, in the syllabic writing of the Assyrians, the
various forms of the verb which have hitherto been
transliteration only.

given in
as

In order to

familiarize

him with verbs

they were written by the Assyrians, a

number of parsed examples

VERBS
are here given in

LXXVII
be found to illustrate

cuneiform

;

these will

the paradigms

and
f,

rules already given.
rt-kun,

"he set"

:

3

m.

s.

Pret. Kal.
s.

from Sakdnu. Examples
tl

r

,

i/i-kiJ,

"he has entrusted": 3 m.

Pret. Kal. h. pakadu.
Pret. Kal.
s.

ah,

"he was afraid":

3

m.

s.

fr.

paldhu.

of

^

Re-

gular Verb.

tak-tum,
fr.

"thou hast covered": 2 m.

Pret.

Kal

katdmu.
*7^~>

I^f

ta$-ku-nu,

"thou didst set":

2

m.

s.

Pret.

Kal

fr.

sakanu.
yip[,

.?-,
"I

"I set":

i

s.

Pret.

Kal

fr.

Sakdnu.
kardbu.

f|f, ak-rib,

drew near":

i

s.

Pret.

Kal

fr.

V^ ^JTTi i*-pu-ru,
^^Ey
fr.

"they sent": 3 m.

pi. Pret,
pi.

Kal

fr.

Sapdru.

submitted": 3 m. ^Ey, ik-nu-Su, "they

Pret.

Kal

fr.

kandhi.
>^yy,

iM-</a, "they

(f.)

conquered": 3

f.

pi. Pret.

Kal

kaSadu.

J^yj JfETJ ^y> //-^-/-/, "let him live": 3 m.

s.

Prec.

Kal

fr.

baldtu.

,

lu-u$-pur, "let

me

send":

i s.

Prec. Kal

fr.

Sapdru.

JEy

"let i^-, H$-ku-nu,

them

set": 3

m.

pi. Prec.

Kal
s.

fr.

Zakdnu.

H&'
fr.

*-

na -8a ~ a8> "he bellows": 3 m.

Pres.

Kal

nagdgu.
^y

^yj, /--/-//,
i-zak-kar,

"he gazes":

3

m.

s.

Pres.

Kal

fr.

natdlu.

E>rX
Y^r

^yy^f,

"he speaks"

:

3

m.

s.

Pres.

Kal
3

fr.

zakdru.
s.

^Hf~ *"^~y *7^~? Kal fr. zandnu.
-,

i-za-an-na-nu,

"he sends rain":

m.

Pres.

ta-pat-tar,

"thou dost release": 2 m.

s.

Pres.

Kal

fr.

patdru.
~<y^, ta-sa-ba-ti,

"thou dost grasp": 2

f.

s.

Pres.

Kal

fr.

sabdtu.

LXXVIII
Examples
illustrating

INTRODUCTION
E**oRF
,

>~

a-mah-ha-as, "I will smite"

:

i

s.

Pres.

Kal

r
ir.

the forms

,

mahdsu.

of the Re-

g

^
,

^,

i-na-at-ta-la ,

"they

(f.)

gaze":

3

f.

pi.

gularVerb.

ku-Su-udj "conquer": 2
,

m.

s.

Imp. Kal
s.

fr.

katddu.
fr.

E^V^T

tu-bu-uk,"pour out": 2 m.
"spare": 2 m.
s.
s.

Imp. Kal
fr.

tabaku.

j? gi-mil,
<,

Imp. Kal
fr.

gamdlu.

sa-bat,

"grasp": 2 m.
sa-pi-nu,

Imp. Kal
:

sabdtu.
s.

^
i

>^-,

"overcoming"

m.
(f.)

Part.

Kal
:

fr.

sapdnu.
st.
f.

>^yyj Jyyy
s.

^Ej?
Kal
fr.

pa-ri-sa-at,

"who

decrees"

constr.

Part.

pardsu.
is

^y
>

^^ifc,

/a-&r, "it

old": 3 m.
:

s.

Perm. Kal
s.

fr.

labdru.
fr.

^y ft,
lft(

tarn-hat,

"she

is

holding"

3

f.

Perm. Kal
:

tamdhu,

|^
Kal

y^
fr.

^yyy,
hdtdhii.

ha-a$-ha-a-ta,

"thou desirest"

2

m.

s.

Perm.

^ f^ ^yy ^Ey,
fr.

sa-am-da-ku,

"I

am yoked"
:

:

i

s.

Perm. Kal

samddu.
rab-su,

^E^y^ ^J^Efe
^yy^ ^Ey,

"they crouch"

3

m.

pi.

Perm. Kal

fr.

rabdsu.
labdsu.
f.

lab-hi,

"they are clothed": 3 m.
(f.,
i.

pi.

Perm. Kal

fr.

^-]^[ Ej>
pi.
fczyyy^:
-

kat-ma, "they
fr.

e.

lips)

are pressed together": 3

Perm. Kal
<^<
,

katdmu.

u-rak-Ms, "I

made

fast":

i s.

Pret. Piel

fr.

rakdsu.

^yy^
^yyy^

^ ^^^ ^tT>
fr.
-

w-^-^-/r,

"I

lessened":

i

s.

Pret.

Piel

seheru.

][T>-y,

u-hal-Kk, "I destroyed":
u-na-a^-li-ku,

i

s.

Pret. Piel

fr.

haldku.
pi.

^yyy^ >-ry

Pret. Piel

^ <y- t^I^, ^>-^yyy ^ ^,
fr.

"they kissed": 3 m.

naXaku.

U-sa-ah-hi-ir, "let

him

lessen": 3

m.

s.

Prec. Piel

fr.

seheru.
t

^yy, tu-$al-lam "thou causest to prosper":
Pres. Piel
fr.

2

m.

s,

Saldmu.

VERBS
TTTET, n-lja-am-ma-tu, "they light
.

LXXIX
up": 3 m. Examples
illustratin

Piel pi. Pres.
]<<<y *^~'

f

fr.

^~~^ hamatu.
life

the form|
s.

4*~~

,

but-lit,

"give
;////.?-.?/>-,

to": 2 m.
2

Imp. Piel
s.

fr.

balatu.
fr.

of the Re

gularVerl
"

,

"abandon":

m.

Imp. Piel

[maSaru].

^
fr.

| ^JJTEJ, nu-nm-mir,

"make

bright": 2 m.

s.

Imp. Piel

namdru.
mu-dal-li-bu, "afflicting":

^I '"E^TT ^'
fr.

m.

s.

Part. Piel

dalabu.

II

^^^ffl
*^y|
m.
s.

*-]\ ^ffl
fr.

su-uh-hu-ru,

"it is

turned": 3 m.

s.

Perm. Piel
jti 3

saharu.

^^ ^ E5iJ'
Pret. Shafel
fr.

w-^-^-^-^. "he caused to take":

sdbatu.
I'.

y^:

t=yyy^

^yy,

u-Um-kit, "I caused to fall",
fr.

^.

"I overthrew":

i s.

Pret. Shafel

makdtu.

y^
3

^ ^\\^ r?T
m.
,

*liT

u -^e '^- m''^ u
fr.

>

" the

y caused to submit"

:

pi. Pret. Shafel

kana&u. 2

$uk-m,

"make ready":

m.

s.

Imp. Shafel

fr.

\kalalu].

^>-

"to abase": Inf. Shafel ][Eiy, tu-ut-pu-lu,

fr.

Sapalu.
s.

^
Nifal
Nifal

>-<y< *-J][^, /3-3a!-//-^,
fr.

"he was destroyed":

3

m.

Pret.

fo/a.
it

,

K*-*a-kin, "let

be set": 3 m.
"let
it

s.

Prec. Nifal

fr.

Sakanu.
s.

yyf
fr.

lip-pa-fir,

be torn away": 3 m.

Prec.

patdru.
is

^<, is-sa-bat, "he

held fast": 3 m.

s.

Pres. Nifal
i

fr.

sabatu.
fr.

"I accomplished": yyy ^ifc, a$-ta-kan,

s.

Pret. Ifteal

Sakdnu.

y

^^
Sabdru.

Sff ^-^-^-^ "he broke":
{ P' tal - la

3

m.

s.

Pret. Ifteal

fr.

ffI

-ET Hfl

-^

" the

y

fe ared":

3

m.

pi.

Pret.

Ifteal fr. paldhu.

I< JEiy, M-ku-lu, "they are equal": 3 m.
teal
fr.

pi.

Perm.

If-

Sakdlu.

LXXX
Examples
illustrating

INTRODUCTION
>-j

l\P

the forms

of the Re-

^ E^V^T *|
Iftaa l

_
s.

>->-xr

]

Iftaftl

fr>

r^^
uk-tam-mi-is, "I

*^|

j

,

up-tar-ri-ra,

"it

was broken"

:

3

m.

s.

Pret.

\^ ^[,
fr>

was bowed down":

i

s.

Pret.

gularVerb.

kamasu.

^,
Prec. Iftaal
>*^r

lik-tam-me-ra, "let
fr.

it

be

made

plentiful": 3

m.

\kamdru].
us-tar-ki-ba,

^JEJ ^>^y
3

"he slung on"
fr.

(lit.

"caused to

ride"):

m.

s.

Pret. Ishtafal

rakabu.
:

t^S^ H7I

^^-T' u *-ta $-ri-fa> "he brought near"
fr.

3

m.

s.

Pret. Ishtafal

karabu.

^yyy *^*M
3

C^<

*"^y ^-^-^-^-^,
fr.

"they caused to take":

m.

pi. Pret. Ishtafal

sabatu.
s.

fiK

*^^ X^ HM'
fr.

mu *- ta k- mi-to, "flaming": m.

Part.

Ishtafal

hamdtu.

yy
fils"
:

^gy ^y,
it-ta-at-bak t

mus-tak-u-ia-at,
fr.

"who

(f.)

fui-

constr.

st. f. s.

Part. Ishtafal
"it

[kaldlu~\.
:

\\,

was poured out"
" h e sent":

3

m.

s.

Pret. Ittafal

fr.

tabaku.

fc^TTT fc^Mf
Pret. Iftaneal

^ P^TT
fr.

*$-to-p-P*->

3

m.

s.

Zapdru.
ti-ta-na-ka-an,

^yyy ^"y
s.

^yf ^Hf-i
fr.

"he makes"

:

3

m.

Pres. Iftaneal

Sakdnu.
at-ta-na-as-har, "I turn":
i s.

S^y

^yy >~^y ^^L 4^^
Ittanafal
fr.

Pres.

sahdru.

We

have hitherto considered those verbs which contain three
i.

strong radicals,

e.

verbs in which the three consonants that com-

pose the root appear in every verbal form.

When

the beginner

with the help of the explanations appended has mastered the

two paradigms on pp. LXIX and
the
list

LXXIV

and has worked through

of examples just given he will be in a position to parse

correctly a majority of the verbs he will
transliterated

meet with

in the texts
It

and translated

in the

reading book.
himself at

would be
with the

well for

him

therefore not to trouble

first

VERBS "weak verbs"
/'.

LXXXI

e.

verbs in which certain consonants of the root

undergo phonetic changes, or in which one or more letters of Weak verbs the root are represented by vowels in Assyrian though by consonants in other Semitic languages.
familiarized

'

When

he has thoroughly

himself with the forms of the strong verb he will

find little difficulty in recognizing the
classes of

same forms

in the various

weak

verbs.
it

Before proceeding to the consideration of the weak verbs
will

be necessary to explain,

as briefly

as possible,

the terms

which are usually employed
of brevity,
root",

for their classification.
is

For the sake
letter

when

reference

made

to

"the

first

of the Explanatlon of

"the middle letter of the root" and "the third letter of
the feminines of the Latin adjectives primus "first",

terms.

the root",

medius "middle",

and

tertius

"third" are employed, the feminine

substantive

littera

"letter"

being in each case understood.

For

example, the
is

first

letter of the root of the verb nadanu "to give"
first

N

radical of

(Hebrew 3); instead of describing this as "a verb the which is N", it may be more shortly described
J".

as a

verb "primae

In the verb Salalu "to plunder" the consonant

L
it

occurs as the third as well as the middle letter of the root;

may

thus be briefly described as a verb "mediae geminatae\
letter

i.

e.

a

verb with the middle

of

its

root

doubled, from the

Latin geminatus "doubled".
In

many words only two consonants appear
in

in the root

in

Assyrian although

other

Semitic languages the same roots

contain three consonants. This arises from the fact that certain

consonantal sounds^Jor which characters exist in other Semitic
languages,

were not represented in the Assyrian syllabary.
(see

It

has already been explained
Assyrians

above,

p.

XXVII
the
H,

f.)

that

the

had
by

no
the

signs

for

distinguishing
X,

seven sounds
FT

represented
J7

Hebrew consonants
T

(Arabic E),

(Arabic

f.

and

\

and

*;

and

a

number of examples were

given in

Hebrew and Arabic

of roots containing these consonants

LXXXII
Importance of
classifying

INTRODUCTION
were simply represented by vowels. Although
.

which
.

in Assyrian

these consonants do not occur in Assyrian their original existence
in

weak
verbs.

many

roots has left

its

traces

on the vowels;

for these will
t

be found to vary to some extent according to the consonants

which the root originally contained. Moreover,
least

as Assyrian

is

the

known

of the principal Semitic languages, a great deal of
its

our knowledge of the meanings of

roots has been obtained
roots
in

by

comparing

them with the corresponding
it

other

Semitic languages. For these two reasons

will be obvious that

although Assyrian did not

distinguish

the

seven consonantal

sounds referred to above, some system for distinguishing roots

which originally contained them would be of service for purposes of comparison. To meet this end the following system has been
invented on
the Continent

and

is

now

generally

adopted

in

books published there. For the convenience of the student
will need to consult fuller

who

works on Assyrian, a

brief description

of

it

is

here appended.
letter K,

The Hebrew
System of breathing,
classificais

which

as a

consonant simply marks the

taken as a general symbol for the seven consonantal

sounc j s

^ ^

^

^ ^ ^
p

y

.,

and

,

.

ancj fa esQ are distin-

guished from one another by a small index figure placed beneath
the K.
as
is

Thus K
,

is

cited as
>

K I? n K7
a
.

as

K2 H
,

(c) as

K3 p
,

(fc)

as

K4

,

J?

()

K5

1

as

K6

,

and

as

The

verb akdlu "to eat" (Hebr. b3X)
;

thus referred to as a verb "primae Rj"
is

<z/ott
tfrfl?f

"to go" (Hebr. "to be
<?3^r

Tnn)

referred
is

to

as

verb "primae K 2 ";

new"
r^w

(Hebr.
(Hebr.

ttf^fl)

referred to as a verb "primae
is

K3

"
;

"to cross"
i< 4 ";

*"G;P,

Arab. ^4*)
D*T5J,

referred to as a verb "primae
vljji)
is

"to enter" (Hebr.

Arab,

referred to as a verb "/>nt.

maeRg";

aladu "to bear" (Hebr. *b*,

e.

^y\)

is

referred to as
is

a verb "primae

K 6 "; and

eneku "to suck" (Hebr. plP)

referred

to as a verb "primae

K 7 ". K 2 ",

Similarly verbs containing these con-

sonants

as

their

middle radicals
etc.,

may

be referred to as verbs
in

"mediae Nj", "mediae

and verbs

which the third

letter

VERBS
of the root
Jirmae".
is

LXXXIII
to as verbs "tertiae in-

"weak" may be

referred

Of

the

weak verbs

cited

below the
J,

first

two

classes,

i.

e.

verbs
I

mediae geminatae

and verbs primae

contain in the root three con-

"
**

*
ti/i

V

sonants,

certain

of which undergo phonetic

changes

;

the

re-

maining

classes contain

examples of verbs in the roots of which
been referred to in

the Semitic

consonants occur which have

the preceding paragraph:
I.

Verbs mediae geminatae (verbs in which
third letters of the root

the second

and Examples

are the

same) are in the
In a

main

of weak
verbs,

conjugated like the regular verb.
a contraction of the second

few verbal forms
letters of the root
3.

and third

takes place,

e.

Perm. Kal
II.

M
3

g.

Mdlu

(root

hh&)

"to plunder",

m.

s.,

(for Mil).

Verbs primae
is

(verbs in which the

first letter

of the root

n) are in the

main conjugated

like the regular verb.
p.

In

accordance with the rule stated on

LXVI, the
is

n,

when immediately
assimilated
sdru
(rt.
;

followed by a consonant,

frequently

Kal the n disappears, e. g. na-(^ "to protect", Kal Pret. issur Im*13) (for insur),
in the Imper.

per/ usur.
III.

Of

verbs primae
is

tfj.

(verbs in

which the

first

letter
(rt.

of the

root

K),

the following are

examples: akalu
ikkal,

S^Kj)
akil,

"to eat", Kal Pret. ikul, Pres.
Ifteal

Imper. akul, Part,

Pret.

itakal',

ahdzu

(rt.

tn^) "to hold", Kal

Pret,

ihuz, Pres. ihhaz, Piel Pret. u'ahhiz, uhhiz, Pres. uhhaz,

Shafel

Pret. utdhiz, Pres. uXaftaz

;

amdru

(rt.

n^K x )

"to see", Kal

Pret. emur, imur, Pres. immar, Imper. aniur, Nifal Pret. innamir,
Inf.

ndmuru.

IV.

Of

verbs primae
is

X2

(verbs in

which the

first letter
is

of the
aldku

root
(rt.

H) the only one of frequent occurrence
"to go", Kal Pret.
illik,

*[SK 2 )

Pres.

illak,

Ifteal Pret.

LXXXIV
Pres.
ittalak,

INTRODUCTION
Iftaneal Pret.

and Pres.

ittanalak,

Shafel

p
V. Verbs primae
root
is

K3
e.

(verbs
c)
:

in
f

which the

first

letter

of the

H,

i-

are

rare occurrence;
3)

the follow-

ing are examples
edti,

edesu (rt. ttPTK

"to be new", Kal Pret.^7
Inf. uddujfu;
i&tf, Piel

Piel
3)

Pret.

uddt'X,

Part, muddts,

dSaSu

(rt.

WK
VI.

"to be sorrowful", Kal Pret.

Perm.

flfc.

Of

verbs primae S 4 (verbs in which the
is

first letter
<?$<?r

of the

root

p,

z'.

.

_)

the following are examples:
ebir, ibir,

(rt.

""Q^)

"to pass over", Kal Pret.
teal Pret. f/ifrr,

Pres.

ibbir,

Imper.
;

ebir, If(rt.

V

Shafel Pret.

usebir,
ezib,

Pres. uSebar
izib,

s<?

DTK 4 ) "to leave", Kal Pret.
Pret. u$ezib, Imper. $uzi&,
Sezib,

Pres.

izzib,

Shafel

Inf.

$uzubu\ emedu

(rt.

1bK 4 )

"to stand", Kal Pret.
t

emt'd, Ifteal Pret. //^w^, Piel Pret. urn-

mid Nifal Pret. innimid.
VII.

Of

verbs primae
is 5?,
/.

S5

(verbs in

which the

first

letter

of the

root
(rt.

D1K 5 )

most frequent occurrence is erebu ) "to enter", Kal Pret. erub, zrub, Pres. irrw3, Ife.

that of

V
*

teal Pret. z'/rw3,

Shafel Pret.

userib,

Imper.

Surib,

Ishtafal

Pret. uWerib.

VIII.

Of

verbs primae K 6 (verbs in which the
is

first letter

of the
Dttftf 6 )

root

1) the following are

examples:

aSdbu

(rt.

"to dwell", Kal Pret. u&b, Pres. u&ab,

^

Ifteal Pret. titu&b,
-v ;

ittatib,

Pres. z'//^3,
(rt.

Shafel Pret. uMib, Ishtafal Pret. uSte&b
urid,
;

\

aradu

T1K 6 )

"to go down", Kal Pret.

Pres. urrad,
(rt.

Imper.

rid,

Shafel Pret. uSerid, Perm. Surud
ubil,

^5/

^DX 6 )
If-

"to bring", Kal Pret.
teal

ubla,

Pres. ubbal, Imper. ^7,
uSebil,

Pret.

ittubil,

Shafel Pret. uUbil,
ultebil,

Imper.

^3/7,

Ishtafal Pret. uUabil,

usibil

IX.

Of

verbs primae
is
*)

K7

(verbs in
is

which the

first letter

of the

v

root
(rt.

the following

of frequent occurrence: [eSeru]
isir,

"IW 7 )

"to be straight, right", Kal Pret.

Shafel

VERBS
Pret. uSeh'r, Imper. SuSir,
Inf. Jfo/flforw.

LXXXV
$u$ur,

Perm.

Ishtafal Pret. uMe&r, Examples
of

*
Kx
(verbs
in

weak

verbs.

X.

Of

verbs mediae
is

which the middle
:

letter

of

the root
(rt.

K) the following are examples

ma'adu, mddu

IKj

to)

"to be many", Kal Pret. im'id, imid, Pres. ima'id\

Sa'alu (rt.

b*^)
K2

"ask", Pret.

it'al,

Imper.

Xa'al,

Ifteal Pret.

Ma'al, Piel

Pres. uSa'al.

XI. Verbs moftztf

(verbs in

which the middle

letter

of the
dis-

root

is

H)

are of rare occurrence

and may here be

regarded.
XII.

Of

verbs mediae
is fl,
*'.

K3
e.

(verbs

in

which the middle

letter

of
is

the root

e) that of

most frequent occurrence

rdmu

(rt.

DK 3 *l)

"to love", Kal Pret. tram, trim, Pres. tram,

Imper. rim, Part, rd'imu.
XIII.

Of

verbs mediae
is J?,
i.

K4
e.

(verbs in
,)

which the middle

letter of
:

the root
(rt.

the following are examples
ibel,

belu

^K 4 3)

"to rule", Kal Pret.
ire$,

ipil;

[retu] (rt.

^K 4 "l)

"to rejoice", Pret.

tn$,

Ifteal

Pret.

irtis.

XIV. Verbs mediae ^ 5 (verbs in which the middle letter of the root is p, i. e. g.) are of rare occurrence and may here be
disregarded.

XV. Of

verbs mediae
is
1)

K6

(verbs in which

the

middle
:

letter of
(rt.

the root

the following are examples

kdnu

JS 6 D)

"to stand", Kal Pret. ikun, Pres. ikan,
kdn, ken,
Inf.

Imper. kun,

Perm.

Piel Pret. ukin, Pres. ukdn, Imper. ken,
y

Perm, kun,

kunnu

Iftaal Pret.

uktm; tdru

(rt.

1X 6 n)
ta

"to turn", Kal
Part, mufiru,

Pret. itur, Imper. tur, Piel Pret. ufir, Imper.
Inf. turru,

fir,

Iftaal Pret.

//?r;

</a^

(rt.

"to slay", Kal ]S 6 H)

Pret. tduk,

Pres.
iflf/w^).

z'^a^,

Imper. duk,

Perm.

^,

Ifteal Pret.

idduk (for

XVI. Of verbs mediae # 7 (verbs
the root
is
s

in

which the middle
:

letter

of

)

the following are examples

tabu

(rt.
itib,

DK 7 tfl)
Perm.

"to be good",

Kal Pret.

itlb,

Pres.

itab,

itibbi,

LXXXVI
nples
tab,

INTRODUCTION
Piel Pret. ufib, Part, mufibu, Inf. tubbu
;

danu

(rt.

|K 7 *l)

eak

"to judge",

Kal Pret.

idin,

Pres. idan, idinna,

Imper. din.
letter of the

XVII. Verbs
root
is

tertiae

infirmae (verbs in

which the third

weak) are of frequent occurrence. Of verbs tertiae K x of the root is K) the (verbs in which the third letter hatu (rt. Kjton) "to sin", Kal following are examples
:

Pret.

ihti,

Pres. ihatti\
imli,

main

(rt.

Xjbti) "to

fill,

to be full",

Kal Pret.
tertiae

Ifteal Pret. tmtali,

Piel Pret. umalli.

Verbs
be dis-

S2

are of rare

occurrence and
tertiae

may
in

here

regarded.
letter
(rt.

Of

verbs
is

K 3 (verbs
Pret.

which the third
:

of the root

ft)

the following are examples
ipti,

pitu
ipeti,

K 3 n&) "to open", Kal
Imper.
piti, pita,

ipta,

Pres.
(rt.

ipatti,

ipitti,

Part, petu;
ilka
;

lakii,

liku

S 3 pb) "to
Imper.
liki,

take",
Ifteal

Kal
Pret.
:

Pret.
ilteki.

ilki,

Pres.
tertiae

ilekki,

ilikki,

Of

verbs
4 !2^)

X4

the

following are
t'Smt,

examples
tSimt't

Semu

(rt.

"to hear", Kal Pret.
Sebii
(rt.

Pres.

th'mmt't

Imper. Simi\
tibi.

X 4 Dt^) "to be
tertiae

satisfied

with", Kal

Pret.

Many
K6

verbs

infirmae might,

by

comparison with the corresponding roots
classified

in

Arabic, be

as verbs tertiae

or

tertiae

7

;

these

two

classes

of verbs

however are usually treated together as it is frequently impossible to distinguish between them. In the
1

corresponding roots in Hebrew the original

and

n

have

been changed to H which merely serves to carry the vowel and has no consonantal force it is customary
both
:

therefore in citing Assyrian roots,

which belong

to these

two

classes, to

employ

PI

as a

symbol

for the third letter

of the root.

The

following are examples of these two
:

classes of verbs tertiae infirmae

bantu
bini,

(rt.

H3D) "to build",

Kal
bam,

Pret.

ibni,

Pres. ibani, Imper.

Part, dam, banii,

Perm.

Ifteal Pret. ibtani,

Nifal Pret.
$aiu
(rt.

and
Plfiltf)

Pres. ibbani, Ittafal

Pret.
Pret.

and Pres.
titi,

ittabni;

"to drink",

Kal

Pres.

iSatti,

Imper. &tf;

baru

(rt.

,TD)

"to see",

VERBS
Kal Pret.
ibri,

LXXXVII
(rt.

Pres.

ibari,

Shafel Pret. uXabri] manu

"to count", Kal Pret. imnu, Pres. manu, imani, Piel Pret.

umannd

;

kamu

(rt.

HOp) "to burn", Kal
of the root are

Pret. z'&ww, Imper.

kumu, Part. kdmu.
In

some verbs two

letters

weak

;

such verbs Doubly
wea
verbs.

are

termed "doublv weak" and exhibit the peculiarities of both

the classes of

weak verbs
"to exalt"
;

to
is

nddu

(rt.

1K I 3)
Xt

which they belong. Thus the verb a "doubly weak" verb, as it is both
(rt.

primae

3

and mediae K r
;

naSit

KjtW) "to raise"
is is

is

both primae

3

and

tertiae

elu

(rt.

rf?K 4 ) "to be high"

both primae K 4 and both primae X 7 and both mediae X 6 and

tertiae

infirmae

;

idu (rt.
(rt.

^ 4 *1^ 7 ) "to know"

tertiae tertiae

K4

;

bd'u

X Z K 6 3) "to come"
verbs

is

Kx

.

A
root)

few
exist

quadriliteral
in

(verbs

with

four

letters

in

the Quadri-

Assyrian,
:

of which the

following

are

of most

frequent occurrence
uSabalkat, "to tear
Ittafal,

\balkatu, rt.

fO^D], Shafel

Pret. uttalkit, Pres.

down",

Nifal Pret. ibbalkit "to fall upon, invade",
revolt,

Pret. itlabalkat

"to

to pass over"

;

\_par$adu,

rt.

"KtfHS],

Nifal

Pret.

ipparSid,

Inf. naparfudu,

u to
root
;

fly".
is

In

some
e.

quadriliteral
rt.

verbs

the

last

letter

of the

weak,

g.

n^^B, Shafel

Pret. uXpalki, "to

open wide"

rt.

HD^B, Nifal

Pret. ipparku, Inf. naparku, "to cease, disappear".

LIST

OF

SIGNS.

The

following List of cuneiform signs

is

given for reference,

and should be used together with the Vocabulary when reading The principles on the texts in the main body of the book.

which the

list

has been arranged are as follows.

It

has been

already stated on pp.
its

XXI

ff.,

that

the

cuneiform writing had

origin in picture-writing,

the inventors of the system being

At an
Character

accustomed to draw rough pictures to represent objects, actions, etc. early date the pictures lost their exact forms and became

mere groups of wedges,
t jie

chiefly because

soft clay

was used

as

md

func-

tions of

p r i nc ip a l

writing

.material.
its

The
in

original

picture-writing,

the signs

moreover, in addition to

change

development with regard to most of the picture-signs, or ideograms, were, in course of time, used to express the sounds of the names of things which they thus arose and came represented, apart from their meanings
;

outward form, underwent the meaning of the characters. For

into use, side

by

side with the original picture-writing, a system

of writing words phonetically by

means of

syllables.

Among

the Babylonians and Assyrians these
side

two systems

also existed

by

side.

A

sign
;

could thus be employed as (i) a single

syllable of a

word

(2)

an ideogram which stood

for a

whole

word more

;

(3)

a determinative to indicate the general
;

an ideogram
signs.

and

(4)

meaning of part of an ideogram consisting of two or

LIST

OF SIGNS

LXXXIX

In the following list the principal Assyrian signs are given Arrangement c with their most usual syllabic values and ideographic meanings.

The
and

list

is

divided into three columns. In the
;

first

column

is

the
;

sign to be explained

in the

second are

its

chief phonetic values
its

in the third are the
it

complete words which are

when

is used as an ideogram or as the first For example, the first sign in the list, >^, when occurring gram.

meanings of an ideopart

in the inscriptions,

may

possibly be used phonetically for any

one of the four syllables
cause of";

a$,

rum,

dil

or

til,

e.

g.

*

"beJ, a$-$u,

>-jy^

^IHf

*^>

zi-ka-rum,

"male";

^.^

*~-

>->^-

mi-dil $ame(e\ EzJ^,

"the bolt of heaven"; ^ir| ^, ba-til, "discontinued, in abeyance"; or it may be used as an ideogram for

any of the words cited
ina matu At$ur ki,

in the third
;

column,
>

e.

g.

"in Assyria"
or finally
it

J

A^

*,
e.

^[E|, m AHur - ah iddina,
first

>

*

>~-

"Esarhaddon"

;

may

occur as the
sign,
g.

sign in an
*

ideogram composed of more than one

r^ *~^"T ^|

M|^, i-na The signs
direction

/? "

kussi,

"on the throne". And so on throughout.
or wedges with which they begin, the the
(i) the
s 'S ns

in this list are arranged in order according to the Order of

of the

wedge

general order being as follows:
horizontal

signs

beginning with

wedges

(first

those

beginning with

one horizontal
:,

wedge

-,

then the signs beginning with two wedges

then
;

those with three wedges

f

,

then those with four wedges E)
(first

(2) the signs beginning with diagonal wedges

those be-

ginning with one diagonal wedge
those with three

x
,

then those with two ^, then
begin with the large

^, and
;

finally those that

diagonal wedge ^)
tain the upright

(3) the signs the beginnings of

which con-

wedge (those signs beginning with the single
",

wedge,
last

|,

being followed by those beginning with \,

and

of

all

In each of these

by those beginning with two or more upright wedges). main divisions the same order is followed with

regard to the second and third wedges of each sign.

xc

INTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST

OF SIGNS

XCI

Signs

XCII

INTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST

OF SIGNS

XCIII

Sign

XCIV

INTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST

OF SIGNS

xcv

Sign

XCVI

INTRODUCTION

Sign

Svllabic values

Ideograms

LIST

OF SIGNS

XCVII

Signs

XCVIII

I

NTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST

OF SIGNS

XCIX

Sign

INTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST

OF SIGNS

CI

Sign

Syllabic values

Ideograms

79-

tur, dur, tur

80.

|ff,

billu,

"tribute;

burden; talent".
81.
r

<MP U "honey".
>

82.

gur, kur

,

(i) idru, "to turn, re-

turn".
(2) a

measure.

83.
y,

karnu, "horn".
[e&ni],

f^y^fl,

"to

straight".

istanu
(
I

\

the North-wind ;
see 22 9,

iltdnu

I

84.

far

*py^y

,

(

i

)

burrumu, "brightly coloured".

(2) birmu,

"brightly

coloured cloth".
85sak,

Sak

;

sag ;

,

rihi,

"head".

ri$, ris

"head".

'dz ^yyy,
"chief".

asaridu,

~yy^l
officer,

Saku,

"hi

ruler".

bolt".

CII

INTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST OF SIGNS

GUI

Sign

CIV

INTRODUCTION

Sign

Syllabic values

Ideograms

^^
^
*^

f

mdrtu
bintu

\

"daughter".

\

ship".

106.
107.
108.

ad, a/, at

,

a3, "father".

109.

no.

rob,

rap
*arru >
,

in
duk.
112.
far, sar\ sir; hir

" kin

g"-

the god

Mar

,

Xa/dru, "to write".

garden".

JE^J,
(Iftaal

kutassuru
?,

of kasaru)
to

"to
(in-

collect,
trans.)."

rally

,

"wall".

dead".
114.
,

Ubara-Tutu.

se

naddnu, "to give".

LIST

OF SIGN

cv

Sign

CVI

INTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST

OF SIGNS

CVII

Sign

CVIII

INTRODUCTION

LIST

OF SIGNS

CIX

Sign

ex

INTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST OF SIGNS

CXI

Sign

CXII

INTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST

OF SIGNS

CXII1

Sign

CXIV

INTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST

OF SIGNS

cxv

Sign

CXVI

INTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST

OF SIGNS

CXVII

Sign

Syllabic values

Ideograms

2 1 6.

217.

,

sign sometimes employ-

ed for marking the division of words.

218.

ud,
tu

ut,
;

/;
;

u]

^,

(i) www, "day". (2) umu, "storm".

tarn

Mr

;

par, pir ; lah,
lih
;

(3) $am$u,

"sun"; gen-

his, his

erally written

with

determ.
(4) situ,

*"**j-

"exit,

that
forth".

which comes
(5)

P&>

"white".
the Sun-

*~*^~ ^y,

$ama$,

god.

^ J^y,

afu, "to

go forth".

sun-rse.

"sun-set".

"copper".
,

the

city.

the city.

Puratu,

the Euphrates
short

;

properly the

ca-

CXVIII

INTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST

OF SIGNS

CXIX

Sign

cxx
Sign

INTRODUCTION

LIST

OF SIGNS

CXXI

Sign

CXXII

INTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST

OF SIGNS

CXXIII

Sign

Syllabic values

Ideograms

?

(2) Sutmu, "prosperity,
,

greeting".

daianu, "judge".
,sallukku "regt

ular offering".
,

Sandnu, "to equal,

to rival".

-<y^lEy^-,
262.
,

Sulma-

nu, the god Sulman.
///,

"mound".

263.

,

(0

'^

"earth".
;

(2) aSru, "place"

also

employed
terminative

as

deafter

names
(3) Mi,

of places.

"with".
"dis-

^y^,
tress".

dannatu,

der part".
(2)

&//," low,
lower".

,

Sumer, Southern

Babylonia.
,

"dwelling".
/' weight".

CXXIV

INTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST OF SIGNS

cxxv

Sign

CXXVI

INTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST OF SIGNS

CXXVII

Sign

CXXVHI

INTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST OF SIGNS

CXXIX

cxxx
Sign

INTRODUCTION

LIST

OF SIGNS

CXXXI

Sign

CXXXII

INTRODUCTION

Sign

LIST OF SIGNS

CXXXIII

Sign

CXXXIV
,0.

INTRODUCTION
fern,

<

[eSrtt],

esertu

(constr.

st.

e$erit\

"ten"

;

e$ru,

"tenth".
[is

ten esru~\, fern, isten esrit,

"eleven".
"thirteen".
"fifteen".

"twelve",
"fourteen",
"
sixteen".

i3. 15.
17.
!9-

"seventeen".
"nineteen".
s a Ids a,

"eighteen".

ao

.

^
y

esrd,

"twenty".

3o.

seldta,

"thirty".
40.
arbd,
irba'd,
irbd,

50.

,

"fifty".

"forty".
60.

LISTS

OF DETERMINATIVKS AND IDEOGRAMS
of
trees,

CXXXV
and

determinative before names

woods,

wooden
^'
,,

objects.

names of

plants.

names of names of
names
stuffs.

stones.
stuffs

and

garments.

of

wools

and

woolen

Tx

T^J

names of
"

vessels.

*^

names of some of the
mals.

larger ani-

words
)

for sheep. for

,,

words

some

parts

of th^

names of

the months.
stars

>->-^JL

^'
"W*
.tt> >>^
1

i~?

>

names of
after

and planets.

names of
names of
names of

places.
birds.
fish.

"

-j

^A^
Tf-HF-

A

[
)

>to-l -^6l determinatives after numbers. o^U. in-~OL<^~*->
i

CA-v-rf-txiW

^TTT TVJ-

determmativ es

after

numbers, and measures.

|

for the plural.

LIST OF IDEOGRAMS FOR THE MONTHS.

^*-*^
>-

T

trr^ ^^~ rry ^-^1 ^^^ T
.

Nisannu, Nisan.

'

CXXXVI
^y

INTRODUCTION

Simdnu, Si van.

IV.

%:T *rl Ey I
*-jL_Y

I

.

Du'tizu,

Duzu,

Tammuz.

^T ^^^

^^^^1

,

Ab.

VII.

r/M/w, Tisri.

VIII.

^"

_T ^>^T ^~'
T?
>-

>

Arahsamna, Marcheswan.
I

IX.

*

Kislimu, Kislev.

'

XI

-

^^T Hh TT ^.JL
^J^J

^/w,

Sebat.

'

XIII.

>-^

^ TEJT *p ^

_

^^^rw, Adar.
>^r,

^
dari,

waAr
#/-//

&

Addon
$a

(also

termed

magru

Ad-

and Addaru

arku), the

second Adar or intercalary

month.

LISTS OF IDEOGRAMS

CXXXVII

LIST OF IDEOGRAMS FOR THE PRINCIPAL DEITIES.
the
ilu

Anu,

god of heaven, usually written
I

*~

A-num.

Bel,

the god of the earth and of mankind, *-**f- *~JJ ^J|

(frequently written
AJf,

^^JJJ ^JJI)

J

^^~ ^is

the god of the abyss and of hidden wisdom, written
,

""^-a.
ilu

Another name of Ea
'

>~^- i^-

Nu-dim-mud.

Sin,

the

Moon-god,
;

>-^p- >~JJ *~>t-

^^Jl

(frequently written
is

^^JJJ ^^11)
Nannaru, *~J$SamaS,

^^-

Another name of Sin

t^\ ^Ef^Jp
^^^fl^J

the Sun-god, ^>^p- ^J.

"Rammanu, the Storm-god,

vHF")

^'

Marduk,

Merodach, the god of Babylon, ^>

Nabu,

Nebo,
written
a

the

god of Borsippa, *~>;

~f
is

(frequently

*"^yj^)
solar
.

^n~

^

=

-

god of

character,

>-)Jf-

^^y

ilu

]^]->

Nin-ib

;

Another name of Ninib
(or

Utgallu,

>~>-

-t
*~-

the god of battle,
Gibil,

the Fire-god,
a

M
*-

Nusku,
^7ra,

form of the Fire-god,

the Plague-god,

^^

^-

AHur,
7^/ar,

the national god of Assyria,

*-

the goddess (i) of love,
" (frequently

(2)

of battle,

^

written

T

<Vr
>-

Belli,

the spouse of Bel,

[.

A few names

that are written phonetically are here included.

CXXXVIII
Damkma,

INTRODUCTION
the spouse of Ea,
ilu

written >~>^-

^E
ilu

Dam-ki-na.

Ai,

the spouse of Saunas', written the spouse of Ninib, >^+^,

^>4-

J^f |]r,

Ai.

Ba'u,

V~^
*->j-

*~E|-

the goddess of the Under-world, >->^- "J^Ej

^JEJ Ej^I
-^ ** **

the

spirits

of

heaven,

*-]]]]

Ej^~

v
?

-4Anunna&i,
ilu

\V

TT|^r

the spirits of earth, written >~>^A-nun-na-ki.

^J]

J

LIST OF IDEOGRAMS FOR THE PRINCIPAL COUNTRIES,
CITIES
Akkadu,

AND RIVERS.

Northern Babylonia,
Arbela,
Assyria,

AMilu,
,

^^

Jgf),

^JI^ ^Hf~-^J),

V >^f
^JJ

^J), (V)
)

V

,

%^Elamtu,

the city ASSur,

^'-I

f ^1* ^
7

<Jgf,

Elam,

(>)

^J
^,
v^

^tyy
Idiklat

-yyyy <IEJ.
TY
IT

_Y

Tlgns

'

IT

S ^ ^'

Erech,
Urartu,
Babilu,

^

Armenia^
Babylon,

see Idiklat.

cuthah

LISTS OF IDKOGRAMS
the ancient Sirpurla,

CXXXIX
-

J.<W<i$,
/.,/nw///,

-^r-

^

Larsam,
Nineveh,

^
<

Nintia.

,

Nippur,
sippar,

^y

^^ ^
J^f

<Jg,

^JH t ||y <Jg[.
or

-yyyi <JEJ.
J^f

,

Euphrates,

^f

^JT^-.

.SV//</-,

Southern Babylonia,

^JEJ fe^^F

(

*"II)

^

TEXTS
WITH INTERLINEAR TRANSLITERATION AND TRANSLATION

NAMES AND TITLES OF EARLY BABYLONIAN AND ASSYRIAN KINGS.
I.

Sargon of Agade, about 38oo B.

C./^
$ar

Sar

-

ga

-

ni

-

$ar

-

ali

A

-

ga-

Sargani

Sar-ali,

king

of Aga-

de.

II.

Naram-Sin,' about 3750 B^C.
-

<tkjb

.

ra

-

am
-

-

'">

Sm

tn E^
Sar
ki
ib -

ra-

Naram

Sin,

king

of the four

ar

-

ba

-

im

quarters.

III.

Hammurabi, king
lf<

fc^
-

^
m

of Babylon, about

22606.

C.

Etyy
-

/^

aw

^ ^^
bi

^yy
dannu
Sar

-

ra

-

Sarru

Hammurabi,

the mighty king,

king

Bdbili KI

of Babylon.

NAMES AND TITLES OF KINGS
IV.

SamSi-Ramman,
y tTTT<=
-

of Assyria, about 1820 B. C.

,

<T- -HF&' /V "

Afl-

*T ^T!
iUakku

Ramman

A^ur

mar
son

SamSi-Ramman,

ruler of ASSur,

T-

f
ilu

t0T
-

E

^ *1 ^TT
itsakku

-Hf- If
illi

^
Sur

T

me-

Da

gan

A

-

of I^me-Dagan,

ruler of

ASSur.

V. Pudi-ilu, king of Assyria, about 1850 B. C.

-

di

-

ilu

sar

m " tu

AHur

ilu

apil

Bel

-

nirari

Sar

Pudi-ilu,

king of Assyria, son of Bel-nirari,

C

king

'

matu

AHur

apil

Anur-uballit

$ar

m * tu AHur

of Assyria, son

of ASSur-uballit,

king of Assyria.

VI. Ramman-nirari

<>

I,

king of Assyria, about 1825 B. C.

T<

^

^

v[-^]
matu

}]
apil

m Ramman-nirari sar

AHur

^I^-f Pu
-

di

-

ilu

Sar

Ramman-nirari, king of Assyria, son of Pudi-ilu,

king

m

tl1

AHur

of Assyria.

VII. Shalmaneser

I,

king

of Assyria, about i3oo B. C.

'"

^" Sulmanu-aSaridu

sar

ki$$ati

apil

Ramman-nirari

Shalmaneser,

king of the world, son of Ramman-nirari,

sar

ktisati

king of the world.

NAMES AND TITLES OF KINGS
VIII.

3

Merodach-Baladan

I,

king of Babylonia, about 1200

B C
$ar

llu

Marduk

-

apil

-

iddina(nd)

$ar

kittati

Merodach-Baladan,

king of the world, king

Akkadi

mar
son

Me

-

li

-

&
si

of

Sumer

(and)

Akkad,

of Meli

^^ BaMi
f

K
'

abylon

descndant

of Kurigalzu,
IX.

a king without equal.

Nebuchadnezzar J, king of Babylonia, about 1150
fff

B. C.

^1 If
na
-

Nabu-ku-dur

-

ri

-

uur

rubu

a

-

du

na-

Nebuchadnezzar,

the prince, exalted (and)

\ ^

magnificent,

offspring

of Babylon,

the foTd

*arr

Pl

of kings,

*f

'****"
the courageous ruler,

Sakkanakku

governor

*TT

A

-

of Eridu, the sun of his land.

X. Tiglath-Pileser
I

I,

king of Assyria, about

noo

B.

C
If
apil

IEM<
Tukulti(ti]
-

If
apil
-

*TTTTAE*=TT

E

v $ar

-

!ar

-

ra

""* AHur
i*

Tiglath-Pileser,

king of Assyria, son

NAMES AND TITLES OF KINGS

m AHur

E<M< v -

TJ
apil

res

-

i -

ti

Sar

matu

AHur

m

Mu

-

tak-

of ASSur-reS-iSi

king of Assyria, son of Mutak-

a
kit
-

f*
ilu

<<>"*tar
matlt

Nusku

AHur

kil

Nusku,

king of Assyria.

INSCRIPTION FROM A CYLINDER OF
RABI,
[Brit.

HAMMU
B. C.

KING OF BABYLON, ABOUT 2200
Mus., No. 12215.]

coi.

i,

i.

Ha - am

-

mu

-

ra

-

bi

sarru

dannu

$ar

Hammurabi,

the mighty king,

king

Bdbili KI

$ar.

ki

-

ib

-

ra

-

tim

of Babylon,

king

of the four

5

.

ar

-

ba

-

im

b"a-ni

ma-tim

tarru

so-

quarters,

the founder of the land, the king

whose

<Tip
-

w
ir
1

$a

-

tu

-hi

a

-

na

Si

-

HF;ama$
tlu

^T

< u

deeds

unto

the heart

of

ama

and

|V "

Marduk

ta

-

ba

a

-

na

-

ku

Marduk

are well-pleasing,

am

I.

^L The wall

of

Sippar

KI

in

e

-

pi

-

ri

ki-ma
like

sa-

Sippar
i.

with

earth

a

Literally "flesh".

INSCRIPTION FROM A CYLINDER OF HAMMURABI

JT
im
l

ra

-

bi -

im

r?
its

-

St

-

su

lu

I

u

great mountain

summit

ul

-

li

ap

raised.

pa - ra - am With- a] swamp-

lu
-

-

us
I

-

ta

-

as

-

hi-

"

surrounded

.

.

!T

.

.

.

.

a

-

na

Sippar

KI

The-etrrral.

.

.

.

.

to

Sippar

-IT; T?
ri
-

a

f^ E ma am m
-

^am^

3

y^ar

j

-

ul

-

mi

-

im

-

$

dug out and
coi.
ii,

a wall

of safety

K
(lu
-

^

-

w/w

-

mi
it.

-

su

4

jfifa -

aw

-

/

-

ra-

1

erected for

Hammura-

y
z'

jy
su

3(2

-

ni

ma

-

tim

$arru

sa

ip

-

sa

-

tu

-

>

the founder of the land, the king

whose

deeds

,

-

/r

^"

Samas

u

ilu

Marduk

ta-

unto

the heart of

SamaS

and

Marduk

are well-

3

a

-

na

I.

ku

Sippar

KI
.

u

Bdbi-

pleasing,
sa-tu-im
fr. fr.

am

Sippar
i.

and

Baby-

1.

2. Ill 2,
3.
I

sadim, saharu.

=

e.

sadi with the mimation.

I,

/zizrz/.

4.

lu-u-um-mi-su

lummid-sii

II i,

fr.

emedu.

^CCV

<

THE MEMORIAL TABLET OF RAMMAN-NlRARII, KING OF ASSYRIA, ABOUt"i'3^ B.'<& ^ No. / *$?* &**

,

^
i.

[Brit. Mus.,

1

21

1

1.]

*

\

<^>
HFfl
rubu

T

HF/'/

Afl

* **

m

Ramman-nirari

^TTMT
^~Tl
-

^T!
si -

v
mat

HPHi

lu

Ramman-nirari,

the illustrious prince, adorned by

godj

T>
//
-

el

-

lu

sa

-

ka

-

an

-

ki

ilanipl

the ruler,

the viceroy

of the gods,

3.

w

-

^'

-

in

ma

-

ha

-

z^L

ni

-

ir

dap-nu

-

ti

the founder

of

cities,

the destroyer

of the

?^w

-

;;m

-

an

Kas

-

&

-

i

Ku

-

ti

-

i

Lu

-

hi-

mighty hosts

of the KaSSI,

the KutI,

the Lulu-

me

-

o

-

ba

-

ri

-

i

i

mu

-

hi

-

ip\

kul-

ml,

and

the Subarl,

V annihilate/'

of

e -

h'$

u

all

foes

above
/.

and
e.,

.

^

^

i.

That

is,

around the Upper and the Lower Sea,

Lake Van I and Lake
/

Urumiyah.

'

'
THE TITLES OF THE KING
TT
tf

7.

vv jy^

^yy-Eiy HI! t
2$
-

trampling

r matati-hi-nu their lands down

in

Lu

-

up

-

di

from

Lupdu

'<*'

Tfa

-

pi

-

ku

a

-

di to

E

-

lu

-

ha

-

at

and

Rapiku

up

Eluhat,

n
s has takeni -

9-

ion of

/

-

hosts\

of rSv --J^j^t^uJU^

who

has enlarged

\
**

>- ty -yjl
-

TT
u

M ^T -HI
ku
-

$ V
tarru
$a
I

JTCf
naphar
all

ri

}

du

-

rt

^undar^/

and

frontier,

the king for whom

HfffT
r3^" ^ 7

r.~fT?^Hf-~
|7

yl -

w

I7a

^4^ar

and

princes

Anu,

Aur,

-f
ilu

^T

-HFilu

Afl-

- <HUT
u

-HF--TTI
ilu

Samat

Ramman

iMar

a

-

na

to-

-

Sama,
^T

Ramman
-T!T^
-

and

I^tar

at

his\ ^

r JT
.fa

*
/g

//

-

^&
ik
-

[

Jf]
$u

-3.
'
,

W
Xa
-

f
an
-

^-m^
gu
-

ni

-

u

feet

have forced

inj:o

submission,

\^

the exalted

r
A-'x^priest
/

of

Bel,

the son

of Pudi-ilu,

gor

-Y>5f

frT >*%- ^TT ^TTT
/
//M

15.

^*TT
y
-

V >-Sf ^TET
Xa
-

>

T
ilu

>->^p
Attur

^

-

^<?/

ak

-

ki

vernor

of Bel,

r-ttAe*

of

Aur,

10

THE MEMORIAL TABLET OF RAMMAN-NIRARI

,fo

-

&

-

id

matu

Tu

-

ru

-

ki

-

i

u

"the

conqueror

of TurukI

and

v
matu

**. <tETT
Nigimti

A

<

7

.

If <ys

3= *ET <^TT -Til JT
its

to

entire extent,

-

me
of

- ir

ma

-

al

-

ki

sadl(i)

u

hur-

all

(its)

ririeFsT" (its)

mountains

and

high-

ja

-

wz'

pa

-

at

Ku

-

ti

-

i

ra

-

pal

-

ti

/%XJ=J

lands,

the boundary of

the wide-spreading Kutl,

20.

-

gu - nu
the district
(?)

Ah

-

la -

me

-

i

u

Su

-

ti

-

i

of the Ahlami

and

Suti,

ET
la
-

^I!T -!< JT
-

u

-

ri

u

ma

ta

-

ti

-

su

-

nu

the lauri

and

their lands,

>-

1

IK
-

mu

-

ra

-

pis

me

- is

-

ri

u

ku

-

du

ri

who

enlarged

boundary

and

frontier,

V
^
grandson
of

-HFilu

-II -ITT *?
Bel
-

^

H.
Sangu
priest
tlu

nirari

Bel-nirari,

of

AHur-ma
ASSur,

$a

um

-

ma

-

an

Ka$ -

Si - i

i -

na

-

ru

-

ma

who

the hos\s

of the KaSsl

destroyed
\

y.
Ji-

IA-^

THE
=TTT*
na
-

KING'S

GENEALOGY

1 1

~T
ab

rl
za

ga

-

t] ~ -

-HI JT
-

* 6/

-T -^TI
ka
his
-

ri

-

$u

su

l

and

the

whole

of his enemies

hand

/

-

Su

-

du

mu

-

ra

-

pi$

me

-

is

-

ri

u

**-*

conquered,^

who

enlarged

boundary

and
YTT
WU>
w-U

-</

-

ri
>f

li

-

ip

-

li

-

pi

Sa

ilu

ASSur-

frontier,

the great-grandson

of

Aur-

/

uballit

Sarri

dan

-

ni

$a

$a

-

an

-

gu

-

uballit,

thT~mighty king,

whose
30.

priesthood

^ ^T
i -

tTTTT
e -

v
kur

E^TT -C'V
-

jy
$u

^y -TI-

fr
u

na

ra

-

tim

tu

-

rat
,

in

the temples

was glorious
^ffl
ru
-

and

JT^^E^-K JT MJ^T
$u
-

-!-<!<
ka
-

lum

m
ki
-

sarru

-

ti -

su

a

-

na

ti

ma

whose royal prosperity

unto

distant (lands)

like

vtE
-^
a
Xadift)
_

"^^^^W^^B?

mountain was establshed,
33
-

who

broke up

tE
at

v
main
_

fa

_

r;

_

;

ra

_

forces

if the wide-spreading Subari,

If -I -III <MB!
ra
-

m -T
ku
-

-III
ri

35.

tff
e -

+ El
nu-ma

pis

r^e

- is

-

ri

u

du

-

enlarged
i.

boundary
kat-su.
2.

and
sa-an-gu-su

frontier.

^

When
-X^"
JiJ

^
\

ka-su

=

=

sangat-su. sangnt-su.

,',^^

\

.>-'

r'

12

THE MEMORIAL TABLET OF RAMMAN-NIRARI

I

ir

-

la

-

la

$a

bit

llu

AHur

beli -

ia

's'a

the

sir-la-la

of

the temple of ASSur

my

lord,

which

ba

-

ab

ni

-

e$

Hi

ma

- ti

u

the gate

(^> ^)
t

of the god of the land"
38.

and

-Hfdaiane

-

na

pa

-

na

the gate (called) "the god of judges",

*which

in

former days

tfl

ski)

e

-

na

-

ah

-

ma

ih

-

hi-

is

u

jJ
f

fhad beeni
l

had

fallen into

deca/*

had suEslded,

and

built,

i

as

-

ra

$a

-

a

-

tu
I

u

-

pi

-

hi-

**<+

+

tnat place

strengthen-

^

-

na

-

su

l

ak
I

-

su

-

ud

it

-

ti

its

base

reached,

with

^u"

-

li

u

ip

-

ri

$a

alu

U

-

ba

-

si

-

e

stone

and

earth

from

Ubase

--TTIJT
e
I

-

pu

-

u$

a

-

na

a$

-

ri

-

~su

=TTT u
I

-

te

-

ir
(it)

-r*"

^ Ouf<W
(it),

built

to

its

place

restored

44.

<HiH
u

^!
na
-

-TTI
ri
-

45.
ia
a~s I

ku
sfet

-

un

a

-

na

and
.

my

tablet

up.

In

dan-na-su

=

dannat-sn.

.J

-u
**

>
-fer

.V\

t

KO
THE

^ / RESTORATION
T
w;/^ ^'

xv-v>v ?"
f

OF THE TEMPLE/OF ASSUR

/ f
u

n
1

tr

3^

<MTI -f
ar
/^a/

^T

-ffi
rw^w
let

<!-!!!
ar
-

m
ku
-

tTTT=
-

46. =ff
e
-

/S
e-

..^
'

nu- ma

future days

a future prince,

JT
aS
-

ru

$u

-

^TJT<= u

47.

sTTTt
u
shall
-

-Sal

ba

-

ru

-

ma f

j '

that place

have grown old and

fallen

y
a
-

^i
hu

4 8.
^

*.+
an
-

^
hu

.^yy jgj <y^ -yy
-

su
==

1

/

-

di

-

i$

na

-

ri

-

ia

into decay,

its

rmns

*'tJt!jL(

repair,

my

tablet,

Su

-

me~

Sat

-

ra

a

-

na

a$

-

ri

-

$u

x su^.

u

lu

-L/t_

ti

-

ir

the record of

-HF-

^ ^
so.
i^

my

name,

into

its

place

leCUum

restore,

-yyi

M ^y
be -

-

n

-

ee *u/i ^y- se -

v
U

nie^_

to his prayers

may
<T
-

hearken. But whosoever

jy y/
-

v E^yy
sat
-

5

.

&&
i -

f

ra

pa

Si -

tu

-

ma
and

su
his

-

urn

-

su

the record of

my name

blots out

own name

i -

$a

-

ta

-

ru

u
or

lu

na

-

ri

-

ia

inscribes,

my

tablet

53.
sa
-

am

-

sa

-

ku

a

-

na

$a

-

ah

-

lu

-

uk

-

It

conceals,

(or) to

destruction

=
i -

54.

ma -nu

-

u

a

-

na

mi

-

Urn

i

-

na

-

du

-

u

consigns
1.

(it),

(or) into
an-hut-sii.

the stream

casts

(it),

an-hu-sii

=

THJ2

MEMORIAL TABLET OF RAMMAN-N IRAKI
55.

tE -y
i -

m =m=
lu
-

IT
a
-

^y
na

yj

T-

i

-

na
in

i$ati

ka

-

u

me P l
the water

(or)

the

fire

burns

(it),

(or) into

^E
i
-

^y ^y ^yyy&r
na
-

56.

^
i
-

^y
na

^
e
-

^^yf*
*}*-f*-}}\ pi - ri
earth

^yyy^
u-

du

-

u

throws

(it),

(or) with

cov-

57.

ka

-

fa

-

mu

a

-

na

bit

ikliti

-

(?)

^a

ers (it) up,

(or) into

a dark

chamber

where

it

ri

u

-

se

-

ri -

bu

-

ma

i -

sa

-

ka

-

nu
-

cannot

>e

seen

brings and

places

(it),

-TTI
lu

a$

-

Sum

ir

-

ri

-

ti

si -

na

-

ti
*

-

na

or

if

(

in

iinii)

because of

tr/ose

curses

60.

-ry
na

-

.^ ^yy
ka
-

yj
a

^<
-

y^

ra

ha- a

^
ia
-

^
a

^y
-

<y
lim
-

ba

na

btttef foe,

an

evil

enemy,

yyy
sa
-

m
lu

^y Ey
ma - ma
any

na

na

-

ki

ir

-

ta

a hostile tongue,

^a

-

na

-

a

other

man

sends

and causes (him) o seize

1.

That
e.,

is,

theSyCurses that follow those acts.
a slanderer.

2. /.

"a man\)f hostile tongue,

;

f)

'

UTa*

S

ONTHE

SACRELIGIOUS

15

<y-JEH jgy
u
or

<tt
mi
-

m

-

ma

i

-

ha

-

sa -

scC -

ma
and

any plan

he conceives

e

-

pu

-

hi

tl "

AUur
ASSur

ilu

si

-

u

a

-

Si

-

ib

carries out,

may

the exalted god

who

dwelleth

Hf-

har

-

stffi-

kur-kur

-

ilu

A-nu

ilu

Bel
^

i^uC^t^A-

in

Eharsagkurkura,

Anu,

Bel,

-

a

u

ilu

Hani P l
the great gods,

./M^*

*

Ea

and

IStar,

4- tE -TTA
tlu

^
gu
of
$ame(i)

-

HPllu

I

-

gi

-

A

T^ Hfff - nun - na

-

ku

the Igigu

heaven,

the

Anunnaku.
6s
-

n jy ^
'

ti
iz

zr

-

-

//

i -

na
all

naphar
of them,

-

$iT-

nu

-

zi-

.

*-

^^LX^iC*/

of

earth,

^
ki
-

**
ir
-

el

-

mu

-

$u-ma
and

ri

-

ta

anger

look

upon^Mm

with an

70.

ma

-

ru

-

u$

-

ta

ag

-

gi

-

2$

li

-

ru

-

ru-

evil curse

in

wrath

may

they curse

y

$u

$umi - $u
;

zeri - $u

el

-

la

-

su

u

him
i.

his

name,

his seed,

his relatives

and

el-la-su

=

ellat-sul

1

6

THE MEMORIAL TABLET OF RAMMAN-NIRARI

I

ki

-

im

-

ta

-

$u

i

-

na

mati

lu - hal

-

li

-

ku

his family

in

the land

may

they destroy;

72.

-ry
fltf

_
a/

^ ^yyy
-

v

jy

-

/

-

#$

mdti-su

ft< ^EI ha - la - ak

-

ni

-

h'-

may

the ruin

of his land, the destruction

of his

JT
^w

7 3.<

ku

-

du

_

-

ri

-

su

i -

na

pi

-

su

-

nu

people

and

of his border

at

their

weighty

lu - sa

-

am

-

ma
;

llli

Ramman

i -

na

ri - hi -

is

command

/be decreed

may Ramman

with

an

evil

4mbi
75
.

//'

-

mu

-

//

//

-

ir -

hi

-

su

1

a

-

bu

-

bu

downpour
76.
vi

overwhelm him,

may

flood,

^tff
^arw

<HH
limnu

w
sa
tu

A^-fflF El
-

*-

-EiT
-

*T ^1
te -

-TIT-

\n

->

ah

-

ma -as

tu

su

u

ir*

destructive wind,

rebellion,

hurricane (and)

a

-

Sam

-

Su

-

su

-

un

-

ku

bu

-

bu

-

tu

tempest,

"^ want
^yi -gyy ^yi
hu
-

(and) famine,

78. \}

*m IH ^y
-

& ^y
i -

v jy
mdli-hi
his land
lu

a

ru

-

ur

-

tu

sa

-

hu

na

drought

(and) hunger

in

be

-t=H
>('cz

^
*Vz

-HF//

v
^/^/

-^TT
-

Tl
a
-

^- & ^TT
bu
-

1ST
lu
-

^T
us-

-

-

su

bi

-

t'S

continuous
I.

;

on

his land
2.
/.

like a flood
e.,

2 may he

li-ir-hi-sn

=

lirhis-su.

Ramman,

the storm-god.

-

V,

f?

i b

Aj

\

5

v
,

w

<t^X>-**JK*^

UxA^^

J

THE HUNTING-EXPEDITIONS OF TIGLATHKING OF ASSYRIA, ABOUT PILESER
I,
1

100

B. C.
Museum, No. 12176.]

[From

a cylinder in the British

-

Tukulti(ti)

apil

-

E

-

$ar

-

ra

idlu

kar

-

du

Tiglath-pileser,

the valiant hero,

fTT
ta
-

T- AHfff
me
-

fcTt^
t?

-ETT?
la -

ih

u hatta

a

$a

-

na

-

an

mu-

who

holds

a sceptre without

equal,

who

\

I-

ffl
ru

^ Af IH
mu
-

<=ETT -TTZ
'

4.

-f t^T Idl
' lu

gam -me

ur

si

-

ri

Nin

-

ib

exercises

lordship over the

field.

Ninib

JT
u
ilu

^

5.

ST
iz

^
-

Nergal

kakke P l-su-nu

zu

-

te

and

Nergal

their terrible

weapons

u

'-

u

ka$at

-

su

-

nu

si

-

ir

-

ta

a

-

na

and

their exalted

bow
7.

to

t
i
-

z'

-

di

belu

-

ti

-

ia

i$

ru

-

ku

na

my

lordly

power

have presented.

At

PURSUIT OF WILD OXEN

1

9

si -

kir

ilu

Nin

-

ib

rd'imi

-

ia

IV
four

bu

-

hal

the bidding

of Ninib,

who

loveth me,

male

nmani P

l

dan

-

nu

-

ie

$u

-

tu

-

ru

-

te

i

-

na

wild oxen,

strong (and) mighty,

in

hu

-

rib - te

i

-

na

m&lv

-

Mi

-

ta

-

a

-

ni

u

the desert

in

the land of Mitani

and

^THJE^TT
i
-

-TT*
-

mil
ki

na

alu

A

-

ra

zi

-

$a

pa
is

-

an

.in

Araziki,

which

before

matu

Ha

-at

-

te

i -

na

'>"

kaM

-

ia

dan

-

na

-

te

the land of the yatti,

with

my

strong bow,

-

ku

-

ud

parzilli

u

mul

-

mul-

my

spear of iron

and

my

li

-

ia

zak

-

tu

-

te

na

-

pi$

-

ta
I

-

$u

-

nu

sharp darts

tTTT= I^IIE ^T<
u
-

>4-

^TT

I
Pl
-

JT -^
$u
-

^TT
karne P l their

$ik

1

ti

maSke

nu

slew.

Their hides,

-HF- IT
?/

-

wa

a//

-

z'a

ilu

A-

$ur
I

ub

-

la

horns
i.

to
life
I

my

city

ASSur

brought.

Literally, "their

brought to an end."

20

THE HUNTING-EXPEDITIONS OF TIGLATH-PILESER
.

I

<

X
Ten

l pirani P

bu

-

ha

-

li

dan - nu

-

te

elephants,

males,

mighty ones,

/

-

na

matu

#arrani(ni)

u

Si

-

di

naru

Ha-

iti.

Harran

and

the district

of the Ha-

TT^
bur
lu
-

TftlT*
a
I

V
IV
four
l pirani P

u

-

duk
;

bur

did

slay

elephants

TTT=
-

W 3 ttTTT ^TT
sa
-

T

lu

-

te

lu

I

u

-

bi
;

-

ta

ma$ke P l~
their

alive

caught

J
J^

/nu

20.
Zinnati P l
-

-

$u

-

nu

it

-

ti

l pirani P

hides

(and)

tusks

together with

the live

2 i.
^a/

*
-

tu

-

te

a

-

na

ali

-

ia

llu

A

-

$ur

elephants

to

my

city

ASSur

a,,
<5

t
I

-

Az

-

a

si

-

kir

ihl

Nin

-

ib

I

brought.

At

the bidding

of Ninib,

E^TT
ra

A~f <ct tEff -. IT
-

JT <T$u
-

IH -SI
ne$e P l

mi

-

ia

II

&

who

loveth me,

one hundred and twenty

lions

-

a

lib

-

bi

-

ia

ik

-

di

i

-

na

with

my

courageous heart

by

SLAUGHTER OF ELEPHANTS AND LIONS

21

-

r

-

//

-

it

-

lu

-

//

-

ia

i

-

na

the attack

of

my power
*e.

on

tE

I

SET?
^'-w
foot

MI
lu
-

tTTTt TJ tflk
u
I

<HEJJ
u

f^

a

-

duk

VIII
eight

did

slay,

and

IC
hundred

IH-tElIT
ne$e P l

<=E^T
i
-

tT
*'?

na

u narkabti-ia

lions

in

my

chariot

-

wa

/>/

-

tu

-

te

u
I

-

Sim

-

kit

with

.......

brought low.

-

/

sen'

gi

-

mir

-

fa

u

issur

All beasts of the field

and

birds

= HfTI 1HT
$ame(e]

mut

-

tap

-

ri

-

$a

e

-

im

ni-sig-

of the heaven

that fly

among

my

30.
'

^7

-

ia
(?)

lu

-

u
I

at
cast.

-

ta

-

ad

-

di

spoils

i.

Col. VI,

11.

5584.

INTRODUCTION TO THE ANNALS OF ASSURNASIR-PAL, KING OF ASSYRIA, 884860 B. C.
[From
the stele No. 847 and paper squeezes in the British

Museum.]

j

i.

t
ana

-H^Tfcfl -MTI
ilu

tffltfflSf:
dan
-

-BEII
siri

Nin
Ninib,

-

ib

gi$

-

ri

dan

-

ni

To

the powerful;

the strong,

the exalted,

*TT3=tffl
atarid

-4-!
Hani P l of the gods,

IH^TT*
kardu
valiant,

tifcj HTI
sar
-

hu

the chief

mighty,

git

-

ma

-

lu

$a

ina

tahazi

la

z$ -

$a

-

na

-

nu

perfect,

whose onslaught

in battle

cannot be

ti

-

bu

-

$u

aplu

ri$

tu

-

u

ha

-

Sal

equalled,

^g
turn
-

^
ku
-

the son of highest rank,

destroyer of

ET
ma
-

^T
te
1

^- v
bu
-

Hf- -^ <^J!
ilu

kur

Nu

-

dim

-

mud

opposition,

first-born of

Nudimmud,

HhWTT
karrad
ilu

Igigi

li'u

ma -

lik

Hani ? l of the gods,

hero of
I.

the Igigi,

the mighty,

prince

The form tuk-ma-te occurs

as a variant reading.

THE PRAISE OF THE GOD

NINIB

23

-

//'/

-

//'

.Z? -

^r

mu- kil

mar

-

has

$ame(e)

offspring

of Ekur,

who

holds

the bolt

of heaven

irsitim(twi)

pi

-

tu

-

u

nak

-

be

and

earth,

who opens

the depths,

ka

-

bi - si

irsitim(tim)

rapaUi(ti}

ilu

$a

ina

who

treads

the broad

earth,

the

god

without

ba

-

lu- $u

l purusse P

$ame(e)

irsiiim(tim}

la

whom
4.

the decisions

of heaven

(and) earth are not

ipparasu(sit)

mu

-

nir

-

bu

ik

-

du

$a

la

-

a

decided,

the destroyer,

the" strong,

the com-

^

-

-

^'

-

<5//

pi
is

-

$u

atarid

mand

of

whose mouth

not void,

chief

of the four quarters,

w
giver of
sceptre

purussi

ana

nap

-

har

kal
all

and

decision

unto the whole of

w

-

^-a/

-

lu

$am

ru

$a

la -

a

the ruler,

the violent,

the com-

/ -

/a^

-

ka

-

ru

si -

kir
is

Sap

-

ti -

$u

Wu
the mighty,

mand

of

whose

lips

not altered,

24

INTRODUCTION TO THE ANNALS OF A$$UR-NASIR-PAL

ra/

-

abkal

Hani P l

mu

-

tal - lu

ilu

Ut-

the great,

spokesman

of the gods,

the exalted,

Ut-

-II
<5<?/

-II tfl
&&(#)
lords,

V
.fa

Eff
&)>
-

<V
pat

-4-

=!

$ame(e)

1

gallu,

lord of

whose hand the ends of heaven

Mi^r
irsitim(tini]

^HK-m
$ar
tarn -ha
-

ka

-

tus

-

su

pak

-

du

ri

(and) earth

controls,

king

of the battle,

Tf^TTMT W t=^^=^T^T tE^-MT
a
-

li

-

lu

$a

turn

-

ku

-

ma

-

tu^

i

-

pi

-

lu

3

strong one,

who

opposition

has conquered,

-n
-

-^^
nak -be
the depths
-

<
u

ul

-

lu

-

tu

git

-

ma

-

lu

bel

triumphant,

perfect,

lord of

and

tamati P l

iz

-

zu

la

pa

du

-

u

$a

the oceans,

terrible,

unsparing,

whose

v
ii
-

^
nakire P l

bu- su

a
is

-

bu

-

bu

sa

-

pin

mat

onslaught

the deluge, who overwhelms the land of enemies,

TJlfc

mu

-

u

-

tJTT^ sam -

=TTT
kit

^-ITA-TTA -f
tar
-

gi

-

gi

ilu

$ar

-

hu

who

overthrows

the wicked,

a powerful god,

1.

A name
I

or

title

of the god Ninib.

2.
3.

tufc-ma-tn occurs as a variant reading.
i,

Pret.

fr.

belli.

THE PRAISE OF THE GOD NINIB

25

V
.fa

-ET
/</

^ *e -

tTTlt
-

^TT
mil
-

IH 1
lik -

8

-

+ IH
nu
-

-4-

*T

nu

u
is

Su

ur

fame(e)

whose

counsel

not void,

the light of

heaven

Hfirsitim
(tint)

~T
-

mu$

-

par

du

ki

-

rib

apsi

(and) earth,

who

gives light to

the depth

of the abyss,

<T/^

V- ^T<
-

^ ^TT^
mu
-

-ET
ni$
la

-

ab

-

bit

Urn

nu

-

ti

$ak

-

who

annihilates

the wicked,

who

brings to subjection the

JJ^THMTI
ma
-

V $a

gi

-

ri

mu

-

hal

- lik

za

-

ia

-

a

-

ri

ina
in

disobedient,

who

destroys

foes,

whose name

-Hf-T"
puhur
Hani P l
the assembly of the gods

9-^1
$um-$u

-Hfilu

ma

-

am

-

ma

la

no god

can

enu (u)

ka

-

i$

balati
life,

ilu

rim

-

nu

-

u

humble,

the giver of

a merciful

god

V
$a
to

*TT*-I
si
-

AtTTT^
tabu
is

TU- ^TT^mA
a
- Sib

-I
beli

pu

-

$u

alu

Kal

-

hi

whom

to pray

good,

who

dwells

in Calah,

a

rabe(e}

beli

-a
lord,
[I]

m

AHur - nasir-aplu

Sarru

dan

-

nu

great lord,

my
I

Aur-nasir-pal [do pray], the

mighty king,

-El
far
la

V^T-HP
$a
-

<
far
kul
-

$ar

ktXXati

na

-

an

lat

king of the world, a king

without equal,

king of the

whole

26

INTRODUCTION TO THE ANNALS OF ASSUR-NASIR-PAL

ilu

Sam

-

su

kis - $at

ni$e ? l

of the four quarters,

the

Sun of

the hosts
'

of men,

x
dear to
Bel

:

HF-

Hf-'

na

-

ra

-am

and

Ninib,

darling of

<
|7

-Hfilu

^!I
Da
-

*&
gan

-^H JT
ka
-

-

nm

u

tu

Anu

and

Dagan,

beloved of

ET-T
Hani
Pl

rabuti P l

$ah

-

tu

na

-

ra

-

am

the great gods,

submissive,

the darling of

)

me

-

gir

llu

Bel

$a

thy heart,

the prince,

the favourite of

Bel,

whose

Sffl
Sangut

^TT
-

<-tW
eli

-Hfilu
-

Hf<
ti
-

su

ka

rabiti

(/?')

priesthood

unto

thy great godhead

i is

-

ti

-

bu

-

ma

tu

-

$ar

-

h'

-

du

pala

-

Su

good

so that

thou hast established

his reign,

-

/

>&ar -

</

^

ma
with

tukulti

(//')

AHur
ASSur

the valiant hero,

who

the help of

3<?// -

$u

ittalaku (ku)

-

ma

ina

mal

-

ki P l

$a

his lord

proceeds

and among

the princes

of

THE PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE KING

27

-ET
&<5
-

rcz/

irbitta

(id)

$a

-

nin

-

$u

la

z$u(u)

the four quarters

a rival

has not,

&m
rc'w
e
-

^Evyyym
tab
-

-ET
la

THT^^in
a
-

tT

T

ra

-

a

-

te

di

-

ru

tukmati

the shepherd of marvellous treasures,

who

fears not

opposition,

du

-

u

gab $u

$a

ma

-

hi

-

ra

la

-

a

the mighty flood

who

an opponent

does not

tm=
i$u(u)

^
Sarru

-^TT^

^
kflf -

<

-ET
la
-

TJ
a

possess,

the

mu - $ak - ni - e$ king who has brought to subjection

those that

&z

-

^w

-

/^-^

\

(were not subjecti to him, /

^ w ho

nap

-

har

Sat

ni$e P l

the whole of

the hosts

of

men

i

-

pi

-

lu

zikaru

dan

-

nu

mu

-

kab

-

bi

- is

ki$ad
/the knecki of j \

rules,

the strong man,

who

tramples on

ai

-

bi-$u
I

da

-

i$
i

kul-lat
all

nakire P l

mu - pa

-

ri

-

ru

his foe,

treads \ under foot

who

enemies,

who

shatters

/

ki

-

is

-

ri

mul

-

tar

-

hi

$a

ina

tukulti (ti)

mighty battalions,

who
I

with

the help of

i6

-

13

M

ET

Hani P

l

rabuti P

1

bele

P

l

-

$u

ittalaku(ku]-ma

the great gods,

his lords,

proceeds and

28

INTRODUCTION TO THE ANNALS OF ASSUR-NASIR-PAL

JT^TT >^T
matdti ? l
all

kali

-

h' -

na

kat

-

su
f

ik^ud(ud^
has
\

hur

-

$a

-

ni

lands

with his hand

the highlands

\conquered,J

pat

gim

-

ri-Su-nu

i

-

pi

-

lu

-

ma

bi-lat

-

su

-

nu

in all their extent

has subdued and

their tribute

im

-

hu

-

ru

sa

-

bit

li

-

i -

ti

$a

-

kin

has received,

the taker of

hostages,

who

has

H

-

i -

te

eli

kali

-

si -

na

matati P l

triumphed

over

all

lands.

THE ENDOWMENT OF THE TEMPLE OF THE
SUN-GOD.
From
apil-iddina, king of Babylon,
[Brit.

the Tablet of Sippar inscribed in the reign of Nabuabout 879 853 B. C.
Mus., No. 12137.]

ilu

SamaS

b'elu

rabu(u)

a

- $ib

E-babbar-ra
in

Mamas',

the great lord,

who dwelleth

Ebabbara,

V
fa

<M*ffl
ki
is
-

T-*T<Ef
Sip-par
K1

W $a ina

^VTM
e -

rib

$a- a

-

ti

which

in

Sippar,

which during

the troubles

5.

<MEjjT
u

-m
dal
-

ff<
ha
-

u ^<
a
-

w v
fa

ti

matu Akkadi

m^
Akkad
u
-

<
KI

and

disturbances

in

amelu

Su

-

tu

-

u

amglu nakiru

Urn

-

nu

sah-

the Sutu,

the evil foe,

had des-

-TI
hu

<=TTT<=
-

tmt
u
-

u

hal

-

It

-

ku

usuratt P l

troyed (and)

had

cast

down

the sculptures,

/r

-

jw

-

/

//

-

ma

-

Su

-

ma

h'

-

kin

-

Su

u

his statutes

were forgotten and

his

image

and

3o

THE ENDOWMENT OF THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD
T

I- *T
his

I

ME
i
-

^7
na

Jin HI
kate

simati P l-$u

n

^ gn
par
-

ET
-

-ET
la

ip

-

h'd

ma
and

ornaments

had disappeared

none

~TT^
##
-

ET^TET
ma
-

tTT
Si
-

A4f
im
-

HF-

<T- -TI
-

E
$ar

///

na

-

ma

ma$

h' -

hu

beheld them.

Simmas's'ihu

king

Babili

h'h'n-$u

ft

-

ta

-

al

-

ma
his

pa

-

ni - $u

la

of Babylon his Statue

sought

for,

but

countenance he 1 did not

<
id
-

JT
-

ff
sa

<MfT
-

I
Su

<
u

T-*TT
simati P l
-

I
su

-ET
la

din

$u

lam

-

show 2 him,

his

image

and

his

ornaments he did

not

tEA^ET BfTtro Ve^HFi
-

-Hf-^T
tlu

=TTT=v
u
-

mur - ma
find.

ni

-

ib -

ha
(?)

$a

pa

-

an

Samas

$at-

An

enclosure

before

Samas

he

-TTI
ri
-

H
sa
-

t^ ET
am
-

-.

<T^

^H
Hf-

1

^TTT=
u
-

mi ET
kin
-

ma
and

sattukki-^u

erected

regular offerings for

ma him he appointed, and

T ^TTTT

v ^ It

<T-

^
Sippar
KI

<-TTTT

m

E-kur-sum-utabti^i)

tangu
the priest

EkurumuSabi
=TTT*=
amelu

of Sippar,

1^

V
$a
_

u

.

af

_

fo;

jna

dannati

u

the seer,

he settled (there).
*5.

-tt
ilu

During the distress

and

hu

-

$ah

-

hi
at the
2.

$a

Ka^-su

-

u

-

nddin

-

ahi

famine
l.
I.

time of

KaSSu-nadin-ahi,

e.,

ama.

Literally, "grant."

SUSPENSION OF THE TEMPLE SERVICES

3

I

C3
Sarri

tfl 3= -TTI
ip
-

sis -

sattukku

$u

-

a

-

turn

pa

-

ri

-

ma

the king,

that regular offering

was stopped and

ba

'

til

sur

-

ki

-

nu

ina

E

-

ul

-

bar-$akin-$um

the drink-offering ceased.

Under

Eulbar-Sakin-Sum,

farri

m

E

-

kur-$um-u$ab$i($i)

Sangit

Sip -par

KI

the king,

Ekur-s'um-us'abs'i,

the priest of

Sippar,

amelu b aru

$arri

beli-^u

im

-

hur

-

ma
and
I

gi

-

ni

-

e

the seer, before

the king his lord

went,

/"the appointed!
offerings for /

-My ^y^ -yi^ET ^
ilu

T

-T
ka

V&
akale P l

SamaS

ba

-

til

ik

-

bi

-ma

I
i

ama

have ceased"

he

said.

ka

of food

I
I

ka ka

kurunnu

kurmat
the director of

of sesame-wine, the support of

E

-

sag

-

gil

ina

libbi

gi

-

ni

-

e

ilu

Bel

Esagil

according to the appointed offerings of Bel,

a

-

na

ilu

SamaS
he

u
1

-

kin

-

ma

m

E

-

kur-$um-u$abh($t)

for

Santas'

ordained and

to Ekur-s'um-us'abs'i

40.

^yyyy

^

^TT
altl

K *T
Sip -par

E^?

-

tE
i -

Sangu
the priest of
i.
7.

amslu barti

a
rim
(it).

I

-II

Men (en)

Sippar,

the seer, he granted

One

e.,

Eulbar-gakin-s'um.

32

THE ENDOWMENT OF THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD

garden

in the district of

Alu-eSSu *,

which

is

45.
ki
-

rib

Babili KI

a

-

na

ilu

Samat

in

Babylon,

to

iddin-ma
he gave and

pan
to

m

_

E-kur-$um-usab'$i($i}

$angu
the priest of

Sip-par

K

Ekur-Sum-US'abs'i,

Sippar,

u

-

sad-gil
(it).

ar

-

ka

-

nu

ilu

Nabu-apil-

the seer,

he entrusted

Afterwards

Nabu-apil-

so.
iddina (no)

$ar

Babili KI

ni

-

bit

iddina,

king

of Babylon,

the elect of

ilu

Marduk

na

-

ram

ilu

Marduk,

the darling of

A - nim Anu

u

ilu

Ea

and

Ea,

m
OTW
-

*m
lib
-

3
bi

-4ilu

i
Zarpanitu
zi
-

A<5

ik

-

ru

who

rejoices

the heart

of Zarpanitu,

the valiant

^T
r
-

55.

W
$a

du

I ana
for

Sarru

-

it

as
is

-

mu

na

-

a$

hero,

who

kingship

adorned,

who

bears

pit

-

pa

-

ni

iz

-

zi

-

tint

sa

-

kip

ameiu

na foru

um . nu

a terrible
I.

bow,
City."

who overthrew

the evil foe,

Alu-esit

=

"The New

ACCESSION OF NABU-APIL-IDDINA

33

TTt
ameiu

W *V*-< ACMJl^;
Sa

$u

.

tu

-

n

htr

-

bu

-

u

hi

-

tu

-

$u

-

un

the Sutu,

whose

sin

was

great,

60.

T
$a

!

-EET
tu
-

IH
ur

-TTA
gi
-

:^TT
mil

v m^w
"' atlt

<HT

ana
to

Akkadi KI

whom

avenge

Akkad,

?w

-

Sub

ma

-

ha

-

zi

na

-

di

-

e

l parakke P

to

make

cities habitable,

to

found

shrines,

w.9

-

.?ttr

usurati pl

sul

-

lum

parse

to fashion

sculptures,

to preserve statutes

w

^/7

-

lu

-

di

-

e

kun

-

ni

sat

-

tuk

-

ki

and

ordinances,

to establish

regular offerings,

stir -

ru

-

uh

nindabe P l

belu

rabu(uj

to increase

free-will offerings

the great lord

TTT 70.
ln

Marduk

'V

0//a

/

-

^r

-

ta

ri

-

'

-

Marduk

with a right sceptre,

the rule of

ni'Sc'

Pl

e

-

pi

-

h'

u

-

mal

-

lit

-

u

the peoples

to undertake,

had

ka

-

tu$-hi

llu

$ama$

belu

rabil

$a

istu

urne pl

invested,

SamaS, the great lord,

who

for

many

34

THE ENDOWMENT OF THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD

ma

-

'

-

du

-

ti

it

-

li

matu Akkadi KI

days

with

Akkad

75.
ik
-

t
is -

vbit -

v
su
ki
-

-

me

-

lu

sad

su

ina
in

had been angry

(and) had averted

his neck,

^T*
pall
the reign of

"3&
ilu

Tf
-

^f
-

Nabu

apil

iddina(na]

sar

Bdbi-

Nabu-apil-iddina,

king

of Baby-

//

^

sa

-

H

-

ma

ir -

si -

ma

u

-

sah-

lon,

had mercy

(and)

turn-

hi

-

ra

pa

-

ni-su

u

-

sur

-

ti

sal -

mi

-

su

ed

his countenance.

His image,

sir

-

pu

sa

ha

-

as

-

bi
,

sikin-su

u

sihis

ma

-

ti-su

.....

of

.......

his statue

and

ornaments

ina

e

-

bir

-

//

"* ru

Pu

-

rat

-

ti

sa

on

the opposite side of

the Euphrates

.yyj
<5a/

-

n

^^
-

j

yj

ereb-Sam^i

^ ^
^|
na
in
-

on

Ey
ma
and

mir

-

the western bank

were found

tTTTTHF'"

-fcTTT-^T
alli

ilu

Nabu-nddin

sum

sangu
the priest of

Sip-par

am * lu bdru
the seer,

ina

Nabu-nadin-um,

Sippar,

of

RECOVERY OF THE SUN-GOD'S IMAGE

^

T

=TTTT
'"

v

>

E-tur-Xum-uXa&fi($t)
the seed of

San^u
the priest of

lj/

"

Sip-par

Ekur-Sum-uabi,
cfc

Sippar,

Jl
$u

ff
tf

-IE
.
////;/
/

mi
the seer,
that

image

to

Nabu-

-III
<//>//

tmt
it

iddina(na)

sarri

beli-su

-

kal-lim-ma
and

apil-iddina,

the king,

his lord,

showed

Nabu-aptl-iddina(na)

$ar

Babili ^ l

$a

Nabu-apil-iddina,

king of

Babylon,

who

epe$(e$]
the preparation

sal

-

mi

su-a

-

turn

ka

-

bu

-

Sum

-

ma

of such an image

had commanded him and

-

ud

-

gu

-

lu
.

pa

-

nu

-

u$-hi

sal

-

mu
that

Su-a

- turn

entrusted

to him,

image

-

mur

-

ma
and

pa
his

-

nu-su

ir

-

ti -

su

i -

te

-

li

-

is

beheld

countenance

was glad
T ana

(and) joyful

was

Til
kab
-

TT!
la

*^L ^TT
as su
l

^
epe$(e$}

sal

-

m

his spirit.

To

the restoration

of that

-

//////

u

-

zu

-

un-su

ib

-

Si -

ma

ina

image
i.

his attention

he turned and

with

kab-ta-as-su

=

kabtat-sit.

3*

36

THE ENDOWMENT OF THE TEMPLE OF THE SUN-GOD

ni

-

me

-

ki

sa

ilu

E
Ea,

-

a

ina

si -

pir

ilu

Nm-

the

wisdom

of

with the craft of

Nin-

igi-nangar-bu
igi-nangar-bu,

ilu

Guskin

-

banda

ilu

Nin-

GuSkin-banda,

Nin-

r

- rcz

ilu

Nin

-

zadim

ina

hurasi

ru

-

us

-

si

-

i

kurra

(and) Nin-zadim with

sumptuous gold (and)

^<^T!
abnu ukni
ib
-

Hf-^T
ilu

-II
belt

Elrabi

bi

sa

-

lam

SamaS

bright

lapis lazuli

the image of

Samas,

the great lord,

ki

-

m'$

u

-

kan

-

ni

ina

te

-

HI

-

ti

sa

he carefully

prepared.

With

the purification

of

i.,vilu

E
Ea

-

a

u

ilu

Marduk

ma

-

har

and

Marduk

before

^ n Sama$

ina

E
'.f

-

Kar

-

Za-gin

-

na

Sa

kisad
the bank of

ama

in

E-Kar-Zaginna

on

T^a *naru pu

-!!- ^T<
_

*T- 1
p}
his
_

ra f

.

ft

$u

AHFf.^TT ET jm _\ j/ . Wrt
he washed and

^
/r .

Ef
;//t2:

T^
.

a

N:he Euphrates

mouth

he took up

his dwelling (there).

<4t^^r
t
(

Q V

f

^

OxC

V

41 /u

.

I

-3

rvc^i

\

Ich

/

CtC

^tt

'
-

L

.,^X"

2 1

.A

.

,

t-

f

THE SIEGE OF DAMASCUS BY SHALMANESER AND THE TRIBUTE OF JEHU, KING OF
II

ISRAEL, 842
[From paper squeezes
in

B.

C.^ ^. t^^a~~*~f
e
J
1 1

the British

Museum, No/. 1143 and

4 b /] oft

"

/;/(/

<IW
XVIII
the i8th

--M
l palef -ia

f*e*p*"
tETKfflf XVI
\

>

I
Samtu

TJ&THK
n* ru

X
JJ"

Puratu

-

In

year of

mv
J

reign

(forthei 1 6th J

time the Euphrates

U'

a.

T
"'

IK
"

W

Af
'

V
ilu

Ha-za

-

$a

" M/ "

I DimaSki
^

.

I

crossed.

azael

of

Damascus

TTEIK
a
-

mi

gi

-

wnmanati

F l-$u

it

-

ta

-

kil-

-^4^

in

the multitude

of his troops

ATI
ummanati P l-

I

5.

If
a
-

and

his troops

in

great

numbers

^t
id
-

7.

ka

-

a

Sa

-

ni

-

ru

ubdn
the

Sade(e)
I

K

w he

assembled,

Saniru,

summit

f

th e

\

which

\mountains, /

T
tfo
is

Tl

=TTI
</aw -

^ Hf<
nu
ti -

I
Su

-

na

-I

na

I i

at the

\

entrance to/

Lebanon,

his fortress

EXTRACTS FROM THE RECORDS OF
TIGLATH-PILESER
I.

III.

The

reduction of

Hamath and
in

the cities tributary to

Uzziah of Judah, "rfrnntffi B. C.
[From paper squeezes
the British

Museum, Nos vjii5a

1

1
=5

e.]

XIX
Nineteen

na

-

gi

-

e

Sa

alu

Ha

-

am

-

ma

-

at

-

ti

districts

of

the city of

Hamath

j\

<//

a/am' P l (ni)

'

$a

-

/'r

-

//

-

su

-

nu

together with

the cities

round about them,

Sa

a

-

In'

tarn - tim

sa

twhich\ ( on the \ I (a^) i \shore of/

the sea

of

hilmu(mu) the setting

of the sun,

sa

i -

na

hi

-

it

-

ti

u

kul

-

lul

-

te

which

in

sin

and

?** iniquity (vO

a

-

na

m

7

.

Az

-

ri
(i.

-

ia
e.,

-

a

-

u

e

-

ki

-

j

-

mu

to

Azariah

Uzziah)

they had detacjbed.

^

a

-

na

mi

-

sir

matu

AHur

utir
I

-

ra

-

a

to

the territory of

Assyria

brought

[back.

.

OVERTHROW OF
*'*
;

UZZIAH'S

CONFEDERA/Y
/

/
T-

41

***
y
pi

^yys
mnclu

tEff
ja

Kw -II -TI*
amelu
^ foj .

/ ^<fc4g*^

ht

_

,/

_

fate

p a hatt

Pl

{

My

officers

as

governors

MRRfT<?/r-

.?-

aX
I

-

kun
;

XXX. M,

III.

C

over them

appointed

3o,3oo

^____

_
niSe f l

people

.

.*/.

I

'

as

^
I

su

-

ha

-

am

-

ma

ullu

ki

-

rib

carried

awa

from

alani

V*

-

$u

-

nu

-

ma
and

pihat
in the district of

their cities

Ku

tyyyt xp
if

-

fa
I

-

^
as

tyyyy
-

bit

settled.

II.

The

tribute of

Menahem

of

Samaria and of other princes

of Syria and Asia Minor, 738 B. C.
[From paper squeezes
in the British

Museum, Nos. 115

a

115

e.]

ma

-

da

-

at

-

iu

Sa

m

Ku

-

i/S

-

la

-

a}

-

pi

The

tribute

of

KuStagpi

rt ^

M

-:yyy Ku - um - mu
of

^
-

T T I<

y^
-

y?
ai

y

Etyy
Ra
-

ha

m

sun

-

nu

Kummuh,
\

Rezin
\
-\

.L1.9-,,

\

.^V

H<I

.

A

.

.^2i^

.

EXTRACTS FROM THE RECORDS OF TIGLATH-PILESER

v

III

7

t

v S3*

-t^T

JT

TM

I

I- s=
Me
-

A
-

Afl^ I-

.&***

"x7 '" "

Dimaski

m

ni

hi

im

-

me

of Damascus,

Menahem

Talu
%

-Til
-

^T TH?
-

T

A
Hi
-

*m
ru

Sa

-

me

r6

na

-

ai

m

of Samaria,

t:TTT um - mu " Hiram - Q 1
1

-tTT
^ /u

<^ E^TT T? II
^'wr
-

T
"
z

^TT
&'
3/'

^T -!< 3 A-HF/'/

ra

-_

/

-

ti -

bi

-

'
f

of Tyre,

Sibittibi'li

tTT
a/"

^^
Gu
ut>

-ET
-

TI TI
-

T

-TTT- -TTI -TI

la

ai

m

U

-,

ri

-

ik

-

Id

of Gebal,

Urikki

al

in

pj

-

.

Sl

_

ri

_

j

s

a In

Qar

.

ga .

of Kui,

Pisiris

of Carche-

ITI
iS -

ai

m

T^^HFE
-

-fTT
alu

W< fxfc ET sT!T TMJ
Ha
-

ni

-

ilu

am

-

ma

-

fa

-

ai

mish,

".

Eni-ilu

of Hamath,
'

y

m Pa

^ ^y t^ ^ < mu-u
-

-tTT
alu

^ fc^ A-4Sa
-

-ET
la
-

TI TI
ai

na

-

am

-

am

-

-

Panammu
T

of Sam'al

^

-TI -ET E-^TT
-

v\
matu

m Tar - hu

^
Da

ET TI
-

TI T

*^
.

la

-

ra

Gur-gu - ma
of

ai

m

Su

-

lu -

ma

-

al

Tarhulara
*
:

Gureum,

Sulumal

?T?

T
"'

^T! <!^= -E liU
-

-tT
alu

Me

-

lid -

da

-

ai

di

-

i

-

lu

Kas-

of Melid,

Dadllu

of Kas-

TRIBUTE OF MENA HEM AND OTHER PRINCES

ka

-

at

'"

U

-

as

-

sur

-

me

" M/

Ta

-

bal

-

at

ka,

Uassurme

of Tabal,

T5?TAE5*-<T<
m

v-tiT^TTITI
HM/

US

-

hi

-

it

-

ii

Tu

-

na

-

'

at

TIH m
Ur

T
-

bal-

UShitti

of Atun,

Urbal-

ET
la
-

TI
a

v -E^T
mdtn

IK
ha

^T
-

TI TI
-

f

-E^T IK c=4 TTu
-

Tu

-

na

ai

m

ha

-

am

-

me

la

of Tuhana,

Tuhamme
TI TI
-

-E^T -Til ^TT
tu
-

MTT^
m

un
*-

-

da

ai

U

-

ri

-

im

of I^tunda,
J'
,.

Urimme

fT-nr.-Tf.il
aln

*rff*ff
t

Hu

-

h'?n

-

na

-

ai

Za - hi

-

bi

-

e

sar

-

rat

of Husimna,

Zabibe

the queen of

-^

]natu

A

-

ri

-

bi

hurasu
gol^j

kaspu
silver,

anaku
lead,

parzillu

Arabia, ~~

iron,

ma$ak

piri

sinni

piri

lu - bul - ti

bir -

me

elephants' hide,

ivory,

garments of variegated

stuffs,

* ub * tu

kitu

St'P* lu

ta

-

Ml

-

tu

cloth,

purple wool,

ar ga - man-nu crimson wool,

;

?"

urkarinnu

minima
eve
/

ak

-

ru

ni

-

sir

-

ti

?/7-wood,

}nrkarinnu-\
\

wood

valuable thing.
\

treasures

/

I

44

EXTRACTS FROM THE RECORDS OF TIGLATH-HLESER

III

t yyy= ~I<
r

\u

-

it

^\

M -^T
I

I immere P l
fat

.

HI Hf<
^((&/

of royalty, 1

sheep, t

I
J<7

^
-

<MTC
ar
-

=TTT<
-

sipaii

Pl

-

su

nu

whose

fleeces

ga - man with crimson

nu

.fcrr

-

/rt /

1

?> -

:

vr

~~^ame(e)

mut

-

tap

-

n

-

he

- ii

r~T/r~

are dyed,

birds of

the heaven

that

fly,

TITCT^T
$a

a

-

gap

-

pi- hi-mi

a

-

na

ta

-

kil - te

sar

-

pu

whose
r

wings
v

with

,**^*-^'

purple <?u*-

are dyed,

I

horses,

mules,,

u

si

-

e

-

ni

im * r "

and

sheep,

cam-

/
els

a

-

na

-

ka

-

a

-

te

a

-

di

(and)

female camels

with

III <T
their foals
1.
7.

I

received.

e.,

royal treasures.

2.

LI.

2936.

CONQUEST OF THE CITIES OFPHQENICIA

45

III.

The death

of

Pekah and the accession of Hoshea

to

the throne of Israel,
[From paper squeezes
in .the

|H
b.]

B. C.
122,

British

Museum, Nos. ii6a, ii6b,

1243,

I24b, I2a*ftnd 125

Ga

-

al

-

'

-

za

alu

A

-

bi-

The

cities of

Gal'za

(and) Abi-

il

-

ak

-

ka

sa

pat

m<ittt

Bit

-

Hu

-

urn
! .

-

ri

-

a

lakka,

which

{J^Vm}

Israel

rap
. . .
.

-

su

a

-

na
in
its

si

-

hir

-

ti -

su

li

the wide-spreading,

whole extent

-

a
to

;/'

-

j/r

'"^ /w

ASStir

u

-

fir

-

ra

the territory of

Assyria

I

restored,

/a
i

*t

amclu

Su

.

ud

.

Sa fo

pi

.

ia

amelu

foj

My

officers

as governors

eli ,-

su-nu

a$
I

-

kun

m

Ha

-

a

-

nu

-

u

-

?iu

over them

appointed.

Hanno

^
az
-

ff
za
-

tET
at
-

If
ai
^V

T^
.

[-ET
.la

3p
-

-HF.

pa
before

-

an

of

Gaza

/

r
i

i.

Literally

"Land of the House of Omri".

1*.

-

46

EXTRACTS FROM THE RECORDS OF TIGLATH-PILESER

III,

-I]

m
my
_

I
- ia

-Elf
*

HJ
ip
-

^T <Tpar
-

[~I El
-

If
a
-

kakke P l

Si

dit -

ma

na

arms

Jf>

fled

and

to

main fifu

Ug

_

rj

.

H

_

na fr

_

fu

alu

ffa

_

az ,

Egypt

escaped.

Ga-

makkura
za
I

-

stt

busd

-

hi

conquered,

his property,

his possessions,

-ET
Hani F l (nt)-su
his

...

v tTTTT -U cC
mdtu

as
I

-

lit

-la
off.
.

...
.

Bit

-

Hu

-

umIs-

gods

carried

.

The

land of

*W
ri - a

I
Fl
-

JI
su

[T

...
. .

/
the

-

//wr

wz'^

a

-

di

rael

.

whole of

his people

together with

TMt^KI^
ar
-

T~nf
a
-

^'

-

ti -

su

-

nu

na

m ^ tu Assur
Assyria

v-T
-i
is

tlll^III?
it

-

ra

-

a

their possessions
T

to

I

carried.

^T
a
-

fT<
-

tE^s
sarra
-

i
hi
-

/
nu

[<m
-

^
pit
-

EI
ma

ka

ha

ki

-

Pekah

their king

they overthrew and

m

A

-

u

-

si

-

a

-

na

sarnt

-

ti

a

-

na

Hoshea

to

the kingship

over

eli

-

su

-nu

as
I

-

kun

them
i.

appointed.

LI. 6

18.

EXTRACTS FROM THE ANNALS OF SARGON.
V
CJ
I.

I-'

The
Botta,

Fall of Samaria, 722 B. C.

J*
145.]

[From

Monument de

Ninive, vol. IV,

pi.

I"

-III
-

tWf T-

Sa

-

me

rg

na
I

al

-

me

ak
I

-

$ud

The

city of Samaria

besieged,

took.

<T- TT XXVII. M, //.
27,290

TC,

T<

*
nt'Se

I
P* libbi -

XC

or the

peole

that dwelt

therein

I
rti

v

-

/

-

la
;

L
50

'V

narkabaii P l

ma

libbi -

su

-

nu

I

carried

away

chariots

from them

-

sur-ma
took
.

u

si

-

it

-

tu

-

ti

i -

nu-su-nu

I

and

the others

their share

u
I

-

sa

-

hi

- iz

su

- tid

-

saki

-

ia

cli

-

su-nu

caused to take.

My

officer

over them

as
I

-

kun

-

ma

bilat

sarri

mah

-

ri

-

e

appointed and

the tribute of the former

king

e I

mid
laid

-

su

-

nu

-

ti

upon them.
13.

i.

LI. li

i^

48

EXTRACTS FROM THE

ANNALS^F SARGON

II.

Sargon's campaign against Ashdod,
Botta,

711

B. C.
Ill,

[From

Monument de

Ninive, vol. IV,

pi.

82 and vol.

pi. 65.]

T

ff
^4
-

^TI
sa
-

-TTI
r/

w

far

* u

At

-

du

-

di

Azuri,

king of

Ashdod,

a

-

na

la

na
/U
J

-

Xe

-

to

no longer

l

*X

^e

bil

-

te

lib

-

bit -

hi

nng

^yx^

tribute

in his heart

.C4-{

^

~

Pu

~

u d-nia

a

-

na

sarrani P l (nt)

li

-

me-

planned and

to

the kings

in his neigh-

I

^
mAtli

ti

-

su

zi

-

ra

-

a

-

ti

Assur

KI

bourhood
**

J
-

(proposals of) hatred

against Assyria

^

>>
^xV^

^rfEVET
^
-

&
as a$
C(/W^<Q-

jy
-

<HH

-^r

*w
e -

*>-

j

pur
sent.

ma_

s su

JM

limuttu(tu)
tfe* evil

Because

pu - h he had done

^//

/'^

Pl

mati-su

be - lu

-

su

1

over

the people of his land

his rule

Ef F A <tt -K
X-/r

TMI
a
-

-

;;m

w

^4 -

/'

-

mi

-

ti

hu

ta

-

Urn -hi

ed

and

Ahimiti,

his twin-brother,

-<!<
a
-

[<^H
eli
-

I
su
-

^
nu
a$
I

na

$arru

-

ti

-

kuu

to
I.

the kingship
be-lu-su

over them

appointed.

=

bslut-su.

REVOLT OF ASHDOD

49

*
'" Mtl/ "

-<T<
-

//<//

-

//

-

-

#

-

ib

za

-

lip

ti

The

yatti,

planning

iniquity,

H
fo
-

IiU
/
-

^TI
su
i
-

*ffl ET
zi
-

Tl

ru

-

ma
and

m

la

-

at

-

na
d^Mfr

his rule

hated,

latna

/a

ifo

-

^/

'"
to

kusst

$a

kima
like

$a- a

-

$u

-

nu- ma

with no

cl^im

the throne,

who

them

pa-lah
t. iX*

be

-

lu

-

^^^

//^)

Az

i -

du

-

u

u

-

rab-

^/reverence

for authority

did not

know,

they rais-

du

-

u

e

U

-

$u

-

un

i

-

na

ug

-

gat

ed

over them.

In

the anger of

lib

-

bi

-

ia

it

-

tf

'?

narkabat sepe

u-ia
feet

u

my

heart

with

the chariot of

m

and

i

-

da

-

ai

la

ip

-

par

-

ku

a

-

na

my

side

do not depart,

to

.

Variant reading: J

t^J^ Ej

Efl^

la-ma-ni.

50

EXTRACTS FROM THE ANNALS OF SARGON

-tTT
^ /M

*^ -I Ifr
As
-

[--IT fc&ffc ~T< JT
ah'

du

-

di

$arru

-

ti -

$u

hi

-

it

-

mu-tti

Ashdod,

his royal city,

in haste

m IH
al
I

El
ma

^TT
alu

^SE ^T ^T
As
-

-tTT
alu

-TTA
Gi
-

A4f -E^
im
-

-

lik -

du

-

du

tu

went, and

Ashdod,

Gimtu

(and)

tj^f
As
-

H
me
I

v

^T

du

-

di

-

im

-

mu
I

al

-

aksud(ud*) conquered, d

Asdudimmu

besieged,

z7az' P l

a

-

$i

-

bu

-

ut

lib -

bi

-

su

-

un

sa

-

a

-

su

The gods^^/

that dwelt

therein,

[R
<2

i^
di'

tTII T
/'^

v

^

himself

I

<ff

-M
sal

i'(^)

<W

^T

^7

mati-^u

hurasu
gold,

kaspu
silver,

together with

the people

of his land,

V

*TTT*

-TTIT

ET- I

I
a
-

makkur
the possessions of

ekalli-^u

na

-

la

-

ti

his palace,

as

booty

$

am
I

-

nu-su

alani f l

su-nu

-

ti

a

-

na

e$ -

Ju

-

ti

counted.

Those

cities

anew^

j
I

-

^a/

/^ ^

z

matati

ki

-

sit

-

ti

kate

H

-

ia

took.

People

/from (various)i the prisoners
\

of

my hands,

lands,

/

i -

na

lib -

bi

u
1

-

se - Sib
;

amelu

$u

-

ud

.

$a fo

therein

settled

my

officer

TAKING OF ASHDOD
-II
J '" t / "
'

51

-TI*
pahaii

<-tH
eli
-

I
Su
-

*
nu
a$
I

-TAHTCF
set

ET
ma
and

^i?/

kun

-

as ruler

^
ntie P l

over them

//

-

//

matu

AHur

KI
I

am

-

nu

with

the people of

Assyria

reckoned (them).

i.

IV, 82,

11.

2

1

3

and

III,

65,

1.

I

f.

SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE, AND THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM, 701 B. C.
[From
a cylinder in

the British

Museum, No. 12174.]

i -

na

sal

-

si

gir

-

ri

-

ia

a

-

na

matu Ha-at-ti

In

my

third

expedition

to

tKf
/
I

IH
-

I
"'

m
Zw
-

-E^TT *E
//

/

/$

-

i

^
sar

the land oftheHatti

-tTT
alu

=ETT
Si-

went.

Lull,

king

of Si-

-

un

-

ni

pul

hi

me

-

lam

-

me

be

-

lu

-

ti

-

ia

don,

fearVj^of the splendouf

of

my

dominion

-

hu

-

p^

-

su

-

ma

a

-

na

ru

-

uk

-

Id

kabal
jinto thel
\

overwhelmed and

afar off

midst /

tam-tim
of the sea

in

-

na
fled

-

bit -

ma
and

mata-su
his land
I

e -

mid

alu

Si-

/ he

subdued.

Si-

^T *W
du
-

un

-

ilu

alu

jrabu(u)

Si

-

du

-

un

-

nu

sihru
the less,

don

/

the great,

Sidon

SUBMISSION OF SIDON

53

^!T t yyyy -TT* Estf *T
alu

-tTT
tj/ "

ft

-Til
-

fcU
-

^
-

Bit

-

zi

-

it

-

te

Sa

ri

ip

tu

<-

Bit-zitte,

Zarephath,

tTT

ET
Mahalliba,

T
Jfr

=TTT=
-

U$u,

Ak

-

jsi

-

bi

alu

Ak

-

ku

-

u

aldni ? l

-

$u

Akzib (and)

Akko,

his strong ci-

tyyyy
dan
-

^B
durani P l (ni)
fortresses,
'

Tl
a
-

EH
$ar

nu

-

ti

bit

ties,

the places

-<y<
ri
-

^yyyyik-Eybit

i -

ti

u

ma$

-

ki

-

ti

tuk

-

la

-

ti -

hi

for pasture

and

watering,
jjuL*~

v

the stations for his troops,
k.fc^-'k'

*

ra

-

sub

-

bat

kakki

llu

Assur

belt

-

ia

the might

of the arms

of Ashur,

my

lord,

^
,

tT -TI
/j
//

V

pu overwhelmed them,

-

E! *; JT ^ -<!< ma su nu
-

-TI* -^
ik
-

JT
-

/V*- *TTMf
\
I

ti -

nu

su

$e -

pu

-

u

-

a

I

;

and

they submitted

at

my

te&.

ba

-

lu

i -

na

l?u

kusst

$arru
of the

-

ti

Tuba'al

on

the throne

kingdom

T tif
eli
-

*
u
I

su-un

-

$e-$ib-ma

biltu
/

man

-

da

-

at

-

tu

over them

seated

and

taxes and tribute

&r.
54
7 SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE

V.yV,

-<

M
-

-<y< SET?
ti
-

v
Sat

\

h

be - lu

ia

-

MJ< ti

-

to

my

dominion,

^"fc*^

yearly,

-Ey e=u]fe Sam la Unni*

-^y ^Ey
ba
-

at

-

lu

unceasing,

TT=
w
I

Ml
^zw

=ETT
'

*JZ
-

53
-

I
$u

"HIT
$a

!

-

ru

us

-

m

<tt Mi

-

in-

fixed

,

upon him.

Of

Me-

/2?'

-

z'/w

-

mu

alu

Sam

-

si

-

mu

-

ru

-

na

-

ai

nahem

of Samsimuruna,

T
"'

-^T --T 4HFTu
-

m
lu
'

^TT
alu

^ETT
Si
-

^T
du
-

tTW
un
-

^T Tf
na
-

ba

-

-

ai

Tuba'al

of Sidon,

-

ti

alu

A

-

ru

-

da

-

ai

Abdili'ti

*"

ft
alu

f

Arvad,

-

ru

-

mil

-

ki

Gu

-

ub

-

la

-

ai

m

Mi
Mi-

Urumilki

of Gebal,

//'

-

in

-

ti

alu

As

-

du

-

da

-

ai

m Pu

-

du

-

ilu

tinti

of Ashdod,

Pudu'il

matu firf

_

m ^ m _ ma

_

na

_

aj

m J am

_

of

Beth-Ammon,

mu _ su _ na . Kammusunadbi

v
matu

Ey

A-HP --T
'

T^
-

TI

T

HPilu

Ma

-

ba

ai

m

II II Malik

-

ram

mu

of Moab,

THE TRIBUTE OF NEIGHBOURING PRINCES

55

/w

_

w;w

.

7^0

.

ai

Warrant P l (W)

of

Edom,

kings

X-<z

-

/i

-

fo

-

Si

-

di

-

e

of the

Wern country,
\i

all

of them,

districts

J
aa
-

lu

-

ti
.

ta

-

mar
'

-

ta

-

su-nu
r i cn

ka

-

bit

-

tu

~

of broad extent,

yX'j^

tne i r

presents

a
f

-

di

'buh

\

a

-

na

mah

-

ri

-

ia
v

\

iS

together \ property

before

^

me, ^

.

'"~~_^ V^_^ they carnecT and \

_
-

$u

-

nim

-

m

-

Si

-

ku
'

Tepe

n

-

ia

u

m

Si

id

-

ka

-

a

kissed

my

feet.

But

Sidka,

^rtr

a '"

/$

^'<2

-

al

-

lu

-

na

sa

la

king

of Ashkelon,

who
-Hf-T
Hani P l
the gods

had

ik

[I*^I T^^T nu-Su a na
-

S^-TTI^
ni
-

^TTIT
bit

-

ri

-

ia

not submitted

to

my

yoke,

lofthel
*

I
abi-su
sa
-

a-su

aSSat

-

su

mareP -$u
l

mara/i P l -Su
his daughters,

of his father, himself,

his wife,

his sons,

I
ahe P l
-

^ ^M
zer
bit

-ET

I
as
I

Su

abi-^u
jof his\
\ father,/

-

su

-

ha
L

-

am

-

ma

his brothers, the seed fofthel \ house/

carried aAay,

and

I_^

56

SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE

-

?m

maiu

Assur KI

u
I

ra

-

a$-su

m

Sarru

-

lu-

to

Assyria

brought him.

Sarrulu-

-III
rz'

tg
mar
son

T

*ffl

-<T<
-

m

Ru

kib

-

ti

Sarru

-

su

-

nu

dari,

of Rukibtu,

v^vv

their former

-

ru

-

u

eli

nise P l

alu

Is

-

ka

-

a/-

king,

over

the people

of Ashke-

-

a

^
I

-

/#

-

w<z

wa

-

dan

bilti

/c,

^|

Ion

appointed,

and

the delivery

of taxes

-III -TTI
^a/
-

tff
-

H
be
-

ISI
lu
-

-<!<
ti
-

ri

e

ia
I

e -

mid

-

su

-

ma\?

(and)

presents

to

my

dominion

laid

on him, that

i - $a

-

at

ap

-

$a

-

a

-

ni

i -

na

me

-

ti

-

ik

he might bear

my

yoke.

In

the course

gir

-

ri

-

ia

alu

B'tt

-

da

-

gan

-

na

alu

la-

of my expedition

Beth-dagon,

Jop-

tyyy,=
-

w

rt '

M

^

-

na

-

ai

-

bar
i

-

ka

pa,

Bene-berak,

\^^

-tTTT
A
-

zu

-

ru

alani P l
cities

(ni)

sa

m

Si

-

id-

Azuru,

of

Sid-

RECOVERY OK AS11KKLON

57

-

a

$a

a

-

na

Upe

-

ia

ar

-

hi$

ka,

which

to

my

feet

quickly

-ET
la
ik
-

nu

-

$u
I

a!

-

me
I

ak$ud(ud)

a$
I

-

lu

-

la

had not submitted,

besieged,

captured,

carried off

Ai/
'

-

la

-

sun

amsl? Sakkanakke ?\

amc hl
'
'

rube

Pl

g vernors

<MBj
w

.y^r
m'Se

Pl

(fa

alu

Am

-

kar

-

ru

-

na

}a

and people

of Ekron,

who,

v
'
-

-7

>

-

i

$arra-su-nu
their king,
f

be I

a
\

-

di

-

e

u

1m wile*

PadI,

^^
bi

the

commands

and
*

/

ma-mt\ compact

sa

'

ttt

A$snr
Assyria,

KI

-

ri

-

tu

parzilli

"

of

--^
I

into 'fetters

of iron\;

zi/

-

du
cast

-

ma

a

-

na

m

W
Ha za
-

ki

-

ia

-

u

had

and

to

Hezekiah

main

Ja

-

u

-

da

-

ai

id

-

di

-

nu-hi
\ *

nak

-

ris

of Judah

had given him

^

as a foe

<**"t

~~y

LX/*V

*-

*^

a

-

na

an

sil

-

U

e

-

sir -

hi

ip

-

lah

in

/a

I dun/geon

he imprisoned him,

afraid

was

y

58

SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE

lib

-

ba

-

su- un

Warrant P l (ni)

mdiu

Mu

-

su

-

ri

their heart.

The

kings

of Egypt,

amelu

^be P

l

'*

kaSti

'*

narkabati ? l

im ^ ru

sise

Pl
,

the archers,

chariots

(and) horses

J

v
^a

T- -!!!<
jJ/<?

A
ET
ma
and

t
e -

^r
the king

" Z5 ^ M

-

luh

-hi

mu

-

ki

la

of

of Efchigfca,

forces

without

^ -m^*-TI^TMff
number,
ri
-

ni

-

bi

ik

-

te

^

<-!
ru
-

HJ^TT
il
-

nim

-

li

-

ku

they summoned,

they came

tE^T
i -

t^TTT
ta
-

EDlf
mir
-

^K
ti

su

-

us

-

su

-

un

na

their help.

In

the neighbourhood

alu

Al

-

ta

-

ku

-

u

el

-

la -

mu

-

u

-

a

of Eltekeh

over against

me

fc
j?
-

JH ^f

z#

-

rw

^

^
-

tyrft
u
-

V
sa

A-Hf-

"

ku

nu

-

lu

(their) line of battle

^^K^tJjf^^
.

they cried for
"

-

^-

ilu

z'

tukulti(ti)

AHur

their arms.

With

the help

of ASSur

T< I
3?//
-

t=m
-

/

z'/

-

ti -

su

un

am

-

da
I

-

hi

-

is -

ma

my

lord

with them

fought

and'

DEFEAT OF THE EGYPTIANS AT ELTEKEH

59

at
I

-

/a

-

kan

abikta

-

hi-un

amslu be I

'*

narkalati P l

accomplished

their defeat.

The commander

of the chariots

9

u

mare P l
the sons

$ar

matu

Mu

-

su

ra

ai

and

of the king

of Egypt

<Tsr
-

ESS
amelu

-II
bel

tT
is u -

di

T narkabati P l

B

'ill
$a

^
tar

with

the

commander

of the chariots

of

the king

Ttu

tTTT<
_

A
"

flfe _ /w ^

jn

of Ethiopia
T

^T
tarn -

^T <

-TTI
-

-TI^
ik
-

JT
Su
-

ha

ri

da

kata

u

-

at

the midst
JL

of the battle

>
Al
-

-

my

hands captured.

alu

ta

-

ku

-

u

alu

Ta
(and)

-

Eltekeh

am Timnah

na

-

a

v>vjt

/
I

-

z^
I

aJkfad(ud)

as
I

-

lu

-

la

$al

-

la

-

sun

besieged,

captured,

carried off

their spoil.

-

a

rt/

"

^4w

-

kar

-

ru

-

na
I

ah

-

rib -

ma

To

Ekron

drew near and

"

HfW
Sakkanakke
Pl amslu

e /M

rube

Pl

$a

the governors

(and) princes

who

60

SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE

H JI
/'
7*
1

tTTTt
-

Tl
a
I

-

2/

/

w

Sab

-

su

u

-

duk

-

ma
and

sm

kad

comm itted

slew

-

a

<#

-

ma- a
poles

- ti

si

-

hir

-

ti

all

a
I

-

lul

on

around

the city

hun^ up

-v

^^

-

r/

-

su- un
;

mare P l

*

alt

e

-

pis

\%n
\

-

ni

their corpses

the townsfolk

[
I

ted committed L

whp

had

wickedness

J*tt -

la

-

H

a

-

na

sal

-

la

-

ti
I

am

-

nu
;

and

5-*^ offence

as

spoil

counted

TT
si
-

^T
it

-^! ^T
-

I
su
-

^
nu

-ET
la

-^T
ba
-

^T
ne

tu

-

te

-

\

the rest of them,

who had

not committed

1\

hi

-

ti

-

ti

u

kul

-

lul

-

ti

sa

sin

and

wickedness,

who

a

-

ra

-

an- su-nu

la

ib

-

su

-

u

us

-

sur- su-

un
I
-

h.

in

their iniquity

were not found,

their pardon \ J^**

v

<2^
I

-

^"

'"

Pa

-

di

-

i

sarra- Su-nu
their king

ul

-

tu

proclaimed.

Pad!

from

ki

-

rib

alu

Ur

-

sa

-

U

-

im

-

mu

the midst

of Jerusalem

^

THE PUNISHMENT OF EKRON

61

-

jV - sa -

am - wa
and

i -

na

'>'"

X'wjj/

be -

lu

-

ti

I

brought out

on

the throne

of dominion

TI^
/z

^

T*"~

-

Su

-

un

u
I

-

Se - Sib -

ET ma
and

^

E^M
-

^i ^^'
at
-

"

man -da

tu

over them

seated

tribute

be

-

lu -

ti

-

ia

u
I

-

kin

si

-

ru

-

u$ - su

u

to

my

dominion

fixed

upon him.

And

Hf<

ff IEJII If
-

tTTT=
-

v
matu

-ETMTT^ ^TT !Uf
la
-

m Ha-za

ki

-

a

u

u

-

da

-

ai

$a

of Hezekiah

of Judah,

who

-ET
/
z'-('

/
-

I

TJ
a
-

TTI
na
ni
-

nu -su

ri

-

ia

XL VI
46

.

^U

had not submitted

to

my

yoke,

alani P l

-

su

dan

-

nu

-

ti

bit

durani P l

u

of his strong

cities,

fortresses,

and

-tTT
^'

sihruti P l
cities
V

sa

U

-

me

-

ti -

su

-

nu
'

small

which

were around them,

-

bu

-

us
1

a

-

ram

-

me

u

kit

-

ru

-

ub

the battering

of rams

and

the assault

62

s INVASION SENNACHERIB'S INVASIO OF PALESTINE

-

/z'

-

i

mil

-

hu

-

su

zu

-

uk

$epe

^

of engines,

the attack

of foot-soldiers,

^>z7

^'

nik

-

si

u

kal

-

ban

-

na

-

ti

of mines,

breaches,

and

al
I

-

me

aksud(ud)
I

IL

C.

M,

/.

C,

L

nise ? l

sihru

besieged,

captured.

200,150

people,

small

ETrabu
f(and)i
Igreat,!

zikaru

-''

u

sinniUu

tmSru sise P l

male
-

and

female,

horses,

imera

^^ r^

p/

/^^

^/

wera

gammaU

Pl

mules,

asses,

camels,

alpe

Pl

u

si

-

e

-

ni

$a

la

ni

-

bi

oxen

and

sheep

without number

<vM^ *~^-[
ul
-

^TT^
kir
-

^ <

\

^"ITT
-

^"!l

r
-

^

Ti

tu

bi- su

un

u
I

se - sa -

^-^^ ^[ am - ma

from

their midst

brought out and

x
,u^
*

al

-

la-tti
I

am

-

nu

$a

-

a-$u

kima
like

issur

ku
a

-

up

-

pi

as spoil

counted.

^ Him

\

caged bird

<m
ki
-

t=m
rib

-tr
alu

Ur

-

sa

-

li

,

im
V

-

mu

alt

within

Jerusalem

his

THE SIEGE OF JERUSALEM
/

63

-

//

-

hi

e
I

-

sir - Su

alu

halsani f l

royal city

enclosed.

<?//

-

Su

11

-

rak

-

h's -

ma

a

-

si

-

e

abulli
forth

against him

I

cast up,

and, whosoever came

from the gate

ali - Su

-

tir

-

ra
f'a

ik

-

ki

-

bu

-

of his city,

I

punished

his sin.

\\

V

I
'

I
-

^7

Su

hi

a$
I

-

lu

-ET -la

ul

tu

-His cities,

which

had taken

from

v
/('/

I
ab
I

T
-

<tt -T
Mi
ti-

-

rib

mati-su

tuk-ma

a

-

na

m

the midst of his land

separated and

to

Mit-

in

-

ti

Sar

alu

As
of

-

du

-

di

m Pa

-

di -/i

inti

king

Ashdod,

Pad!

alu

Am

-

kar

-

ru

-

na

+*

u

m

Silli

-

bel

king

of Ekron

/M***

and

"

Sillibel
1

^*

sar

alu

Ha
of

-

zi

-

ti

ad
I

-

din

-ma
and

u
I

-

sa-

king

Gaza

gave

di-

VHff
/ir
^

fffi
za/ -

su

e

-

U

bilti

mi^ished

his land.

Beside

the

VA

64

SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE^

-HI
mah
-

-III
ri
-

-<T<
ti

^y
na
-

tiff
dan

v
$at
-

^<!<
ti
-

I
su
-

t
un

v'

former taxes,

their yearly gift,

ESTT teT -til
man -da
-

-IIMIM?
kal
-

-< j@i
fo
-

MT<
-

at

-

tu

ri

-

lu

ti

-

ia

tribute

(and) presents

to

my

dominion

i sffi
u
-

rad

-

di

-

ma
and

u

-

kin

si

-

ru

-

us

-

su

-

un

I

added

fixed

upon them.

su

-

u

m Ha-za

-

ki

-

a

-

u

put

-

hi

me

-

lam

-

me

As

for

him,

Hezekiah,

fear

of the majesty

be - lu

-

ti

-

ia

of

my dominion

pu - su - ma overwhelmed him and
is -

hu

-

amelu

r jj

_

n
\~/J

the Urbi

^m
u

KS^T
amelu
l ^abe P

i
-

<MH~~ ^irn^i
damkuti P l
sa

su

a

-

na

and

his trusty warriors,

whom

to

f

^
nu
-

*W
un

^TT
alu

IH
Ur
-

*\

dun

-

sa

-

U

-

m

-

mu

strengthen

Jerusalem

all

sarru

-

ti -

Su

u

-

se -

ri

-

bu

-

ma

ir

-

Su

-

u

his royal city

he had brought

in,

desert-

M
bat
-

^ET
la
-

T a
-

-<!<
ti

^T
it

-<T<
-

<

^P^tm
bilat

ti

XXX
3o

ed.

With

talents of

f

.y

<\

^HEZEKIAH'S TRIBUTE
65
VIII.

.v

//7/rfl.

C

bilat

kaspi

ni

-

sill

-

ti

gold,

800

talents of silver,

precious stones,

*
gu
-

AHfff
uh
stibium,
7

-E^TT
-

h

7-

^
dak
J
I

-

kas

7

E -si

TTT
*

dakkassu,

.^^

.....
great

ET-T
rfl3/i ^ 7
7

>" trSe ?*
>V
;

.....

-stones,

couches

.v/>////'

7 >'"

kusse P l

nff-

me

-

di

Sinni

of- ivory,

s^seas s^seats

of ivory,

ma^ak

piri

sinni

piri
ivory,
j

ls u -

usu
j j

***

urkarinnu

elephant-hide,

usu-

(urkarinnu-l
j

/wood,

wood,

(

ty

minima

/

$um-$u

ni

-

sir

-

tu

ka

-

bit

-

tu

u

diverse objects,

a

heavy treasure,

^o-V^t**^

and

I
marati P l
-

^
zikretiP 1
ekalli -

sn

Su

amshi

zammere

his daughters,

the

women

^__ ^0

V

of his palace,

male musicians,

f zammere ti P l

a

-

na

ki

-

rib

Ninua

^

alt

female musicians,

into

Nineveh

the city

<5^

- /

-

//

-

ia

arki
after

-

ia

u

-

se - bi -

lam

-

ma
and

of

my

dominion

me

he despatched
5

66

SENNACHERIB'S INVASION OF PALESTINE

a

-

na

na

-

dan

man -da -at
tribute

-

ii

u

e

-

pt'S

to

give

and

to

make

ardu

-

u

-

ii

is

-

pu

-

ra

rak

-

bu

-

su

submission
Col.
Col.

he sent

his messenger.

i.

II,

1.

34.

Ill,

I.

41.

THE MURDER OF SENNACHERIB,
I.

68

1

B.C.

From

the Babylonian Chronicle.
No. 84
2

[Brit. Mus.,

u,

356.]

**

ft

IT

XX
On

KAN

ll "

Sm

-

aheP 1

-

erba

the 2oth day of Tebet

Sennacherib,

$ar

matu

ASSur

maru-hi
his son

ina
in

si - hi

iduk

-

$u

XXIII
For 23

king

of Assyria,

a rebellion

slew him.

*'<<<
Sanati P l
ll "

Sm

-

ahe P l

-

erba

sarru

-

ut

years

Sennacherib

the

kingdom

epu$(us)-ma
of Assyria
ruled.

umu XX KAN

Sa

arhu

Tebetu

From

the 2oth day

of

Tebet

-

di

umiII KAN

sa

arl

to

the2nddav

of

Adar

the rebellion in

Assyria

T
sa
-

<W

t^
ilu

dir

arhn

Simanu umu XVIII KA *
the i8th day of Sivan

Atsur- ah

-

iddin

continued.

On

Esarhaddon

maru-su
his son
i.

ina
in
11.

mdtu

AHur

ma
on

Aussi

Assyria

the throne

sat.

Col.

Ill,

3438.

68
II.

THE M4JRDER OF SENNACHERIB

Fjom

the stele of Nabonidus.
Rccneil de travaux, XVIII.]

J^ V[Sch^t,

Babili KI

'
.

'

'

'.

..

.

u

-

na

-

am

-

mi

[he(/

c.

Sennacherib)

Against

Babylon

went].

He

destroyed

es

-

ri
its

-

e

-

ti

i~s

u

-

sa

-

ah

-

hi

temples,

he threw

down

u

-

su

-

ra

-

a

-

ti

bil

-

lu

-

di

-

e

the reliefs,

the shrines

u

-

sa

-

al

-

pi

-

it

ga

-

ti

1

rubi
of the prince

he cast down.

The hand
T

-HPilu

<OT

tT
is

-ET ET
-

tyyy t
u
-

* ^yyi HI
$e
-

Marduk Marduk

-

da

at -

he siezed

ma and

ri -

ib

brought (him)

ki - rib

As~sur Kf

M -ma
According to

uz

-

zi

into

Aur.

the anger

-fey
/// -

^E^yyy^^T
i -

v <t^ HIJTIH
mata
the land.
ul
ip
-

ma

ta

-

pu

-

us

su

-

ur

of the god

he dealt with

He
f

did not subdue

T

ki

-

mil

-

ta

-

Su

rubu
the prince

ilu

Marduk

XXI
for 21

Sanati P l

his wrath,

Marduk;

years

ki

-

rib

AShtr

ir

-

ta

-

me

in
i.

ASSur

did he set

ga-ti

=

kati.

MARDUK'S ANGER AGAINST UAIiYI.ON

69

JT
-

M ^TT
3tf/

-

jw

z'w

-

lu

-

u

ume

Pl

his dwelling-place.

Fulfilled

were

the days,

X

1

-

-

</

-

dan

-

nu

i -

nu

-

uh

-

ma

there

came

the appointed time,

and appeased was

-Hf
s
-

f

-II
bel

-II T
bele

za

-

Su

$a

Sar

Hani

Pl

his anger,

which the king of

the gods, the lord of

lords,

E

-

sag

-

Ha

u

Babili KI

against Esagila

and

Babylon

ih

-

su

-

us

$u- bat
the dwelling of

be

-

tu

-

ti -

$u

$ar

had conceived,

his lordship.

The

king

v-TIW
AHur
KI
'

sa

i -

na

uz

-

za

ilu

Marduk

of Assyria,

who

during

the anger

of

Marduk

-

al

-

pu

-

ut

-

tim

mati

2$

-

ku

-

nu

maru
a son,

the destruction of

the land

had brought about,

i
'

*m
lib

i
-

ts
i
-

-a
na
a

ty

m

-

z'/

bi - su

kakki

the offspring of

his bowels,

with

weapon

u

-

ra

-

as

-

si

-

ib -

slew.
i.

Col.

I,

1.

7

41.

THE
DESTRUCTION OF SIDON BY ESARHADDON.
[From
a cylinder in the British

Museum, No. 12170.]

^
ASsur
-

*W*Sarru

ah

-

iddin(na]

sarru

rabu

dan

-

nu

Esarhaddon,

the great

king, the mighty king,

Sar

kirsati

Sar

maiu

Assur

KI

takkanakku
ruler

the king jofthe\
\

the king

of Assyria,

world,

(

Bdbili KI

tar

mdtu

&umeri
of

u

Akkadi KI

of Babylon,

king

Sumer

and

Akkad,

3-

[ts
mar
son

T-Hf-<M
m
llu

^TT
-

ETsarru rabu Sarru

=m^]
dan
-

Sin

-

ahe f l

erba

nu

of Sennacherib,

the great king,

the mighty king,

v
^r
the king

-v <M
^^wr
Ki

4.

ma^M

[t mar
son

T

^T
Sarru

ETrabu
the great king,

m $arru-ukm
of Sargon,

of Assyria,

5.
-

nu

Sar

mdfu

AHur

KI

Sa

ina

the mighty king,

the king

of Assyria,

who

with

THE

KING'S TITLES

AND GENEALOGY

-Hf
ilu

VJ
AMur
ilu

tukulti(ti]

Sin

ilu

SamaX

ilu

Nabu

the help

of ASSur,

Sin,

SamaS,

Nabu,

ilu

Marduk

ilu

Rtar
iStar

$a

Ninua

K1

ilu

lUar

Marduk,

of

Nineveh,

iStar

gyy
$a

tt=
Arba
- ilu

KI

Hani P l

rabuti P l

bele

Pl

-

$

of

Arbela,

the great gods,

his lords,

/ -

/

-

//u
/'/

SamSt(<fi)

a

-

di

e

-

rib

from

the rising

of the sun

to

the setting

^M
Sam$t($i}

9.

^y -m ^n
it

-

tal

-

lak

~TTT~ ET u - ma
and

ma

-

hi

-

ra

of the sun

proceeds

an opponent

la

i -

$u

-

u

ka

-

h'd

alu

Si

-

du

-

tin

-

ni

does not possess,

the conqueror

of Sidon

<
$a

~
tarn
-

ina
is

kabal

tim

sa

-

pi

-

nu

which

in

the midst of

the sea,

who overcame

gi
the

-

mir

da

-

ad

-

me-Su

dura
its

-

$u

u

whole

of

its

habitation;

wall

and

$u
its

-

bat

-

su

as
I

-

suh

-

ma
and

hi

-

rib

tarn - tim

place of dwelling

tore out

into

the sea

72

THE DESTRUCTION OF S1DON BY ESARHADDON

*ET
0</
I

<T^
di
cast
-

ET
i -

-4.

y?
a

^H
-

HF-

^1
-

^
-

I
hi

ma
and

far

ma$

kan
it

i -

the place

where

stood

TT=
a
I

/2/

IH
-

^5.

-

lik

m

Ab

-

di

-

mil

-

ku

-

ut

-

li

destroyed.

Abdimilkutti

^
its

la

-

pa

-

an

kakke P l

-

ia

king,

who

before

my

arms

z>/

kabal

tarn - tim

in

-

nab

-

tu

hi

-

ma

into

the midst

of the sea

had

fled,

like

-9-TIHFnu
-

u

-

ni

ul

-

iu

ki

-

rib

tarn - tim

a-bar-su-ma
I

a fish

out of the sea

caught and

P
/('/

20.
-

-

sa

kak

ka

-

su

l

nak

-

mu

I

cut off

his head.

His hoarded

makkuru - su
possessions,

hurasu

kaspu
silver,

abnu ? l

a

-

kar

-

tu

gld,

precious stones,

.

maSak

piri

sinni

piri

l-

u

usu
usu\

ls u -

urkarinnu

elephant-hide,

ivory,

\

\wood, /

inrkaHnnu-) \ wood, /

w

kiti

mimma

Sum

-

su

raiment of
i.

/ gaily-coloured stuff f \
\

and cloth

of every kind,

kak-ka-sii

=

kakkad-su.

DEPORTATION OF THE INHABITANTS
23.

^
ni

^-yyy< ^y<
-

^yyyy

^
-

\
$u

24

.

.yj a
-

sir

-

ti

ekalli

na
in

the store

of his palace,

-El
di
-

25. srjjf

_

e

a$
I

-

lu

-

la

ni$e ? l

-

ht

abundance

captured;

his people,

$a

ni

-

ba

la

i

-

$a

-

a

from
26

far

and wide,

without number,

-

M^

,

-,

**

alpe

Pl

u

si

-

e

-

ni

oxen

and
"
-

sheep,

(and) asses

27.

If a
I

^- -ttl
-

It a

<II
na
ki
-

e=T!f
rib

VM
mdi

bu

-

ka

carried

away

into

Assyria.

u - pa Moreover

-

hir

-

ma

SarrdniP 1

mdtu

Hat-ti

I

collected

the kings

of the land of the Haiti

u

a

-

hi

tarn

- tint

ka
all

-

li

-

su-nu

and
3o.
[>

of the coast

of the sea,

of them;

^
a$
-

ina
in

ri

sa

-

nim

-

ma

ala

u
I

-

h - pi$ - ma
and

another place

a city

erected

3

1

.

r^^yy ^yy^ y *^~vi alu Kar - m AXSur

E>W< t^l
-

*^"T

^ET ^^TTT
at
I

>^<
bi

ah

J

iddina(na)

-

ta

-

Kar-Aur-ah-iddina
i.

called

I.e.

"The Wall of Esarhaddon."

74

THE DESTRUCTION OF

SI

DON BY ESARHADDON

ni

-

bit

-

su

nise P l

hu

-

bu

-

ut

its

name;

the peoples,

the captives

-

ia

sa

$adi(i)
the mountains

u
as well as

tarn - tim

of

my

bow,

from

from the sea

of the rising

of the sun

therein

TTT=
I

^
se
-

<Tsi
-

HI
ib
;

3 5.

am * lli

su

-

ud

-

saki

-

ia

made

to dwell

my

officer

pahatu
as governor

eli

-

su

-

nu

as

-

fa
I

over them

set.

se.

<vjgp[
u

y

4ffHP-

^1 <MII
-

-III
ri

m Sa

an

du

-

ar

-

sar

But

Sandu'arri,

king

alu

Kun
of

-

di

alu

Si

-

zu

-

u

Kundi

(and) Sizu,

38.
rt?ne/?i

wa /- rw

^^

.

su

la

pa

_

Uh

be - lu

-

ti

-

ia

an obstinate

foe,

who

feared not

my

dominion,

39.

"gfT
sa

~f

I Hani P l

=111=
u
-

Hf-

^H
-

=111= El
-

mas

h'r

u

-

ma

whom

the gods

had forsaken,

SUBJECTION OF THE NEIGHBOURING CITIKS
yy
40.
f
.

75

>
na
$adi(i)

a

-

mar

-

su

-

ti

it

-

ta

-

kil

in

the difficult mountains

trusted,

u

m

Ab

-

di

-

mil

-

ku

-

ut

-

ti

far

and

Abdimilkutti,

king

42
alu

.

yj
a
-

K]
na
to

-TTI
ri
-

*
su
-

-<!< I
ti -

Si

-

du

-

ni

Su

of Sidon,

his help

-tit!
kun
-

43.

i7ia

Sum

Hani P l

rabitti

came

and

on the name

of the great gods

TJ
a

~Hf
-

Tf
a
-

W
ha
-

T

-T
meS
iz -

v

< ET
-

44.

TJ
a
-

na

kur - u

ma
and

na

together

they called,

in

45e
-

mu

-

ki

-

su

-

un

it

-

tak

-

lu

a

-

na
I

-

ku

their

own might

put their trust.

a

-

na

ASSur

belt

-

ia

at

-

ta

-

kil -

ma

in

ASSur

my

lord

trusted

and

'/

-

ma

is

-

su

-

ri

ul

-

tu

ki

-

rib
{ I

Sadt(t)
of
l
.

like

a bird

from

the midst

mountains J

h?

1

a - bar - Su
I

-

ma

ak
I

-

ki

-

sa

kak

-

ha

-

su

a$-$u

caught him and

cut off

his head.

In order

76

THE DESTRUCTION OF SIDON BY ESARHADDON

da

-

na

-

an

ilu

AsSur

deli

-

ia

niU P

[

the

power

of ASSur

my
50.

lord

unto the peoples

-

mi

-

im

-

ET ma

kakkade P l

to display,

the heads

T
111

Sa

-

an

-

du

-

ar

-

ri

u

of Sandu'arri

and

Ab

-

di

-

mi

-

il

-

ku

-

ut

-

ti

ma
to

ki

-

sa

-

di

Abdimilkutti

the necks

I
rabutiP 1
-

tTW
-

ff
a
I

JT=
-

su

un

lul

-

El ma
and

53.
it

-

ti

of their nobles

hung

with

<
M

tiE^<^
.......
.

54.ina

HTi
ri
-

zammereP 1

u

bit

musicians

and

melody (?)

into

the square

Ninua

K1

e

-

te

-it
I

-

ti

-

ik

of Nineveh

went.

THE SACK OF THEBES BY ASHURBANIPAL.
[From
a cylinder in the British

Museum, No. 12168.]

ina

$ane(e)

gir

-

ri

-

ia

a

-

na

m * tu Mu

-

sur

In

my

second expedition

to

Egypt

u

" 7t7/ "

Ku -u

- si

u$

-

te
I

-

e$ - $e

-

ra

har

-

ra

-

nu

and

Ethiopia

directed

the way.

m

Ur

-

da

-

ma

-

ni

-

e

a

-

lak

gir

-

ri

-

ia

Urdamane

of the coming

of

my

expedition

t$

-

me-ma
I

$a
to the
\

ak
I

-

bu

-

su

mi

-

sir

heard,

had trodden

the boundary

leffect that/

of Egypt.

Memphis

he abandoned, and

a

-

na

$u

-

zu

-

ub

napi$tim(tim}-su
his life

in

-

na

-

bit

to

save

he
-

fled

5.

a

-

na
into

ki

-

rib

alu

Ni

-

Sarram? 1

Thebes.

The

kings,

78

THE SACK OF THEBES BY ASHURBANIPAL

V
amelu

p a hati P
governors

l

amSlu

ki

-

pa

-

a

-

ni

sa

ki

-

(and) prefects,

whom

in

matu

-

_frf

u

_

s ur

a$
I

_

fc

u

_

nu

2

na

tarsi

-

ia

Egypt

had

set up,

into

my

presence

il

-

li

-

ku

-

u

-

nim

-

ma

u

-

na

-

a$

-

si

-

ku

came

and

kissed

<tETT MEff
sepe

7.

H

^^
arki

T

IH
Ur
-

^!! E
da
-

-

ia

m

ma

-

ni

-

e

my

feet.

After

Urdamane

har

-

ra

-

nu
I

as

-

bat

al
I

-

lik

a

-

di

the

way

took;

came

to

9.

TV/

-

'

ali

dan

-

nu

-

ti

-

su

ti

-

ib

Thebes,

his fortress;

the approach

tahazt

-

ia

dan

-

ni

e

-

mur - ma

aln

Ni

-

of

my

mighty

battle

he saw and

Thebes

TTfc Hfu - ma$

-<^
-

o.

fcgts
in
-

^}
na
fled

tyyyy

if
a
-

Sir

-bit

na

he abandoned;

he

to

-tTT
lu

JTTPT
Xu
-

\
a
-

Ki

-

ip

-

ki

-

pi

alu

a

-

tu

na
in

Kipkip.

That

city

THE CAPTURE OF HEAVY SPOIL
f<
i

79

~f
ilu

A
AHur

<
u

-

hir
its

.

H

-

fa

ma
with

tukulli(ti)

extent

the help

of ASSur

and

if<W
IStar

-TI^JmT
my

JTTTTITI

"
Silver,

hands took.

hurasu
gold,

ni

-

sik

-

ti

abne P l

precious stones,

the furniture

I
-

Ef -ET

-^T
ba
-

I<
$u-u

i

^
as

w

-

/a

lu

-

bul

-

ti

of his palace,

much

as

there was,

raiment

rabuti
of gailyi (coloured stuff,/
I

cloth,

great horses,

H. TT
ni$e

Pl

zik

-

ru

u

sin

-

niS

II
2

people

male

and

female,

pi
lofty obelisks,

-

tik

za-ha

-

li

-

e

structures of zahalu

Idl
i

3
-

<

5

.

bi
bright,

^TT U
of which

TT

<f-

W
V.

IL

M,

F C
KPl
bdb

^m^TI
bilti

that

is

2500

talents

<IIT
Sukultu (Y)
-

IV$u
-

W ^SL
man-za
-

-TTTT
e
-

v
kur

nu

az

was the weight,

that stood before

the gate

of the temple,

8o

THE SACK OF THEBES BY ASHURBANIPAL

-

///

man-za

-

al

-

ti -

hi

-nu

as
I

-

suh

-

ma
and

from

their

place

removed

al

-

ka

-

a

a

-

na

tu

ilu

ASSur KI

Sal

- la

-

lu

took

to

Assyria.

Spoils,

-TTTT *T
ka
-

ina

-ET
la

!
-n

M
as
I

-ET
-

bit

-

tu

-

lu

la

heavy,

without number,

carried off

ul

-

tu

ki

-

rib

alu

fti

_

e

-

U

from

Thebes.

Over

m * iu Mu-sur

u

malll

Ku

-

u

si

kakke P l

ia

Egypt

and

Ethiopia

my

arms

u
I

-

sam

-

ri

-

ir -

ma
and

as
I

-

ta

-

kan

H

-

i

-

tu

caused to rage

established

might.

ka

-

ti

ma
full

-

li

-

fi

sal - mes

With
Tf
a

hands

safe

and sound

-^
-

21.
-

<JEJ
a
-

-til
ah
the city

fu

ra

na

Ninua

^f

I

returned

to

Nineveh

belu

-

li

-

ia

of

my
i.

dominion.
II,
11.

Col.

2848.

THE EMBASSY OF GYGES, KING OF
[From
"
,.
"'

LYDIA.

a cylinder in the British

Museum, No.

1

2,

1

68.]

* igs
Gu
-

^
gu
ni
is
-

,g$
sar

v
m<3hl

i@i
Lu
-

*i

ug

-

ud

-

di

Gyges,

king of

Lydia,

\a

-

gu

-

u

$a

bir

-

ti

tamti

a district

which

across

the sea,

T
-

ru

ru

-

u

-

ku

$a

Warrant P l

a distant place,

of which

the kings

-

ia

la

i$

-

mu

-

u

zi

-

Mr

my

fathers

had not heard

mention of the name,

ni

-

bit

sumi

-

ia

ina in

$utti

my name
fTI

a

dream

I

M

-*f
ilu

A
AHur

-4ilu

^T-jMT?
ba
-

^^

-

ri

-

su -ma

nu-u

-

a

did A^sur, the god,

my

creator, reveal to him,

82

THE EMBASSY OF GYGES, KING OF LYDIA
cCTTT ET ww - ma
thus
:

4

.

<HT
11

T

Hfilu

A

SP

T
sar
king of

sepd

m
of

Assur- ban - apli

"The

feet

Ashurbanipal,

matu

ilu

A$$ur KI

sa-bat-ma

ina

zi

-

kir

Zumi-'Su

Assyria,

grasp and

through

his

name

ku

-

su

-

ud

amelu

nakire P l

-

ka

conquer

thy foes."

u - mu The day

$uttu

an
this

-

ni

-

tu

e

-

mu

-

ru
his

dream

he saw,

messenger

7.
-

/

-

ru

a

-

na

sa

-

-

al

he sent

to

greet

suttu

an

-

ni

-

tu

$a

This dream,
s.
e
-

which

ina

JTTT
kdta
11

mu

-

ru

amslu

mdr-^ipri-su

he had seen,

by

the hands of

his

envoy

-TTEV^ET
i$

^TTTt
u
-

V -f -Hf
Sa
-

Tl

^TTM<
ia
-

pur - am - ma and he sent
-

an

-

na

-a

a

-

ti

repeated

to

me.

9

.

<tT* *\
ul
-

*TTT
lib

^
-

*\
u
-

F
me

V
$a

tT
is

^T
-

^T
-

tu

bi

ba

tu

From

the very day

on which

he grasped

HIS

SUCCESS AGAINST THE CIMMERIANS

83

<tETT n $epd

Xarru

-

ti

-

ia

l

'"";i/ "

Gi

-

mir

-

ra

-

at'

my

royal feet,

the Cimmerians,

-TTI -El=TT

*pu

*T

I
m'Se P l

vl
mati-^u

V
$a

mu

-

dal

-

li

-

who

afflicted

the people

of his land,

who

-ET
/rt

til -TTI -ET -II
z^
-

-ETT
abe P l
-

teTJ
ia

<MiU
u

tal

-

la

-

hu

did not

fear

my

fathers,

and

ET
at
"

fT^T^T
is
-

-

iu

-

u-a

la

ba

-

tu

$epa

ll

sarru

-

ti

-

ia

as for

me

had not grasped
<

my

royal

feet,

-4ilu

A

<
u

Hf-<W
ilu

ik

-

su

-

ud

ina

tukulti(tt)

Assur

IStar

he conquered.

With

the help of

ASSur

and

I^tar,

ilaniP 1

bele

Pl

-

ia

ultu

lib

-

bi

the gods,

my

lords,

from

'4-lTT
amc lu
'

E^amslu

hazanatiP 1

sa

Gi

-

mir

-

ra

-

ai

the governors

of

the Cimmerians,

V
Sa

-TI^JT^T
ik
-

IT

su

-

du

II

amC>lu

hazanati P l

ina

whom he had conquered, two

governors

in

tT *TT fT tETT
^"
si is
-

C^TT -!-<!<
is

-Hf-HFparzilli

^-TTI-<T<
bi
-

si

-

ka

-

ti

ri

-

ti

bonds,

chains

of iron,

fetters

6*

84

THE EMBASSY OF GYGES, KING OF LYDIA

f

4-

slut
u
-

^y

y- AHPPP
me
-

ET
ma
and

-6.

ESM
it

^<y<
-

parzilU

tarn -

ih

-

ti

of iron,

he bound

together with

ta

-

mar
a

-

ti -

su
gift

ka

-

bit

-

tu

u

-

se - bi -

la

heavy

from him

he sent

-7.

K?5^*-I
amslu

V
sa

a

-

di

mah
into

-

ri

-

ia

rak

-

bu

-

su

my

presence.

His messenger,

whom

a

-

na

sa

-

-

al

sul

-

me

- ia

ka

-

ai

-

an

to

greet

me
.. tTTT=
u
-

continually

^JT sTTT
i$

=
nap
-

&
pa

E^TT
-

^H
sar
-

V
$a
-

H
a

ia

ra

he had sent,

he

dis-

-

//

-

il

-

tu

as

-

Su

Sa
the

a

-

/wa/
of

*'"

Assur

continued.

Since

command

-

za:

a

s

-

su

-

ru

a

-

na

the god,

my creator,

he did not keep,

in

tff
e
-

.^
muk
his

E^IT
ra
-

te
man
- i -

I
su

^T
it

c^TTI
-

ta

-

q
kil

ET
-

ma
and

own power

he trusted

ig

-

bu

-

uS

lib

-

bu

e -

mu

-

ki

-

e-

~su

a

-

na

[his] heart

was proud,

[and] his forces

for

HIS

SUBSEQUENT CHANGE OF POLICY

85

tTTMTI
kit
-

T

-6T
Tu
-

V
$a
-

T

ri

m

mi

-

il

-

ki

tar

mdtu

Mu

-

sur

alliance with

Psammetichus

king of

Egypt,

Sa

is

-

lu

-

u

"" nir
the yoke

belu

-

ti

-

ia

who

had

cast off

of

my

dominion,

-

pur

-

ma

a

-

na

-

ku
I

a$

-

me

-

e

-

ma
and

he sent.

Then

heard

-

jrt/

-

//

ilu

Assur

u

ilu

Istar

um

-

ma

I

prayed
-

to ASSur

and

iStar,

thus:

I

&W
may

I

/>

an

amelu na kiri-su

pa - gar-$u
his corpse

U

-

na

-

di

-

ma

l

"Before

his foe

be cast

and

Us -su

-

u

-

ni

.......

Pl

-

su

ki

-

i

may

they carry off

his bones."

Even

as

a

-

na

llu

Assur

am
I

-

hu

-

ru
it

i$

-

lim

-

ma

to

ASSur

had prayed,

came

to pass.

pa

-

an

amelu na kiri-su

pa -gar-^u
his corpse

in

-

na
cast

-

di

-

ma
and

Before

his foe

was

down
I

fll'
is
-

<
-

.

SB:
-

<tE

$u

u

ni

<T ^T .......

I
-

Pl

Su

they. carried off
i.

his bones.

A

variant reading gives li-in-na-di-ma.

86

THE EMBASSY OF GYGES, KING OF LYDIA

u

Qi

_

m jr

_

ai

$a

jna

ni

_

fat

sumi

-

ia

V
&z
fcT
is -

-

^
pal
-

The Cimmerians,
I
su

whom

through

my name

Htt*
ik
-

v- ^TT
bu
-

26

-

su

it

-

bu

-

nim

-

ma

beneath him

he had trodden,

drew near

and

*pu subdued
-

Vnu

"TIA
gi
-

EHH
mir

v

I

t^5
arki
-

I
su
.

mati-su
his land.

the whole of

After

him

mari-^u
his son

u

-

Sib

ina

** u

kussi

-

su

ip

-

sit

sat

on

his throne.

Of

the

<HH

-\ W ^
sa

limuttim(ti-ni}

ina
at

ni

-

is

kate 11

-

ia

evil fate,

which

the raising of

my

hands

Hani V 1
the gods,

tik

-

li

-

ia

ina

pa

-

an

my

helpers,

upon

tEj dbi
I

tpl
bani-su
l

=TTTt
u
-

^Hf
sap
-

-III JEf
ri
-

ina

^TTT
kdta
)

ku

11

the

his begetter,

had brought,

by *

the

\

{father,

(

(hands of}

amelu

-niar-^ipri-^u

t'$

-

pur

-

am

-

ma

is

-

ba

-

ta

his

envoy

he sent [me news] and

grasped

Sepa

H

w
sarru
-

-4ilu

ti

-

ia

um

-

ma

$arru

$a

my

royal feet,

thus:

"A king,

of whom god

HIS SON'S SUBMISSION

TO ASHURBANIPAL

87

*'

-

du

-

u-su

at art

-

la

abu -

u-a

ta

-

ru

-

ur

-

ma

ihath taken\
I

thou.

My

father

thou didst curse, and

knowledge, (

limuttu
evil

is

-

sa

-

kin

ina

was done

pa - m'-$u unto him.

ia

-

a

-

ii

As

for

me,

ardu

pa - lih

-

ka

kur - ban

-

ni

-

i -

ma
and

la

-

$u

-

ta

the slave that feareth thee,

bless

me

let

me

bear

ap

-

sa

-

an

-

ka

thy yoke."
i.

Col.

II,

11.

95

125.

THE GUTTING OF THE CANAL OF SIPPAR BY NABOPOLASSAR, KING OF BABYLON, 625604 B. C.
[From
a cylinder in the British

Museum, No.

827

14,979.]

Na

-

bi

-

um

-

apil

-

u

-

su

-

ur

Nabopolassar,

&tf
.far

-f

E^TT

<M
4.

3.

^<y< .yyj
ti
-

ty
is

Babili KI

ri

king

of Babylon,

the de-

'

ga

-

a/
2

1

l lu

sire of

Mi - bi Nabu

-

um

u

ihl

Marduk

and

Marduk,

-II
a
-

ET-tTTT
rabu(u]

na

-

ku

i -

nu

ilu

Marduk

bclu

am

I.

When

Marduk,

the great lord,

7.

a

-

na

za

-

na

-

an

ma - ha
the

-

zi

ud

-

du

-

su

to

provide for

cities,

to

renew

e$

-

ri

-

e

-

ti

ur

-

ta

-

su

ka

-

bi

-

it

-

ti

the shrines,
1.

his

weighty command
e.

ga-at
is

=

kat.

2. Literally,

"the stretching forth of the hand of",

/.

the object for which

the

hand

stretched forth in desire.

ALTERATION

IN

THK BKD OF THE EUPHRATES
-Hf-

89

u

ma

i

-

ra

-

an

-

ni

enjoined upon me,
,o.

^+
2'

<B: jy
-

tew
-

...

^T

-ffff
Sippar

-

nu

mi

-

hi

um

^

<HT

at that

time

Sippar,
l3

,

2.

ET

W -TT*
-

-TT* -E -TTI
zi
-

-

ma -ha

zi

i

-

ri

l

na

-

ra

-

am

the august city,

beloved of

<
/^

-Hf- T
'7

fW
the Euphrates

ama

and

Ai,

M

-

j/

-

su

-ma
it

me
and

-

e

i

-

ri

-

e

-

ku

had receded from

the waters

were distant

...
. . .

.7.

-Hfilu

^T & sCTTT ^^^T -ITTNa
-

bi

-

um

-

apil

u

-

su

-

ur

.

.

.

Nabopolassar,

a

-

as

-

ri

-

ah

Um

pa

-

U

-

ih

the meek,

the humble,

the worshipper

tETJTM< -TI&^T^-TTTT
He
of the gods,
ia
-

a

- ti

n&TU

Purdtu

a

-

na

even

I,

the Euphrates

unto

Sippar

KI

lu

-

u

-

$a

-ah

-

ra

-

am

-

ma

Sippar
i.

caused to be dug out,
sir/.

and

zi-i-ri

=

go

THE CUTTING OF THE CANAL OF SIPPAR BY NABOPOLASSAR

me

-

e

nu

-

uh

-

h'

dam

-

ku

-

tim

a

-

na

waters

of abundance,

health-giving,

for

f-

^M

SamaS

5
//

-II teTf
belt
-

ia

lu

-

u
I

-

ki

-

SamaS

my

lord

established.

-

li -

z'

su

-

a

-

ti

-

na

.

The bank

of that canal

with

T

I
kupri

T?
u

TI
a
-

-TT

-TTI

bitumen

and

gur - ri brickwork

as.

jgy tyyT= 11TT
lu
-

<KTTI
-

<T
si
-

Tf
id
-

u

-

sa
I

ar

ma
and

a

-

na

strengthened,

for

30.
llu

Manias

belt

-

ia

kar
a wall

su

-

ul

-

mi

-

im

Mamas'

my

lord

of safety

lu

-

u

-

urn

-

mi

-

id

I

erected.

THE COMPLETION OF THE WALLS OF BABYLON BY NEBUCHADNEZZAR KING OF BABYLON, 604561 B.C.
II,

[From

a cylinder in the British

Museum, No. 68

7

9, i.]

tlu

Na

-

bi

-

um

-

ku- dur

-

ri

-

u

-

su

-

ur

Nebuchadnezzar,

*!
$ar

T7
-

Ba

-

bi

-

lam

ru

-

ba

a

-

am

king

of Babylon,

the prince

na

-

a

-.

dam

mi

-

gi

-

er

ilu

Marduk

exalted,

the darling of

Marduk,

-

ak

-

ku

si

-

i

-

ri

na

-

ra

-

am

the august ruler,

the beloved of

llu

Na

-

bi

-

um

sa

-

ak

-

ka

-

na

-

ku

Nabu,

the governor

-ET
la

a
is

-

ne

-

fya

za

-

ni

-

in

E

-

sag

-

ila

who

not wearied,

the patron of

Esagil

92

THE COMPLETION OF THE WALLS OF BABYLON
<=TTTT

<M@I
w

-TT*
-

TT
-

* ^yy
$a

y a
-

E

zi

da

na

and

Ezida,

who

to

Hf//tt

^T
TVtf
-

3
&'
-

tCTTT
urn

<HiU
u

-Hfilu

Marduk

Nabii

and

Marduk

-IITJT
3^ ^'
-

7.

jw

hi

-

it

-

nu

-

su

-

ma
and

ip

-

pu

-

su

his lords

is

subject,

who

performs

-TTI tfl
ri
-

JT ^TT
-

-m
un
1

s.

^y
na
-

yf
a

^^y
-

.

.

.

e

su

-

su

-

dam

.

.

.

their service,

the exalted one,

.

.

.

<7/>/?^

a

-

sa

-

ri

-

du

sa

tlu

Nabu

-

apil

-

the son of highest rank

of

Nabopol-

u

-

su
assar,

-

ur

sar

Ba

-

bi

-

lam

king
...

of Babylon,

^^
i
-

t:yyy
-

Hfllu

a

-

na

-

ku

nu

urn

Marduk

am

I.

When

Marduk

belu

ra

bi^

-

u

ki

-

ni

-

is

the great lord

legitimately

ib

-

na

-

an

-

ni

-

ma
and

mata
the land

su

-

te

-

$u

-

ru

created
i.

me

to rule,

ri-e-su-su-un

=

resut-sun.

NEBUCHADNEZZAR'S ZEAL FOR MARDUK
-TTI ^T? Tl
ni
-

E&
-

-

3

-

II
za
-

h'm

ri

-

-

aw

na

-

an

the people

to shepherd,

to care for

ET IK -TT*
jrt
-

^T
ud
-

^T
du
-

M
su

<=TI
e
-

<
e$
-

-m
ri
-

-Tl
e tint

ha

-

zi

the towns,

to

renew

the shrines

ra

,

hi

-

i$

u

-

ma

-

-

ir

-

an

-

ni

majestically

commissioned me,

.5.

T?
#
-

^T
\

M
^w
-

T^
a
-

^T
na

f <^T
illi

-II
belt
-

=ETI
ia

Marduk

unto

Marduk

my

lord

pa

-

al

-

hi

t$

u

-

ta

-

ku

Ba

-

bi -

lam

with fear

was obedient.

Babylon

ET
ma
-

IK
ha
-

If
za
-

JT
su

-ETT
si
-

-E
i
-

-TTI
ri

--IT
alt

his august city,

the place

ta

-

na

-

da

-

a

-

tu

-

Su

fm

-

gu

-

ur

-

ilu

Bel

of his honour,

Imgur-Bel,

<
it

--

^
il "

^
Bel

is.

^y
durdni
its
-

-

U

su

Nimitti-Bel,

ET-ETrabuti

^T!T- "ElTT
u
-

-a -

$a
I

ak

-

li

-

il

a

-

na

great walls,

completed

;

on

94

THE COMPLETION OF THE WALLS OF BABYLON

^H^Tse
-

t53

ETof
its

S?:m- JT
gates

*

ip

-

pi

abulle-su

nman
mighty

the thresholds

e

-

ik

-

du

-

u

-

tim

u

oxen of copper

and

* ^TT
sirruHe
se
-

zu

-

zu

I! =TTT= u -

tim

colossal serpents

reared on end

u

-

u$
I

-

z

-

z

set

up.

THE DEFEAT OF ASTYAGES BY CYRUS.
I.

From a cylinder

of

Nabonidus, king of Babylon, 555538 B.
Mus., No. 82
7
14, 1025.]

C.

[Brit.

a

-

na
I,

-

ku

llu

Na

-

hi

-

um

-

na

-

-

id

Nabonidus,

sarru

ra

-

bu

-

u

$arru

dan

-

nu

$ar

the great king,

the mighty king,

the king

fa's

-

sa

-

ti

sar

Babili

^l

sar

of the world,

king of

Babylon,
3

king of

<
/1$

-

-

ra

-

a

-

ti

ir

-

bit

-

ti

za

-

ni

-

in

the four

quarters,

the patron

sag

-

ila

u

E

-

zi

-

da

of Esagil

and

Ezida,

^
f

^TII^TT <HiH -Hf-^ETETilu

^E^
i -

Sin

u

ilu

Nin

-

gal

na

whose i

Sin

and

Ningal

in

tdestiny/

96

THE DEFEAT OF ASTYAGES BY CYRUS

T<ttl s-TI-Hf
02*'-

<T-ET~ETt^TTT
h' -

$u

a

-

na

ma -

at

Zarru

-

u

-

tu

womb

of

his

mother

for

a royal destiny J

E
i
-

<!Hi
-

mu

si

-

ma

-

at

-

su
f \

mar
the
\

determined,

son of/

T -HFz

H& 2< >sTT Hfl* J3
Nabu-balat
-

/7z<

su

-

ik

-

bi

rubu

e

-

im

-

ku

Nabu-balatsu-ikbi,

the wise prince,

-

rabuti

-

7

.

//

-

z'A

z/awi

a

-

na

-

ku

the worshipper of

the great gods,

am

I.

E
E

-

hul

-

hul
hul,

bit

ilu

Sin

ta

hul

-

the temple of

Sin

which

(is)

ki -

rib

alu

Har

-

ra

-

nu

Sa

ul

-

tu

in

Harran

wherein

from

u

-

mu

sa- a

-

ti

" w Sin

belu

ra

-

bu

-

u

eternity

Sin

the great lord

I0

.

jy
$u
-

^T
ba
-

*T
at

M *&
tu
-

^!!T
lib
-

JI
bi
-

ub

$u

(as in) the dwelling-place

of the delight of

his heart

tyyyt
r
/

<ny
^/
-

-yyj t=ij I
r/
-

^
e
-

-

ib

-

$u

U

dwells,

with

THE SCYTHIAN INVASION

97

-tTT
ali
the city

<MEH
u

-IT!!
biii

V
Sa
-

T

!T
a
-

J!
Su

*TTT
lib

*
-

bu

-

and

that temple

his heart

-

zu

-

uz

-

ma
and

amclu

Umman-man

-

da

was wroth

the Scythians

TTt
u
-

v ~3 5^
Sat
-

ET
-

tTTTT
biti

JT
$u
-

ba

-

am

ma
and

TJ a

-

tim

he brought

that temple

nb

-

bi

-

it

-

ma
and

u

-

sa

-

lik it

su
to
fall

kar
in

-

mu

-

tu

he destroyed

he caused

ruins.

i

-

na

pa

-

li

-

e

-

a

.hi

-

i -

trim

ilu

Bel

In

my

legitimate reign

Bel

belu

rabu(ii}

i

-

na

na

-

ra

am

the great lord

through

love

Sarru
for

u

ti

-

ia

a

-

na

all

u

my kingdom
TJ
-

unto

the city

and

-TTTT
3^/z'

W
Sa

JT
-

tT
is
-

a

Su

li

-

mu

ir -

Su

-

u

that temple

was gracious (and)

had

mercy.

In

the beginning of
7

98

THE DEFEAT OF ASTYAGES BY CYRUS

sarru

u

-

ti

ia

dariti(ti}

my

everlasting reign

*jn
Sab
-

^-

.

J!
su
a
-

*y
ut

-T<
-

ru

-

in

-

ni

ti
:

the

caused

me

to behold

dream

ET
l7a

Marduk

belu

rabu

u

ilu

Sin

Marduk,

the great lord,

and

Sin,

TTI
na
-

an

-

no,

-

ri

same(e}

u

irsitim(tim}

the light

of heaven

and

earth,

'

-

lal

-la

-an

lu

Marduk

stood

on either side;

Marduk

i

-

ta

-

ma- a

it

-

ti

-

ia
:

ilu

Nabii

-

na'id

spake

to

me

"Nabonidus

Babili KI

i

-

na

iineru

p/p^

king of Babylon,

with

the horses

m^
-

-

2

1

.

:]
i
-

^>si

ku

-

bi

ka

of thy chariot

bring

bricks,

^yyyy

E

mr mi
-

hul

-

hul

e

-

pu

-

us

-

ma
and
Sin

E-hul-hul

build

THE DREAM OF NABONIDUS -II
/><///

99

ET- tTTTs
rabu(u)

"

*E -17
i
-

<If =w
&'
-

3
-

JT
.fa

a

ir

&' -

the great lord

therein

.ETIHETT?
$u
-

JT^T^T^T!
$u
-

^.

tt^ ^ -yy
pa
-

ur

-

ma

-a

ba

-

at

-

su

al

-

hi

-

t$

cause to inhabit

his dwelling-place."

With
^TTT

fear

T a

tTTT ET
-

Tl
-

Tl
a
-

^T
na

^TII
tlu

/a
I

-

ma

a

Bel

HfHani

1
Pl

spake

unto

the lord

of the gods,

jy
//tt

yf
-

^v
-

-gyy
$a

Marduk
:

bitu

$u

a

tim

Marduk

"That temple

which

yyyt

^
e
-

*ypi
-

JT
$u
'

2 5.

E^ ^
amilu Umman-man
-

/^

-

bu

-

u

da

thou commandest

to build,

the Scythian

ET
sa
-

^pu

^^
ug
rnighty
i
-

fr*
gu
is
-

Ii0
lu

hi

-

ir
it

-

Sum

-

ma
and

infests

e -

mu

-

ga

-

a

-

su

l

ilu

Marduk- ma

ta

-

ma -a

his strength."

But Marduk

spake

//

-

ti

-

ia
:

amelu

Umman-man-da
of

sa

tak

-

bu

-

u

unto

me
T^
-

"The Scythian

whom

thou speakest,

7.

11TT
Sa

JT
-

v

JT

frm
u

3%

a

$u

mati -$u
his land,

Warrant P l

\

he,
i.
/. e.,

and

the kings,

pu-itk-ku-lu e-mii-ka-a-su.

ioo

THE DEFEAT OF ASTYAGES BY CYRUS

>.k

i

-

di

-

su

ul

i

-

ba

-

as

- h'

i

-

n
In

his allies,

are no more".

HF-

lu

ul

-

ti

satti

i

-

na

the third

year

on

Tp
ka
-

^y
-

2g

.

-yyyt:
u
-

v
sat
-

^
bu
-

^ .^
nis -

Ey
-

sa

du
1

sum

ma
and

an expedition

they caused him to advance

m

Ku

-

ra

-

as

sar

matu

An

-

za

an

arad

-

Cyrus,

king of

Anzan,

his

AHFR
ah
-

-in
ri

3

-

* ^T
i
-

t:nr ET
um
-

^ JT
-

na

ma

ni

-

Su

petty vassal,

with

his troops

z'

-

J

-

/

amSlu Umman-man-da

rap

-

sa

-

a

-

ti

that

were few

the wide-spreading Scythians

tTTT=
z^

^fcU
j/>
-

^Tpi

A^ffi
-

!

-IT -^1 1Is
-

-

ih

m

tu -

me

-

gu

scattered.

Astyages,

sar

amslu

Umman-man-da

is -bat-ma

ka

-

mu-ut

-

su

king of

the Scythians,

he captured and

as a prisoner

34
a
-

.

*
a -mat
(It

ilu

na

mati-^u
his land

il

-

ki
/
|

Bel

to
i.

he took him.

was)

i

the

the

word

of/

Or "as

;

t

approached".

THK CAPTURE OF ASTYAGKS

IOI

ET- sTTT*
rabu(u)

Hf' lu

<^T

<MJf
u

~3ll ^TT
ilu

Marduk

Sin

great lord

Marduk

and

of Sin,

-HF//</

^1
-

-III
-

-4-

tT?

<

-

an

na

ri

$ame(e)

u

.

irsitim(tini)

the light of

heaven

and

earth,

35.
Sa
ki
-

bi

-

it

-

su

-

nu

la

in

-

nin

-

nu

-

u

whose

command

was not annulled.

II.

From

the Nabonidus-Cyrus Chronicle.
[Brit.

Mus., Sp.

II,

964.]

ummani-su upahhir-ma

ana
s]

eli

m

Ku

-

ra$

$ar

His forces

llc

c

^-c^;; ^
1

against

Cyrus,

king of

-HfAn -

y HFsa
-

an

T ana
to

^H
ka
-

[V l&\
$a
-

J^TT
U
-

IH
lik -

ET
ma

di

AnSan,

conquer (him)

went

"z

IS

-

lu

-

me

-

gu

ummani-su
his forces

_

ibbalkit

-

su

-

ma
and

But against Astyages

revolted

ina
in
3.

Jin Y^<
kata
11

T a
-

sa-bit

na

'"

Ku-ra$
Cyrus

id

-

di

-

nu-$u

captivity

to

they delivered him.

T

m

M^ Ku
-

ras

Tf a

^T
-

v
mdtu

T?

x
-

TTT
ta
-

^
nu

^T
ali

na

A -gam

Cyrus

(went) to

Ekbatana

the

102

THE DEFEAT OF ASTYAGES BY CYRUS
6
T
<tif

sarru

-

u

-

tu

kaspu
Silver,

hurasu
gold,

busu
possessions,

royal city.

makkuru
property

... ...

sa

matu

A -gam

-

ta

-

?m

of

Ekbatana

v-HFIf

V
-

-4-

/#/

-

u
off

-

ma
and

a

-

na

matu

An

sa

an

he carried

to

AnSan

il

-

ki

he took.
i.

Col.

II,

u.

14.

THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS.
I.

From

the Cylinder of Cyrus.
No. 12049.]

[Brit. Mus.,

i$

-

te

e -

ma

ma

-

al

-

ki

i - $a -

ru

He

(i.e.

Marduk) sought out
'

a righteous prince,

tatf
'

*TTT
/*#
-

3
bi

"iff
$a

^T
it

TTT
-

ET
ma

AH
-

-

3/7

ta -

ah

after his

own

heart,

whom
T

he might take

J=T
ka
-

tu

-

11$

-

$u

m

Ku

-

ra

-

a$

$ar

by the hand

;

Cyrus,

king of

^yy
alu

f
An

^
-

Hf-

.^T^TIT^
it

S^^^I^TT
ni
-

$a

an

-

ta

-

bi

bi

-

it

-

su

AnSan,

he called by his name,

IT
a

^T
-

ET
ma

-^T!
li
-

m ~V
ku
-

~*
kul
-

-ET ^TTT
la
-

na

tim

ta

for

empire

over the whole

tT
>

E^<
-

E^T!
ra

JT [ccm JT1
$u
-

-

^ar

/^

zdk

urn

-

Su

world

he proclaimed

his

title.

104

THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS

matn

ju

_

fa

_

;

gi
the

_

m jr

um

_

man-man - da

The

land of Kutu,

whole

of the tribal hordes

u

-

ka

-

an

-

ni

-

'sa

a

-

na

se -

pi

-

su

nise P l

he forced into submission

at his feet,

the

sal -

mat
[lit.

kakkadi

sa

u

-

sa

-

ak

-

si

-

du

men

the black-headed],

whom

he had delivered

ka

-

fa

-

a-su

i

-

na

ki

-

it

-

tim

u

into his hands,

with

justice

and

wi

-

sa

-

ru

is

-

te

-

ni

-

-

e

si

-

na

-

a

-

tim

righteousness

he cared for

them.

jlu

Marduk

belu

rabu

fa

-

ru

-

u

nise P l - su

Marduk

the great lord,

the protector of

his people,

ip

-

$e

-

e

-

ti

-

sa

1

dam

-

ka

-

a

-

ta

u

his

good deeds

and

lib

-

ba

-

'su

i

-

$a

ra

ha

-

di

-

his righteous heart

with joy

Id!
ip
-

^
pa
-

U

-is
tu-kul-ti-sa ,(1. 19)
so.

a

-

na

alt

-

su

beheld.
i.

To
is

his city
for the pron. suff. su.

In ip-se-e-ti-sa.

and

employed

HIS ELECTION BY

THE GOD MARDUK

105

TJ
fl

-ET
-

^
<7/t

JI
-

-TI* J3
ik
-

la

In

of Babylon

that he should

go

he commanded,

TT=
u
_

^IT
,y^

<5a
_

as

-

13 M

&ti
it

>sTT ET
-

AS E^TT
har
-

/mi

su

-

ma

ra

-

he caused him to take

the road

Babili K ?
to

ki

-

ma

ib

-

ri

u

Babylon,

like

a friend

and

t=
/j/

*T-

^ ^T
-

-TTI -ET
tal
-

-t
-

pi

e

it

-

la

ka

i

-

da

-

a

-

su

helper

he went

at his side.

,6.

t
ww
-

E
w<2 wz'

-

j

v

w

nz/

-

$a

-

a

-

tim

sa
of which

His wide-spreading troops,

('/

-

;;zrt

;#<?

- ^

war/

/<z

u
,

-

la

-

ad

-

du
is

-

u

like

the waters of a

stream

not

-to

be known

wz'

-

ba

-

$u

-

un

kakke P l

-

$u

-

nu

sa

-

an

-

du

-

ma

the number,

with their weapons

girt

i

-

Sa

-

ad

-

'di

-ha

i

-

da

-

a

-

su

ba

-

lu

advance

at his side.

Without

kab

-

U

u

ta

-

ha

-

zi

u

-

$e -

ri -

ba

-

a

contest

and

battle

he made him enter

106

THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS
tTT JT

53
Bdbili KI

ki

-

rib

Bdbili Kl

all - $u

into

Babylon

his city

;

Babylon

i

-

ti

-

ir

i

-

na

Sap

-

sa

-

ki

he spared

from

tribulation.

m

iiu

Na

-ET
i)

s^
pa
li -

U

.

na'id

Sarru

la

hi

-

su

Nabonidus,

the king

that did not fear him,

tTTT= ET
u
-

10 -ET
-

T a

-!-EiT^TI
ka
-

^.^H
ni$e P l

ma

al

-

la

-

tu

-

u$

-

$u

he delivered

into his hand.

The

people of

I

ka

-

li

-

$u

-

nu

nap
the

-

har

Babylon

all

of them,

whole of

m
u
_

<
u

^v v <^ ^in^^
Akkadi ^ !
ru
-

<
u

me

_

rj

bi - e

Sumer

and

Akkad,

princes

and

T^JI -TI*<t
sak
-

kan

-

nak

-

ka

Sa

-

pal

-

Su

ik

-

mi

-

sa

governors,

beneath him

bowed down,

S
u
-

<T-

^^
-

^ ^Se
-

5^!
tis

JT
-

na

-

aS

si

ku

pu

$u

they kissed

his feet,

=TTfc
ih
-

-T<
-

I
Su

du

-

u

a

-

na

sarru

-

u

ti -

they rejoiced

in

his

kingdom,

THE SUBMISSION OF THE CITY

107

im

-

mi

-

ru

pa

-

nu

-

uS

-

$u

-

un

be - lu

$a

bright was

their countenance.

To

the lord,

who

i

-

na

lu

-

kul

-

ti

-

$a

u

-

bal

-

It

-

tu

through

his strength

raises to life

mi

-

tu

-

ta

-an

i

-

na

bu

-

ta

-

ku

the dead,

(and) from destruction

u

pa

-

ki

-

e

ig

-

mi

-

lu

kul

-

la

-

ta

-

an

and

misery

(?)

had spared

all,

3
ta
-

^TT
-

-TI^ t^TT! <T-TTI
ik

Ml
-

*-

M
-

bi

i$

ta

-

ar

ra

bu

su

joyfully

they paid homage,

y
t'S

-.

y
a
-

-

tam-ma

-

ru

zi

-

ki

-

ir -

Su

na
I

-

ku

they reverenced

his

name.
fciY^

am

Ku

-

ra

-

as

$ar

kt$ - $at

$arru

El' rabu

Xarru

Cyrus,

king

of the world, the great king,

the

</w

-

for

Babili Kl

$ar

matu

&u-me

-

ri

mighty king, king of

Babylon,

king of

Sumer

u

Ak

-

ka

-

di

-

i

$ar

kib

-

ra

-

a

- ti

and

Akkad,

king

of the quarters

io8

THK TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS

ir - hi

-

it

-

Urn

mar
son of

m

Ka

-

am

-

bu

-

zi

-

ia

four,

Cambyses,

ETrabi

t&m
sar

-tTT -Hfahl

An

-

sa

-

an

mar mart
grandson of

the great king,

king of

AnSan,

ET-

ra

-

a$

sarri

rain

sar

alu

An

-

sa

-

an

Cyrus,

the great king, king of

Anan,

ETllplipi

m &i

-

t'X

-

pi

-

t'S

tarri

rabi

descendant of

Teispes,

the great king,

sar

alu

An

-

sa

-

an

zeru

da

-

ru

-

u

king of

AnSan,

eternal seed

Sa

tarru

-

u

-

in

Sa

ilu

Bel

u

ilu

Nabil

of

royalty,

of whom

Bel

and

Nabu

3= -ET
ir -

TI
-

jr
-

y

a

-

mu

pa

-

la

a

su

a

-

net

tu

-

ub

love

the reign,

[and] for

the delight

lib

-

bi

-su- nu

'

ih

-

Si

-

ha

Zarru
his

-

ut

-

su

of their heart

desired

kingdom.

*- ey
e
-

yi
a
-

nu- ma

na
into

ki

-

rib

Babili A/

When

Babylon

HIS INSTALLATION IN TIIK RoVAI. I'AI.ACK

109

t
^
I

*3
t'S

-

_

rw

_

^W

jd

-

//

-

mi

i

-

na

entered

favourably, (and)

with

y* tEJ!
/ -

<MSJ
and

-IT! 1=!TT Tl
ri
-

-V
-

-E
i
-

^
na
in
-

j/

Sa

-

a

tim

exultation

shouts of joy

eTTTT

ET-

ET
wa

tW <M
-

<MTI
ar
I

El
ma
-

^a///

al

-

ki

^

TJ a

Xu

bat

the palace

of the princes

took up

a

be

-

lu

-

tim

llu

-

Marduk
.

belu

rabu

lib

-

bi

lordly

dwelling,

Marduk

the great lord

the

.

it

-

pa

-

su

$a

mare

Pl

Babili KI

great heart

of

the Babylonians

-*f
-

^
-

ET
-

^T
u
-

.....

-

an

ni

ma
and

<tfc mi

^TTT
-

$am

[inclined (?)] to

me

daily

a

- $e

-

-

a

pa

-

la

-

ah

-

Su

um

-

na

-

ni

-

ia

do

I

care for

his worship.

My

wide-

rap

-

$a

-

a

-

tim

i -

na

ki

-

rib

Babili

^

spreading troops

into

Babylon

ME
i

W
-

*T
-

I*
-

ff<
-

JT <3*
ht
-

ET
ma-niS

=
nap
-

$a

ad

di

ha

ul

-

har
of

advance

in

peace.

The whole

HO
II
u
-

THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS

mi
-

<HH m^w<m
t

^
zeru

ETrabil

me

ri

u

Akkadi K1

Sumer

and

Akkad,

the great race,

-

tim
(?)]

ul
I

u

-

sar

-

&
f

dannat
For the
\

no [trouble

caused to have.

\affliction of/

Bdbili K1

u

kul-lat
all

ma -ha
its

-

zi

-

su

Babylon

and

cities

/'

-

na

$a

-

It

-

im

-

tim*

as

- ie

-

-

e

thoroughly

did

I

care.

w

ildniP 1

matu

$u

-

me

-

ri

u

And

the gods of

Sumer

and

r Akkadi KI
sa

m

?m
ilu

Afl- it
-

if
a
-

Nabii

na'id

na

Akkad,

which

Nabonidus

to

-

-

V2

-

//w

^/z'

ilaniP 1

u

-

se

-

ri

-

bi

the anger of

the lord of

the gods

had brought

m
-

jy
Babili KI
i
-

na
into

ki

-

rib

na

Babylon,

at

^i'

-

<^/

-

/*'

//M

Marduk

belt

rabl

i

-

na

the word of

Marduk

the great lord

in

HIS

RESTORATION OF LOCAL DKITILS

i

i

-

//'

-

//;/

-

tim

i -

na

maS

-

ta

-

ki

-

Su

-

nu

(their) entirety

in

their

own

shrines

u
did
I

-

Se - Si

-

ib

$u

-

ba

-

at

tu

-

ub

lib

-

bi

cause to take up

the habitation of

(their)

hearts' delight.

kul

-la

-

ta

ilaniP 1

Sa

u
I

-

Se

-

ri

-

bi

May
TJ
a
-

all

the gods

whom
E!
|f<

have brought

-Hf
fl

<IEJ
-('/

tm
-

^
-

-TT^ JT t=m
-

ir

bi

ma -ha

zi

-

Su
cities

-

un

into

their

own

35.

st
'

w

-

-

$a

-

am

ma

-

har

llu

Bel

u

daily

before

Bel

and

//M

Nabu

sa

a

-

ra

-

ku

ume P

l

-

ia

Nabu

for

the lengthening of

my

days

/*'

-

ta

-

mu

-

u

lit

-

tas

-

ka

-

ru

a-ma-a
the

-

ta

pray,

let

them speak

word

^T
du
for
-

cffi
un
-

<Ef
ki
-

^
ia
//

<MiH
u

Tl
a
-

^T
na

-Hfilu

Marduk

my

good fortune

and

unto

Marduk

-

/a

-

ik

-

bu

-

my

lord

let

them say

H2

THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS

m

Ku

-

ra

-as

sarru

pa

-

li

-

hi

-

ka

u

"May Cyrus

the king

that feareth thee

and

'"

Ka

-

am

-

bu

-

zt

-

ia

mdri-su
his son

da

-

.

.

Cambyses

[have prosperity (?)]!"

II.

From

the Nabonidus-Cyrus Chronicle.
[Brit.

Mus., Sp.

II,

964.]

...

/wa

* r #"

JT
Zfez'

T

m

In

the

monih Tammuz

Ku - raS Crus
.3.

sal

-

turn

ina

a battle

in

A7

wa

ww/^

-

/'

naru

Zal

-

zal

- lat

Upe

on the banks of

the Zalzallat

v
against

ummani(ni} the forces

mdtu

Akkadi
of

Akkad

when
,

;he had\ waged, /
\

=W

I

m-^^/
the people

v ^v v
HW/

<^j

4

.

^T^
uspelQ)
ki
;

Akkadi Kl
of

Akkad

he conquered

when

uktassir

(?)
(?),

w/^v

^
he slew.

they rallied

the people

On

the i4th day

Hfffl
Sippar
KI

<M
ba

T
-

la

sal

-

turn

sa

-

bit

Sippar

without

righting

was taken.

HIS PACIFIC POLICY

Il3

m

ilu

Nabu-na'id

ihlik

umu

XVI

m

Ug

ba

-

ru

Nabonidus

fled.

OntheiGthday

Ugbaru

maiu

QU

.

//

.

um

u

?dbe

Pl

m

Ku

-

raS

the governor of

Gutium

and

the soldiers of Cyrus

ba

-

la

sal

-

turn

ana
in

Babili A/

trubu

arki
Afterwards

without

righting

Babylon

entered.

m
"

ilu

Nabu-na'id

ki

.

.

.

(so)
.,

ma
into

Babili KI

sa

-

bit

Nabonidus,

when

.

.

Babylon

/was taken \
\

captive.

I

... ...
.

.9...
.
.

jm
$u
-

lum

T ana
for

^i!
alt

sa

-

kin

m

Ku - ras
Cyrus

.

.

.

.

Peace

the city was

established;

su

-

lum

ana
to

Babili KI

gab-bi-su
the whole of
it,

ki

-

bi

peace

Babylon,

proclaimed.

Gu

-

ba

-

ru

amClu
'

pahati-su

am<: lu
'

pahati

ina
in

Gubaru,

his governor,

as

governor

Babili KI

ip

-

ie

-

kid

u

ullu

arl u !

Kislimi
Kislev

Babylon

he appointed,

and

from

the

month

adi
to

arlm

Adari

Hani? 1
the gods

U
of

matu

Akkadt KI

$a

the

month Adar

Akkad,

which

H4
T

THE TAKING OF BABYLON BY CYRUS
T ana
to

m

^m &
iiu

tw

<m

^u
-

-in
se
-

^
-

Nalu-na'id

Bdbili Kl

ri

du

Nabonidus

Babylon

had brought down,

a

-

na

ma -ha
their

-

zi

-

su-nu

ituru P l

to

own

cities

returned.

I.

Col.

Ill,

11.

12

22.

INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS, KING OF BABYLON,

521-485
[From Schulz, Journal

B.C.
t.

Asiatique, Troisieme Serie,

IX, pi. VIII, col. a.]

ihi

iltt

rabu(uj

A
.

-

hu
(is)

-

ru

-

ma

-

az

-

da

A

great god

Ahurumazda,

sa

kak -ka

-

ru

a

-

ga

-

a

id

-

din

-

nu

Sa

who
4
.

this soil

did create,

who

an
-

-

-

5.

nu

tu

id

-

din

-

nu

Sa

these heavens

did create,

who

ja^^ ^ 7

zrf

-

dm

-

nu

Sa

gab

-

bi

mankind

did create,

who

all

nu

-

uh

-

$u

a

-

na

amelu

sale P l

id

-

din-nu

abundance

unto

mankind

has granted,

-TTI
Sa

*ETU *-

a

-

na

m

Da

-

a

-

ri

ia

-

a

-

muS

Sarri

who

Darius

the king

Ii6

INSCRIPTION OF DARIUS

TTfc Hf-II
ib -

"
ina

nu

-

u

isten(en]

SarraniP 1

mah
that

-

ru

-

in

did

make

one

among

kings

were before,

isten(en}

ina

inn

- te

-

-

i -

me

Pl

mah

-

ru

-

in

one

among

rulers

that were before.

a

-

na
I

-

ku

m

Da

-a-ri-ia-aDarius

mus

sarru

am

the

rabu(uj

sar

sarrani pl

sar

maldti F

great king,

king of

kings,

king of

lands,

sa

nap
the

-

har

li

-

sa

-

na

-

a

-

ta

gab

-

bi

of

whole of

all

tongues,

,

7

.

&
sarru

V
sa

^
kak
-

-T
ka
-

*J0a
ru

T

tTTT*
-

Tl
a

d
-

a

ga

-

king

of

this soil,

1

8.

ra

-

bi

-

turn

ru

-

tik

-

turn

great

(and) extensive,

19.

mar
son of

Us

-

fa

Hystaspes,

m A- ha- ma

-

an

-

wz'

-

z'^

-

the Achaemenian.

INSCRIPTION OF ANTIOCHUS-SOTER, KING OF BABYLON, 280260 B. C.
[From
a cylinder in the British

Museum, No. 80

6

17, I.]

An

ii

-

ku
.

-

us

Sarru

Antiochus,

the

ralu(ii}

sarru

dan

-

nu

far

kissati

far

great king,

the mighty king,

king of

the world,

king of

v v
maiati

3.

ft
za
-

ni

-

in

Babylon,

king of

lands,

patron of

E

-

sag

-

ila

u

E

-

zi

da

Esagil

and

Ezida,

aplu

a^aridu

sa

m

Si

-

lu

-

uk

-

ku

the princely son

of

Seleucus,

5.

far

fllM

^

^/iz -

ak

-

ka

-

du

-

na

-

at

far

king of

the Macedonians,

king of

u8

INSCRIPTION OF AN'TIOCHUS-SOTER

Babili KI

a

-

na

-

ku

ma
In

ar k u
the

Adari

umi

Babylon,

am
.4.

I.

month Adar,

on

XX

KAM

satti

XLIII

u!

-

$u

sa

the 2oth day,

in

the 43rd year,

the foundation

of

E

-

zi

-

da

biti

ki

-

i

-

ni

Ezida

the true temple,

Bar -zip
the temple of

KI

Nabu

which

is

n

Borsippa,

-

di laid

-

e

us
its

-

ti -

su

I

foundation

O
**

Nabu,

-Til!
apil

E

^3=
-

-TlWHel
-

^
bu
lit

^
kur

sag

ila

son

of Esagil,

the first-born

P-tT<vMTI
ilu

Marduk
of Marduk,

ris

-

tu

-

u

i

-

ti

of highest rank,

offspring of

filu

T?

^?
Eru
Erua
-

=m=
u
-

}}
a

^H
far
-

-ITrat

the queen,

into

tyyyy

38
ki
-

.

t yyyy
bit

E

zi

-

da

biti

i

-

ni

Ezida,

the true temple,

the temple of

HIS

RESTORATION OF THE TEMPLE EZIDA

n

''

A-

nu

-

ti

-

ka

Su

-

bat

tu

-

ub

lib

-

bi

-

ka

thy divinity,

the dwelling of

thy heart's desire,

-

na

hi

-

da

-

a

-

tu

u

ri - $a

-

a

-

lu

with

joy

and

shouting

4 o.

t
i
-

tff
na
e
-

-III
ri
-

S3
bi
-

ha

i

-

na

when

thou enterest,

at

3
^/'

~T<
-

-tW
-

*t.

tTTT
kit
-

-T<
ti

'iTT
sa

//

ka

thy righteous

command

which

#
is

- /j;// -

J~

-

ku

U

-

ri

-

ku

u

-

mi

-

ia

not hindered,

long be

my

days,

>~<T/
// -

^
ia

mi
be

-

da

$anati(ti}

many
43
'

my

years,

//

-

kun

established be

my

throne,

^yy t^yy ^ ^
//'

.&m
pa
-

-TTT^
-

TI
a

*e
i
-

-

il

-

bi

-

ir

lu

u

-

na

old

may

my

reign become.

By

hat

-

ta

-

ka

si

i

-

ri

mu

-

kin

thy exalted sceptre,

that holds fast

120

INSCRIPTION OF ANTIOCHUS-SOTER

pal

-

lu

-

uk

-

ku

same(ej

u

irsitim(thii}

i

-

na

the circuit

of heaven and earth,

at

i

-

i

-

ka

el

-

U

Us

-

tak

-

ka

-

nu

thy bright

mouth

may

they establish

du

-

un

-

ki

-

ia

matati P l

iUu

si

-

it

my good

fortune.

The

lands

from

the rising of

77

$amti(St)

a

-

di

e

-

ri

-

ib

ilu

Samsi(si)

the

Sun

to

the setting of

the

Sun

Uk

-

su

-

du

kata

If

-

ai

man -da

-

at

-

ti

-

si

-

nu

may my hands conquer;

their tribute

jgy
lu
-

*HK
us
I

&
tii

m
-

ET
ma

50.
a
-

-

ki -

na

suk

-

lu

-

lu

may

hold

fast

and

for

the completion of

E

-

sag

-

ila

u

E

-

zi

-

da

Esagil

and

Ezida

lu

-

bi
I

-

U
(it).

ilu

Nabu
Nabu,
s s.

aplu

asaridu

may
TI
a
-

bring

O

princely son,

~Hf
na
into

tyyn ^IT^ ^yy

tyyyy
biti

E

-

zi

-

da

ki

-

i

-

ni

Ezida,

the true temple,

HIS

PRAYER TO NABU

121

i

-

na

e

-

ri

-

bi

-

ka

damiktim(tim}

when

thou enterest,

good fortune

for

v v
-

//

-

-

ku

-

us

$ar

mdtaii
of the lands,

Antiochus

king

'"

Si

-

lu

-

uk

-

ku

sarri

mari- hi
his son,

Seleucus

the king,

5 6.

^

t^r
As
-

jm
ta

<MTI
ar

sTTT
ia
-

&
ni
-

-TI*
ik
-

Ef
ku

Stratonice

57-

A
hi
-

HHh
rat
-

^!!
su
sar ra
-

at

his spouse,

the queen,

da

-

mi

-

ik

-

ti -

su-nu

li

-

is

-

sa

-

kin

may

their

good fortune

be established

i -

na

pi

-

i

-

ka
!

at

thy mouth

THE CREATION OF THE GODS.
[K 54190 and

82-7

14,402.]

X
f
-

*- ET
;/

tff
e -

T
Us

-ET
la

-

w<2

na

-

bu

-

u

When

above

not

named was

sa

-

ma

-

mu

sap

-

Us

am

-

ma

-

turn

su a

-

ma

heaven

(and) below

earth

name

-ETEi
la

zak

-

rat
1

Apsu

-

ma

ris

-

tu

-

u

did not bear,

and Ocean,
4.

the primeval,

^
za

^JTT
-

^Ey
-

^y^
-

^
mu
-

ru

su

un

-

^CTTT *^ um - mu

^T^
Ti
-

^^
dmat

who

begat them,

(and) confusion,

Tiamat,

-TTI

I
su -

*
-

mu

-

al

-

U

-

da

at

gim

-

ri

-

un

who

bore

them both,

*E
me?
1

A
hi
-

23
ku
-

-

'su-nu

is

-

te

-

nis

i -

sTTTt ET u - ma
and

their waters

together

mingled

-ET
gi
-

pa no

ra
field

la

hi

-

is

-

su

was formed,

I.

7.

e

,

did not exist.

THK BIRTH OF THE GODS FROM CHAOS

123

-ET
j
-

*4HFSe
-

7.
e
-

sa-a

la

nu-ma
yet

ildni ? l

no marsh

was

to be seen,

when

of the gods

-ET
/a

JT *Su
-

sTTT*
-

ET
ma

^T
-

Ef
ma

^T
$u
-

Ey
ma

-ET
la

pit

u

na

-

there had not been called into being

an )S

(and) no

name

jnj
2/('
-

JEJ
ku
-

^ffl
ru

fh' -

ET ^T
ma
-

-ET
la

tu

$a

-

a

-

mu

did they bear,

(and) no destinies

were determined,

//5
'

-

la

-

mi

-

u

-

ma

Hani
the gods,

gi

-

mir

-

hi

-

im

then were created

all

of them,

tlu

Lah

-

mu

ilu

La -ha- mu

u$

-

ta

-

pu

-

u

Lahmu

(and)

Lahamu

were called into being

-TTT^
a
-

d

di

ir

-bu

-

u

Ages

increased

4An
-

A
$ar
llu

Ki

-

$ar

ib

-

la

-

nu

-

u

Anar

(and) Ki^ar

were created

ur

-

ri

-

ku

ume P l
the days

A-nu

Long were

Anu

a

-

li

An

-

sar

llli

A

-

nim

the father

An^ar

(and)

Anu

THE REVOLT OF TIAMAT, THE DRAGON.
[K 3473
-f-

79

78,

296

-|-

R

615,

K

8524,

K

8575 and
7

88419,

i3 with

restorations

from

K

4832 and 81

27,80.]

An

-

sar

pa

-

a

-

$u

i -

pu

-

Sam

-ma
and

a

-

na

AnSar

his

mouth

opened

to

f tlTMI^
7/ "

tyyy<]jy
sukkalli
-

Ga

-

ga

ht

ym^T ma
a-

tEE^<^
i
-

tu

zak

-

kar
:

Gaga
3.

his minister

the

word

he addressed

a

-

lik

ilu

Ga

-

ga

suk

-

kal

-

him

mu

- tib

"Go

Gaga,

(thou) minister

that rejoicest

4
ka
-

.

bit

-

ti

-

ia

a

-

na

llu

Lah

-

mu

my

spirit,

to

Lahmu

llu

La

-

ha

-

mu

ka

-

a

-

ta

hi

-

us will

-

pur
I

-

ka

(and)

Lahamu

thee

send.

^ jy
Hani
the gods,

na

-

gab

-

su

-

un

all

of them,

ANSHAR'S SUMMONS TO THE GODS

125

//'

-

$a

-

mi

Itt let

ku

-

nu

ina
at

ki

-

ri

-

e

-

ti

the tongue

them prepare,

the banquet

Us
let

-

bu
sit,

a$

-

na

-

an

li

-

ku

-

hi

them

bread

let

them

eat,

lip

-

ti

-

ku

ku

-

ru

-

na

a

-

na

llu

Marduk

let

them mix

sesame-wine,

for

Marduk,

nut

-

tir

gi

-

mil

-

li

-

su

-

nu
let

li

-

si

-

mu

their avenger,

them decree

.

al
-

Sim

-

ta

ka

ilu

Ga
Gaga,

-

ga

the

lot.

Go
i

T-

*-

^
i
-

^
ziz
-

Ey
ma
and

..

[^ET
mimma
all

v
sa

me

-

Su

nu

before

them

stand

that

Tf
-

E^< -tHJ
zak
-

^ffl
ru

-tH
ka

JI t=w
su
-

-^
-

TI
-

ka
I

un

na

a

ana

tell

thee

repeat

unto

y^ JY ^pj ^lYY
&z
-

C^^
-

!

3

66, containing AnSar's for
11.

a

i

Su

-

un

Lahamu, correspond word
as delivered

message to Lahmu and word with the message
124; see pp. 126
ff.]

by Gaga

in

71

67.
il
-

lik

ilu

Ga

-

ga

ur

-

ha-Su

Gaga went,

his

way

126

THE REVOLT OF TIAMAT, THE DRAGON

tTTT*
u
-

tH
sar
-

IB
di
-

ET
ma
and

68.^113=
a$
-

-f
llu

ris

Lah

-

mu

u

he took

humbly

before

Lahmu and

ilu

La

-

ha

-

me

Hani P l
the gods,

abe P l

-

su
f

us

-

kin

-

ma

Lahamu

his fathers,

he made \ \obeisance andf

is

-

sik

kak

-

ka

-

ra

sa

-

pal

-

su

-

un
feet,
\

i

-

sir

he kissed

the ground

beneath their

ihe humbled I
himself,
/

I
iz - ziz -

^Tflf
-

ma

i

-

zak

-

kar

-

su

un

7...HfAn -

A
sar

he stood up and

spake unto them:

"AnSar

ET
/

*U1
-

m^
-

tTTT^ ET
u
-

A-HF-

*
i
-

E

-TI -Hfra
-

5^
-

ru

ku

-

nu

ma

an

ni

your son

hath sent me,

/t?

-

r//

lib

-

bi-su

u

-

sa

-

as

-

bi

~

ra

-

an

-

ni

of the design of his heart

he informed

ia

-

a

-

ti

um

-

ma
:

Ti

-

amat

a

-

lit

-

ta

-

ni

me

thus

'Tiamat

our mother

z'

74-

-

s/r

-

ra

-

an

-

na

-

$i

pu

-

uh

-

ru

hath conceived a hatred for us,

with

//

-

^'

-

;/rt

-

at
x

-

ma

ag

-

gi$

lab

-

bat

all

her might
"using (her)

angrily
full

she rages.

I.

Literally,

strength".

Till-:

ADVANCK OF

T11K

RKBKL FORCES

127

75.

cMI *jn ETW ET H-~f
ts -

hu

-

ru

-

Sim

-

ma

Hani
the gods,

gi

-

mir

-

$u

-

un

They have turned

to her,

all

of them,

a

-

di

Sa

at

-

tu

-

nu

tab

-

na

-a

i

-

da

-

$a

with those

whom

ye

created,

at

her side

al

-

ka

im

-

ma
are

-

as

-

ru

-

nim

-

ma

i -

du

-

u$ 1

do they go.

They

banded together and

at the side of

Ti

-

dmat

te

-

bu

-

u

-

ni

iz

-

zu

kap

-

du

Tiamat

they advance,

they are furious,

they plan

-ET
la

sa

-

ki

-

pu

mu

-

sa

u

im

-

ma

without resting
79.

night

and

day,

~Hf jy tyyy t
na
-

^
tarn

su

'-

u

j{< -ha

-

^
ri
-

na

-

zar

-

bu

-

bu

they make ready

for battle,

fuming (and)

lab - bu

unkenna(na]

h't -

ku

nu-ma

i -

ban

-

nu

-

u

raging,

with united forces

they

make

su

-

la

-

a

-

turn

Um

-

mu - Hu

-

bur
a

'

pa

-

ti -

hat

war.

Ummu-Hubur,

who formed
tT

H
&z
all
1.

-ET ET
la
-

s. S^T -ITuS
-

<T*
-

IS

T

-

ma

rad

di

kakke P l

things,

has added

weapons

i-dit-ns fr. idussu

(= ana

idi)

"at the side of".

2.

A

title

of the monster Tiamat.

128

THE REVOLT OF TIAMAT, THE DRAGON

-E! -EEII -HI
/<z

^T
z'/

TTT
-

v
/#</

^
sir
-

;;/<?$

-

r/

/a

-

mah

-

i

invincible,

she has spawned

monster-serpents,

83.

E^<-EEJET
zak
-

^Wss:
"sin

-ET
la

t^MIT
pa
-

tu

-

ma

-

ni

du

-

u

sharp

of tooth,

unsparing

at

-

ta

-

-

i

im

-

ta

kima
like

of fang(?),

with poison

ETHKtt
da
-

^TTA^I^ ^1 E! tl<j ^
zu
-

a

-

mi

mur - su- nu
body

us

-

ma

-

al

-

U

blood

their

has she

rilled.

l usumgalle P

na

-

ad

-

ru

-

u

- ti

pul ha- a

-

ti

Monster-vipers,

fierce ones,

with terror

ET
u
-

86.v<^fTTme
-

sal

-

biS

-

ma

lam

-

me

us

-

das

-

sa

-

a

has she clothed and

with brightness

endowed,

e

-

Us

um

-

das' -

sad

a
/
i

-

mir

-

su-nu
\

sar

-

ba

-

da

on high
v
!

/she has caused\ to ..... / \ them

Whosoever

dread

beholds them,/

(?)

A^
-

US

har

-

[<cs: mi

Affl
-

88.

^TT
zu
-

EHIEJ
mir
-

I
su
-

^
nu

im

overpowers him,

their

body

T US
-

-E!
la

t
i
-

tah

-

hi

-

dam'

-

ma
and

ni

-

-

u

rears up,

none can stop

TIAMAT'S

BROOD OF MONSTERS
89.

129

-IIrat
-

su

-

un

their breast.

She has

set

up

a viper,

sir

-

ru$

-

Su

u

ilil

La

-

ha

-

mi

u

-

gal

-

lum

a

dragon

and

Lahami,

a hurricane,

IH~
sidimmu (?)
|a ragingl
!

<
u

--nit
akrab-amelu
a scorpion-man,

ume P l
tempests

and

hound

J

r/a

-

ab

-

ru

-

ti

nun-amelu
a fish-man

u

that are mighty,

and

9ki

na

-

a$

kakkeP 1

rams

(?),

bearing

weapons
TTT

=E
la

-El
la

II
a
.

H<
ha
-

pa - di - i without mercy,

di

-

ru

fa

-

zi

without fear of

the fight.

-III -E^I
te

W
$a

-El El
la

-

ri

-

tu

-

ma

-

har

Mighty

are her

commands,

unopposed

<I- --Hf II El st - na - a - ma
are they,

94.
-

TEI
pu
-

un

-

na

-

ma

is

-

tin

and

of huge stature

the

<
es
-

-III
ri
2

31
turn

1
Su
in this
-

II
a
-

*T
tu

u$

-

tab

- Si

eleven
i.
Ill i,

manner

has she made.
11.

Pret. fr.

m

2.

7.

<?.,

the monsters described in

82

92.

9

i3o

THE REVOLT OF TIAMAT, THE DRAGON

95-

CE ~rT
i
-

f

-Hf-

*bu

^L
-

-III
-

V
-

na

Hani
the gods

uk

ri

sa

Among

her first-born,

JT
-

*}
/

^TT -lA-ffl
/
-

<Tsi

*- AHfff
pu
-

-TTI
ri

kun

-

uh
support,

-

since

he had given her

&

-

sa

-

aS

-

M

z/ "

TsTzV/

-

##

ina

bi

-

ri

-

su-nu

she has exalted

Kingu,

in

their midst

V TU
sa
-

5tf
us

tE^
-

^ ^!T
bi
-

97. T{
a

-E^IT
-

M
ku
-

^y
ut

a-$u

rab

-

i$

li

-

him

she has raised to power.

The going

-

ri

pa

-

an

um

-

ma

-

ni

mu

-

ir

-

ru

-

ut

in

front

before

the forces,

the leadership

puhri
ofthehost,

na

-

as

kakke P l

it

-

is

-

bu

-

tu

the raising of

weapons

to begin,

ti

-

bu

-

u

a

-

na

-

an

-

tu

su

-

ud

tarn- ha

-

ri

to

advance

to the attack,

generalship

in battle,

rty
nz
-

<u
$ik

^H -^T ^T<
-

-- tu tin
ip
-

ab

ka

-

tu

-

ti

kid

-

EI ma

prowess

in the fight,

she entrusted

^

-

tu$ -su

u

-

se - $i

-

ba

-

a$- $u

ina
in

kar

-

ri

to his

hand,

she

made him

sit

costly raiment.

HER APPOINTMENT OF KINGU AS CAPTAIN

l3l

ad
"I

-

di

la

-

a

-

ka

ina
in

puhur
the assembly of

ildni

have recited

thy spell,

the gods

K
I

-

$ar

-

bi

-

ka

ma

-

It

-

kut

ildni

have raised thee to power,

with the rule

of the gods,

im

-

rat

-

su

-

nu

ka

-

luk

-

ka

u$

-

ma

-

al
I

-

li

all

of them,

thy hand

have

filled.

I03

.

lift

<
/wr
-

-III
^a
-

ta

-

ma

ha

-

-

i

-

ri

Be thou

great,

thou,

my

e

-

du

-

u

al

-

ta

li

-

ir - tab

-

bu

-

u

chosen spouse,

let

them magnify

2/X;

-

rw

-

/('a

^//

.....
all

-

uk

-

ki

thy

name

over

dupsimdtiv

1

She gave him

the tablets of destiny,

[>=ET
ra
-

^T
-

-TTIu
-

v
Sat
-

Tme

A
-

at

su

ih

on

his breast

she put

:

ta

kibit-ka

la

"May

thy

command

not

1

32

THE REVOLT OF TIAMAT, THE DRAGON

in

-

nin

-

na

-

a

kun
established be
that which \ / \cometh forth from/

be annulled,

/>z"

i

-

ka

n

-

na

-

nu

llu

Kin
Kingu,

-

gu

thy mouth!

Now

su

-

us

-

ku

-

u

li

-

ku

-

u

ilu

A-nu
power
of

-

ti

(thus) exalted,

having received

the

Anu,

.08.

*

mare P l
-

sa

si

-

ma

-

ta

for the gods,

her sons,

the lot

is

-

ti

-

mu
:

ip

-

su

pi

-

ku

-

nu

ilu

Gibil

determined

"Let your word

the Fire-god

It
//'

ina
in

-

z'

z'^

-

ha

naid

overpower!

Whoever
^T

is

exalted

^^ 3 HI
-

/

-

wz/

-

ru

ma

-

ag

-

sa

-

ri

Us
let

rab

-

bi

-

ib
1

excellence,

might

him display!"

$- pur~ma
I

llu

A-nu
Anu,

-

uin

ul

i

-

li

sent to

he cannot (go)

ma

-

har

-

sa

iltl

against her,
i.

Nu - dim - mud Nudimmud

e

-

dur
afraid

-

ma
and

was

Literally,

"make mighty".

MARDUK CONSENTS TO DO BATTLK FOR THE GODS

i33

/'

-

/

-

rrf

ar

-

kiS

-

ir

l! "

Marduk

turned

back.

Marduk has

set out,

a

-

/trt/

-

/

Hani
the gods,

ma

-

rw

-

ku

-

un

the director of

your son,

-

ha

-

rti

Ti

-

amat

lib

-

ba

-

hi

a

-

ra

against

Tiamat

his heart

to set out

ub

-la
(him).
(

ip

-

hi

pi

-

i -

Su

i

-

ta

-

ma - a

/has prompted!
\

His word.

he addressed

-

na

ia

-

a

-

ti

Sum

-

ma -ma

a

-

na
I,

-

ku

unto

me

:

"If

-

//r

^-/

0Z/7

-

//

-

ku

.

un

your avenger,

A-<
a
-

K
-

-<\<
Ti
-

fr*

/ww

me

ET amat -ma
and

-IIIu
-

-- T* v
bal
life
-

lat

will

conquer

Tiamat

give

to

ka

-

$u

-

un

hik

-

na

-

a- ma

pu

-

u/i

-

ru

you,

appoint

an assembly,

su

-

ti

-

ra

i

-

ba

-

a

hm

-

ti

i

-

na

make preeminent

(and) proclaim

my

lot.

In

1

34

THE REVOLT OF TIAMAT, THE DRAGON

Up

-

su

-

ukkin

-

na

-

Id

mit-ha

-

rti

ha-di$

UpSukkinnaku

together

joyfully

IH
/z

^T ET
-

'*>

fcU
ip
-

JT
#

*T/z'
-

sTJ
z'cz

<M
&'
-

ET
;;m

ba

-

ma

seat yourselves.

With my mouth

in place of

-^T
-

^
nu
-

ET
ma

tu

-

<T- ET ^T si - ma - lu
the lot

hi

-

sim
I

-

ma

you

will

decree.

la

ut
it

-

tak

-

kar

mim-mu

-

u

a

-

ban

-

nu
I

-

u

Let

not be altered,

whatever

*t
a
-

Till
at

na
do,

-

ku

ai

i- tur
it

in
ill
/

-

nin

-

na

-

a

/may
\

neverl
/

jmay
\

be changed,

never

be annulled,

se

-

kar

Sap

-

ti

-

ia

hu

-

um

-

fa

-

nim
.

-

ma

the

word

of

my

lips."

Hasten

and

si

-

mat - ku

-

nu

ar

-

his

si

-

ma-hi

HI
that he

-

lik

your destiny

swiftly

decree for him,

may go

<T-

-TI
-

E^TT
-

Um

hu

ra

na

-

kar

-

ku

-

nu

dan

-

nu

(and) fight

your strong enemy!'"

J^TT
i$
-

^

ET mu - ma
heard,

f
tlu

fc

TTT<
-

W\
mu

-*f -ET IK
ilu

Lah

La

-

ha

-

mu

They

Lahmu

(and)

Lahamu,

THE GATHERING OF THE GODS

f
iz
ilu

W
Igigi

TT

nap

-

har

-

Su-nu

The

Igigi,

all

of them

mar
wailed

-

st

-

i
:

mi

-

na

-

a

grievously

"What

;/^^'

-

ra

a

-

di

ir -

su

-

u

has been altered,

until

.....

wz'

- i

-

di

ni

-

i -

ni

sa

Ti

-

dmat

We

do not understand.

of

Tiamat

-

piS

-

ti

-

sa

ik

-

Sa

-

ht

-

nim
(?)

-

ma
and

the deed!"

They
I3
-

collected

^
-

"Hf-

ET- ETrabuti

?7

-

7rt^'

-

u

-

ni

Hani

they go,

the great gods

C^TT -<T<]
//

-

su-nu

mu

-

sim

mu

im

-

ti

all

of them,

who
ET
-

decree

the lot

;

*i
-

ru

-

bu

ma

mut

-

ti

An

-

$a

they entered in

before

AnSar,

ini

-

hi

-

u

.....
(the

in

-

nis

-

ku

a

-

hu

they

rilled

chamber?)

they pressed on(?)

one

i36

THE REVOLT OF TIAMAT, THE DRAGON
i33.
*li
-

W+
sa
-

u

a

-

hi

ina
in the

puhri

nu

another

assembly

The tongue

m
i$
-

ku

-

nu

ina
at

-

ri

-

e

-

ti

us

-

bu

they prepared,

the banquet

/they seatedl

\themselves ;/

-34.
'

HI
aS
-

-i<
-

na

-

an

-

/'

-

lu

ip

ti

-

ku

bread

they

ate,

they mixed
+
-

!]

-35.

<y^
Si
-

^i
ri

30
-

ku

-

ru

-

na
;

sa

mat

ku

sesame-wine

the sweet drink,

the mead,

tTTTt^Hf-

<36.<T
ni
.
. .

TI^JIT
-

sa

-

an

-

-

su

-

un
;

si

ik

-

ru
(?)

distorted

their

they were drunk

>/<2

$a

-

te

-

e

ha

-

ba

-

su

zu

-

um
;

-

ru

with drinking,

their bodies

were

rilled (?)

ma

-

'

-

di$

e

-

gu

-

u

ka

-

bit

- ta

-

su

- tin

they were exceeding slack,

their spirit

i -

te

-

el

-

la
;

a

-

na

ilu

Marduk

mu

-

fir

was exalted

for

Marduk

their

gi

-

mil

-

li

-

su-nu

i

-

sim

-

mu

sim

-

ta

avenger
i.

they decreed
on

the

lot.

So the

traces of characters

K

3478

etc. read.

THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON.
[K 3487 -f

R

641,

K5420C, R

2. 83,

7978,

251 and

82-918,

3737.]

id

-

du

-

Sum

-

ma

pa

-

rak

ru

-

bu

-

turn

They

set for

him

a lordly

chamber,

ET
ma
-

ff< -TTI ha - ri

-TT
-

is

ab

-

bi

-

e

-

su

a

-

na
as

surpassing

his fathers

//

-

ku

-

turn

ir -

me

at

-

ta .-

ma

:ounsellor

he took his place.

"Thou

art

kab

-

ta

-

ta

i -

na

Hani

ra

-

bu

-

/urn

preeminent

among

the great gods,

Si-mat

-

ka

la
is

$a

-

na

-an

se

-

kar

-

ka
is

thy

lot

without equal,

thy word

5
77

.

y4

-

m'm

*'

lu

Marduk
Marduk,

kab

-

ta

-

ta

Anu.

O

thou

art

preeminent

1

38

THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON

f
z

f

E -IT
ra
-

*bu

:r3Ej
-

e.

<rsi -

v
mat
thy
-

-

na

ildni

turn

ka

among

the great gods,

lot

-ET
la
is

sa

-

na

-an

se

-

kar

-

ka

llu

A
is

-

mm

without equal,

thy word

Anu.
T

7-

^!I -tET
is
-

^1
u
-

<st A>ff El -ET tits
mi
-

^ET ^T !T
nin
-

tu

im

-

ma

la

in

-

na

-

a

Henceforth

unannulled will be

ki

-

bit

-

ka

$u

-

us

-

ku

-

u

u

thy

command,

to exalt

and

<f-tE
su
-

us
to

-

pu

-

hi

si -

i

hi

-

u

ga

-

at

-

ka

abase

shall be (in) thy hand.

9.

m
lu
-

-TITu

<^f
ki
-

^1
na
-

tET
at

=ETT
si
/that
I

Established be

forth

which comethl from (

-ET
pi
i
-

.5?EfeTT<MTI tEJf^sa
-

ka

la

ra

-

ar

se

-

kar

-

ka

thy mouth,

irresistible

be

thy word,

.o.Ej^ElHL
ma
-

tE~ry
i
-

^f^f
ildni

tEjfci -

am

-

ma

-

an

na

ink

-

ka

let

no one

among

the gods

thy boundary

-ET EEgtf Hf< -TI*
la
it -

"-^^1^-^m
za
-

Sm

V

ti

-

ik

na

-

nu

-

him

ir - hit

transgress.
i.

May abundance,
g occurs

the desire of
also in 1.15.

ga-at-ka

kat-ka; the Babylonian pronunciation of k as

THE GODS CONFER POWER ON MARDUK

i3g

pa-rak
the shrines

Hani

-

ma

a

-

far

sa

-

gi

-

Su

-

nu

of the gods,

while

they are

in

want,

m
lu
-

*TTT=
u

m
ku
-

*m
un

ax
-

ru
in

-

uk

-

ka

be established

thy sanctuary.

7/ "

Marduk

at

-

la

-

ma

mu

-

tir

-

ru

Marduk,

thou
"
-

art

our

%i
-

IT

mil

U
;

ni

ni

-

id

-

din

-

ka

avenger

we

give thee

sar

-

ru

-

turn

kis - sal

kal

gim

-

ri

-

e

-

li

the

kingdom

over the whole world.

//

-

sajn

-

ma

i

-

na

pu

-

hur

lu

-

u

Sir

down

in

might,

be

sa

-

ga
exalted

la

a-mal
(in)

-

ka

kak

-

ki

-

ka

thy word,

may

thy weapon

ai

ip

-

pal

-

tu

-

u

U

-

ra
it

-

i

-

su

never

be defeated,

may

crush

.

;

-

Id

-

ri

-

ka

be

-

lum

sa

tak

-

lu

-

ka

thy foe.
i.

O
tisab-ma.

lord,

whoso

trusteth in thee,

ti-sam-ma

=

140

THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON

na

-

pi$

-

ta

-

su

gi

-

mil

-

ma

u

ilu

his life

spare.

but

as for /
j

i

the god, J

Xa

Urn

-

ni

-

e

-

ti

i

-

hu

-

zu

tu

-

bu

-

uk

who

the evil

began,

pour out

nap

-

Sat

-

su

us

-

zi

-

zu

-

ma

i

-

na

his life!"

Then

set

they

in

hi

-

ri -

su

-

nu

lu

-

ba

-

su

2$

-

tin

a

-

na

their midst

a garment,

(and) to

-TTZ
ilu

&
-

*-

&+
hi
-

fifarduk

bu

-

uk

-

ri

su

nu

nu

Marduk,

their first-born

they

iz

-

zak

-

ru
:

si -

mat

-

ka
lot,

be -

lum
lord,

lu

-

u

spake

"May thy

O

have

mah

-

ra

-

at

Hani

-

ma

a

-

ba

-

turn

preeminence

among

the gods,

to destroy

u

ba

-

nu

-

u

ki - bi
give the

U
and
it

-

ik

tu

-

?m

and

to create

word

shall be accomplished.

ip

-

$a

pi

-

i

-

ka

U
(and)

-

-

a

-

bit

Open

thy mouth

may

there disappear

MARDUK TESTS
I
In
-

HIS

POWER

141

T
-

*4.

-EiT
tu
-

IH
nr
ki
-

da

hi

bi
it

-

him

-

ma
and

the garment,

again

command

/

-

<^z

-

.fo

//

-

t$

-

Urn

ik

-

bi

-

ma

let

the garment

be whole!"

He

spake

*JT A-HMITT
/'

-

wtz

/>/'

i

-

hi

-

a

-

bit

hi

-

ba

-

hi
;

with

his

mouth,

away went

the garment

6.

tE -EET
i
-

IH
ur

-TI^
ik
-

K te^ ET
bi it

M ~3 M
lu
-

iu

-

him

-

ma

ba

-

hi

again he

commanded

and

the garment

*7-<MET
^7* -

ma
as
I

tETT^T
si
it

^T-tEJT
pi
I

-

i -

hi

was

restored.

So soon

that

which

his

mouth

came

forth fromj

/

-

w

'

-

/"?/

Hani
the gods

ab

-

bi

-

e

-

hi

they saw,

his fathers,

i'/i

-

du

-

u

ik

-

ru

-

bu
(saying):

ilu

Marduk

-

ma

they rejoiced,

they paid

homage

"Marduk

2 9-

-TITu
-

^-T
us
si
-

sar
is

-

ru

king!"

They added

to

pu him

su

ls u -

hatta

the sceptre,

;?

M kussa

u

pala(a)

id

-

di

-

nu

-

hi

the throne

and

the ring(?),

they gave him

1

42

THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON

-ET
kak
a
-

ETA-WE^TT
ma
-

ku

la

ah

-

ra

da

-

'

-

i

-

bu

weapon
TI
-

invincible,

overwhelming

3,

TJIHET
a
-

^TT
sa

~T<
Ti
-

^v
amat

at

-

ri

lik

-

ma

the foe.

"Now

go and

of

Tiamat

z

/w
life

-

^

-

ru
cut

-

wa
and

the

off,

$a

-

a

-

ru

da

-

mi

-

sa

a

-

na

may

the wind

her blood

into

pT IBDf
pu
-

uz

-

ra

-

turn

li

-

bit

-

lu

-

ni

concealment

carry away."

z'

-

&' -

mu-ma

sa

ilu

Bel

si -ma - tu

-

us

ildni

They

decreed

for

the lord

his lot,

did the gods

ab

-

bi

-

e

-

su

u

-

ru
a

-

uh

su

-

ul

-

mu

his fathers,

on

way

of prosperity

<
u

IH
tas
-

T- *W
me
-

e

u$

-

ta

-

as

-

bi

-

tu

and

success

they caused

him

to take

E^
-

^
-

35

.

ra

nu

ib

-

sim

-

ma

I *'

B

the road.

He

prepared

the bow,

MARDUK'S PREPARATIONS FOR BATTLE

143

kak

-

ka

-

$u

u

-

ad

-

di

mul

-

mul
spear

-

/urn

his

weapon

he

fixed,

a

-

tar

-

ki

-

ba

u

-

kin

-

$u
it

ba

-

at

-

nu
,

he slung on,
37.

he arranged

......

-u
is
-

<y- EI h' - ma

tT

m
'*'"

-Hfim
-

mitta

na

-

$u

he raised

the club(?),

in his right

hand

u

-

sa

-

hi-

iz

^" kasta

u

maSku

ft

-

pa

-

turn

he grasped

(it),

the

bow

and

the quiver

* -TT
/'

-

-

du

-

us

-

su

i

-

lu

-

ul

i$

kun
set

at his side

he hung.

He

bi

-

ir

-

ku

i

-

na

pa

-

ni

-

su

naif

-

lu

the lightning

in

front of him,

with flame,

mus

-

tah

-

mi

-

hi

zu

-

mur
body

-

su

that burnt,

his

um

-

ta

-

al

-

la

i -

pu

-

us

-

ma

sa

-

pa

-

ra

he

filled.

He made

a net

Sul

-

mu-u

kir

-

bis

1

Ti

-

dmat

ir

-

bit

-

ti

to enclose
i.

the bowels of
and
in
1.

Tiamat,

four

kirbis here
cf.
1.

48

is

probably not an adverb but a contraction of

kirbi sa;

65.

144

THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON

TTMTI
sa
-

Stf *T sT J3 tTTT
us
te - is -

T

^
la

T*ETMJ
a
-

a

-

ri

bi

-

ta

ana

si

-

e

winds
;////;/

he posted

that there

might not escape

<Ct
-

V
sa

4 3.

mi

-

^ ru

siitu

^aru

jif

anu

anything of her,

the South-wind,

the North-wind,

5am

$a(ju

saru

a harru
;

i

-

du

-

us

the East-wind,

the

West-wind

at his side

-

pa

-

ra

us

-

tak

-

ri

-

ba

ki

-

is

-

it

the net

he brought near,

the gift

abi -

sti

ilu

A

-

nim

ib

-

ni

im

-

hul

-

la

of his father

Anu.

He

created

the imhullu

<TSara
Urn
evil
-

^T
na

Ime
-

flK T^ ha - a

Tf
a
-

=!!!sam
-

^1
su
-

htm

an

wind,

the storm,

the hurricane,

f
Sara
arba'(da)
(?)

sara
the seven-fold

siba
(?)

sdra
1

daliha

the four-fold

wind,

wind,

the whirlwind,

l
/a

47.

tm= ^
u
-

flf
-

$anan
;

se - sa

am

-

ma

the

wind without equal

he caused to go forth

sare P l

sa

ib

-

nu

-

u

si

-

bit

-

ti -

su

-

un

the winds
i.

which he had

created,

the seven of them,

Literally, the

wind "four", the wind "seven".

MARDUK SETS OUT

IN HIS

CHARIOT

145

HTI
///
-

^/jf

71

-

amat

Su

-

ud

-

lu

-

hu

the bowels

of Tiamat

to destroy,

li

-

bu

-

u

arki

-

Su

is

-

Si

-

ma

be -

lum

to

advance

after

him.

Then

raised

the lord

a

-

bu

-

ba

kakka
his

-

Su

raba(a)

** tt

narkabta
/

si

-

kin
\

the thunderbolt,

mighty weapon,

the chariot,

a con-

\struction/

^
/</

-KI
^a^
-

-TTI
ri

-T!T^
ga
-

C:
lit

tTTT
-

^
ir
-

-III
kab

ta

without

equal,

'terrible,

he mounted;

=TTTT
is

-mid

-

sim

-

ma
and

ir

-

bit

na

-

as

-

ma

-

di

he harnessed

it

a yoke of four horses

i -

du

-

us
it

-

sa

i

-

lul

gi

-

mir
of

-

su- nu

to

he bound,

all

them

la

pa

-

du

-

u

ra

-

hi

-

su

mu

-

up -par -hi

unsparing,

overwhelming,

flying along,

ma

-

la -

a

ru

-

-

ti

sin

-

na-$u-nu

full

of

slaver

their teeth,

~TT
na
-

V Tf
$a
-

A-ft t^TTT
im
-

54.

hET
la
-

^
sa
-

El
ma

^E ^TCo]
i -

*W
u

a

ta

du

-

flecked with

foam,

in galloping

skilled,
10

i

46

THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON

sa

-

pa

-

na

lam

-

du

us

-

te

-

sir

-

ma

to trample

down

trained,

he directed

IHJ W<
harrdn - $a
its

I
-

ur

-

ha

su

u

-

sar

-

di

-

ma
and

way,

his road

he took

as

-

ris

Ti

-

dmat

ag

-

gat

pa

-

nu

-

us

-

against

Tiamat,

the furious,

his face

-

kun
set.

-

na

u

-

m

-

su

he

Then
Hf-'-Hfy
i - tul - lu
-

64.

-HFHani
the gods,

i

-

tul

-

lu

-

su

Hani
the gods

su

they beheld him,

beheld him,

abe

-

Su

i -

tul

-

lu

-

su

ildni

i -

tul

-

lu- su

his fathers,

beheld him,

the gods

beheld him.

it

-

hi -ma

be

-

lum

kab

-

lu

-

us

1

Ti

-

a

-

ma

-

ti

And

the lord

drew

near, on the midst of

Tiamat

i-

bar

-

ri

sa

illi

Kin

-

gu

ha

-

-

ri

-

sa

he gazed,

of

Kingu,

her spouse,

i - se

-a
is

tET -HI El
me
his
-

hi

-

su

i

-

na

-

at

-

tal -

ma

he surveyed
I.

.......

As he gazed,

kablus

probably a contraction of kablu sa.

MARDUK CHALLENGES THE DRAGON

147

e

-

$t

ma

-

lak - Su
l

sa

-

//

-

///

te -

wa -

troubled

was

his going,

loosened was

his

ma mind and
$u
-

M'

-

ha

-

ii

ip

-

$ii

-

su

u

Hani
the gods

stopped was

-in
r/

-

^
:

his action.

And

JT
^w

TJ
a

-E^TT
-

JEJ
ku

tE <i^
i
-

1
Su

70.

^^ m
i -

vw

-

li

-

di

-

his helpers,

who went

at his side,

mu saw

ru

TfV-m^T S?:-I-W *E<F
..... - da the .....
..... ..... .....
I
kakka
his
-

a

-

$a

-

ri

-

du

ni

-

til-su

-

un
was

i -

St

of the leader,

their sight

troubled.

75.

|~TT
is
-

<M
Si
-

ET
ma

be
-

^
lum

T^ a

-

=T
-

bu

ba

Then

raised

the lord

the thunderbolt,

ET-

T^

76.

KT<]
.....
Ti
-

^
amat
sa

su

ra&d(a)

mighty weapon,

[against] Tiamat,

who

ik

-

mi

-

lu

ki

-

a

-

am

is

-

pur

-

h'

was

furious,

thus

he sent (the word)

"
:

lu

sa

-

an

-

da

-

at^

um

-

mat

-

ki

Equipped be

thy host,

m
/

n'/

-

ku

-

su
set in

$u

-

nu

kakke P l

-

ki

let
i.

them be
is,

order,
troubled.
2.

thy weapons.
sa-an-da-at

That

as

Marduk gazed, Kingu was

=

samdat.

10*

148

THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON

iS
en
-

<
u

^HTMTka
-

di

-

im

-

ma

1

a

-

na
I

-

ku

a

-

si

Stand!

and

thou,

i

ni

-

pu -us
us join

-

a$

-

ma

Ti

-

dm a I

let

battle!"

Tiamat

an

-

ni
this

-

ta

i -

na

se -

mi

-

sa

mah
like

-

hu

-

tas

when

she heard

one possessed

-HFi
-

te

-

mi

u

-

sa

-

an

-

ni

te

-

en

-

was

she,

she lost her senses,

t's

-

si

-

ma

3

Ti

-

amat

sit

-

mu

-

ris

she cried,

did Tiamat,

furiously

90.
e
-

U

-

la

sur

-

h's

ma

-

al

-

ma

-

Us

(and) loud,

from the roots

asunder

91it

^E
i-

-

ru

-

ra

i?

-

da

-

a

-

$a
4

man

-

ni

trembled

her foundation.

She recited

y-^yyy
tip
-

yyy
it

ta

ta

-

nam

-

di

ta

-

a

-

Sa

an incantation,

she Uttered

her spell,

1.

en-di-im-ma
te-en-ia
is-si
7.

=

emdlma.

2.

=
isi.

tem-sa.

3.
4.

=
the

e.,

ground she stood upon.

DETAILS OF THE BATTLE

149

9*.<MEJ[
K

Hh-HfHani
the gods

V -IS eTT^VASa

tahdzi

u

-

$a

-

-

lu

and

of

the battle,

cried

T
//

*- ;/#

^T IEJ

T
l

I
-

M
-

93

-

E^m ^ET ~T
in
-

ET
l

kakke P
for their

$u

nu

nin

-

du-ma

they

weapons.

Then advanced

Ti

-

amat

abkal

Hani?

1

ilu

Marduk

Tiamat
94.
/d!

(and) the arbiter

of the gods,

Marduk;

-

<?

-

/^^

z'/

-

tib

-

bu

kit

-

ru

-

bu

to the fight

they come

on,

they draw near

ta

-

ha

-

zi

-

is

u$

-

pa

-

ri

-

ir

-ma

be

-

lum

for battle.

The

lord spread

==
/
-

tt
sal
-

si

96.

ra

-

$u

u

-

mi

-

im

-

hul

-

lu

his net

to catch her,

the evil

wind

sa

-

bit

ar
that

-

ka

-

ti

pa

-

nu

-

us

-

was behind

in

her face

um
he

-

das
let

-

sir

ip

-

te -

ma

pi
her

-

i - sa

Ti

-

amat

loose.

She opened

mouth

did Tiamat

a

-

na

la

-

-

a

-

ti -

$u

im

-

hul

-

la

to
I.

its

full

extent (?),
I

the evil

wind

in-nin-du

=

innimdu, IV

fr.

emedu.

150

THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON
TTI

--T
-

TJ
a
-

-ET
na
la

ka
-

us

-

te

-

ri

ba

tarn

he made to enter

while yet she had not shut
99.

-!<
//
-

^a
<2

tj M^II M-I
/0
-

S

-

//

Sdre P l

her

lips.

The

terrible

winds

*m ^rr *irr
kar
-

ET
-

Sa

-

Sa

sa

-nu- ma
and

in

-

m

-

haz

her belly

filled

taken was

*m
/*$

ty
-

v
-

ET
-

ba

Sa

ma
and

pa

-

a

-

sa

us

-

pal

-

ki

her courage

her

mouth

she opened wide.

sir

-

j^

mul

-

mul

-

la

///

-

te

-

pi

He

grasped

the spear,

he shattered

ka

-

ras

-

sa

kir

-

bi

-

sa

u

-

bat

-

ti

-

ka

her belly,

her bowels

he severed,

-

^/

-

lit

lib

-

ba

ik

-

mi

-

si -

ma

he pierced

(her) heart.

He overcame

her and

nap

-

~sa

-

fas

u

-

,bal

-

li

sa

-

lam

-

her

life

he cut

off,

her body

id

-

da

-

a

eli

-

sa

i -

za-za

ul

-

fu

he cast down,
i.

upon her
karas-sa.

he stood.

After

ka-ras-sa

=

TIIK DKATII

OF THE DRAGON
e

15

<
7/'
-

^v
;;/j/

ff
#
-

IH
lik

pa

-

ni

i

-

na

-

ru

Tiamat,

the leader,

he had

slain,

ki

-

is

-

ri

-

sa

up

-

tar

-

ri

-

ra

pu

-

hur

-

$

her might

was broken,

her strength

is

-

sap

-

ha

n

Hani
the gods

ri

-

su

-

s

was

scattered,

and

her helpers,

\\
a

-^TT
-

m
ku
u
-

tE 13=
i
-

v
$a

*
it

li

-

di

-

tar

-

ru

1

who went

at

her side,

trembled,

tfl-EHI tmt
ip
-

la -

hu

stih -

hi

-

ru

ar

-

kat

-

su
;

-

un

were afraid

(and) turned

back

109

.

t
u

=
-

'se

-

su

-

ma
off

nap

-

sa

-

/us

e

-

ti

-

ru

they took themselves

their life

to save.

^T^TT
///
-

-ET
la

ta

la

-

mu

-

u

na

-

par-su-dis

In an enclosure

were they caught,

to escape

not

li

-

-

e

e

-

sir

-

su

-

nu

-

ti

-

ma

able were they.

He took them

captive,

kakke ? l

-

hi-nu

u

-

sab

-

bir

sa

-

pa

-

rfi

their
i.

weapons
I

he broke,
2,

in the net

it-tar-ru for ittarai'ti,

Pret.

fr. "iin.

152

THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON

*na
-

du- ma
cast

ka -

ma

-

ris

u$

-

bu
sat.

-

du

were they

and

in the snare

they

The

-I
tub
-

TJ
-

-y<
-

ka

a

ti

ma

-

lu

-

u

du

.-

ma

-

mu

of the quarters of heaven

they

filled

with howling,

y
se - n't
-

jy
su

su

na

-

-

~yyi u

-H m -in
ka
-

lu

-

u

his

punishment

they bore,

they were held

- TI
ki
-

&
tin
es

<
-

suk

-

kis

u

i$

-

rit

in confinement.

And

on the eleven

3

-

/

-

ti

i

-

sa

-

nu

creatures,

which

/with the power of\
\

she had

filled,

striking terror

/

mi

-

U

-

la
(?)

ml

H

-

e

a

-

U

-

ku

the troop

of devils

that

went

V
ka
at
;/
-

ta

-

di

her

he brought

-yyi ^y^
sir
-

'

ri

-

e

-

ti

i

-

di

-

su

-

nu

affliction

their strength

y

-y<
-

I
$u
-

^
nu

V
sa

ga

-

du

tuk

-

ma

ti

-

-

^
pal
-

$

together with

their opposition

beneath him

THE CONQUEST OF THE REBEL FORCES

153

HI*
ik
-

fbu
-

mi
Kin
-

&
gu
Xu-

us

u

fl "

he trampled.

Moreover

Kingu,

z'r

-

ta

-

bu -u

-Su

-

un
.,

ik

-

mi

-

ma

who had become

great

.

he conquered and
TI

^

//

-

/*

tin

e

-

la

-

a

with

im
*he

-

ni

-

Su

i

-

kim

-

Su

-

ma

duphmati P

l

counted him;

he took from him

^he tablets of destiny

la

si

-

ma

-

ti

-

$u

-

na

ki - Sib

-

bi

that were not his by right,

with

a seal

ik

-

nu

-

kam

-

ma

ir

-

tu

-

us

it

-

mu

-

uh

he sealed (them) and

in his breast

he held (them).

3.
/
'im
-

ni

-

Su

ik

-

mu

-

u

After

his

enemies

he had conquered

T
z'

I2 +-

T! T^
z'

v-

HTIA
mut
-

t^TTT
ta

A-HF-

du

-

^

-

rt'w

bu

(and) destroyed,

(and) the arrogant foe

u

-

sa

-

pu

-

u

Su

-

ri

-

Sam
,

ir - nit

-

ti

had made

.....

and

the triumph

154

THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON

An -$ar
of AnSar

e

-

li

na

-

ki

-

ru

ka

-

li

-

is

over

the

enemy

had completely

-

zi

-

zu

ni

- is -

mat

ilu

established,

(and) the purpose of

Nu - dim - mud Nudimmud

ik

-

su

-

du

iln

Marduk
the valiant

kar

-

du

e

-

li

had attained,

Marduk

over

3g
ka
-

tgyy t yyyy ^yyy
si
-

g
su

mu

-

turn

bit

-

ta

-

the gods

that

were captive

his

durance

u

-

dan

-

nin

-

ma
and

si

-

ri

-

it

Ti

-

dmat

strengthened

to

Tiamat

$a

ik

-

mu

-

u

i

-

tu

-

ra

ar

-

ki

-

is

whom he had captured

he turned

back.

ik

-

bu

-

us

-

ma

be -

lum

sa

Ti

-

a

-

ma

-

turn

Then

trod

the lord

upon Tiamat's

/ -

sid

-

sa

i -

na

mi

-

ti

-

su

hinder part,

with

his club(?)

pa - di - i that had no mercy,
la

^i.tTTTt^T-TTI^^ ET
u
-

nat

-

ti

mu

-

uh

-

ha

u

-

par

-

ri

-

'

-

ma

he smashed

the skull,

he cut

MARDUK'S TRIUMPHANT RETURN

155

-ET
r/jf

<=E
-

<tt
da
-

^TT
-

-

/tf

at

mi

$a

Sa

-

a

-

ru

the channels

of her blood,

the wind,

il

-

/<r

-

nu

a

-

na

PU

-

uz

-

rat

the north-wind

into

concealment

.y

-

ta

bit

-

mu

-

ru

-

ma

ab

-

lu

-

su

he

made

carry

(it).

His fathers beheld,

///

-

r/

-

u

i

.

ri

-

Su

h'

-

di

-

e

they rejoiced,

they were glad,

presents

sa

-

bi

-

lu

su

-

nu

a

-

na

(and) gifts

they brought

unto

UTT
-

Tl
a
-

JT

ii
i -

ET
nu
-

uh

-

ma

be

-

lum

him.

Then

rested

the lord;

-

lam

-

tu

-

us

i

-

bar

-

ri

sir

ku

-

pu
(?)

on her corpse

he gazes,

the flesh of the body

u

-

za

-

a

-

zu

i -

ban

-

na

-

a

nik

-

la

-

a

-

ti

he divides,

he forms

cunning plans.

ih

-

pi

-

h'

-

ma

ki

-

ma

nu - nu
a fish

ma$

-

di

-

e

He

split her

like

.....

156

THE FIGHT OF MARDUK AND THE DRAGON
yy

jy
-

iss.

<K
mi
-

a

-

na

h'na

hi

i$

-

lu

-

us

-

sa

into

two halves,

one half of her

is

-

ku

-

nam

-

ma
and

sa

-

ma- ma

u

-

sa

-

aI

-

///

he

set in place

as

heaven

he spread out.

is

-

du

-

ud

par
a

-

ku

ma

-

as a

-

sa

-

ru

He drew

bolt,

watchman

u

-

sa

-

as

-

bi

-

it

me

-

e

-

~sa

la

he stationed,

her waters

not

su

-

sa

-

a

su

-

nu

-

ti

um

ta

-

ir

to let out

upon them

he enjoined.

141.

+j-

Eft

^ ^
i
-

$aml(e)

bi

-

ir

a$

-

ra

-

turn

Heaven

he passed through,

the places

i -

hi

-

tarn

-

ma

us

- tarn -

hi

- 'ir

mi

-

ih

-

rat

he surveyed, and

he placed

over against

JT
$u
-

*
.

-4
ilu

-^
Nu
of
-

<^JT -TI
dim
-

bat

mud

the abyss

the dwelling

Nudimmud.

'43.

&&- jy
z'w

^y
-

ey
ma

~
be
-

ife
lum

v
Sa

--TT

e=t=

-

su

uh

-

apsu

And

the lord measured

of

the abyss

MARDUK FORMS HEAVEN FROM THE DRAGON'S BODY

157

bi

-nu
its

-

iu

-

us

-

$u

e$

-

gal

-

la

tarn - h' -

la -

hi
it

structure,

a

mansion

like

unto

-45.

THE CREATION OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES AND THE SEASONS.
[K 3567 -f

K

8588 and

K

8526.]

u

-

ba
e.

-

a~s

-

sim

man-za-za
a place

an
for

Hani
the gods,

He

(/.

Marduk) formed

rabiiti

kakkabani P 1

tam-sil

-

hi

-

nu

lu

-

ma

- si

the great ones;

the Stars

their images,

the lumasi-stars,

y us
-

3

.

tyyyt tE
u
-

zi

-

iz

ad

-

di

satta

he

fixed.

He

ordained

the year,

4.
/A-

<yy

-

ra

-

ta

u

-

ma

-

as

-

sir

XII
for the twelve

into sections

he divided

(it),

arheP 1

kakkabani P l

III

TA

-

A

-

AN

us

-

zi

-

iz

months

three stars

he

fixed.

yy-^y *y<^ ^yy
'$

-

iii

u

-

mi

$a

Sattu

us

-

si

From

the day

when

the year

comes

forth

MARDUK CONTINUES THE WORK OF CREATION

159

-I!
</<//

(?)]

=TTT=
u
-

1H&
su
-

E^TT ~I<
ra
//

6

-

*TTT*
M
-

EiW yn
far
-

Sid

until

the end

he founded

}}

man-sa

-

^
az
si
-

-Hf- 5*:
tlu

E}
-

-Til
-

Ni

bi

ri

T ana
to

^T
ud
-

^T
du
-

<
u

the station

of Nibir

determine

-ET
rik
-

su

-

un

a

-

na

la

e

-

pi$

an
err,

-

ni

their

bounds;

that

none might

-ET
A/
*

t=Tf
<?

^
-

<
-

^

w

E! wa

~Hf El
T

s.

If

wa

-

ma

man-za

-

^
az
ti- hi
It

nor

go astray

the station of

/Vtt

^/

z^

ilu

E
Ea

-

a

u

-

kin

it

-

Bel

and

he

set

with him.

ip

-

te -

ma

abulle P*

ma
in

si

-

He opened

great gates

the sides,

ki

-

lal - la

-

an

si

-

ga

-

ru

ud - dan

-

ni

-

na

both (sides),

the bolt

he made strong

ET
-

<
u

Afl^T
im
-

"ina

-tH*<HKVET
ka
-

me

-

la

na

bit - ii (?)

sa-

ma

on

left

and

right.

In

the midst

thereof

-

ta

-

kan

e

-

la -

a

-

ti

tlu

Nannar

-

ru

he fixed

the zenith.

The Moon-god

160

THE CREATION OF THE HEAVENLY BODIES

us

-

te

-

pa

-

a

mu

-

Sa

ik

-

ti

-

pa

he caused to appear,

the night

he entrusted

(to him).

1

3.

tyyyt tty
11

<ys
-

^^
-

jy
hi

^r v ^
-

<y-

-

ad

di

sum

-

ma

uk

-

rial

mu

si

He

appointed him,

a being

of the night,

a

-

na

ud

-

du

-

u

u

-

mi

ar

-

hi

-

sam

to

determine

the days,

monthly

^y
la

^H
-

TI
a

ma
with

TI
a

-

na

-

par

ka

-

gi

-

e

without

ceasing

the

crown

u

-

sir

i

-

na

res

arhi

-

ma

"At

the beginning of the month,

*
na
-

la
-

i

pa

-

hi

.

...
of the

-

a

-

ti

kar

-

ni

at the shining

......

,

the horns

~fcTTfeSOT
na
-

T

^T^T=TTTt
ud
-

Wf

[^TKt
u
-

ba

-

a

-

ta

ana
to

du

-

u

VI
six

mi

shalt thou

command

determine

days,

/ -

wa

z/wz'

P7/ ^^^

a

-

ga

-

a

sum

-

su

-

la

(and) on

the seventh day

the

crown

to divide."

i.

K

8526 reads

THE STORY OF THE DELUGE.
The account given by
[K 2252 4-

Sit-napishtim to the hero Gilgamesh.
4-

K

2602 4245

K

3321

K

4486 4- S 1881,

K

33y5,

K

7752 4.

8124,
.

4-8124, 2964-8124,

460, KS$ijetc.']

I

^T

-17*
-

-*v

m Sit

napistim(tirri]

I. ana
to

W
$a
-

JT
$u
-

ET
ma
izakara(ra)

Sit-napis'tim

him

spake,

t
a
-

na

llu

GilgameS

lu

-

up

-

te

-

ka

to

GilgameS

:

"I will reveal to thee,

-f tT pf
7/ "

Hf-

II

v

^^ni
-

GilgameZ

a- mat

sir

-

ti

u

O

GilgameS,

the hidden word,

and

-

m

-

ta

$a

Hani P l
the gods

ka

-

a

-

sa

the decision

of

to thee

lu

-

uk
I

-

bi

-

ka

alu

Su

-

ri

-

ip

-

pak

alu
a city,

will

declare.

Surippak,

&z

//'

-

du

-

$u

at

-

ta

ina

ki -

Sad

which

thou knowest,

(which) on the bank
ii

1

62

THE STORY OF THE DELUGE

-TT---K
naru

^
$a fo
_

pu

_

ra i

_

//

nu

a ^u

$u

_

of the Euphrates

lies,

that city

*~^T ^SL^>^I ^i
la
-

*~n~

I*"*"*"*"

^YM ^*~
kir
-

r ^

4'

IT
a
-

bir

-

ma
and

Hani P l
the gods

bu
it

-

$u

na

was old

within

-

to

a -

kan

a

-

bu

-

bi

ub

-

la

lib

-

ba

-

su

-

nu

send

a deluge

their hearts

prompted

rabutiP 1

i

-

ba

-

su

abi-su-nu
their father

the great gods.

There was
6

tCTTT
flu

'

-

ET

IH I

*-

A-nu
Anu,

-

urn

ma-lik-su-nu
their counsellor

^
ku

E^TT
-

T

ra

-

du

the warrior

-

j-

-II tin
Bel,

17,

fr*

R

f

I

*-

-

J ^ET t
Ninib,

their

messenger

El- -ET
-

I
su
-

*nu

-HP -II
llu

^
-

^/

-

la

-

En

nu

their director

Ennugi.

77

TVm

-

igi-azag

iln

E
Ea,

-

a

it

-

ti

su-nu

The

lord of

wisdom,

with them

-

jft'6-ma

a -mat

-

su

-

nu

u

-

$a

-an

-

na

-

a

sat

and

their

word

he repeated

STT-NAPISHTIM

IS

WARNED BY THE GOD KA

1

63

-

na

ki

-

ik

-

ki - $u
1
:

ki

-

ik

-

ki$

to

the house of reeds

'Reed-house,

I*<s:
AY'

-ET
i -

<=EV
i -

<HHI* <IE( 3T
ki
-

-

ik

-

h'X
!

gar

gar
!

ik

-

ki

-

$u

reed-house

Wall,

wall

O

reed-house,

si

-

me

-

ma

i

-

ga

-

ru

hi

-

z'j

-

j-a

-

hear!

O
T

wall,

understand!

-Til
.

tU
.

3=
_
-

HI
_
/,

<=m<=
_

$u

rj

jp

pa

u

u

Thou man

of Surippak,

son of

f
'"

-HF^73rtra
'

^!
Tu
-

-^f
tu

^

=TTT=
u
pull
-

-TT
kur

=TTTT
bifa
(thy) house,

7

Ubara-Tutu,

down

V
/ 7?/
-

Ifc
me$re(e)

=ff

""
a

elippa

mus

-

sir
(

build

ship,

leave

tn y) possessions,

^<?

-

-i
(

napsati P

l

na
(

-

ak

-

ku

-

ra

take heed for

tn y) life,

tn y) property

zi

-

ir

-

ma
and

na

-

pi$

-

ta

bul

-

lit

abandon

(thy)

life

save,

2

1.

Ea probably addresses
Literally,

Sit-napis"tim in a
1.

dream, while the

latter is sleep-

ing in a house of reeds; see
2.

196.

"cause to live".

II*

1

64

THE STORY OF THE DELUGE

$u

-

li

-

ma

zer

nap

-

$a

-

a

-

ti

ka

-

la

-

ma

and bring up
TT >-V~T
'.

living seed

of every kind

^TTT *~*
lib

*~T *~~TTT
H

^'

a

-

na
into

-

bi

elippi

28 8o concerning the building of the ship, are much broken. After fishing the ship, Sit-napiStim pro>

~

the ship.'

ceeds to

fill

it.]

minima

i -

su
I

-

u

e

-

si
I

-

en
it;

mmma
with
all

With

all

that

had

filled

i -

su
I

-

u

e

-

si
I

-

en
it,

-

si

kaspu

mimma
with
all

that

had

filled

of silver;

i - $u

-

u

e

-

si
I

-

en
it,

-

si

hurasu

mimma
;

that

I

had

filled

of gold

with

all

i

-

hi
I

-

u

e

-

si
I

-

en
it,

-

h'

zer

napsatif

1

that

had

filled

of living seed

8s.
ka
-

H KTJ
us
I

^TTT
libbi

la

-

ma
;

-

te

-

li

a

-

na
into

of every kind

brought up

7 -y"

elippi

ka

-

la

kim

-

ti

-

ia

u

sa

-

lat

-

ia

the ship

all

my

family

and

household;

TTt
bu
-

E!
ma
-

ul

sen'

u

-

am
the

seri
field,

the cattle of

the

field,

the beasts of

SIT-NAPISHTIM PREPARES

THK AUK

165

t:m
/

ET
w#
-

Tl
a
-

&
ni
flf
tf

-efcl
ka

-E^TT
-

I
$u
-

/nu

-

li

-

craftsmen,

all

of

them

TTc
u
I

*
Xe

-E^TI
//'

87.

*TT
tffo//

^T
-

~f
|V "

*T

-

#

SamaX

brought

in.

A

fixed time

ama

/^

-

ku

-

nam

-

ma
:

mu

-

ir

ku

-

uk

-

hi

ina
at

had appointed (saying)

'The ruler of

the darkness

-ET
//
-

Tl
a

-T<
-

-TITu
-

V ^L ^!
$a
-

-HF-

-^
-

la

-

ti

az

-

na
x

an

nu

eventide

will send

^

-

mu

-

tu

ki

-

ba
;

-

a

-

ti

e

-

ru

-

ub

a

heavy rain

(then) go

T

[*TTT]
//3
-

J3
bi

tT ^TTT E!
i?u

^Tpi
-

A ^}
hi
babi
-

elippi

-

ma
and

ka

into.

the ship

shut

thy door.'

a

-

dan

-

nu

$u

-

u

ik

-

ri

-

da
;

mu

-

ir

That appointed time

arrived

the ruler of

ku

-

uk

-

ki

ina
at

li

-

la

-

a

-

ti

the darkness

eventide

i -

za

-

an

-

na

-

nu

sa

-

mu

-

tu

ki

-

ba

-

a

-

//

sent
i.

a

heavy

rain.

Literally, "will cause to rain".

1

66

THE STORY OF THE DELUGE

92.

v
sa

^
u
-

<tt
mi

eey ttyyy ^yyi
at
-

*
bu
its
-

ta
I

-

tal

na

-

su

Of
9 3. u
-

the storm

saw

beginning;

mu

a

-

na

i -

tap

-

lu

-

si

pu

-

luh

-

ta

the storm

to

gaze upon

fear

^
i - $i
I

94.

t
e
I

-

ru

-

ub

a

-

na

lib

-

bi

"'"

elippi

-

ma

had,

entered

into

the ship and

ap

-

te

-

hi

ba

-

a

-

bi

a

-

na

pi

lit

-

i

sa

shut

the door.

To

the pilot

of

?

=TT
-

IH
-

Hfilu

v

E
Bel

>"

^//

a

-

na

Pu

zu

ur

the ship,

to

Puzur-Bel

amslu

ma lahi

ekalla

at
*

-

ta
I

-

di

-

in

the sailor,

the ark

handed over

*-*=TU
a
-

97-

-^

^
Urn

=TTTe=
-

^^y^yy
$e
-

di

bu
its

-

se

-

e -

su

mini - mu

u

e

-

ri

together with

contents.

When
98.

the early

dawn

E
ina

-

^ i
-

E
-

is
-

na

-

ma

ri

ma

tu

appeared,

_

there

came up

from

*
z'

ym
-

-Hf- tlT
$ame(e)

IH
ur
-

^ ME
pa
-

^
sa
-

<Ilim
-

3
turn

^V/

turn

the horizon
i.

a black cloud.

Literally, "great house, palace".

THE BEGINNING OF THE FLOOD

167

99-4- Aflllu

ina
in

*TTT:3V
lib
-

rm^TETt^ET
ir- tarn -ma
-

Ramman

bi

-

$a

am

-

ma

Ramman
,00.

the midst thereof

f
l7tt

3=

<
a

H<

Afo

v"

Marduk

^
la -

thunders

and

^TT
il
-

-ET JEJ
la
-

ku

Nabu

and

Marduk

go

ina

mah
before,

-

ri

il

-

ku

guzale

Pl

they go

as messengers

v sm=
$adu(u}
over mountain

<
u

ET
ma
-

Tf
a
-

J^Ej
turn

.

oa

:

^
tar
-

gul

-

li

and

country;

the anchor

Ur

-

ra

-

gal

i -

na

-

as

-

sah
;

il

-

lak

Uragal

tears

away

there goes

ilu

Ntn
Ninib,

-

ib

mi

ih

-

ra

u

-

$ar

-

di
itself.

the Storm

he makes discharge

.

-Hftlu

T?

-Wf
-

^T <M
-

^TT JT
is
-

tTT
-

A

nun

na

-

ki

$u

u

The Anunnaki
-TTI
di
-

carried

^
ir

-TTII
-

/

pa

-

ra

-

a

-

ti

ina

nam

-

ri

-

ri

-

$u-nu

(their) torches,

with

their brightness

lTT*
u
-

W< !=fc ET
ha
-

mr eyy^iE
-

106.

v
$a
ilu

f

am ma
-

tu

ma

-

a

- turn

Ramman

^

they light up

the land.

Of

Ramman

1

68

THE STORY OF THE DELUGE

S
mur
-

E^yy *i5r
ra
-

^TT
-

tE
i
-

^y
ba

^-Hfreached

=m=
u

as

su

1

his

whirlwind

$ame(i)

minima
all

nam

-

ru

ana
into

e

-

tu

-

ti

the heavens,

light

darkness

ut

-

iir

-

ru

...
. . .

ul

im

-

mar
beholds

a

-

hu

was turned.

No man

TMII
a
-

MtT*
ul

=TTT= t^TTT
u
-

tET 0fT
ad
-

Tf
.

tTR
nise P l

hu-$u

ta

-

da

-

a

his fellow,

no more

were men recognised

-Ey
$ame(e)
in
ildni pl
ip
-

-TI
-

la

hu

heaven.

The gods

were afraid of

a

-

bu

-

ba

-

am. -

ma

it

-

te

ih

-

su

the deluge,

they retreated,

yyy<=
i
-

te

-

lu

-

u

y ana
into

H-*T
same(i)

v
$a

-Hf-T ilu A

-

num

they went up

the heaven

of

Anu.

Hani P l

kima
like

kalbi

kun

-

nu - nu

The gods

a

hound

crouched down,

ina in
I.

ka

-

ma -a

-

ti

rab

-

su

i

-

sis

-

si

the enclosure (of heaven)

they sat

cowering.

She cried aloud

sn-mur-ra-as-su

=

sumurrat-su.

THE DESTRUCTION OF MANKIND

169

f ~TT^
ilu

<IITET
ki
-

n

TCi-T<
a
a
-

8.tTTT=-TI^^T
w
-

-

tar

ma

lit

-

ti

nam

-

ba

did

Is"tar

like

woman

in travail,

lamented

-Hf/v "

~ ^

d
//'/

^f

T

^TT
ta
-

~
bat

^^IT
rig
:

ET
ma

UdniP 1
of the gods

the

Lady

with a loud voice

ud-mu

ul

-

lu

-

u

a

-

na

ti

-

it

-

ti

'That (former) race

into

clay

flTt
/?/

-EtgEET
i -

"^I
.

T
a
-

-

u

tur -

ma

a$-$u
since

na
I

-

ku

ina
in

has been changed,

-TIT/
-

^

<
limuttu
evil.

//r

Hani?

1

ak

-

bu

-

u

the assembly of

the gods

commanded

^7

-

'

z'

-

^z'

me?

-

/>

hur

ildni P l

When

I

commanded

in the

assembly of the gods

limuttu
evil,

ana
for

hul

-

lu

-

uk

nise P l

-

ta

the destruction

of

my

people

*
&z
a

-ET
/rz

-&
a^
I

^
-

ET
-

3.

TJ
a
-

^T
na
-

m
ku

bi

ma

-

tCTTT ET um - ma
I

storm

commanded.

That which

<tT* -ET
zz/

TT
-

5*:
-

JMTTt
$u
-

-

la

da

ni forth

u

T^I^T at ma
-

4-<IEJtE
ki
?

-

i

brought

where

(is it)

Like

l?o

THE STORY OF THE DELUGE

mare P l
the

nune P l of
fish

u

-

ma
it

-

al
fills

-

la

-

a

spawn

tarn

-

ta

-

am

-

ma

iidni P l

$u

-

ut

the sea!'

The gods

of

ilu

A

-

nun

-

na

-

ki

ba

-

ku

-

u

it

-

ti

-

sa

the

Anunnaki

wept

with her,

126.

>~>
-

ru
i

as

-

bi

i

-

na

bi

-

ki

-

ti

the gods

were bo wed ; they sat / \ down,

in

tears,

^111 < V
kat
-

ma

sap

-

ta

-

$u

-

nu

VI
For
six

pressed together were

their lips

IH-TTI
ur
-

<

ra

u

mu

-

sa-- a

-

ti

U

-

lak

days

and

nights

blew

VTMTI !^-^$a
-

T

TI=TTT=
-

^
i
-

a

-

ri

a

-

bu

-

bu

me

hu

-

u

sap

-

pan

the wind,

the deluge,

the tempest

overwhelmed

te
mata
the land.
si
-

^T
-

bu

-

u

u

-

mu

i

na

The

seventh

day

when

ka
it

-

$a

-

a

-

di

it

-

ta

-

rak

me

-

hu

-

u

drew

near,

there ceased

the tempest,

THE ABATEMENT OK THE FLOOD

I?

I

a

-

bu

-

bu

kab

-

la

$a

im

-

dah

-

the deluge,

the storm,

which

had fought

/(/

-

-

ai

-

aI

-

ti

i -

mi

-

uh

like

a host.

Then

rested

tamtu

-

ha

-

ri

-

ir -

ma
and

im

-

hul

-

lu

the sea,

it

subsided,

the hurricane,

.33.
a
'

-

bu

-

bu

ik

-

lu

ap
I

-

pa

-

al

-

sa

the deluge

ceased.

looked upon

T
-

ET tTTT

HZI
$a
^v'w
A'

w

-

ta

-

/w

the sea

while

I

caused (my) voice to resound,

but

kul - lat
all

te

-

ni

-

Se

-

e

-

ti

i

-

tu

-

ra

a

-

na

mankind

was turned

into

ki

-

ma

u

-

ri

mil -hu

-

rat

clay.

In place of

fields

there lay before (me)

m
ap
a
-

v
ti

nap

-

pa

-

Sa

-

am

-

ma

swamp.

I

opened

the air-hole

and

ta

kut

eli

dur
the wall

the light

fell

upon

172

THE STORY OF THE DELUGE

ap

-

pi

-

ia
1

uk
I

-

tarn

-

mi

-

is

-

ma

of

my

face;

was bowed down,

at

I

ta

-

Sab

a

-

bak
I

-

ki

eli

sat

down,

wept;

over

dur

ap

-

pi

-

ia

il

-

la

-

ka

di

-

ma

-

ai

my
ijg.

cheek

flowed

my

tears.

^
ap
I

-

pa

-

U

-

is

kib

-

ra

-

a

-

ti

pa

-

tu

2

looked upon

the world

all

was

<!!
tamtu
sea.

cETTT
TA
-

a

-

na

XII

T A

-

-HfAN

After

twelve (days?)

*
i
-

t yyyt
-

,

4

.

y]

te

-

la

-

a

na

-

gu

u

a

-

na

emerged

the land.

To
,

matu

-

jyt

_

^r

i

_

x te _ m ^

try^yyy
tsu

4 ,.

Vtyyyt
sadu(ii}

e iipp u

the land of Nisir

the ship took

its

course.

The mountain

_

sjr

isu

e iipp a

is _

lat-ma

a

-

na

na
to slip

-

a

-

si

of the land of Nisir held the ship fast and

ul

id

-

din
(it).

i$ten(en}

u

-

mu

sana(a}

u

-

mu

did not allow
i.
/. e.,

The
2.

first

day,

the second
patn.

day

"upon

my

cheek".

pa-tu probably

THE SENDING FORTH OF THE BIRDS

v

es

SF
Ni

*<
-

-44.

1adu(u)

sir

do.
do.

fo/

-

fo

u

-

mu

the mountain

Nisir

The

third

day,

ri

-

ba

-

a

u

-

mu

Sadu(u)

Ni

-

sir

do.
do.

the fourth

da

the mountain

Nisir

'45-

W f

I

m V
si$$a($a)

V

tyyy<=
Ni
-

hanSu(ht)

Sadu(u)

sir

do
do

The
He.

fifth,

the sixth

the mountain

Nisir

yj

*T EI
u
-

t
i
-

siba(a)

ma

na

ka
it

-

$a

-

a

-

di

The
I47
.

seventh

day

when

drew

near,

tiTTt
w
I

^
$e

tETT ET
-

-^r
a

-TI

^ITT^
u (and)
-

Hfmas'
let

E^H
-

-

si -

ma

summatu

Sir

sent forth

dove

(her) go.

-

'

/zX'

summatu
flew

i

-

lu

-

ra
fro

1

am
but

-

ma

The dove

to

and

man-za

-

zu

ul

a resting-place

2 pa - as - sum - ma is - sah - ra there was not and she returned.

i -

TI
u
-

*Wu
-

Hf-

$e

-

si
I

-

ma
a

sinuntu

maS

-

Sir

Then

sent

forth

swallow

(and) let (her) go.

//

-

M

-TZ*
flew

-II

*
i
i,

^
-

sinuntu

lu

-

ra
fro

-

am
but

-

ma

The swallow
i.

to
2.
I

and

Lit.

"went and returned".

Pres.

fr.

basn.

174

THE STORY OF THE DELUGE

man-za

-

zu

ul

i -

pa

-

a$

~

$um

-

ma

is it

sah

-

ra

a resting-place

there

was not

and

returned.

I5 3.

tyyyt
u
-

* EEyy
$e
si
I

SET

ff
a

HTI
-

I
-

-111u
-

HF-

-

ma

ri

ba

mas

-

h'r

Then

sent

forth

a raven

(and) let

(it)

go.

il

-

lik

a

-

ri

-

bi

-

ma
and

ka

-

ru

-

ra

$a

The

raven flew

the abatement

of

me P l
the waters

i -

mur

-

ma
and
it

ik

-

rib

J

i

-

sa

ah

hi

beheld

came near

wading

tE^yyi
i -

<tT*
ul

trtTITE^T!
is -

.se-tTTTt^cETTET
u
-

tar

-

ri

sah

-

ra

se

-

si

-

ma
out

(and) croaking,

(but) did not return.

Then

I

brought

(all)

a

-

na

IV

$dre P l

at

-

ta

-

ki

ni

-

ka

-

a

unto

the four winds,

I

offered

an offering

<57.
a$

-T^HTCF
-

-V
sur
-

MI ^
ki
-

ina

<eli

kun

nu

I

made

a libation

on

^TT
zik
-

-TT-

v

eE
;

*&

f
VII
in

<
u

f
VII

kur

rat

sadt(i)

the peak of

the mountain

sevens

e=Tf* T
karpatu

^TI --T^T
-

^r ^<
uk
I

159-

t
i
-

a

da

-

gur

-

tin

na

the vessels
i.

set out,

un-

Perhaps read

ik-kal,

"it fed".

THE SACRIFICE ON THE MOUNTAIN

175

^
-

TTT
-

-II
bak

-TTA t T
kanu
reed,

HUEHR
erinu

//

-

Su-nu

at
I

ta

-

'"

der them

heaped up

cedar-wood

a

and

..... .....

Hani?

1

i

-

si

-

nu

The gods

smelt

/

- ri

-

$a

ildni F l

i

-

si -

nu

e

-

ri

-

$a

the savour,

the gods

smelt

the savour

to

-

a

-

ba

ilaniP 1

M
.

-

ma

zu

-

um

-

bi

-

e

that

was sweet,

the gods

like

flies

eli

bel

nike

ip

-

tah

-

ru

ul

-

lu

over

the sacrificer

collected.

When

///

-

la -

nu

-

um

-

ma

llu

Belit Hani

ina

ka

-

$a

-

di

-

su

now

the

Lady of the gods

drew near

ti

-Si

.....

Pl

rabutiP 1
(?),

$a

ilu

she raised

the great jewels

which

A-nu - um Anu

z'

-

pu

-

su

ki

-

i

su

-

hi

-

$u
:

Hani P l

had made

according to

her wish, (crying)

'(What) gods

w

-

-

//'

lu

-

u

abnu

ukm

kiSadi

-

ia

l

these (are)
i.

!

By
it

the (jewels of) lapis lazuli
is

upon
i.

my

neck,

For abnu ukni kisadi-ia

abnu sipri-ia, possible to read

e.

"By my

(jewels of) lapis la%uli'\

I7 6

THE STORY OF THE DELUGE

ai
I

166.

am

-

h'
!

ume P l

an

-

nu

-

ti

will not forget

These

days

^HFTT ^TT Jm
<2/z

t^ ET
-

-

su
set in

-

sa

am -ma

I ana

0T^
da
-

THJ
ai

ris

have

I

my memory,
I67
.

never

will

I

E
am
-

<y^
h'
!

f

y^

E<*>< -E^IT Jgf 55:
HI
-

ildniP 1

li

-

ku

-

ni

forget (them)

Let the gods

come
.es.

^ni
ilu

fc

yyy

a

-

na

sur

-

hi

-

ni

Bel

^
ai
ki
-

to

the offering,

(but) let not Bel

II1I
il
-

li

-

ka

a

-

na
to

sur

-

ni

come

the offering,

.69.
^^ - ^w

^
/
?>

-

//

-

ku

-

ma
and

i$

-

ku
sent

-

nu

since

he took not counsel

a

-

bu

-

bu

u

nise P l

-

ia

im

-

7iu

-

u

the deluge

and

my

people

he surrendered

T

^H^IKTka
-

-7i.<tT*-EiT
ul
-

<^^T^^TTIET
ul
-

ana
to

ra

-

si

tu

la -

nu

-

um

-

ma

destruction.'

When now

ilu

Bel

ina

ka

-

Sa

-

di

-

su

i

-

mur

Bel

drew

near,

he saw

BEL'S

ANGER AT THE ESCAPE OF THE ARK

177

'V

elippa-ma

i - te - ziz

ilu

Bel

lib

-

ba

-

ti

the ship; then

wroth was

Bel,

with anger

A>Jf ttTTT -EE^TT
im
-

W
$a

Hh

HP-

HPllu

W

TT

la

-

li

Hani
the gods

Igigi

was he

filled

against

of the Igigi

:

74.

TI TI
ai
-

tern ET
um
-

m*
u
-

-ETT
si

ma

na

-

pi$

-

li

"Who
175. TI TI
ai

then

has escaped

with

life?

HI tff*
ib
-

lut

amelji

ina

ka

ra

-

'si

No man must
i

live

in the destruction!"

7 6.

^4//

^y tU
jy/w
_

^ TH
^a
his
_

t

E!

^
ikabbi

^

^_^w

epu^-ma

Then Ninib
177-

mouth opened and

spake

>^ t^t
izakar(ar)

ana
to

ku

-

ra

di

ilu

Bel
:

(and) said

the warrior

Bel

rnan-nu

-

um

-

ma

sa

la

llu

E
Ea

-

a

a- ma
(this)

- li

"Who

but

thing

p
i
-

M^|
ba
-

>^-

179-

<M
u
llu

an

-

nu

E
Ea

-

a

could do?

And

i

-

di

-

e -

ma

ka

-

la

$ip

-

ri

ilu

E
12

-

a

knoweth

every

matter!"

Then Ea

i

78

THE STORY OF THE DELUGE

pa
his

-

a-su

epus-ma

mouth opened and

EA'S

PROTEST AGAINST A RECURRENCE OF THE DELUGE

1

79

///

-

ba

-

am

-

ma

tii$e

Pl

li

-

sa
let

-

ah

-

hi

-

ir

come

and

mankind

him

lessen!

am

-

ma

-

ku

ta$

-

ku

-

nu

a

-

bu

-

ba

Instead of

sending

a deluge,

190
barbaru
let a
lit

-

ba

-

am

-

ma
and

ni$e P l

leopard

come

mankind

^E^TT
//

flf

AMPff
ah
-

A
hi
-

ss]
ir
.

191-

t^4
am
-

El
ma
-

Jgf
ku

sa
let

him

lessen!

Instead of

)^

1

1^

I

4
-

I

I

1

"^

/a$ -

ku

nu

a

-

bu

-

ba

hu

-

sah

-

hu

sending

a deluge,

let a

famine

x

y7lillET
-

v
mata
Us
.

'93.4Eym
am
.
.
.

Us

Sa

-

kin

-

ma

-

ma

-

ku

take place

and the land

!

Instead

tas

-

ku

-

nu

a

-

bu

-

ba

ilu

Ur

-

ra

of sending

a deluge,

let

the Plague-god

lit

-

ba

-

am -ma
and

ni$e P l

li$-gi$
let

a

-

na
I

-

ku

come

mankind

him

slay!

ul

ap

-

ta

-

a

pi

-

ris

-

//

Hani P l of the
12*

did not divulge

the decision

i8o

THE STORY OF THE DELUGE
,

96

.

tE
At

E-

rabutiP 1

ra

-

ha

-

sis

su

-

na

-

ta

great gods!

Atra-hasis

a

dream

u
I

-

sab

-

ri

-

sum

-

ma

pi

-

ris

-

ti

Hani? 1
the gods

caused to see

and (thus) the decision of

'97.
is -

t
e
-

r
nin
-

me

na

-

ma

mi

-

lik -

$u

mil

-

kit

he heard!"

Thereupon

came he

to a decision,

198.

tE <tTT El
i
-

~f~
ilu

T a
-

Urn

-

ma

Bel

na
into

lib

-

bi

l'?

u

elippi

and Bel went up
.99.
z'j

the ship;

-H
-

A'

^
-

^^/

ti

-

ia

-

ma
and

ul

-

te

-

la

-

an

-

ni

he took

my

hand

forth

he brought

ia

-

a
;

-

Si

us

-

te

-

li

u$

-

tak

-

mi

-

is

me

he brought forth,

he caused to

bow down

sin - nis - ti

ina
at

i

-

di

-

ia

il

-

pu

-

ut

my

wife

my

side,

he turned us

pu
to

-

ut

-

ni

-

ma
1

iz -

za

-

az

ina

bi

-

ri

-

in

-

ni

one another,

he stood

between

us,

i

-

kar

-

ra

-

ban

-

na

-

si

i

-

na

pa

-

na

he blessed us
i.

:

"Formerly

Literally,

"he turned our front".

THE DEIFICATION OF SlT-NAPlSHTIM

181

m

Sit-napUtim

a- me

-

lu

-

turn

-

ma

e

-

nin

-

na

-

ma

Sit-napiStim

(was) of mankind, but

now

m
let

Sit-naptitim
Sit-napiStim

u

sinm'S/i-Su

lu

-

u

e

-

mu

-

u

ki

-

i

and

his wife

be like

unto

^y_
Hani P l

~ry<^ET
na
-

**.m*W
lu

TH-ET
a
- stl> -

$i -

ma

-

u
let

ma

the gods, even us,

and

dwell

m

Sit-napislim

ina

ru

-

u

-

ki

ina
at

pi
the

-

i

Sit-napitim

afar off

mouth

narati f l

of the rivers!"

ku U in Then took they me

ni

-

ma
and

ina

afar

ru

-

ki

ina
at

pi
the

-

i

narati v l

off,

mouth of

the rivers

.y

-

/e

-

si -

bu

-

in
r

-

ni

they

made me

to

dw ell.

THE DESCENT OF ISHTAR INTO HADES.
The
arrival of the

goddess at the gates of the Lower World.
[K
162.]

a

-

na

mat
the land

la

tari

kak

-

ka

-

ri

To

whence none

return,

the place

z'

-

//

-

e

ilu

Htar

|V "

Sin

of darkness,

Itar

the daughter of Sin

zu

-

un

-

sa

z',y

-

#;/
*
;

her ear

inclined

3.

~TT

-TA-ffl
-

^
ma

HP/v "

<

kun

-

&

then inclined

the daughter of Sin

z/

-

zu

-

tm

-

sa

a

-

na

bit

e

-

ti

-

e

her ear

to

the house

of darkness,

fo

-

^^/

;V "

7r

-

kal

-la
to

sa

the seat
i.
/.

of the god Irkalla.
"directed her attention".

the house

from \ / \ which/

e.,

DESCRIPTION OF

TIIF.

DKAD

i83

TMTi*-i
e
-

-ET
la

T

ri

-

bu- hi

a

-

su

-

u

a

-

na

he that enters

comes not

forth,

to

TJ *=jn
har
-

mv
-

-ET
la

ra

-

ni

$a

a

-

lak

la

-

$a

the road

whose path

does not

?
ta
-

HH
-

T

?

TT
a
-

ai

rat

na

bit

Sa

return,

to

the house

whose

e

-

ri

-

bu

-

su

zn
is

-

um

-

mu

-

u

nu

-

u

-

ra

visitor

excluded from

the light,

.

TJ
a

EEH
-

^!T ATf
epire

v- *bu
-

v-TI
-

^TT
-

$ar

Pl

bu
is

us

su

-

nu

to the place

where

dust

their bread

If
rt

<=m JT *-

<T^
ti
-

^T [UM]
it

9.

^
nu

=TTTt
-

kal

-

su

-

nu

-

tu

u

-

ru

(and) their food

is

mud.

The

light

im

-

ma

-

ru

ina
in

e

-

tu

-

ti

as

-

ba

they behold not,

darkness

they dwell,

tT
/rt^
-

^S
-

-TTl
-

$u

-

ma

kuna
like

is

su

ri

su
in a

-

bat

and are clothed

birds

garment

gap

-

pi

eli

f? u

dalti

u

'V

sikkuri

of feathers;
I.

over

door

and

bolt

bu-bu-its-sii-nn

=

bitbnt-sn-nu.

184

THE DESCENT OF ISHTAR INTO HADES

sa

-

pu

-

uh

ip

-

ru

llu

Is-tar

a

-

na
to

bob

is

scattered

the dust.

iStar,

the gate

v
mat
l

la

tari

ina
at

ka

-

sa

-

di

-

$a

a

-

na

of the\ whence none return \ land f

her approach,

to

amelu

p efu

ba

-

a

-

bi

a

-

ma

- turn

iz

-

zak

-

kar
.:

the porter

at the gate

the

word

addresses

amelu

etn p~

_

me

_

e

i

pi

-

ta

-

a

ba

-

ab

-

ka

Ho!

Porter!

Open

thy gate!

pi

-

ta

-

a

ba

-

ab

-

ka

-

ma

lu

-

ru

-

ba

Open

thy gate,

that

I

may

enter,

T
a
-

-ET
la

t^TT
ta
-

na

-

ku
!

$um

-

ma

pat

-

ta

-

a

even

I

If

thou openest not

tffl
ba
-

tT
I

T
a
-

a

-

bu

la

ir

-

ru

ba

na

-

ku

the gate,

<
Wrt^
I

-

ha

-

^
as

so that

enter not,

-in
dal
-

^m
turn

i
sik -

ku

-

ru

will smite

the door,

the bolt

T a

tHd!
-

A^
-

is.

IT
a
-

-^11
mah
I

$ab
I

Mr

-

}}< ha

-

as

will
i.

shatter,

will smite

me

is

here probably to be taken as an enclitic particle.

THE GODDESS AND THE PORTER

185

si

the

pu- ma threshold and
-

ip

-

u

-

$a

-

bal

-

kat

f

>

dalati f l

tear

down

the doors,

u

-

$e

-

el

-

la

-

a

mi

-

tu

-

ti

akiluli P l

I

will raise

up
20

the dead,

that they

may

eat

-

lal

-

tu

-

ii

eli

bal

-

tu

-

ti

(and) live,

(and) over

the living

'

z'

-

ma
will

-

-

du

mi

-

.tu

-

ti

amelu

swarm

the dead.

The

porter

pa-a-su
his

i -

pu

-

u$

-

ma

i -

kab- bi
;

iz -

zak

-

ka

-

ra

mouth

opened and spake

he addresses

23
a
-

-

na

ilu

rabiti(ti}

R
Itar

-

tar

i

-

zi

-

zi

the princess

:

"Stay,

<H
be
-

el

-

ti

la

ta

-

na

-

da
r

-

a$

-

O

lady,

thou shalt not throw

it

down

!

lu

-

ul

-

lik

$umu

-

ki

lu

-

sa

-

an

-

ni

a

-

na

Let

me go

(and) thy

name

declare

to

Sar

ra

-

ti

fl

Allatu

the queen

Allatu."

THE LOVES OF ISHTAR.
The
repulse of the goddess by the hero Gilgamesh.
[K 23i,

K

4579

a -f-

K

8018, S 2112 and

R

578.]

W
a
-

H^
llu

na

du

-

un

-

ki

sa

GilgameZ

On

the comeliness

of

GilgameS

i

-

na

it

-

ta

-

si

ru

-

bu

-

ut

llu

Istar
:

(her) eyes

she cast,

did the mighty iStar

7.

tKf
al
-

^
kam
-

ET
ma

~f

tT
illi

m

HF-

EH
lu
-

=TTT=
u

GilgameS

"Come,

Gilgamesh,

be

ir

at
!

-

ta

in

-

bi

-

ka

thou (my) spouse

Thy

strength

-

- iV

^fl

-

-J?

>(v'

-

Sam

-

ma
and

al

-

ta

on

me

as a gift

bestow

thou

//

-

u

mu

-

ti

-

ma

a

-

na
I

-

ku

lu

-

u

shalt be

my

husband and

will be

ISTAR'S PASSION

FOR GILGAMESH

187

aS

-

Sa

-

at

-

ka
!

lu

-

Se -

iz-ziz

-

ka

'^narkabti
in a chariot

thy wife

I

will set thee

Sa

ma-Sa

-

rti

-

of lapis lazuli

and

gold

whose wheels

hurasa

-

am

-

ma
and
of

el

-

mi -hi
(?)

kar

-

na

-

a

-

$a

.....
.....

are of gold

diamond

its

horns!

=TTTTs:
a
-

i -

na

biti -

ni

na

e

-

ri

-

M

-

ka

Into

our house

when

thou enterest,

TMT
a
-

Ei
-

rat

tu

-

u

li

-

na

-

rt,?

-

Si

-

ku

the mighty

shall kiss

sepe

T Pl

-

ka

lik

-

mi

-

su

thy

feet,

there shall

bow down

III
ina

<
Pl

Sap

-

U

-

ka

Sarrani P l

bele

u

beneath thee

kings,

rulers

and

HfffiT
rube P l

man

-

da

-

at

$adi(f)

u

princes

the tax

of mountain and

ma -a

-

tu

lu

-

u

na

-

Su

-

nik

-

ka

bil

-

tu

land

shall they bring thee

as tribute!"

l88

THE LOVES OF ISHTAR

ilu

Gilgames

Gilgames'

his

pa- a-~su mouth

i -

pu

-

us

-

ma

opened
T7
a
-

and

23,
/ -

[*E EEE<
i
-

^tJ
ka
-

E^TT]
ra

^T
na

kab

-

bi

zak

spake,

he addressed

ffl
ru
-

*bu
-

*T
ut

-HFiln

TT H-tar
IStar
:

^'

..... .....
"....:
ff< ha

the mighty

4 6.
//M

<B: -TTI
-

Duzi

mi

-

ri

On

Tammuz

the spouse

su

-

uh

ri

-

ti

-

hi

sat

~

ta

a

-

na

of thy youth,

from year

to

-Ill
l
-

^T<
-

ti

bi

-

tak

-

ka

-

.a

tal

ti

-

mes

-

su

year

affliction

didst thou lay

upon him.

48.

sj r -ET
/ -

-ITU *jn ET
bit
-

^IT
ta
-

<= ET
ra
-

//

-

la

ru

-

ma

mi

-

ma

The
49.

brightly-coloured

Allallu-b\rd.

hast thou loved but

*Hf<
tarn -ha

*ETT
-

JT
su
-

ET
ma

-TII^J
kap
-

si

-

pa

-

su

tal

-

te

-

bir

thou smotest him and

his

wing

thou didst break;

iz -

za

-

az

na
in

ki -

$a

-

tim

-

ss

-

s
:

he stands
i.

the woods,
Ishtar's offer,

he
are

cries

LI.

24

45, in

which Gilgamesh refuses

much

broken.

THE FATES OF THOSE SHE HAS FAVOURED

189

"
^/*

/*

^a

"

fa

-

(S: Ey m - ma

IH -HI
a lion,

"O my wing!"

Thou

hast also loved

;;//

-

/>'

*

-

/

-

ki
;

siba

it

siba

perfect

in strength

seven

by

seven

-TTI
tt/i

^
-

I

&
su
-

*T t^TIT
ut
-

Tl
a
-

-

tar

-

ri

ta

-

ti

didst thou dig for

him

the snares.

ta

-

ra

-

mi

-

ma

sisa

na

-

-

id

Thou

hast also loved

a horse,

exalted

54.
kab
-

li

is

-

dah

-

ha

zik

-

ti

u

in the battle,

bridle

(?)

spur

and

dir

-

ra

-

ta

tal

-

ii

-

me$

-

Su

siba

.....
stages

whip

(?)

didst thou lay

upon him,

for seven

-ET ,55 ET
la
-

-Til
tal
-

*- T< I
ti
-

I
me$
-

56.

^yy
da
-

^y
la -

-\
hu

j

-

ma

su

to gallop

didst thou lay

upon him,

trouble

u

sa

-

ta

-

a

tal

-

ti

-

me$

-

Su

a

-

na

and

sweat (?)

didst thou lay

upon him,

on

ummt-Su
his

ilu

Si

-

li

bi

-

tak

-

ka

-

a

mother

Silili

affliction

i

go

THE LOVES OF 1SHTAR

tal

-

ti

-

mi

ta

-

ra

-

mi

-

ma

amelu

r^ u

didst thou bring.

Thou
59.
sa

hast also loved

a shepherd

tfcTTT
la
-

vbu
-

-El
la

If If
ka
-

HTI*
-

ai

nam

-

El ma

of the flock,

who

continually

tu

-

urn

-

ri
(?)

-

pu

-

kak

-

hi

the sacrificial flame

poured out for thee

60.

u

-

mi

-

sam

-

??ia

u

-

ta

-

ba

-

ha

-

ak

-

ki

and daily

slaughtered for thee

/

-

ki

-

ti

tarn

-ha

-

si

-

su-ma

a

-

na

kids;

but thou smotest

him and

into

IH

HFbarbara
a leopard
tu
-

ut

-

tir

-

ri

-

su

didst thou

change him,

I
ta
-

ar

-

ra

-

du

-

su

ka

-

par

-

ru

there hunted

him
.

the sheep-boy

<
u

MT
kalbe P l
-

JT
su

sa

ram
his

-

ni

x

su

who was

own

and

his

hounds

& W
u
-

HI
-

-III
Sab
in pieces. 2
"tore his wounds".
-

JI
-

na

-

a$

-

sa

ku

ri

su

tore
i,
/. e.,

him

his

own

sheep-boy.

2. Lit.,

THE FATES OF THOSE SHE HAS FAVOURED
64.

191

tfcTTT
ta

E^TT
ra

<~
mi
-

ET
ma

<=E

JT <cT* -ET *-

I

hi

-

id

-

la

-

nu

Thou

hast also loved

ISullanu,

^ET
urki

<M
-

65Sa

abi

hi

the gardener

of thy father,

who

X:tz

-

ai

-

nam

-

ma

su

-

gu

-

ra

-

a

1

na

-

sak

-

ki

continually
66.
-

costly gifts

would bring
=

thee,

- tt
;;//

E

t
u

-

Sam

-ma

-

nam

-

ma

-

ru

and daily

made

bright

sS*V<m
/
-

as

-

hir

-

ki

thy dish;

..... ..... .....

76.

^HT <
tam
-

T

tETT
-

JT
su

T^^
a
-

ha

si

-

na

thou smotest him,

into

-Til -ET
dal
-

-ey
li
.

^y
tu
-

^y
ut
-

la

tir

-

ri

-

su

a cripple

didst thou change him,

77.

-^y
"

*
Jfe

<j-

3
-

^y
-

ET
-

ma
in

-T --T^
ka
-

///

-

^'

bi

~su

ma

dal

thou madest him to

sit

the midst of

ma

-

na
a

-

ah

-

ti

couch

..... ..... .....

79.

<
u
ia
-

a

- si

and

as for

me

j^TTT^^ET
ia
-

<M^E VJT^ki
-

ram

-

man-ni-ma

i

$a- $u-nu

tu

-

.......
me]!"/

thou wouldest love
i.

me and

like

them

fwouldest thoul
\ [ ------

su-gu-ra-a

=

su-ku-ra-a.

THE TREACHERY OF THE GOD
[K
3 4 54

ZU.

+

K

3 9 3 5 .]

z>

-

sit

*'

Bel

u

-

ta

On

the insignia

of Bel's dominion

*ET
i
-

^TT -ET
-

*
i
-

na

-

at

ta

-la

na

-

su

a

-

gi

-

gaze

his eyes;

the crown

be -

lu

-

ti -

su

na

-

al

-

ba

-

as

ilu

-

ti

-

su

of his dominion,

the robe of

his godhead,

3.

tCTTTT

Htt*
l

T

-HFilu
-

-!<
ti
-

I
su

-HFilu

W
Za
-

T

dupnmati P

a

the destiny-tablets

of his godhead

Zu

Til ET
/'/

4
it

-

ta

-

na

-

tal -

ma
and

-

ta

-

na

-

tal

-

ma

looks upon,

he looks upon

I

T a
-

^~X
bi
ildni P l

^T '^CHF~

Hi

Dur

an

ki

the father of

the gods,

the god of

Duranki

7.1

"S

AMBITION
~TTT -TTfc
-

ig3

5.

t^^
w/C'

-^TT
-

^TII
llu

-T<
-

tT
is
-

W sa- bat
fast

su

Bel
Bel's

u

ti

a longing for

dominion

is

held

HFi
-

--TT ~TTT~
Zu
-

na

lib

-

bi

-

Su

ilu

u

in

his heart.

Zu

^TTT -ET -TT1 ET
ta
-

Tt
a
-

-HFbi

at

-

tal

-

ma

Hani P l
the gods,

Hi
the god of

looks upon

the father of

Dur

-

an

-

ki
-

uk

-

su

ilu

Bel

-

u

-

ti

Duranki

a longing for

Bel's

dominion

z'j

-

sa

-

bat

i

-

na

lib

-

bi

-

Su

lul
"I

-

ki -

ma

is

held fast

in

his heart.

will take

duphmati P

l

ildni P l

a

-

na

-

ku
I,

u

the destiny-tablets

of the gods,

even

and

TI-TM<
-

ri

-

e

-

ti

y
Sa

-HPT
Hani P l
all

ka

-

li

-

Su-nu

the oracles

of

the gods

m
/
-

*
uh
will
I

-

mu

-

um

lu

I

uk

-

kin

-

ma

direct.

will establish

T
-

liH-M
lu
-

^T^ETT
par -si

IEU ET A-Hflu -

Rs
ir

a

be - lu

ma
I

-

'

-

my

throne

and dispense commands.

will rule
i3

194

TIIE

TREACHERY OF THE GOD ZU

kul

-

lat

ka

-

li

-

su-uu

llli

I

-

gi

-

gi

every one of

the Spirits of Heaven!

ik

-

pu

-

nd -ma

lib

-

la

-

su

in

-

kit

-

mi

-

fa

And

his heart

pondered on

battle,

;//

-

rib
\

ki

-

is

-

si

sa

it

-

fa

-

at

-

la

-

lu

I I

at

the

the hall,

entrance of|

where he beheld,

=TTT=-TTM
u
-

-TTKTri si

*!<&
u
-

***$*-&
e
-

ka

-

a

-

a

mi

mi- -

ma

as he waited,

the

dawn

of the day.

Now when

J
iln

IH
me
Pl
ellidi

Bel

i

-

ra

-

mu

-

ku

Bel

was pouring out

the clear water,

mr ET
$ah
-

^
i -

tu

-

ma

na

""

kussi

a

-

and taken

off

upon

the throne

his

gu - su diadem

I6
k
-

.

nu

duph??iati

Pl

ik

-

su

-

da

lay,

the destiny-tablets

he seized

'

ka

-

tus

-

Su

!

lu

Bel

-

u

-

ti

U

-

te

-

ki

with his hand,

the dominion of Bel

he took,

-I
na
-

-TIT-

l^T tETT]
par
-

'8-

du

u

si

^ ^TT
illi

=TTT
-

Zu

u

the dispensation of

commands.

Zu

IMS

THEFT OF THE TABLETS OF DESTINY

IQ5

v *ip
-

HI*
-

^
-

pa

-

ri$

-

wfl

&*</

-

wj

j

z'X:

j

fled

and

in

his

mountain

hid himself.

<T
//

V
$a
-

-

/cz

-

<?/

-

bak

har

-

ra

-

turn

$a

-

kin

Poured

forth

was
20

^
ku

grief,

resounding

IMI
lu

-

IT
a
-

^bu

ET ma

IH
-

JT -^
-

lik

$u

-

nu

were the

cries;

the father,

their arbiter,

^
-

r
Bel,

was

through the hall

-

fa

-

pa

-

ak

na

-

mur

-

rat

-

su

he poured out

his rage.

ilu

A

-

nu

-

urn

pa
his

-

a

-

su

i

-

pu

-

sa

-

ma
and

Arm

mouth

opened

E e^
i
-

^
-

24.

[

t t E fc<] .-vy t-yy
i
-

y a

kab

bi

zak

-

ka

-

ra

spake,

he addressed

T

2 s.

[T? Tl]
ai
-

=m=
u
llu

ilaniP

1

mare?

1

-

su

Za-a
will

the gods,

his sons:

"Who

vanquish

Zu

und

over

the peoples
i3*

of

all

196

THE TREACHERY OF THE GOD ZU
Ill ad -

TT da

Tme

-E&
U
-

^H ^
sar
-

-

bi

sum
his

-

su

dwellings

make

great

name?"

27

.

llu

Rammanu

gugallu

is

-

su

-

u

l

mar
the son of

On Ramman,

the ruler,

they cried,

llu

A - mini
Anu;

ilu

A - num
Anu
the

te

-

ma

a

-

na

command

to

$a

-

su

-

ma

i

-

zak

-

kar

-

su

llu

Rammanu

him

addressed.

On Ramman

gugallu

is

-

su

-

u

mar
the son of

llu

A

-

num

the ruler

they cried,

Anu;

llu

A - num Anu

te

-

ma

a

-

na
to

~sa

-

su

-

ma

the

command

him

i -

zak

-

kar-^u
:

al

-

ka

ma

-

ru

tlu

Rammanu

addressed

"Up!

son

Ramman,

-^ 1W
da

-pi

-

nu
;

ai

i -

ni

-

ka

-

bal

-

ka

mighty one

unvanquished be

thine assault!

ni

-

ir

ilu

Za-

a

i

-

na

kakki

-

ka

Conquer
I.

Zu
I

with
sasu.

thy weapon,

is-su-u

=

issu,

i,

Pret.

fr.

ANU'S APPEAL
|-

TO RAM MAN

1

97

w

33.
;itmu
-

ka

H
may

-

ir -

bi

i

-

na

pu

-

hur

that thy

name

be great
34

in

the assembly of

^
z'Az#z'

JM^.

.

[srE
i
-

Fl

rabnti pi

na

bi

-

rit

the great gods,

among

Hani F l
the gods

ahe P l

-

ka

ma

-

hi

-

ra

e

thy brethren

a rival

thou

Azr

-

A'

lib

-

$u

-

ma

lib

-

ba

-

nu

-

u

wilt not possess!

Let there

exist,

let

there be built

-

^-i
l

parakkdni F
shrines,

i

-

na

kib

-

rat

ir

-

bit

-

ti

in

the four quarters (of the world)

<rsi
-

!

tak

-

ka

-

na

ma

-

ha

zi

-

ka

establish

thy

cities,

37.

[ET flf< ma - ha

^TT]
-

-

zu

ka

U

-

ru

-

bit

a

-

na

let

thy city

enter

into

38

-

E

-

kur
\

$it

-

ra

-

ah

i -

na

mah
before

-

ri

/the Mountain
lof the

Show

thyself strong

World!/

Hani P l
the gods

-

ma
and

ga$

-

ru

lu

-

u

$umi
thy

-

ka

mighty

be

name!"

198

THE TREACHERY OF THE GOD ZU

tE*
ilu

ET

Rammdnu

RAMMAN'S EXCUSES

199

-ET
ilu

T

-ET
-

Rammdnu

la

a

la

-

ku

Ramman

not to go

ik

-

bi

decided. 2
Col.

1.

II,

11.

549,

and Col.

Ill,

1.

6.

2.

Eventually Shamash,

the Sun-god,

caught Zn

in

his

net and

recovered

Bel's insignia; see below,

The Story of the Eagle, the Serpent, and the Sun-

god, B. Obv.,

1.

1

3.

ETANA'S JOURNEY TO HEAVEN WITH THE EAGLE.
[K 8563 and

R

2,

454 -f

7978,

180.]

V
nasru
a
-

JT
-

ET
-

T
a
-

na

sa

su

ma

na

The Eagle

to

him

to

TTI

E

-

ta

-

na

iz

-

zak

-

kar
:

ib

-

ri

Etana

spake

"My
i6
-

friend,

JT
su
-

&
pa
-

TJ
a
.

tl<l
al
-

*t
ka

make

bright

[thy countenance

(?)]!

Come!

-

;/fl

$aml(e)

sa

let

me

carry thee up

to

the heaven

of

Anu

!

Upon
18.

my

breast

lay

ma
thy breast,

eh

upon

the wing-feathers of

THE START

2OI

JI HTAHFff
kap
-

HII
kap
-

*Tpi
-

pi

-

ia

Su

-

kun
lay

ka

my

pinions

thy hands,

//

z'

-

di

-

ia

Su

-

kun
lay

upon

my
<>

side

^HJ
/'

ina

<KH
eli

** JI
irti -

-

di

-

ka

su

thy side!"

Upon

his breast

he laid

his breast,

upon

na

-

as

kap

-

pi

-

Su

is

-

ta

-

kan

kap

-

pi

-

su

the wing- \ ) \feathers of/

his pinions

he laid

his hands,

ina

eli

i

-

di

-

Su

is

-

ta

-

kan

upon

his side

he laid

i

-

di

-hi
1

u

-

dan

-

nin

-ma

ir

-

ta

-

bi

his side.

He made

fast (his

hold) and

great

was

v^TT
bi
- lat
-

MZ
titen(en}

**.....
/

^V<M[JT]
u
-

su

sa

-

ki

-

su

his weight.

For one

space of

\

\two hours/
*.

he carried him up.

^T -II
na^ru

\\
a
-

-Hf
na
to

V
sa
-

JI
Su
-

El
ma

I
a
-

na

The Eagle
I.

him,

to

Etana evidently did not ride on the back of the Eagle but clung to his breast.

202

ETANA'S JOURNEY TO HEAVEN WITH THE EAGLE

z/ "

E

-

ta

-

na

iz

-

zak

-

kar
:

du

-

gul

Etana,

spake

"Look,

HMTI
z$
-

ETff-tET
ma a
-

<EftE
ki
-

tEE^y^M
i
-

n'

tu

i

ba
it

-

a$
is;

-

si

my

friend,

at the land,

how

-

nb

-

bi

tarn - turn

i

-

da

-

te
it

-

sa
1

behold

the sea

around

is

lit

ni- me

-

hi

ma -a

-

turn -

me

- e 2

li

-

mid -da

the abyss;

the land

perceive

sada(a}
/

tam
\

-

turn

i

-

tu

-

ra

a

-

na
I

me

-

e

as a

the sea

has turned

into

JO

little]!

\mountain, /

water."

/

JT
sana(a)

.....
f

u
\

-

sa

-

ki

-

hi

- ??ia

For

a second

space of

he carried

\

two hours \

him up

and

nasru the Eagle

a

-

na
to

sa

-

su

-

ma

a

-

na

him,

to

-

ta

-

na

iz

-

zak

-

kar
:

du

-

gul

Etana

spake

"Look,

ib

-

ri

ma

-

a

-

turn

ki

-

i

i

-

ba
it

-

as
;

-

h'

my
I.

friend,
Literally,

at the land,
(at) its sides,
2,

how
with the

is

ma-a-tum-me-e = matu

enclitic particle

me.

THE APPEARANCE OF THE EARTH

AS

THEY ASCEND
31.

2o3

<t

V

ma

-a

-

turn -

me

-

e

$ib

-

bu
[is

$al-$a

for the land

a girdle

the sea]."

For

a third

u
space of I two hours/
r
i

-

$a

-

ki

-

$u-ma

nasru

a

-

na

he carried him up and

the Eagle

to

Sa

-

su

-ma

a

-

na

iln

E

-

ta

-

na

iz

-

zak

-

kar
:

him,

to

Etana,

spake
T

?*.

^T
</

U
-

HI
ib
-

-TTI
ri
.

ET
ma
-

IT
a

-EET
-

<Ef
ki
-

gul

tu

i

"Look,

my

friend,

at the

land

how

i -

ba
it

-

a$

- si

tarn

-

turn

i

-

tu

-

ra

a

-

na

is;

the sea

has turned

into

i

-

ki

tu

the water- 1 j
\

of

channel

a gardener.

After

e

-

lu

-

u

a

-

na

$aml(e]

sa

ilu

A

-

num

going up

to

the heaven

of

Anu,

35.

wa
into

tttf

^

^
ilu

T^

<t<T
-

A

num

ilu

Bel

u

the gate of

Anu,

Bel

and

Ea Ea

i

-

ba

-

'

-

u

they came.

THE STORY OF THE EAGLE, THE SERPENT, AND THE SUN-GOD.
[A
:

A

tablet in the possession of Dr. D.

W.

Marsh; B

:

K

1547 and

K

2527.]

A,

obv,

i.

s.

i
nasru

^yyy
lib
-

ty
ba
-

^y
su

[lib
-

^ET (?)]
la

The Eagle
4.

his heart

prompted

^^
ik
-

^y ET
-

pu

nd

-

ma
and

lib

-

ba

-

su

he considered

his heart

ub

-

la

a

-

na

ad
the

-

mi

sa

prompted (him)

young

of

/
ru
his

Tf

I

If
a
-

-a- su

ka

-

li

companion

to eat

nasru

pa
his

-

su

i -

pu

-

11$ -

ma
and

i

-

zak

-

kar

The Eagle
[y

mouth

opened
7.

he spake

t

ana

I mare P l
his

M]
-

Su
:

mare P l are

sin'

-

mi

unto
I.

young

'The young
enclitic particle

of the Serpent

mi

is

a rare

form of the

ma.

THE EAGLE'S DESIGNS ON THE YOUNG OF THE SERPENT

205

lu

-

ku

-

lu
I

ana-ku
eat
I

e

-

li

-

ma
and

will

will ascend

VET<st
i
-

9.JH-TTu$
-

na

Sa

-ma

-

mt

.......
I

ur
/I
\

-

rad
I

into

heaven

will

[mount].

will

swoop \ down

z'

-

na

ap

-

pi

is

-

si

-

ma
I

a

-

kal

in

-

ba
1
.

upon

the top

of a tree and

will eat

the fruit

ad

mu One
-

si

-

ih

-

ru

a

-

tar
in

ha

-

si

-

sa

of the

young

birds,

abounding

wisdom,

TJ
a
-

T

^T
-

-II

tET I
abi
-

-tH
amata
the

[*] t
izakar(ar}

na

na'sri

su

to

the eagle

his father

word

addressed

:

,

-ET t^
/a

=m
^a/
eat,

\}
a
-

^
bi

^
$e

^
-

-E^T
-

V
sa

e

tu

"Do not

O my

father,

(for) the net

of

/M

SamaS

i

-

ba
is

-

nu- ma
(?).

gi$-par

-

ru

ma-mil
the ban

SamaS
-HF;/ " SamaS
of

laid

The

trap,

HI
ib
-

bal

-

ki

iu

ka

-

ma
and

SamaS

will fall

on thee

EH i3.7 tE
<5ar -

ru

-

ka

-

ma

Sa

i

-

fa

-

a

sa

ilu

will catch thee.

Whoso

the law

of

SamaS

That

is,

the fruit of the Serpent.

206

THE STORY OF THE EAGLE AND THE SERPENT

//

-

ti

-

kn

llu

Santas

Urn

-

nis

ma

ka

-

at

-

.....

transgresses,

will Mamas'

terribly

.......

4.

<ti*
ul

~TT
is
-

K M *- -!<
me
-

ET
ma
ul
is
-

$u

-

nu

-

ti -

ma -a

He

did not hearken to

them and

gave not ear

zi

-

kir

mari
of his

-

su

u

-

ri

-

dam

-

ma
and

to the

word

young one.

He swooped down
111
of the Serpent.

'I e
-

ts;
the

[1

ta

-

kal

mare

ate

young

B,
-

^

-

t/z'

-

su

The Serpent

when

he drew near

a

-

na

tlu

SamaS

a-

ma

-

turn

i -

kab

-

hi
:

ad

-

dan
give

to

Sanaas"

the

word

spake

"I will

-II
a
-

na

nasri

an account

To

the Eagle

e

-

nin

-

na

kin

-

ni

-

ia

Now

my

nest

THE SERPENT'S COMPLAINT TO THE SUN-GOD

207

kin

-

ni

-

ia

u

-

tu

i

-

na
in

is

-

si

My

nest

he espied,

the tree

-TI
sa
-

TTT- TJ
ad
.

ap

-

hu

-

mn

-

u

-

a

Scattered are

my

young,

MM
;///

-

.

w

-

ri

-

dam

-

ma

e

-

ta

-

kal

He swooped down and
-

did eat

9.

-

~
-

/w
(my young
ones).

-

nu
evil

sa

i -

pu

Sa

-

an

-

ni

The

which

he hath done me,

f/w<2^ -

sa

O

(behold!)

Help,

;

?z'

-

tu

rapastu(tii}

Thy

net

(is

like) the

broad earth,

giS-par

-

ru

-

ka
(is

rukuti(ti]

thy trap
12.

like)

the distant heaven!

-E
i
-

^7
na
-

//

-

ka

From

thv net

who

<HH
^
-

/i?

Umuttim(tim}
evil,

hath escaped?

(Even) the worker of

208

THE STORY OF THE EAGLE AND THE SERPENT

ilu

Zu
Zu,

-

u

mu- Ml
the raiser

ri

-

e$

limutti(ti)

of the head of

evil,

i

-Iff
un
-

.....
(did not escape)!"

ni

-

ni

$a

siri

i

-

na

The

prayer

of

the Serpent

when

-

mi

-

su

ilu

Samas

pa
his

-

su

i -

pu

-

sa

-

am

-

ma
and

he heard,

SamaS

mouth

opened
If

IH
-

a

-

na

siri

i

-

zak

-

kar
:

a

lik

to

the Serpent

spake

"Take

IH
ur
-

ff< ha

e

-

ti

-

ik

sa

-

da

-

If] a

the road,

go into

the mountain.

-Ill
uk
-

[*
-

ta

-

as

-

si

-

ka

ri

mu

Make thy

hiding-place

a wild ox

mi

-

i

-

tu

pi

-

te

-

=TfET e - ma

'ib

-

ba

-

$u

that

is

dead.

Open

its

bowels,

ra
its

-

as

-

su

1

~su

-

tu

-

ut

su
a

-

ub

-

ta

belly

tear,

dwelling

id

-

di

-

na

kar
its

-

$i-$u

mm-mu

-

u

make
i.

in

belly.

All

ha-ra-as-su

=

karas-su.

THE SUN-GOD'S ADVICK
tT
is -

209

-

-IT-

V El <tt
$a
-

su

rat

ma

-

mi

ur

-

ra

-

da

-

nim

-

ma

the birds

of heaven

will

come down

and

21.

22.

naSru

it

-

ti

-

h'

-

na

the Eagle

with them

El
z7
-

3.

*i(J)]
ina

la

-

ka

-

am

-

ma
and

will

come

without

i

-

du

-

u

nu

-

ru

-

ub

knowing

a piece of

z'^

-

te

-

ni

-

ir

-

ta

-

a

-

ti

flesh

will he seek,

swiftly

z'/

-

ta

-

na - al

-

lak

a

-

na

ku

-

tu

-

um

will he go,

to

the hidden part

/z$

-

bi

us

-

ttlll El ta - ma
will

E&
-

El(?)

am

-

ma

a

-

na

his attention

he turn.

Into

tff -III
lib
^z'
z'

S3 JT
-

*ET
at
-

11
ta

-

na

e

-

ri

bi

-

Su

the midst

when

he has entered,

do thou

sa-bat

-

su

i

-

na

kap

-

pi -hi

nu

-

uk

-

kis

seize

him

by

his wing,

tear off

210

THE STORY OF THE EAGLE AND THE SERPENT

-TZITJT
kap
-

^MTII <HiU
ab
-

[>E^]E
su
-

pi

-

hi

ri

-

Su

u

up

-

ra

-

su

his wings,

his pinions

and

his claws,

a8

.

^
bu
-

J2=<
ku

tfflf

JT
-

ET
-

^
l

<!^
-

I
Su

T

un

su

ma
and

i

di

-

ana
into

pull

him

in pieces

cast

him

ut

-

ta

-

ti

.......
...'....,

mu -ut
a death

bu

-

bu

-

it

a pit

from

hunger

u

su

-

um
thirst

-

mi

li

and

let

mu - ta him die."
-

a

-

na

At

zi

-

kir

ilu

&ama$

ku

-

ra

-

di

siru

U

-

lik

the

word

of

SamaS

the hero,

the Serpent

departed,

i

-

ti

-

ik

$a

-

da

-

a

ik

-

Su

-ud-ma

siru

[and] went into

the mountain.

And

the Serpent

came

a

-

na

si

-

ir

ri

-

mi

ip

-

te

-

e

-

ma

upon

a wild

ox

and he opened

*m
lib
-

tT I
ba
-

-tH
ka
-

E^IT
ra
its
-

^SL ^TT
as
-

-IT Dlf
i$
-

^1
ut

$u

su

tu

-

its

bowels,

belly

he

tore,

Su

-

ub

-

ta

id

-

di

i

-

na
in

kar
its

-

h'-

a dwelling
I.

he made

belly.

bu-ku-un-su-ma

=

biikum-su-ma.

THE SERPENT'S RUSE
34.

211

fr
-

^
mu
All

tTTT*
-

fT
is
-

*
su
-

-TTrat

V
Sa
-

ET
ma
-

Tme

u

the birds

of heaven

TI]
u
-

TT

ET
ma
and

-TI*-eH-ET
ik

<T-<=EEt!T
h'
-

ri

-

da

-

ka
ate

-

la

i

-

ra

came down

of the flesh.

35-

^T -U
naSru

liH
lu
-

*
mu

tfflf
-

I
Su

*E [^TT(
i
-

?

)J
-

T?
a
-

ET
ma

un

-

da

[But] the Eagle

his evil

purpose

(at first)

suspected and

it

-

ti

mare P l

is

-

su

-

ri

ul

with

the flock of birds

did not

/X'

-

kal

h'

-

i

-

ra

nasru

pa
his

-

a

-

Su

eat

of the flesh.

The Eagle

mouth

*-

V
-

^
-

ET
ma
and

*
i
-

E^<
zak
-

-tH
ka
-

E^TT
ra

T
ana

pu

$a

am

-

opened
38.

spake

unto

t
al
-

mare
his

Pl

-

Su
:

ka

-

nim
!

-

ma

i
let

ni

-

rid -

ma

young

"Come

us go down, and

Sir

rimi

an

-

ni

-

e

i

ni

-

ku

-

la

ni

-

nu

jofthe\
\

of this wild ox

let

us also eat!"

flesh

/

ad

-

mu

si

ih

-

ru

a

-

tar

ha
in

-

si

-

sa

One

of the young birds,

abounding

wisdom,
14*

212

THE STORY OF THE EAGLE AND THE SERPENT

4-CT]
ana
to

!$>TTtur
-

TJ3
a
-

Tm
mm
-

rat

bi

di

-

.....

a-

ma

-

turn

turn

away

the father

..........

the

word

i

-

zak

-

kar
:

a

-

bi

it

-

ti

sir
the flesh of

spake

"Father,

in

nmi
this

an

-

ni

-

e

siru

ra

-

bi

- is

wild ox

the Serpent lurks!"

A, Rev.,

i.

9

c*
ul
2$
-

me

-

su

-

nu

-

ti -

ma
and

ul

He

did not hearken to

them

gave

is

-

ma

-a

zi
to the

-

kir
of

mari-su
ihisyoungi
\

u
/

-

ri

-

dam

-

ma

not ear

word

one.

He swooped down and

it

ta

-

ziz

ina

eli

ri

-

me

na$ru

stood

upon

the wild ox.

The Eagle

tU
ip
-

tyyy
kid
$ira
is
te
-

ni

-

-

inspected

the flesh,

he looked carefully

$a

in front of

pa-ni-$u him

u

ar

-

kt -

$u

i$

-

ni

-

and

behind him.

He

again

=ITT
ip
-

kid

$ira

i$

-

te

-

ni

-

-

i

$a

inspected

the flesh,

he looked carefully

in

Till-:

CAPTURE OF THE EAGLE

2l3

pa

-

ni-$u

u

ar

-

ki -

hi

ir

-

ta

-

a

-

la

front of

him

and

behind him.

Swiftly

[tatf] jTTT
it -

ta

-

na

-

al

-

lak

a

-

na

ku

-

tuni

he went,

to

the hidden part

lib

-

bi

us

-

ta

-

ma

-

am -a

a

-

na

lib

-

bi

his attention

he turned.

Into

the midst

z'(2

tyi -III
f
-

I
bi
-

*Hfff<
siru

^T
is -

W
sa
-

-<
bat

-^TT
-

ina

n

-

$u

su

when

he had entered,

the Serpent

seized

him

by

pa
his

-

$u

wing

.....

The Eagle

his

mouth

/'

-

pu

.-

Sa

-

am

-

ma
and

a

-

na

siri

i

-

zak

-

kar-$u
:

opened

to

the Serpent

spake

.

[MF
wo/>
-

"To]
Its

-HFan
-

^
ni
-

ET
ma

<^!T
kima

ty? ^TTI <Te
-

-

ri

-

h'

"Have mercy upon me and

according to

(thy) pleasure

</w

-

na
gift

-

a

lut

-

lim

-

ka

siru

with a

will

I

present thee."

The Serpent

/rt

-

^

i

-

pu

-

Sa

-

am -ma
and

a

-

na

na$ri

his

mouth

opened

to

the Eagle

214

THE STORY OF THE EAGLE AND THE SERPENT

i -

zak

-

kar :

u

-

mas
"If
I

-

sar

-

ka

-

ma

ilu

spake

release thee

SamaS

e

-

U

-

nu

ki

-

i
.

ap

-

$e - rit

-

ka

against us(?)

.

thy punishment

i -

sah

-

hu

-

ra

a

-

na
to

muh
me,

-

hi

-

ia

sa

will return

which

TJ
a
-

sak

-

ka

-

nu

-

ka

a

-

na

-

ku

$e - ir

-

ta

(now)

I

execute on thee

as a punishment.

.yyj
-

nak

-

hi

-

is

kap

-

pi

-

$u

ab

-

ri

-

$

He

tore off

his wings,

his pinions

ib

-

ku

-

un

-

hi

-

ma A

(and) his talons,

he pulled him in pieces and

I
id
-

T

JT
su
-

^
ut
-

di

-

su

ana
into

ta

-

ti

cast

him

a pit

mu

-

ut

bu

-

bu

-

ti

u

su

-

um
thirst

-

m

A

death

from hunger

and

/ -

mu

-

ut

he died.
.

ib-ku-un-sii-ma

ibkum-sn-ma.

HOW ADAPA BROKE THE WING OF THE
SOUTH-WIND.
[V. A. Th. 348.]

.,

i.

2

jy
$u

tfTTt
-

[-E
tu
-

ET
z

u

-

The South-wind
T
~

ga blew

-

am - ma
and

a -su

ut

- ti

-

ib

-

ba

-

a$

-

su

a

-

na
to

bi

- i

-

tu

ducked him under,

the dwelling of

*TTT= "ElTT
nu
-

^
-

-ETT
-

^
il
-

n

u

sa

am

si

su

the fishes

she

made him

sink.

su

-

u

-

tu

ra

-

n

"O South-wind

[thou hast played]

me

ET-ET
uh
-

tE
i
-

hi

-

e

-

ki

ma -la
all

ba

-

as

-

su

-

u

thy tricks (?)

that

there are!

5.

ka
-

<m
a
-

m
lit

ap

-pa

-

ki

-

u
I

-

se

-

bi

-

ir

Thy wing
i.

will
the

break!"

i-^i-ga-am-ma
in
11.

=
9,

i^lkamma;
14 and
1

Babylonian pronunciation of k as

occurs also

7,

6.

216

HOW

ADAPA BROKE THE WING OF THE SOUTH-WIND

ki

-

ma

i

-

na

bi

-

i

-

su

1

ik

-

bu
said,

As
e.

with

his

mouth
ka
-

he had

W
sa

[JT ^TTT~] -T<
su
-

u

ti

ap the

-

pa

-

sa

(so) of

the South-wind

wing

//

-

te

-

es

-

bi

-

ir

VII

u

-

mi

was broken.
7-

For seven

days

[JT tTTTt]
$u
-

-^T
tu

T~Hf
a
-

ElI^K
ma a
-

^TT!-<
u
-

u

-

na

ti

ul

the South-wind

over

the land

did not

TI* -TTT*
-

f
llu

TI

^
nu

[

ig

-

ga

blow.

AAnu

a

-

na
to

Su

-

uk

-

ka

-

li

-

su

ilu

I

-

la

-

ab

-

ra

-

at

his minister

Ila-abrat

9.
t

-

Sa

-

as
:

-

si

am

-

mi

-

ni

su

-

u

-

tu

spake

"Why

has the South-wind

is

-

tu

VII
seven

u

-

mi

a

-

na

ma -a

-

ti

for

days
io
-

over

the land

-ET
la

tE -TT*
i
-

-TTT*
ga

JT
Su

^K -cH -ET J
-

zi

uk

-

ka

-

la

-

su

not
i.

blown!"
bi-i-su

His minister

=

pl-u.

HIS

SUMMONS BEFORE ANU

217

E -ET
I
-

=T
-

E^TT *ET
-

tE^tKf^T
pa - al - $u answered him
:

^
bi
-

la

ab

ra

-

at

i -

li

Ila-abrat

"My

lord,

m

A

^IT^ EKMTI ma
-

-f
ilu

da

-

pa

ar

E
Ea,

-

a

$a

Adapa,

the son of

of

su

-

u

-

ti

ka

-

ap the

-

pa

-

$a

t'$

-

te

-

bi

- ir

the South-wind

wing

has broken."

Rev.,

1.

10

.

m

A

-

da

-

pa

a

-

na

pa
before

-

ni

llu

When Adapa

AAnu

ni

$ar
-

ri

i

-

na

ki

-

ri

-

bi -

$u

the king

drew

near,

E
/ -

^ IH jy
mu
-

ET
-

-Hf- y^
llu

/
-

^^TT ^y
il
-

Ey
ma

ur

-

su

ma

A

nu

si :

Anu saw him and

said

y
al
-

y^

ka

m

A

-

da

-

pa

am

-

mi

-

ni

"Come,

Adapa,

why

M
$a

-yyy- ^y<
-

su

u

ti

ka

-

ap
the

-

pa

-

of

the South-wind

wing

i .

About 34

11.,

which describe how Adapa, on being summoned before Anu,

reached heaven, are here omitted.

218

HOW

ADAPA BROKE THE WING OF THE SOUTH-WIND

/<?

-

*

-

es

-

bi

-

ir

m

A

-

da

-

pa

ilu

didst thou break?"

Adapa

to

A - na Anu

HI
z)!>

e

cjfif
be
:

pa - al made answer

-

Hi
lord,

a

-

na

bi

-

if

"My

for

the house

be

-

Hi

-

ia

i

-

na

ga

-

ab

-

la

-

at

of

my

father

in

the midst

i

-

am

-

ti

nu

-

ni

a
I

-

ba

-

ar

....
.

of the sea

fish

was catching

.

.

.

Su

-

u

-

tu

i

-

zi

(when) the South-wind

ga blew

-

am

-

ma
and

ia

-

a

-

Si

me

ti

-

ib

-

ba

-

an

-

ni

a

-

na

bi

-

it

did she duck under,

to

the dwelling

nu

-

ni

ul

-

ta

-

am

-

si

-

il

of the fishes

she

made me sink!"

THE SONG OF URA, THE PLAGUE-GOD.
[K 1282 and Bu. 91
5
9, 186.]

tET
-

-ET
la

na

-

at

ni

-

bu

ta

-

nit

-

ti

For years

without

number

may

the glory of

EM
the great lord

'-V
[Ura endure
!]

-f^TE^TT
-

ra

For

Ura

'

1

~

Su

~

u

~

ma
and

ana
to

was angry

P an overwhelm
sa
~

mdtatif 1

the lands,

3.

-<
JgJ
ft
-

y-

ka

-

li

-

si

-

na

ku

nu

all

of them,

he turned

[tm*
-

n
2W
-

*TW JT]
un
-

4.

f
llu

*E
I
-

^
Sum

ET
ma

IH i
- lik -

su

su

his

mind;

but iSum,

his counsellor

u

-

ni

-

hu

-

Su

-

ma
and

i

-

zt

-

ib

pacified

him

he abandoned

[his

wrath]

220

THE SONG OF

URA,

THE PLAGUE-GOD

u

ki

-

a

-

am

ik

-

ta

-

bi

And

thus

spake

ku

-

ra

-

du

lllt

Ur Ura
:

-

ra

sa

za

-

ma

-

ru

the hero

"Whosoever

that song

T
-

I
-

&
1

a

su

i

-

na

-

du

ma
in

a

-

sir

-

ti

-

su

shall praise,

his shrine

lik - tarn -

me

-

ra

hegallu

plentiful be

made

abundance

.... ....

sa

su

-

me

Whosoever

my name

u

-

$ar

-

bu

-

u

U

-

bil

kib

-

ra

-

a

-

ti

shall magnify,

may

he rule

fthefour quatersofthel world / \
!

Sa

ta

-

nit

-

ti

kar

-

ra

-

du

-

ti

-

ia

Whosoever

the glory

of

my

valour

i

-

dib

-

bu

-

bu

ma

-

hi

-

ra
shall

ai

ir

-

si

proclaims,

an opponent

he not

possess!

amelu

zammeru
singer

$a

{

.

sar

-

ra
it

-

hu

ul

The

who

chants

will not

i -

ma
die

-

ti

ina

Sib

-

ti

eli

sarri

u

in
in

the pestilence,
11.

unto
used for
scltu.

king

and

i.

sa-a-su here and

23 and 26

is

ITS

MAGICAL PROPERTIES

221

Hffl
r3*
noble

-E^TTIgJ
//'

^ET^JT
at
-

20.
amslu

//<&

mu

-

hi

jup

_

$ar

well-pleasing shall be

his speech!

The

scribe

,fa

z'//

-

ha

-

zu

i -

&

-

ti

ina

nak
(his)

-

ri

who

learns

it

will escape

from

enemy

..... ..... .....

T
ina
,

JH -T<
-

a

h'r

-

ti

sCTTT ET urn - ma

^
-

ni

in

the shrine

of the peoples,

a

-

Sar

ka

-

ai

-

an

hi

-me

i -

zak

-

ka

-

ru

where

continually

my name

he

cries aloud,

u

-

zu

-

un

-

hi

a

-

pi
will

-

it
I

-

ti

ina

biti

his ear

open!

in

the house

a
-

V !U
$a
-

sar

dup

-

pu

a

-

hi

$ak
is

-

nu

where

that tablet

set,

/7a

Ur
I,

-

ra

lu

a

-

gu

-

ug

-

ma
and

liS

-

gi

-

hi

should

Ura,

be angry

destruction should

* lu

Imina-bi

patar
the dagger of

h'b

-

ti

ul
shall not

i

-

ti -

hi-hi
it,

Imina-bi cause,

pestilence

approach

T<T
Sa
-

EiT
-

Urn

tu

$ak

-

na

-as
upon

-

su

l

za- ma

-

ru

immunity
i.

shall rest
sakncit-su.

it!

May

that song

sak-na-as-su

222

THE SONG OF URA, THE PLAGUE-GOD
ET ma
always

-i<
-

ET
ma
$
-

ET
$a
-

-

a

-

$u

a

-

na

ti

-

kin

-

ma

be established,

li

it

kun

ga

-

du
for ever!

ul

-

la

may

stand firm

ma

-

ta

-

a

-

ti

nap
all

-

har

-

si

-

na

*! E! El h'S-ma-ma
give ear and

May

lands

28.
//
-

Ejff
the peoples

na

-

du

kur

-

di

-

ia

glorify

my
TTT

valour,

may

F
me
//
-

kal

da

-

ad

-

mu

-

ra

-

ma
and

of

all

dwellings

behold

li

-

$ar

-

ba

-

a

$u

-

me

magnify

my name

LEGEND CONCERNING THE BIRTH AND BOYHOOD OF KING SARGON
I.

[K 3401 -f S 2118 and

K

4470.]

Sarru

-

ukm

Sarru

dan

-

nu

$ar

Sargon,

the mighty king,

king

A

-

ga

-

de

K!

a

-

na

-

ku

um

-

mi

of Agade,

am

I.

My

mother

e

-

ni

-

turn

a

-

bi

ul
I

i

-

di
f

was lowly,

my

father

knew

not,

\

while thei brother /

obi

-

ia

i

-

ra

-

mi

$a

-

da

-

a

a

-

It

of

my

father

inhabits

the mountain.

My

city

TT ff
"

^TT
-

^T- E^TTTI
-

^
-

V
$a

i
-

^1

#
is

pi

-

ra

-

a

ni

na

a

-

hi

Azupiranu,

which

on

the bank

J& *T E8 Hfflf
naru

Puratti

$ak

-

nu

i

-

ra

-

an

-

ni

of the Euphrates

lies.

She conceived me

224

LEGEND CONCERNING THE BIRTH OF SARGON

um

-

mu

e

-

ni

-

turn

i -

na

pu

-

uz

-

ri

[my] lowly mother,

in

secret

6.

~yy -TAHPFf -4t$
-

u

-

lid

-

an

-

ni

kun

-

an

-

ni

she brought

me

forth.

She

set

me

T*yz'

V
Sa

JI-TTI
su
-

^
i -

-

^/>

-

pi

ri

na

iddi

in

a basket

of

rushes,

with

bitumen

^ffETf
<5a^z'

HI A
2/>

7

.^y tyy^
id
-

-

z'a

hi
;

dan

-

an

-

ni

a

-

na

my

door

she closed

she gave

me

to

$a
the river

la

e

-

li

-

e -

a

is

-

sa

-

an

-

ni

which (rose) not

over me.

Then bore me

a

-

na
to

eli

Ak

-

ki

amslu

nak-me

the river,

Akki

the irrigator,

u

-

bil

-

an

-

ni

Ak

-

ki

amelu

nak-me

it

carried me.

Akki,

the irrigator,

HT
i

-TT
-I!
-

T^TT

i&l

-

na

-

ip

in

).

So

K

4470;

K

3401 reads id-dan-ni "she cast me".

2.

K

4470 reads jjjjlj.

HIS RESCUE

FROM THE RIVER

225

u

-

Se - la

-

an
up,

-

ni

m

Ak

-

ki

amelu

ndk-me

lifted

me

Akki,

the irrigator,

a

-

na

ma

-

ru

-

it -

$u

u

-

rob

-

ban

-

ni

as

his

own

son

reared me,

.

T
'"

-a <m
Ak
-

T?
amslu

ki

ndk-me

a

-

na

Akki,

the irrigator,

as

amc lu
'

.......
his gardener

-ti-$u

lu

-

u

t'jf

-

kun

-

an

-

ni

appointed me.

f<

W
ia

HFilu

na

amslu
I

......

-

ti

-

^T R

-

tar

While

was gardener

did IStar

lu

-

u

i

-

ra

-

man

-

ni

-

ma
and

....
for
.
.

IV
years

love

me

.-four

sarru

-

u

-

ta

lu

-

u
I

e

-

pu

the

kingdom

ruled.

EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS.
i.

A

lamentation.
[K 493 1.]

ba

-

na

-

at

Hani?

_

1

mus

-

tak

-

li

-

la

-

at

O

mother

of the gods,

who

fulfils

par

- si -

$u - nu

mu

-

se - sa - at

ur

-

ki

-

te

be

- lit

their

commands,

who makes

the green herb to spring up,

O

lady of

te

-

ni

-

Se

-

e

-

ti

ba

-

na

-

at

ka
all

-

la

-

me

mankind

who

created

things,

mus

-

te

-

Sir

-

rat

gi

-

mir

nab

-

ni

-

tu

who
4-

guides

the whole of

creation.

^:yyy um - mu

^
-

-f
tlu

^yy ^yyy
Is
-

-TTI
-

^m
-

w
$a

ta

ri

turn

O

mother

Itar,

whose

id

-

da
side

a

-

sa

il

man-ma

La

i

-

ti -

hu

-

u

no god

can approach,

A LAMENTATION

227

be

-

el

-

turn

Sur

-

bu

-

turn

$a

par

-

su

-

sa

O

exalted lady,

whose

command

hi
is

-

tu

-

ru
!

te

-

e$

-

li

-

tim 1

lu

-

uk
I

-

bi
;

mighty

A

prayer

will

utter

$a
that

i

-

li

-

$a

ta -

a

-

bu

li

-

pu

-

Sa

-

an

-

ni
!

which

to her

(appears) good

may

she do unto

me

7.

*
be
-

el

-

ti

ul

-

tu

u

-

um

O my

lady,

from

the day

mm
si
-

ih
I

-

ri

-

ku

ET ma

^Hf'

1
di$

^ m M<
Sal
-

-

pu

-

ti

when

was young

much

to misfortune

j

-

am
I

-

da

-

ku
!

a

-

&z/

/

a
I

-

kul

have

been yoked

Food

have

not eaten,

<5/

-

ki

-

turn

kur-ma

- ti

me

-

e

ul

a$
I

-

ti

weeping was

my nourishment!

Water

have

not drunk,

dim

-

tu

ma$

-

ti

-

ti

lib

-

bi

ul

tears

were

my

drink!

My

heart

never

ih

-

di

ka

-

bit - ti

ul

im

-

mi

-

ir

rejoiced,
i.

my mind

was never bright!
11.

te-es-li-tim

=

teslltim.

2.

Obv.,

6

24.

15*

228

EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS

2.

A

confession of

sin.

[K 4899 and

K

4934.]

The

priest

:

ina

ta

-

ni

-

hi

a

-

si

-

ib

ina

In

sorrow

there he sits!

With

ku

-

ub

-

bi

-

e

mar

-

su

-

ti

zu

-

ru

-

ub

cries

of affliction,

(in) trouble of

lib

-

bi

ina

bi

-

ki

-

ti

limutti(ti}

ina
in

heart,

with

bitter

weeping,

ta

-

ni

-

hi

Urn

-

ni

ki

-

ma

su

-

um

-

ma

- ti

bitter

sorrow,

like

the doves

CTTT mu - um doth he moan
-

JT
Su
-

-^
up
-

JT
su
-

uk

mu

-

si

grievously

night

<
u

JHHTTI
ur
-

5-T
ana

^\
ili-su

-m<tts:* <MET
ri
-

ri
!

mi

-

ni

-

i

ki

-

ma

and

day

Unto

his merciful

god

like

lit

-

ti

i

-

na

-

ga
cries
!

-

ag

ta

-

ni

-

ha

a wild

cow

he

Sighing

^TT
mar
that
-

t^TTT
ta
-

-Hf
na

-tH
-

-Hfan

?

Tf
a
-

sa

-

am

i$

ka
!

-

na

is

grievous

doth he make

Before

A CONFESSION OF SIN

229

///

-

#

/>/<z

w

-

///

-

ni

cip

his

god

in

supplication

his

pa - $u countenance
-

8
/#
-

-

tE i
-

bi

-

in
!

bak

-

ki

doth he cast

down

He weeps

it

-

hu

-

u

ul
that nothing

i -

kal

-

la

that he

may approach,

may

hold (him) back!

The

suppliant

:

e

-

pis

-

ti

lu

-

uk

-

bi

e

-

pis

-

ti

My

deed

will

I

declare (to thee),

my

deed

/

^

^a

-

bi

-

e

a -ma

- ti

lu
will

-

$a

-

an

-

ni

which cannot be declared!

My

words

I

repeat (to thee),

a-

ma

- ti

ul

sa

su

-

un

-

ni

-

e

i

-

U
god,

my

words

which cannot be repeated!
<

My

<3*
ul

V
sa

e

-

pi$

-

ti

lu
will
I

-

uk

-

bi

i

-

pis

-

ti

my

deed

declare (to thee),

my

deed

which cannot

ka

-

bi

-

e

be declared!

i.

K

4934,

11.

3

13 and

K

4899, Obv.,

11.

10

18.

23o

EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS

3.

A

prayer
[K

for forgiveness.
ioi.]

The

suppliant

:

ana-ku
I,

arad

-

ki

su
full

-

nu

-

hu

a- sa

-

as

-

si

-

ki
!

thy servant,

of sighs

cry unto thee

*.y &z
Whoever

-HF-T*an
-

^JTfTTT=
i -

^T
te
-

JH
lik
-

<Ef
ki
-

nu

su

-

u

e

sin

possesses,
3

thou acceptest

- HK*
/

JT
su
!

-

TJ
a
-

*T- <Tme
-

e=
tap
-

3= -E! ^TT
pa
-

-

;;z^

-

ik

-

Urn

la

-

si

his fervent prayer

The man

thou lookest on in

pity,

a

-

me

-

lu

Su

-u

i

bal

-

lut

li

-

-

at

that

man

lives,

O

ruler

>^<2

-

/

-

wa

3^

-

/z'/

te

-

ni

-

se

-

e

-

ill

of

all

things,

lady

of mankind,

nw

-

ni

-

turn

sa

na

as

hur

-

y
sa

O

merciful one,

whose

turning

ta
is

-

a

-

bu

li

-

kat

un

-

ni

-

ni
!

propitious,

who
:

accepteth

supplication

The

priest

ilu-su
(Since) his

llu

i$

-

tar-^u

zi

-

nu-u

it

-

ti -

god (and)

his goddess

are angry with him,

A PRAYER FOR FORGIVENESS

23

1

=E

V <3E
-

sTT <jgf
-

-tlbJ
ka
!

TJ <Ta
-

7.

[<jg[
ki
-

v <JEf
Sad
-

i - $a

as

su

-

ki

ti

ki

he crieth unto thee

Thy

neck

su

-

hi

-

ir

-

Sum

-

ma
and

ta

-

sa

-

ba

-

ti

kat

-

su

turn to

him
:

take

his

hand!

The

suppliant

e

-

la

ka

-

a

-

ti

i -

Um

mu$

-

te - $e

-

ru

Beside

thyself

a deity

that guideth right

1*
z*/

P
z'

<[>-

9-

^'

ki

-

niS

nap

-

Us

-

in

-

ni

-

ma

there

is

not!

Truly

look on

me

in pity

and

-E=!T <Ig
/'
-

=TW
w
-

^'

ni

-

ni
!

a

-

hu

-

lap

-

ia

accept

my

supplication

My

forgiveness

JE\^
ki
-

fcT^lip

TTT

T

bi

-

ma
and

ka

-

bit

-

ta

-

ki

-

Sa

-

YTv TT< ha

declare

let

thy spirit

be appeased!

di

ma

- ti

be

-

el

-

ti

su

-

uh

-

hu

-

ru

When,

my
"-

lady,

will be turned

3=
/
-

*
;/

<I!J
-

<M
X'z'

^/

-

E! ma

^JT
su
-

tCTTT El um - ma

- te

thy countenance?

Like

the doves

a

-

dam
do

-

ww

-

um

ta

-

ni

-

hu

us

-

ta
I

-

bar

-

ri

I

moan,

in sighs

do

abound!

232

EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS
priest
:

The

z'tf

u

-

a

u

a

-

a

$u

-

jm

-

hat

In

pain

and

grief

full

of sighs

z

-

bit

-

ta

-

su

bi

-

ki

-

turn

i -

bah

-

ki

is

his spirit!

Tears

doth he shed,

ku

-

bi

-

e

i -

kab

-

bi

cries

doth he utter!

4.

A

prayer for forgiveness of sin committed unwittingly.
[K 2811.]

'TfefflF
a
-

hMTTIiH
el
-

<tfk]
ul

TH^
a
-

-T-^
me
-

kal

lu

kul
!

e

Food

that

is

pure

have

I

not

eaten

Water

Mr

-

tu

ul

as

-

U

ik

-

kib

Hi
against

-

ia

that

is

clear

have

I

not

drunk!

A
Tf
a
have
I

fault

my god

=T|]
i
-

^
-

4.

Hfan
-

Hfflff

di

-

e

kul

nun

unwittingly

committed. 2 In a transgression

TJT
tS
-

-TTI
-

ta

ri

-

ia

ina

la

i

-

di

-

e

against
1.

my

goddess
1.

unwittingly

2. Lit.

Rev., Obv., 1.4 "eaten".

14.

A PRAYER FOR FORGIVENESS

233

TT= -Til
u
-

13 sT
-

5.

-<
be -

t
lum

-Hfan
-

^
nu
-

<
u
-

ff a

kab
I

bi - is

have

trodden.

O
E^TT
ra
-

Lord,

my

sins

ET
ma

A~f
-

TI

^T
ba
-

ff
a

A
hi

TT
-fa
-

-E^T <
tu
-

TJ
-

-da

u

a

are

many,

great are

my

iniquities!

6.

an

-

ni
sin

e

-

pu

-

$u

ul
I

i

-

di

The
7.

which

I

have committed

know

not!

A ^T
hi
it

A-ffi
ih
I

-tiT <
tu
-

[<3*
ul
I

-E
i
-

u

di

The
s.

^
z'/?:

iniquity

have done

know

not!

ff
-

T^
a
I

m
-

fe
-

9.

HFan
-

-flflf

kib

ku

lum

nun

The

fault

have committed,

the transgression

=TTT= -Til
7^

^ ^T!
<5/

[<^
ul
I

^
i
-

-

a

-

su

di

be -

lum
lord

I

have trodden,

know

not!

The

z'wa

.

^"

^"a/

/z'3

-

bi

-

hi

in

the anger

of his heart

ni man(an) hath looked upon me!
ik

-

kil -

-

.

t
i
-

.
/?'/

_
zw<2

wz

-

zi

lib

-

bi - hi

The god
tTTT* *TTT=
-

in

the wrath of

his heart

A
-

E^TT
-

-Hf-

Sr
-

* -4ilu

C^TT
i$
-

Um

hi

ra

an

ni

tar

hath visited

me!

The goddess

234

EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS

tft
e

-E^TT ^Tt
-

t] -*>is
-

^MI
-

ET
ma
and

tff- t
mar
-

li

-

ia

bu

us

-

si

-

is

with

me

was angry

to tribulation

tTTT*
u
-

*
$e
-

~f
man(ari)
-

Sfr
ni

'3.[*Et
i -

tET<
i -

-ET
la

lum
god,

du

-

u

hath reduced

me!

The

known

(and)

un-

i -

du

-

u

u

-

zar

-

rib

-

an

-

ni

ilu

is

-

tar

known,

hath afflicted me!

The
T

goddess,

E -2\ <
i
-

-ET *E
la
i
-

^T
du

HTTT*]
-

JT
-

^T
-

*T
tu

du

-

u

u

a

su

us

-

known

(and) unknown,

trouble

*
z

t

-

ku

-

na

a$

-

ta
I

-

ni
(for help)

-

e

-

ma

hath brought!

sought

but

man-ma -an

ga

-

ti

1

ul

i -

sa-bat
!

ab
I

-

ki

-

ma

no one taketh

me

by the

hand

wept but

/

-

ta

-

te

-

ia

ul

it

-

hu

-

u

ku

-

bi

-

e

to

my

side

none drew near!

Cries

If
a
I

^3
-

ET
man -ma
-

f
an

<-T^
ul

^
i
-

<TSi -

-f
man(an)
-

^
ni
ul

kab

-

bi

uttered

(but) no one listened

to

me!

rs.

^\
us
I

jy
-

w
-

m
-

-III ET
kat
I

M
-

<^
I

Su

sa

ku

ma

ku

am

afflicted,

am overwhelmed,

do not

I.

ga-ti

=

kati.

A PRAYER FOR FORGIVENESS

285

Wf
a
-

19. T

Hi
-

na

-

ta

-

al

ana

ia

rim

-

ni

-

i

look up!

Unto

my

merciful god

at

-

ta

-

na
I

-

as

-

har

un

-

ni

-

ni

a
I

-

kab -bi
utter!

turn,

my

petition

20.

^
be
-

-lum
arad
-

ka

la

ta

-

sa

-

kip
!

ina

O

Lord

thy servant

cast not

down

In

me

- e

$ub

-

tak

-

ti

na

-

di

ka

-

as

-

su

sa-bat

the waters

of the flood

thrown,

take thou his hand!

hi

-

it

-

ti
I

ih

-

tu

-

u ana
to

da

-

me

-

ik

-

ti

The

sin

have sinned

mercy

te

-

ir
!

an

-

na
I

e -

pu

-

u$

$a
let

-

a

-

ru

lit

-

bal
!

turn

The

iniquity

have committed

the

wind carry away

kil

-la

-

tu -

u-a

ma

-

'

-

da

-

a

-

ti

ki

-

ma

My

manifold transgressions

like

zu
a

-

ba

-

ti

$u

-

hu

-

ut

garment
ka-as-su
^u-ba-ti

tear off!

1.

2. 3.
11.

= kat-sit. = subati.
2937 (=
11.
11.

Obv.

11.

15), Obv.

1.

43

Rev.

1.

6

(=

11.

619),

and Rev.

36-44 (=

2024).

236

EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS

5.

A

prayer for mercy and favour.
[K 4 623 -f

79-78,24.]

be

-

el

-

turn

ina

zu

-

ru

-

ub

lib

-

bi

O

lady

in

the grief of

my

heart

rig

-

me

zar
in

-

bis

ad
have
I

-

di

-

ki

a

-

hu

-

lap

-

ia

cries

trouble

raised to thee!

My

forgiveness

.

ki

-

bi
!

be

-

el

-

turn

ana

arad

-

ki

ma
/

-

si
\

declare

O
I
su

lady,

unto

thy servant

"It is

{enough !"/

<M
ki
-

3
bi
-

*TTT
libba

<m
-

-E^TT *- AHFff
li

3

-

T

ki

-

nu

-

uh

ana

say unto him!

Let thy heart

be appeased!

Unto

^IE HJI
arad
-

-TTI
ri
-

ki

sa

ma

-

ru

-

u$

-

turn

ip

-su

e -

mu

thy servant,

who
4.

hath experienced sorrow,

mercy

ri

-

si -

su

ki - $ad

-

ki

su

-

hi

-

ir

-

'Sum

-

ma

extend to him!

Thy

neck

turn to

him

and

EJ
-

W
sa

ki

-

e

ut

-

nin

-

su
!

ana

arad

-

ki
'

receive

his supplication

Thy

servant,

/

w ith

\

Iwhom/

ta

-

gu

-

gi

si

-

il

-

me

it

-

ti !

su

thou hast been angry,
i.

deal favourably

with him

Obv.

11.

1826.

PRAYERS FOR MERCY AND FOR PURIFICATION

287

6.

A

prayer for purification.
[K 254-]

|7M

iStari

-

ia

nap

-

li

-

si

-

in

-

ni

-ma
and

O my

goddess,

look with pity on

me

like(e)

un

-

ni

-

ni

-

ia
!

lip

-

pat

-

ru

accept

my

supplication

Torn away be

ar

-

nu

-

it

-

a

Urn

-

ma r-Sa-a

hi

-

ta

-

in

-

u

-

a

my

sin,

forgotten be

my

transgressions

!

'

-

il

-

ti

lip

-

pa

-

tir

ka
let

-

si

-

ti

Let the ban

be torn away,

the bonds

//

-

ir

-

mu
!

ta

-

ni

*

hi

-

ia

lit

-

ba

-

lu

be loosened

My

sighing

let

carry

away

si

-

bit

'sare
!

Pl
I

lu

-

us

-

hu

-

tit

lum
/
\

-

ni
\

the seven winds

will rend

away

my

wickedness,/

issuru ana
6
{'

$ame(e)
t ^ie

U

-

$e

it

li
!

i

-

dir

-

ti

bifd

to
}

^ eavens

bear

My

misery

nunu
let

lit

-

bal
off,

U
let

-

bil
(it)

naru

the fish

carry

the river sweep

away!

238

EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS

7-

<[Urn

AJ
-

-HF-

Sri:
-

hur

#
(it)

ni

nam

-

mas

-

$u

-

u

sa

seri

May

there take

from

me

the beast

of

the field,

//

-

mis

-

su

-

in

-

ni

me

pl

nari

alikuti ? l

may

there

wash me

clean

the flowing waters of the river!

7.

A

prayer for a favourable dream.
[K 254.]

z'/

-

//

lum

-

ni

su

-

ti

-

ka

-

an

-

ni

-

ma

From

my

wickedness

make me

depart

and

un
let

-

ni

-

tir

it

-

ti

-

ka

me

be saved

by thee!

'p

ra

-

an
to

-

ni

-

ma
and

suttu

damiktu(tu}

Send thou

me

a favourable

dream

a
let

-

na I

fa

-

lu

lu

-

u

me

behold

!

May

the

dream

behold

be

damkat(ai)

suttu
!

a

-

na
I

-

ta

-

lu

lu

-

u

favourable

May

the

dream

behold

be

^y
kinat(at}

5.

^

<^

y^
a

^y
-

^yy
-

m
lu

sutiu

na
I

ta

~

ana
to

true!
i.

The dream
10
1

behold

Rev.

11.

6.

A PRAYER FOR A

FAVOURABLE DREAM

23g

-HP<hunikti(ti)
fir
-

ra
!

ilu

........
the god .....
,

ilu

favour

turn

May

the god

$a

.

Suna/t pl

ina

reh'

-

ia

lu

of

dreams,

at

my

head

~y
stand

f
!

,.

jy
$u

HfTI
-

^y
-

^
-

&- Ey
-

yj
a
-

^
na
into
bit

kan(an)

ri

ba

an

ni

-

ma

Make me

to enter

E

-

sag

-

ila

ekal

Hani
the gods,

Esagil

the temple of

the house

balati

a

-

na

llu

Marduk

ri

-

me

-

ni

-

i

of

life!

To

Marduk,

the merciful,

Jin
a
-

<M K
damkati P l

na

'

damiktim(tini}

a

-

na

kata

ll

for

favour

into

(his) favourable

hands

<yj
//^
-

*w
dan
-

^
ni
!

9

.

lud

-

lul

nir

-

bi

-

ka

commend me

So

will

I

bow

myself

before thy greatness,

lut

-

ta

-

'

-

/i/

z/

-

/

-

^

ntie P l

will

I

glorify

thy divinity,

and the people

ali

-

ia

li

-

Se

-

pa - a

kur

-

di

-

ka

of

my
i.

city
11.

will praise

thy power!

Rev.

2028.

240

EXTRACTS FROM PENITENTIAL PSALMS

8.

A

prayer

for restoration to divine favour.

[K 3i S 8.]

The

priest

:

pi

-

te

il

-

lu

-

ur

-

ta

-

su

pu

-

tur

Open

his bond,

remove

ma

-

ak

-

si -

Su

nu

his fetter,

um make

-

mir

pa

-

ni

-

Su

bright

his countenance,

pi

-

kid

-

su

i -

Us

ba

-

ni

-

su
!

bul

-

lit

commend him

to his

god

his creator

Give

life

to

arad

-

ka

lit

-

ta

-

-

id

kur

-

di

-

ka

thy servant,
4.

that he

may

praise

thy might,

jit=
nar
-

^ ^H
bi
-

-E^IT
li

[^y
-

m
lu
-

la

ka

id

-

kal

that before thy greatness

he may
^

bow down

in all

TTT
da

Tme
!

ad
dwellings

-

mu

-

hur

kat

-

ra

-

Su

Receive

his gift,

=11
li
-

] -

e.

*~
ina

5
kak
-

ki

pi
his

-

di

-

e

Su

kar

accept

purchase-money,

that in

the land of

lul

-

me

mah

-

ra

-

ka

lit

-

tal -

lak
!

peace
i.

before thee
11.

he may walk

Obv.

3641.

HYMNS AND PRAYERS.
i.

Hymn

to the Rising Sun.
[K 33 4 3.]

ilu

$ama$

ma
on

2

-

Sid

Same(e]

O

Sun-god,

the foundation of

heaven

x

- ha - am - ma tap -pu thou hast flamed forth!

ft' -

tfr

Same(e)

elluti

Pl

tap

- ti

da

- lat

The

bolt

of the bright heavens

thou hast opened,

the doors

Same(e)

tap

-

ta

-

a
!

ilu

SamaS

a

-

na

ma

-

a

-

ti

of heaven

thou hast opened

O

Sun-god

over

the land

ri

-

si

-

ka

tat

-

Sa

-

a

ilu

SamaS

me

-

lam

-

me

thy head

thou hast raised!

O

Sun-god,

with the brightness

$ame(e)

ma

-

ta

-

a

- ti

tak

-

turn

of heaven

the lands

thou hast covered!

1.

7. e.,

the horizon.
11.

2.

Obv.

2-10.
16

HYMNS AND PRAYERS
2.

Hymn
[Sp.

to the Setting Sun.
586 and R.
Ill,

Ill,

i.]

ana

ki

-

rib

-

me

-

e

O

Sun-god,

into

the midst

of heaven

when

e

-

ri

-

bi

-

ka

U
may

-

gar

sa

-

me

-

e

thou enterest,

the bolt

of heaven

T
^/
-

JH ^lik
-

C
-

lu
is

-

turn

sul

-

ma

bu

ku

that

bright

give thee greeting,

da

-

la

-

at

Sa

-

me

-

e

lik

-

ru

-

ba

-

a

-

ku

may
4-

the doors

of heaven

bless thee!

A*v>mi
-

^TT EEJI
Sa
-

>

rum

-

uk

-

kal

-

lum

May

the righteousness

of the minister

na

-

ra

-

am

ka

-

te

-

sir

-

ku

thy beloved

direct thee!

5-

T tTTTT *1 - babar ana

E

-

ra

su

-

bat

be

-

lu

-

ti

-

ka

In Ebabara,

the seat of

thy power,

JT
si
-

=TT1
-

ru

-

ut

-

ka

su
is

u

pi

tlu

Ai
Ai,

thy supremacy
i.

glorious!
for

May
a

Here and

in

11.

3

f.

^"^~5

is

employed

TpT,

form of the

2.

pron. suffix.

HYMN TO THE SETTING SUN

248

na

-

ra

-

am

-

ta

-

ka

thy beloved spouse,

-

di

-

rt

li

-

mah

-

hi

-

ir

-

ka

with joy

come

before thee,

7.

Jit:
//<5

.^
-

^H
-

^4^! AHfff -1
ne
-

ba

ka

ih

-

turn

to thy heart

rest

//

-

ni

-

ih

nap

ta

-an

may

she give,

may

the feast

'

i

-

lu

-

ti

-

ka.

li$ -

$a

-

kin

-

ku
!

kar

-

ra

-

du

of thy godhead

be spread for thee

O
t^TT! =E
ta
-

valiant

Hf- ^T
'i/

-e^TT
li
-

^T
it

^! du
-

-

/w/w

Z''

M

SamaX

-

i -

ka

hero,

ama,

let

them

glorify thee!

be

-

el

E

-

babar -ra

a

- lik

pa

-

dan

-

ka

O

lord of

Ebabara,

in thy

going

may

thy path

li

-

$t'r

ilu

&ama$

har

-

ra

-

an

-

ka

be straight!

O

Sun-god

thy road

u

-

Sir

ur

-

ha

ki

-

nam
sure

ana
for

du

-

ru

-

u$

-

to'

-

ka

direct,

on the road

that

is

thy foundation
1

6*

244

HYMNS AND PRAYERS

tf

- lik

ilu

$ama$

$a

ma - a

- ti

da

-

at

-

an

go!

O

Sun

of

the land,

judge

sa

pu

-

ru

-

us

-

si

-

e

-

$a

mu$

-

te

-

sir

-

of

its

decisions,

its

director

at

-

ta

art

thou!
3.

Hymn
[K 2962

to
-f-

Marduk.
K
3 1 20.]

HTI] <ct
ri
-

^
-

tTTT=
-

ina

f
ildniP 1

mi

nu

u

O

merciful one

among

the gods!

ri

-

mi

-

nu

-

u

sa

mi

-

ta

bul

-

lu

-

ta

Merciful one,

who

the dead

to raise to life

i

-

ram
loveth
!

-

mu

ilu

Marduk
Marduk,

$ar

-

ru

$ame(e)

O

king

of heaven

u

irsitim(tiiii)

sar

Ba

-

bi

-

lim

be

-

el

and

earth,

king

of Babylon,

lord of

^"

-

z7<2

^r
king

E

-

22

-

da

Esagil,

of Ezida,

HYMN TO MARDUK
^!< -ET
be
-

245

el

E

-

mah

-

ti
!

-

la

lord of

Emahtila

Heaven

and

7.

tffET
e -

*3-*W
$ame(e)

<
u

ir$itim(tim)

ku

-

um

-

mu

ma

earth

are thine!

The

space of

heaven

and

irsitim(tini)

ku

-

um

-

mu
The

&

-

pat

ba

-

la
life

-

tu

earth

is

thine!

incantation of

-

um

-

mu
The

i-mat
spittle of

ba

-

la
life

-

tu

ku

-

um

-

mu

is

thine!

is

thine!

Tl T
a
-

me

-

lu

-

turn

ni - h'

sal- mat

Mankind,

the race

black-

IT!
kakkadi
h'k -

na

-

at

na

-

pis

-

ti

ma
as

- la

headed

living creatures

many

as

tT
-

T^
a

ina

v
mati

ty
ba
-

V
sa
-

T^
a

ba

-

a

name

bear

(and) in the land

exist,

/i'z'3

-

r/

zr

-

3//

-

ti

ma -la
all

ba

-

$a

-

a

the four quarters of the world,

that

there are,

~f WTT V
I/M

<2<iv
ki$ - Sat

~f tff
$ame(i)

<
u

[<M
irsitim(tirti)

Igigi

Sa

the Igigi

of

the hosts of

heaven

and

earth,

246

HYMNS AND PRAYERS

maall

la

ba

-

sa

-

a

a

-

na

ka

-

fa- a- ma
thee

that

there are,

unto

uz

-

na

-

st

-

na

ba

-

sa

-

a

are their ears

inclined!

4.

Address to the god Ninib. [K 2487 and K 8122.]

-

/

tftf

-

rw

3w

-

^wr

llu

Bel

O

mighty son,

first-born of

Bel,

^wr

-

bu

-

u

git

-

ma

-

lu

i

-

lit

-

ti

E

-

far

-

ra

powerful,

perfect,

offspring of

ESara,

fa

pu

-

luh

-

tu

lit

-

bu

-

su

ma
who

-

lu

-

u

who

with terror

art clothed,

art full of

^T
har
-

[U
-

.

4.

HFilu

*T
Ut
-

ba

su

gal

-

lu

fa

fury!

O

Utgallu,

whose

la

im

-

mah

-

ha

-

ru

ka

-

bal

-

su

su

-

pu

-

u

onslaught

is

unequalled,

bright

ETza
is

ina

Hani P l

rabuti P l
!

ina

(thy) place
i.

among

the great gods

In

Obv.

U.

1645.

ADDRESS TO NINIB

247

J?

-

#r

3//

ta

-

Si

-

la -

a

-

ti

$a

-

ka

-

a

Ekur,

the house of

festal

joys,

exalted

ri

-

Sa

-

a

-

ka
for

id

-

din

-

ka

-

ma

ilu

Bel

is

thy head,

he hath granted thee,

hath Bel

8.

abu

-

ka

te

-

rit

kul

-

lat

Hani? 1
the gods

thy father,

that the law

of

all

ka-tuk

-

ka

tarn

-hat

ta

-

dan

di

-

in

thy hand

should hold!

Thou

judgest

the judgment of

te

-

ni

-

$e

-

e

-

ti

tu$

- te

-

sir

la

$u
is

-

$u

-

ru

mankind,

thou leadest

him

that

without a leader,

^M-T<
i
-

"-^m^T-<
ta -

JT
kat

ka

-

a
that
is

e

-

ku

-

ti

sab-bat

the

man

in

need!

Thou

holdest

-IHen
-

-ET
la

li
'

Si

-

a

tu

-

$a

-

a$

-

ka

the weak,

the

man

that

is

not strong

thou dost exalt!

$a

a

-

na

a

-

ra

-

al

-

li

-

e

$u

-

ru

-

du
/

m
{whi>
}

ro

the

Lower World

(has been brought!
(

down

3=
his

VI

^TTE^JT
tuhra(ra)
restore!

i3.y
$a

t
ar
-

pa-gar-'su

nu
sin

i -

$u

-

u

body thou dost

From him who

possesses

248

HYMNS AND PRAYERS

/a

-

/>#/

-

/r

r

-

nu
!

$a

ilu -

su

itti-

Su

thou dost remove

the sin

The man with whom

his

god

sz'

-

nu

-

u

tu

-

$al

-

lam

ar

-

hi*

is

angry

thou restorest to favour

speedily!

-

~f
l7a

C-ET
Nin
-

Hf
ib

IT
a
-

V
sa
-

^JH
rid

-f

T

Hani? 1
of the gods,

O

Ninib,

prince

ku

-

ra

'-

du

at

-

ta

a hero

art

thou!

5.

Address to Nabu.
[K 3i3o.]

be -

lum

it

-

ti

e

-

mu

-

hi

-

ka

O

lord,

with

thy might

<^
e
-

^TT
iS
-

T
sa
-

-HFan
-

mu

-

ku

ul

na

-

an

no might
2
.

can compare!

z7 "

^a3
Nabu,

it

-

ti

e

-

mu

-

ki

-

ka

O

with

thy might

e

-

mu

-

ku

ul

iS

-

Sa

-

an

-

na

-an

no might
i.

can compare!
2.

Obv.

1.

u

Rev.

1.

ADDRESS TO NABU
3.
//

249

-<
-

//

biti

-

ka

E

-

zi

-

da

With

thy temple,

Ezida,

bi - turn

ul

t'S

-

$a

-

an

-

na

-

an

it

-

ti

no temple

can compare!

With

ah'

-

ka

Bar

-

KI
sip

alu

ul

thy city

Borsippa,

no

city

$a

-

an

-

na

-

an

it

-

ti

ik

-

li

-

ka

can compare!

With

thy domain,

Ba

-

bi

-

Urn

ik

-

lu

ul

i$

-

$a

-

an

-

na
!

-an

Babylon,

no domain

can compare

6.

Prayer to Ishtar of Nineveh.
[81-2-4,
188.]

a

-

na

$ar

-

rat

Hani? 1
the gods,

$a

par

-

si

To

the queen of

ET-T
ildni P l

rabuti P l

$u

-

ut

-

lu

-

mu

ka

-

of the great gods

are entrusted,

m
a
-

na

be

-

lit

alu

Ninua

f
the

to
I.

the lady
14.
2.

of Nineveh,
is

....

Obv.11.6

ka-tns-sa

translated in the previous line after the relative.

250

HYMNS AND PRAYERS

ilaniP 1

Sa

-

ku

-

tu

a

-

na

marat
the daughter of

of the gods,

the exalted one,

to

f-<
ilu

Sin

fa

-

li

-

mat

ilu

Sam

-

si

sa

the Moon-god,

the twin-sister of

the Sun-god,

who

/ - lat

Sarru

-

ti

ta

-

be

-

el

a

-

na

all

kingdoms

rules,

to

pa
her

-

ri

-

sa

-

at

purussa
decrees,

ilat(a(}

kal

gim

-

ri

who

determines

the goddess of

the universe

a

-

na

PRAYER TO ISHTAR OF NINEVKII

251

tt
bul
is
-

9.
-

lu

-

lu

i

-

si

ik

-

$a

da

-

al

-

pa

-

a

- te

confounded

distresses (?) her!

The

afflictions

mal

a -lam-ma
I

-

ru

mah

-

ra

-

ki

a

-

bak
I

-

ka

which

behold,

before thee

bewail.

a

-

na

at -

mu - u

-

a

$u
full

-

nu

-

hi

lib

-

$a

-

a

To
j>TTTt]
?/

my
tffl
ww
-

words

of sighing

directed be

^TT
sw
-

<M
ki

TJ
a
-

^T
na

II -TTI
zik - ri
-

-

ia

thine ear!

To

my

speech

Sum
that

-

ru

-

si

ka

-

bit

-

ta

-

ki

lip

-

pa

-

h'r

is

afflicted

let

thy mind

be opened!

a;w

-

n'

-

z'w

-

wz'

beltu

ki

-

i

Look upon me,

O

lady,

that through

^TT AHfff
jw

-II E^TI
hu
-

<M
-

^TTT
libbi

^T <M
ardi
-

uh

ra

ki

ki

thy turning towards (me)

the heart of

thy servant

<TUrn

E^TT
-

^n
-

1

ra

as

may
i.

be strong!
11.

Obv.

415.

INCANTATIONS.
i.

Incantation to the Fire-god.
[K 2455

+

K

3 9 36.]

siptu

tlu

Gibil

sar

-

hu

bu

-

kur

Incantation.

O

Fire-god,

mighty,

first-born of

A

-

nim

i

-

lit

-

ti

ellitim(tirn)

Anu,

offspring,

bright (and)

Sa

-

ku

-

turn

ilu

$a

-

la

-

a$

Sar

-

h

exalted,

of $alaS,

mighty,

id

-

di

-

$u

-

u

zik

-

ri

newly-shining,

name
4.

of the gods

-

^a
that
is

-

a/

-

ww

wa

-

</z>z

wz'w

-

da

-

bi

-

e

enduring,

who

gives

offerings

5.
ilu

Igigi

$a

-

kin

na

-

mir
light

-

ti

to

the gods,

the Igigi,

who makes

INCANTATION TO THE FIRE-GOD

253

Hf-ir
a
-

Hf-

T

na

''"

A

nun

-

na

-

ki

ilaniP 1

for

the Anunnaki,

the gods

i.tT^TT
rabuti
1Z
-

-Hf-tTHF/III

ZU

-

har

-

mit

that are great.

O

terrible

Fire-god,

destroyer of

a

-

pi

-

ilu

Gibil

al

-

la

-

/

'-

O

Fire-god,

powerful one,

mu

-

ab

-

bit

u
the

annihilator of

and

wicked,

ka

-

mu

-

u

lim

-nu

- ti

zer

amelu

kassapi

who

burns

the evil,

the seed of

sorcerer

u

f

kaSSapti

mu-hal-lik

rag

-

gi
/

zer
the
\

and

sorceress,

who

blots out

the bad,

\seed of/

--yy
sorcerer

<
u

10.

kaUapti
sorceress.

and

At

-

n

-

na
in

di

-

ni

-

ia

this

time

my

cause

.

i -

ziz-za

-

am

-

ma

/('

-

$u

-

ud

lim

-

nu

take thy stand and

overcome

the evil one.

254
12.
A'zwtf

INCANTATIONS

salmdni P l

an

-

nu
1

-

ti

i

-

hu

-

lu

As

these images

quiver,

i

-

zu

-

bu

u

it

-

ta

-

at

-

ta

-

ku

melt

and

dissolve,

amelu

kassapu

u

f

katsaptu

may

the sorcerer

and

sorceress

hu
quiver,

-

lu

li

zu

-

bu

u

melt

and

///

-

ta

-

at

-

tu

-

ku

dissolve.

2.

Incantation against an

unknown

sorceress.

[K 2728.]

Siptu

at

-

ti

man - nu
art thou,

f

kaHaptu

Incantation.

Who

O

sorceress,

ta
in {

ba$u(u^
se

a
t ^ie

-

mat

-

limuttiitirti}
^

ia

heart

1S
}

worc

f

m7

misfortune,

1.

etc.

The burning of little images made of bronze, honey, clay, bitumen, wood, accompanied incantations of this class; hence the title of the series, Maklu,
Maklu
II,
11.

"Burning".
2.

i23i3s.

INCANTATION AGAINST A SORCERESS

255

"5V
lib
-

3.

E
z

bi

-

-

##

litani

-

Sa

by whose tongue
-II hu

*TTT*
-

T a

4.

^
i
-

ib

-

ba

-nu
made

-

u

ru

-

u

-

na

are

my

spells,

at

Sap

-

ti

-

$a

ib

-

ba

-

nu

-

u

ru

-

su

-

u

-

a

whose

lips

are

formed

my

poisons,

-

na

ki

-

bi

- is

tak

-

bu
2

-

su

izzaz(az}

in

whose
-

foot-steps

stands

^E3f ^17
kaHaptu

^SL
as
I

-<
bat

turn

f

-

death?

O

sorceress,

exorcise

pi

-

ki

_

as
I

-

bat

HSana

-

ki
I

thy mouth,

exorcise

thy tongue,

exorcise

ma n

-

ki

na

-

ti

-

la

-

a

-

ti
I

as

-

bat

thy glancing eyes,

exorcise

al

-

la

-

ka

-

a

-

ti
I

thy active feet,
10.
bir
-

exorcise

ki

-

ki

e

-

bi

-

ri

-

e

-

ti
I

thy striding knees,
1.

exorcise

ina lib-bi-sa

is

translated in

1.

i

after the relative.

2. Lit. "in the footstep

she has trodden".

256

INCANTATIONS

ida

H

S3 -ET THT<
-

"H&^m^T
ak
to,

ki

mut

-

tab-bi

-

la

-

a

-

ti

-

si

thy labouring hands,

I

bind

M
i
-

di

-

ki

a

-

na

ar

-

ki

-

ki

ilu

Sin

thy hands

beneath thee!

May

Sin

<?/

-

/0#2

-

mi

-

e

li

-

kat

-

ta

-

a

pa -gar

-

ki

in front

destroy

thy body,

a

-

na
a

mi

-

kit

me P l

u

isati

into

chasm of

water

and

fire

lid

-

di

-

ki -

ma
!

f

kassaptu

ki

-

ma

si

-

hir

may

he cast thee

O

sorceress,

like

the stone

*=ffl
bnu

-HFan
-

^^
ni
-

*s.

-^yy ir^
li
-

^
du

kunukki

e

su

-

of this seal

may

there

glow

//

-

ri

-

ku

pa-nu

-

u

-

ki

(and) turn pale

thy countenance!

3.

Incantation against spells and witchcraft.
[K 43
-f-

K

142

-|-

K

2601.]

ilu

siptu

Nusku

sur

-

bu

-

u

i

-

lit

-

//

Incantation.
i.

O
11.

Nusku,
103.

mighty one,

offspring of

)faklu

III,

89

INCANTATION AGAINST WITCHCRAFT

257

flu

A -mm
Anu,

tarn- til

abi

bu-kur

ilu

Bel

image of the father, first-born

of Bel,

tar

-

bit

apsi

bi

-nu-ut

ilu

child

of the ocean,

creation

of

Ea Ea

!

a$
(I
I

-

ti

dipara

u
I

-

nam

-

mir

-

ka

have raised) on high /

the torch,

have given light

ka

-

a

-

$a

kattapu

ik

-

tip

-

an

-

ni

to thee!

The
(*

enchanter

hath enchanted

me;

y- Hf-

T
-

kit

-

pi

an

n
enchant thou him!

with the \ r \enchantment,

(with which) he enchanted me,

/

kdttaptu

-

an

-

n
/

k#

-

pi
\

The

enchantress

hath enchanted

me;
7-

with the

[enchantment,/

F <V
/a^
-

tip

-

an

-

ni

ki

-

tip

-

h'
!

-

(with which) she enchanted me,

enchant thou her

The

pi - $u wizard

fcfl I
i
-

pu

-

-

an

-

n
f

z'

-

pu

-

-

an

-

ni

hath bewitched

me;

with the

\

(with which) he bewitched me,

\ witchcraft,/

^

/>

-

su

e

-

pit

-

tu

te

-

pu

-

ta

-

an

-

ni

bewitch thou him!
i.

The

witch

hath bewitched

me;

e-pu-su

258

INCANTATIONS

H
f

I
te
-

HPpu
-

$a

-

an

-

ni

e

-

pu

-

si

1

with the I \ witch craft,/

(with which) she bewitched me,

bewitch thou her!

V
te

Hf-

-

pis

-

tu

te

-

pu

-

Xa

an

-

ni

The

sorceress

hath bewitched

me;

ip
I

-su
1

te

-

pu

-

^a

-

an

-

ni

e

-

pu

-

si

with the

(with which) she bewitched me,

bewitch thou her!

fThosej
\

\

witchcraft,/

who

]

salmani P l

ana

pi

-

i

salmdni P l

- ia

ib -

nu

-

u

images

after the fashion of

my

images

have made,

bu

-

un

-

na

-

an

-

ni

-

ia

u

-

mas

- $i

-

lu

who my form

have imitated

ruti

-

ia

-

ku

-

sdrti

-

ia

who my

breath

have caught,

who my

hair

m
z'w
-

HI -

lu

-

su

ulinni

ia

ib

-

tu

-

ku

have plucked,

who my garment

have

rent,

e

-

ti

-

ku

eprati?

1

Tepe

ll ia

is

-

bu-su

who
I3

in

going through

dust

my

feet

have hindered,

.

Hf- ty
ilu

HFkar
-

I-HFdu
tipat
-

^TT
su
-

ynu

Gibil

may
i.

the Fire-god,

the mighty,

their incantation

e-pu-si

=

epus-si.

INCANTATION AGAINST WITCHCRAFT

259

m
//'

I~F
tipta
!

-

pa

-

aS
!

Sir

idi

dissolve

Recite the incantation

4.

Some

reasons for a curse falling upon a man.
[K 150 and

K

8868.]

a

-

na

bit

tap

-

pi

-

e -

$u

i -

te

-

ru

-

ub

Into

the house of his neighbour

has he entered?

a

-

na

a$$at

tap

-

pi

-

e -

$u

it

-

te

-

hi z

To
3.

the wife of

his

neighbour

has he drawn nigh?

T

sTTT -TI
-

dame P

l

tap

-pi

-

e

-

it

ta

-

dak

The blood
4-

of

his

neighbour

has he shed?

su

-

bat

tap

-pi

-

e - $

it

-

ta

-

bal*

The garment
5
.

of

his

neighbour

has he stolen?

<tt E^T! *mi
-

^
-

I

^T EDf
id
-

-ET
la

ra

-

nu

u$-$u

lu

^TITs= Hf- <fu - ma$ - & - ru
let

From
e.

his

power (?)

a

man

has he not

go free?

3Vf
id
-

Jgfl
lu

-t-EET

-T
-

ina

^T
kim
-

~T<
ti -

dam

ka

$

A good man
1.

from

his family

Maklu
I

I,

11.

122-134.

2.
3.

2,

fr.

tefeu;

K
:

K

8868 reads

it-ta-al-ba-as,

8868 gives the variant reading it-ti-hi. "has he put on?".
17*

260

INCANTATIONS

=e=
w
-

7.

se -

lu

-

u

kin

-

na

pu

-

hur

-

ta

has he driven away?

A

united household

-

sap

-

pi

-

hu

a

-

na

la

-

bu

-

ut

-

ti

-

i

has he broken up?

Against

one in authority

y
zis

ff
-

^w
<20

^^TT
-

9.

^
//
-

tE
i -

I
su

^
tar
is

^gt
-

za

sw

su

has he set himself?

In his

mouth

he honest,

//3

-

ba-$u

la

ki

-

i !

ni

pi
With

-

i-Su mouth

an

-

na

(but) in his heart

false

his

(says he) yea,

lib

-

da

-

Su

ul

-

la

(but) in his heart

nay?

i.

Col.

I,

11.

3746.

ASSYRIAN LETTER-TABLETS.
i.

Letter to the king asking for a doctor to see a sick lady.

[825-22,

174.]

-

ka

To

the king

my

lord,

thy servant

//M

SamaS

-

mita

-

uballit

lu

-

u

$ulmu(mu)

SamaS-mita-uballit.

Greeting

-II tETI
-

4.

Hfllu

&
Nabu
6

<
u

na

tarri

beli

-

ia

unto

the king,

my

lord.

May Nabu

and

-II
7/ "

W

-T^TTH<
a- dan
-

Marduk

a

-

na

sarri

beli - ia

nti

Marduk

unto

the king

my

lord

be exceedingly,

.

- </aw -

ni$

lik

-

ru

-

bu

u

-

ma -

a

amat
fthehand-i
\

exceedingly

propitious.

Now

maid

/

9.

^
/

-Hfl7u

^
^
-

=!!!= tTTT^
u
-

Fv
me
- lat

ga

-

of

the king,

Ba'u-gamilat,

262

ASSYRIAN LETTER -TAB LETS

mar

-

sa
is

-

at

ft sffi a - dan -

-El
nis
la

*
ku
-

sa

-

pi

grievously sick,

she cannot

.....
be
-

-

kal
;

u

-

ma

-

a
let

sarri

Hi

eat

now

the king

my

lord

"MAHfflF
te -

'3.
amelu

mi

Us

-

kun
gi ye

asu

isten(en)

instructions

that a physician

HI

-

U

-

ka

U

-

mur

-

si

may come

(and)

see her.

2.

Letter to the king introducing a messenger news for the king's private ear.
[K 498.]

who

has

2.

a

-

na

Sarri

be

-

Hi

-

ia

arad

-

ka

To

the king,

my

lord,

thy servant

m

ilu

Ramman-ibni

lu

sul

-

mu

a

-

na

Sarri

Ramman-ibni.
4
.

Greeting

unto

the king,

be -

Hi

-

ia

mar
That Babylonian
[/'.

Babili KJ
e.

$u

-

u

my

lord.

of

whom

the king already knows]

ina

<^HAtET?
muh
to
-

y.^T-TTI^H
it

El
ma
(He
-

If
a

hi

-

ia

-

tal

-

ka

me

came.

said):

LETTER OF INTRODUCTION

263

ETT?
di
-

ina
\

bi

ina

pi

-

ia
I

ma- a
(must be
{delivered),/

ekalli

My messaee
9.

with

mv own mouth

into

the palace

/w _ 3/ - lu -

u

-

ni

u

-

ma -a

an

-

nu

-

h'm

let

them bring me."

Even now

ma
into

pa

-

an

Sarri

be

-

ili

-

ia

the presence of

the king
I3

my

lord

.

tc
-

^
'

.

-

bi

-

la

-

$u

Sarru

be

-

ili

I

have caused them to bring him.

Let the king

my

lord

? -

al

-

hi

me - nu

$a
in

di

-

bi- su-u

-

ni

umu

ask

him

what

is

his message.

On

XXVIII KA **
the 28th day

istu

Ubbi

alu

Sa-ad
Saddu

-

di

ina

from

into

/a

-

aw

^<zm

3^

-

z'/z'

-

ia
I

u

-

si -

bi

-

la -

$u

the presence of the king

my

lord

caused them to take him.

3.

Letter from Apia to the queen -mother reassuring her during the king's absence.
[K
5 23.]

a

-

na
the

ummi

tarri

belli- ia

arad

-

ka

To

mother of the king,

my

lady,

thy servant

264

ASSYRIAN LETTER -TAB LETS

Apia

-

a

ilu

Bel
Bel

u

ilu

Nabu

a

-

na
/

ummi
the
\

Apia.

May

and

Nabu

unto

\mother of/

Sarri

belli - ia

lik

-

ru

-

bu

a

-

du

-

u

the king,

my lady,

be propitious.

Now

u

-

mu

-

us

-

su

ilu

Nabu

u

ilu

Na

-

na

-

a

daily

unto Nabu and

Nana

a

-

na

ba

-

la

-

ta
life

nap

-

$a

-

a

-

ti

for

w

a

-

ra

-

ka

u

-

mu

$a

far
the king of

and

length

of days

for

matati
the lands,

b'eli -

ia

u

ummi

_

sarri
l

belti- ia

my lord

and

.

tJUt
w
-

^
ja/
I

-E|
-

1

3.

la

^
ummi

/

for the

the king,

\motherofj

my lady,

j^^
$arri

^
belti -

flf

a

do

pray.

Let the mother of the king,

my

lady,

lu

-

u

ha - ma

-

ti

amslu

mar-sip

-

ri

Sa

be of good cheer (?).

A

messenger

of

du

-

un

-

ku

favour

from

Bel

and

Nabu

LETTER TO THE QUEEN-MOTHER

265

V V
z'/

-

//'

for

mdtdti

be - Hi

-

ia

with

the king of

the lands

my

lord

-

ta

-

lak

goeth.

4.

Letter to the king from Kudurru explaining

why

he has

been prevented from coming to thank the king personally for a, favour he has received.
[K
81.]

flf

~Hf
-

v
far
mdtati
be
-

a

na

Hi

-

ia

To

the king of

the lands,

my

lord,

arad

-

ka

m Kudurru
Kudurru.

Uruk

Kl

u

thy servant

May Erech

and

E

-

'an

-

na

a

-

na

Sar
the king of

matati

be - Hi

-

ia

E-ana

unto

the lands

my

lord

IH
lik -

*JH
ru
-

^
bu

be propitious.

Daily

to Itar of

z/ "

Na

-

na

-

a

a

-

na

Erech

and

Nana

for

napSdtiP

1

Sarri

beli -

ia

u

-

sal

-

lu

the

life

of

the king,

my

lord,

I

pray.

266

ASSYRIAN LETTER -TAB LETS

7W

amslu

Iki*a(fa)-aplu

dsu

U
whom

sarri

be - Hi - a

IklSa-aplu,

the physician,

the king

my lord

7.

a

-

na

bul

-

ti

-

ia

l
i'$

-

pu
sent,

-

ra

to

save

my

life

-

/<2/

-

///

-

an

-

ni

Hani? 1

rabuti? 1

has kept

me
s

alive.

May

the great gods

9

.

^

$ame(e)

u

irsittm(ti?nj

a

-

n

of

heaven

and

earth

unto

Sarri

beli

-

ia

lik -

tar

-

ra

-

bu

u

the king,

my

lord,

be propitious,

and

7

*"

^ww^

^arn'

3<?//

-

ia

lib

-

bu

-

u

the throne

of the king

my

lord

in the midst of

$am~e(e)

a

-

na

da

-

ris

lu - kin -

nu

$a

heaven

for

ever

establish.

For

-ii
'

T?
a

i

-

tu

a

-

na

I

ku

u

Sarru

beli -

dead

was

and

the king

my

lord

u

-

bal

-

lit

-

an

-

ni

ta

-

ab

-

ta

-

a

-

ti

hath caused
.

me

to live;

the benefits

bul-ti-ia is contracted

from

bulluti-ia.

LETTER FROM KUDURRU

267

,fa

Sam'
the king

be

-

Hi

-

ia

i -

na

muh
towards

-

hi

-

ia

of

my

lord

me

Tr^T
ma
'

HET^ffl
a

16.

V
Sa

-

da

a

-

na

-masee

ru

Sam'

are

many.

To

the king

- z'#

-

ia

ai

I

tal

-

ka

urn -

ma
:

al

-

lak

-

ma

my

lord

went,

(saying)

"I will

go and

pa
I

-

ni
the
i

$a

Sam
the king

belt

-

ia

am
I

-

mar

-

ma

of

(countenance/

my

lord

will behold,

and

Tfc -IT
u
I

-

rad

-

di

-

e -

ma
and

a

-

bal

-

lut

amelu

ra fr
.

_

____

will

go down

live."

The

.

.

.-officer

ul

-

tu

harrani

^

a

-

na

Uruk

from

the road

to

Erech

ut

-

tir

-

ra

-

an

-

ni

urn

-

ma
:

amelu

turned

me

back

(saying)

"A

cap-

kisir

ul

-

tu

ekalli

un

-

ku

tain

from

the palace

a sealed letter

a

-

na

muh

-

hi

-

ka

it

-

ta

-

Sa

-

to thee

has brought;

268

ASSYRIAN LETTER-TABLETS

25z7

^
-

//

-

ia

a

-

na

Uruk

KI

with
26.

me

to

Erech
7.

jm
/#
-?tz/^

-TI*
Tza/ra

A
-

tT ET
-

K&T
te
-

*=!
e
-

$/

is

-

ma

mu

thou must go."

The
1

instructions

&
-

tTIU
-

IT
a
-

ga he carried out and

kan

na

Uruk

KI

to

Erech

-II
-

Tf
a

A'r

r<2

-

an

-

ni

sarru

beli -

he brought

me

back.

Let the king

my

lord

lu

-

u

i

-

di

know!

5.

Letter to the king from Akkulanu asking for an answer to a previous letter.
[K 604.]

-II
-

na

sarri

beli

-

ia

arad

-

ka

To

the king

my

lord,

thy servant
I, a
-

ET^
-

3.

jiu<
lu
-

<HW^
$ul
-

^w/

-

la -

nu

u

mu

na

Akkulanu.

Greeting

unto

-II
Itarri
belt
-

W
ia

4.

-Hfilu

-S
Nabu

<
u

-Hfilu

<^T
Marduk

the king
i.

my

lord.

May Nabu

and

Marduk

i-sak-kan-ga

=

isakkamma (isakkan-ma).

LETTER FROM AKKULANU

269

a

-

na

Sarri

belt

-

ia

lik

-

ru

-

bu

unto

the king

my

lord

be propitious.

^TT
#/
-

fciSS
$arri

-II

W

8

-

UM
tu
-

mu

$a

beli - ia

ub

Prosperity

to

the king

my

lord,

joy

libbe

nP

l

-

Su

u

tu

-

ub

Stre P l

-

$

for his heart

and

health

for his

body!

ina

gab

-

ri

-

e

$a

e

-

gir

-

ti

-

ia

In

answer

to

my

letter

i3.

If

Sarru

be - Hi

a

-

na

ameiu

arc ft

_

j

may

the king

my

lord

unto

his servant

send.

LETTERS FROM TELL EL-AMARNA.
i.

Letter from Burraburiash, king of Karduniash,
of Egypt, begging for larger presents
for his co-operation against the Assyrians.
[Bu. 88 io
13, 81.]

to

Amenophis IV, king
and

tn
a
-

-TI
-

IH -m
-

-TTI
-

na

Ni

-

ip

hu

ur

-

ri

ri

-

ia

To
TTI

Niphuriria,

<=E]
.

-

<M
fo

fcAtf
.
fa-

ar

7?zata

Mi

_

jf

_

n

-

j

_

king
3.

of Egypt,

speaks

tcm
um
-

El ma

EV
Bur

E^IT
-

^
bu
-

-TTI
ri
-

ra

-

^ia
-

a$

sar

thus

BurraburiaS,

king

E^TI
_

^T
du
-

^
ni
-

tEft
-

a$

4-

E^< -tH
ahu
-

El
ma

ra

-

ia

-

ka

-

of Kardunia,

thy brother.

^^
a
-

5.

ff
a
-

na

ia

-

a

Si

$u
it

-

ul
is

-

mu

na

With

me

well;

with

C^T
-

I
-

a

-

$a

biti

-

ka

a$$ativ l

ka

thee,

thy house,

thy wives,

GREETINGS TO THE KING AND HIS HOUSEHOLD

271

--

v -t
mati
-

6.

ka

a

rabutiP 1

-

ka

thy sons,

thy land,

thy nobles,

v E^
j w* P l

ka

'>"

narkabdtiP 1

-

ka

thy horses,

thy chariots

a//

-

n

-

lu

$u

-

ul
it

-

mu
be.

exceedingly

well

may

=y *s- tyyyt
ul
-

tu

ab

-

bu

-

u

-

ai

u

Since

my

father

and

ab

-

bu

-

ka

a

-

ha

-

mi

-

i

thy father

with

one another

ta

-

bu

-

ta

id

-

bu

-

bu

su

-

ul

-

ma

-

na

friendly relations

established

rich

T?
ba
-

na

-

a

a

-

na
to

a

-

ha

-

mi

-

presents

one another

ul

-

te -

bi

-

i -

lu

u

me

-

ri

-

el

-

ta

they sent

and

any desired object,

ba

-

ni

-

ta

a

-

na

a

-

ha

-

mi

-

is

though precious,

to

one another

272

LETTERS FROM TELL EL-AMARNA

/

ik

-

lu

-

u

i

'-

na

-

an

-

na

they did not refuse.

Now
IT

TMI-TTMU?
a
-

E
ma
-

hu

-

u

-

ai

II
2

na

hurasi

a

-

na

my

brother

manehs

of gold

as

jy <ty*
-

El
ma
-

^
ni
-

tEff
ia

.

<3* ^y
ul
-

3
-

-E -E
-

/

-

te

bi

i

-

la

a present for

me

has sent;

z'

-

w<2

-

an

-

na

-

ma

hurasa

ma

-

a

-

ad

now

much

gold,

ET-ET
ma
-

^T!
$a

fc*=T-t:H
ab
-

JT^-E
su
-

la

bi

-

ka

bi

-

la

as

much

as

thy father,

send;

w
and,

^MW

-

ma

mi
it

-

i - is

mi

-

si

-

el

$a

if

is

less,

half

that of

-

<5z'

-

ka

$u

-

bi

-

i

-

la

am

-

mi

-

ni

thy father,

send.

Why
.

yy

E
ma
-

//
(only) 2

na

hurasi

tu

-

$e - bi

-

e

-

la

manehs

of gold

hast thou sent?

i

-

na

-

an

-

na

du

-

ul

-

U

i

-

na

Now

the

work

in

REQUEST FOR MORK GOLD
-TTI!
//

2y3

f
/'//'

ET
ma
-

Tl
a
-

tET
ad

<MSJ
u

ET

El-

adannti

the temple

is

great

and

with vigour

-

ab

-

ta

-

ku

-

u

-

ma
and

ip

-

pu

-

u$

have

I

undertaken

(it)

am

carrying

(it)

out;

E!
hurdsa

Tl t^TT ma -a -da

JT
hi
-

^ -la -Ef
bi

r-

<
u

much gold

(therefore) send.

And

at

-

ta

mi

-

im

-

ma

$a

ha- a^ - ha- a

-

ta

do thou

for

whatsoever

thou desirest

is.
i
-

-^
$u
-

na

mdti

-

ia

up

-

ra

-

am

-

ma

in

my

land

send

li

-

el

-

ku

-

ni
(it)

-

ik

-

ku

that they

may

take

thee.

-TTI Eyi
-

tn
-

if
a
-

na

Ku

-

ri

-

gal

zu

bi

-

ia

In the time of

Kurigalzu

my
=T
-

father

=m=
-

tTTT^-

^
-

Jl
lu
-

^
nu

na

-

ha

-

ai

-

u

ga

ab

bi -

the Canaanites

with one accord

a

-

na

mu
to

-

uh

-

hi

-

$u

el

-

ta

-

ap

-

ru

-

ni

him

sent
18

274

LETTERS FROM TELL EL-AMARNA
TJ

CITT El
um
-

T?
a
-

~H
na

-I HPka
-

t
-

v
ni
malt

ma -a
:

an

as follows

"Against

the border of

the land

2i

-

[^ww
-

IT*"J]

ur us

-

let

t^k, E| am - ma and go down
da
E:

Eiy

^E
i

tffi
ni
let
-

>^y ^Kf
ba
-

^IEJ
-

al

ki

-

us

make an

22.
it
-

f

a

-

am

-

ma
and

ti

-

ka

i

invasion

with thee

let

ni

-

sa

-

ki

-

in

a

-

bu

-

u

-

ai

an

-

ni

-

ta

us form an alliance."

My

father

this (reply)

el

-

ta

-

ap

-

ra

-

su

-

nu

-

ti

um

-

ma - a
:

sent to them,

as follows

mu

-

us

-

$e

-

ir

it

-

//

-

ia

a

-

na

"Cease (seeking)
26

with

me
El
ma

to

na

-

as

-

ku

-

srjyy^ Sf= u - ni

-

^^
Sum
-

^^y
.

^
-

it

ti

form an

alliance.

If

against

-^ TIT

sarri

$a

Mi

-

is

-

ri

-

i

a

-

hi

-

ia

the king

of

Egypt
27.

my
r|

brother

-

at

-

ta

-

na

-

ak

-

ra

-

ma
and

it

ye are hostile

with

KURIGALZU'S FIDELITY TO EGYPT

275

.fa

-

;//

-

*>#

-

ma

ta

-

at

-

ta

-

at

-

ka

-

na

another

ally yourselves;

*o.

Tl
a

^T M
-

<tf *
ul

tWf -ET -tfcT f
al
-

ET
-

<tT*
ul
shall
I

na

-

ku

la
I

-

ka

-

am

ma
and

as for

me
tT

shall

not come

not

TJ a

-

ff< ha

*T
-

M
-

-^ <T-

*
-

*9.

<jg[
ki
-

tE
i

-

ba

at

ku

nu

-

h'

i

plunder you?

For

it

-

ti

-

ia

na
is

-

a$

-

ku

-

nu

a

-

bu

-

u

-

ai

with

me

he allied."

My

father

so.

^
a:f -

Sum

a-bi

-

ka

ul

t$

-

mi

-

$u

-

nu

-

ti

for the sake of

thy father

did not hearken to them.

HFi
-

na

-

an

-

na

As

-

$u

-

ra

-

ai

-

u

Now

as to the Assyrians

3^TT
da
-

3=
pa
-

gi

-

il

ni

-

ia

a

-

na

-

ku
I

my

subjects

have

ul

a$

-

pu

-

ra

-

ak

-

ku

ki

-

i

not

sent to thee

concerning

<tt ^1
ti

/-

33.

yf
a
-

^ry
na

^
mati
18*

*t
-

mi

-

Su

nu

ka

them?

To

thy land

276

.

LETTERS FROM TELL EL-AMARNA

am

-

mi

-

m

el

-

U

-

ku

-

u

ni

why
34
.

are they

come?

a^ ET
sum
-

s^TTT
ta
-

E^TT A^fflf ET HPra
-

ma

ah

-

ma

-

an

-

ni

If

thou lovest

me

$i -

ma

-

a

-

ti

mi

-

im

-

ma
let

la

any business

them not

IdJ
ip
-

*pu

=TTT=
u
-

JT
su

-TTI
ri
-

t1
ku
-

-T< JT
ti
-

^
-

su

nu

carry out,

their failure (in their enterprise)

ku

-

u$

-

si

-

da

-

su

-

nu

-

ti

secure.

a

-

na

su

-

ul

-

ma -

ni

-

ka

III
3

ma

-

na

As

a present for thee

manehs

w >
ukni

>
$adi
\

^
\

<
u

y
V
5

r
simittu

sa

of

lapis lazuli

of the

and

\mountain/

yoke

of

"

^
l sise P

^
Sa

11.

1

)^

1

V
5

'? u

narkabat-isi P l

horses

for

wooden

chariots

-

te

-

bi
I

-la

-

ak

-

ku

have

sent thee.

LETTER FROM TUSHRATTA
2.

277

Letter from Tushratta, king of Mitani, to Amenophis III, king of Egypt, sent with an image of the goddess Ishtar
into Egypt.
[Bu.

88ioi3,
T

78.]

i.

If
a
-

-ry
na

m

s*: Ni

&ft
-

*
mu
-

-III
ri
-

im

-

ia

To

Nimmuria,

V
.far

<tt tT -HI sE
Mi
2s
-

a.

""'"

ri

-

i

a hi

-

ia

king

of Egypt,

my

brother,

//#

-

ta

-

ni

-

a

$a

a

-

ra

I

-

a

-

mu

my
3.

son-in-law,

whom

love

<HiIJ
w

W
^

tE EvTT AHFi
-

T{
a
-

ET
ma
-

f
an
-

^
ni
ta

ra

-

and

who
i
4.

loves me,

t:m
urn
-

ET
ma

r

^
Du
-

'

ki

-

bi

-

ma

m

us

-

rat

-

speaks

thus

DuSratta,

<tt tE j^III -*f
3far

S^
-

5-

^/z'

-

i

-

ta

-

an

ni

$a

king

of Mitani,

who
tif
e -

E E^II
i
-

A-f
-

If
a
-

^ -tH
mu
-

^
mu
*

-fcjyf ET
-

ra

ka

ka

-

ma

loves thee,

thy father-in-law.

a

-

na

ia

-

h'

$ul
it

-

mu

a

-

na

With

me

is

well;

with

278

LETTERS FROM TELL EL-AMARNA

ka

-

a

-

$a

lu

-

u
it

sul

-

mu

a

-

na

thee

may
T a
-

be well,

with

tTTTT
<$*/?'

-tH
-

^T
na

&z

& f
na

TTT ff

Ta

-

a

-

turn

-

hi

-

pa

thy house,

with

Tatumhipa

-

ia

a

-

astati

-

ka

sa

my

daughter,

with

thy wife

whom

ta

-

ra

-

a

-

mu

lu

-

u

$ul
it

-

mu

thou lovest

may

be well

;

a

-

na

assati P l

-

ka

a

-

na

mare P l

-

ka

with

thy wives,

with thy sons,

I
a
-

ET- -t
rabuti
-

na

amelutiP 1

ka

a

-

na

with

thy nobles,

with

** u

narkabati P l

-

ka

a

-

na

l sise P

ka

thy chariots,

with

thy horses,

a

-

na

sabe P l

-

ka

a

-

na

mati

-

ka

with

thy troops,

with

thy land

u

a

-

na

mim - mu
all

-

ka

dannis(is)

and

with

that

is

thine

exceedingly

ISHTAR'S DESIRE

TO GO TO EGYPT

279

tTff tT
</ti/ifiis(is)

=TT

tT
lu
-

dannis(ts)

u

hd

-

mu

exceedingly

exceedingly

well

may

it

be.

;//

-

ma

ihl

Rtar

$a

alu

Ni

-

i -

na

-

a

Thus

(spake)

iStar

of

Nineveh,

belit

matati

gab
of

-

bi -

I

-

A'

-

na

-

ET ma

T

a

-

na

the lady

all

lands

:

"Unto

v
T

<tt ty
//
_

-m
_

tE
_
,

-5.

tt
/
_

^T
na

v
ma fi
the land
$a

^

n

Egypt

into

which

Tt
a

E-pTI
-

^-4I

T^
a
-

^
mu

m <3* IH
lu
-

ra

-

ul
I

-

lik

-

ku

-

me

love

will go,

-TI
lu
I

W
sa

^ ss
-

Tme

W
a
-

-^ ^TT! El
nu
-

us

-

hi

-

ir -

um

-

?na

will depart (?)."

Verily

i

-

na

-

an

-

na

ul

-

te
I

-

e

-

bil

-

ma
and

now

have

sent (her)

*/

-

tal
is

-

ka

she

gone.

a

-

nu

-

um

-

ma

i

-

na

tir

-

si

Indeed

in

the time of

280

LETTERS FROM TELL EL-AMARNA

a

-

bi

-

ia

-

ma

llu

Istar
[Star,

beltum(tum}

i

-

na

my

father

the lady,

into

$a

-

a

-

si

it

-

tal

-

ka

u

that land

went

and

E I- tff
ki
-

*e
i
-

^T
na

t

^T Tl ^-

i -

me

-

e

pa

na

-

a

-

nu

-

tCTTT E! um - ma

just as

formerly

.

^T ^TTT *fcU
//

ET
ma
and

^SS
uk
-

^T HI
te

^
bi
-

-

ta

-

$ab

-

-

ib

-

du

-

she dwelt (there)
22.

they honoured her

KT^JHJJ
u
so

^
i
-

^"J
na
-

M^fan
-

na

ahi

-

ia

now

may my

brother

a

-

na

X-$u

eli

$a

pa

-

na

-

a-nu

ten times

more than

formerly
4-

fcU
li
-

&
-

Z]
is
-

^
si'

gi

-

ib

bi -

2

ahi

-

ia

honour

her.

May my
I

brother

li

-

gi

-

ib

-

bi -

is

-

zu

2

i -

na

ha

-

di

-

e

honour

her,

with

joy

//'

-

miS

-

Sir

-

~su -

ma

li

-

du

-

u

-

ra

3

may
1.
II

he allow her

to return.

2 Pret.
i

2. II

Prec.

from kabatu with pron. suffix. from kabatu with pron. suffix.

3.

'.I

i

Prec. from taru.

INJUNCTIONS FOR ISIITAR'S SAFE RETURN

281

y-=yj
//H

/?/<ir

&//'/

.fa

-

me

-

e

ahi

-

ia

May

iStar,

the lady of

heaven,

my

brother

u

ia

-

Si

li

-

is

-

sur

-

an

-

na

-

Si

and

me

protect

I

.

C

li

-

t'm

tandtiP 1

u

for 100,000

years

and

t
///

^y
-

^yyy
-

du

ia

ra

bi

-

ta

be lit

i$ati

great joy

may

the lady

of

fire

a

-

na

ki

-

la

-

a

-

al

-

li

unto

both of us

li

id

-

din

-

an

-

na

-

h' -

ma

u

kt

-

i

give

and

thus

ta

-

a

-

bi

i

ni

-

pu

-

u$ do.

good
1.

shall

we

ta-a-bi

=

tabi.

2.

The

last

two

lines of the letter, the

meaning of which

is

uncertain, are

here omitted.

OBSERVATORY' REPORTS.
i.

Reporting the date of the Vernal Equinox.
[K
15.]

^T umu

fflf

t^
KAN
sa
ar 'l u

VI

Nisanu

u

-

mu

On

the 6th day

of

Nisan,

the day

<u

3.
sit
-

mu

-

h'

ku

-

lu

VI

.......
1

and

the night

were equal.

Of

6

periods

5

.

flf

^.......
periods

^
mu
-

<Tsi

6.

u

-

mu

VI
of 6

^^
iln

Nabu

was the day,

was the

night.

May Nabu

7.
ilu

Tl
a
-

Marduk

na

sarri

be

-

i

-

U

(and)

Marduk

unto

the king,

my

lord,

lik

-

ru

-

bu

be propitious.
i.

The {\7

>~

is

proved by

this

and similar passages to have been a space

of two hours.

THE VERNAL EQUINOX AND LUNAR OBSERVATIONS
2.

283

Reporting a successful observation of the moon.
[K 716.]

ma

-

sar

-

tn

ni

-

it

ta

-

sar

umu

XXIX

KA ^

A

watch

we

kept.

On

the 29 th day

ilu

Sin

ni

-

ta

-

mar

ilu

Nabu

u

the

moon

we
5-

saw.

May Nabu

and

-HPllu

*2G
Marduk

]]
a
-

^
na

sup*
$arri

-II ^t]}
beli
-

ia

Marduk
6.

unto

the king,

my

lord,

jj^j
lik
-

^m ^ru
-

?.

bu

sa

m

Na

-

bu

-

u

-

a

$a

be propitious.

From

Nabua

of

the city of ASSur.

3.

Reporting an unsuccessful observation of the moon.
[K 297.]

a - na

Sarri

beli

-

ia

arad

-

ka

To
T

the king,

my
3.

lord,

thy servant

-*f
|7

<W

m

&

II

K^ ETam * lu
rab
-

< -!<
e$reti(tt)

Htar-iddin-apla

Sa

Itar-iddin-apla

the chief

of

284

OBSERVATORY REPORTS
5
pl
.

$a

alu

Arba'

-

ilu

the astronomers

of

Arbela.

.

m<
/
-

w

$ulmu(mu}

a

-

na
to

Sarri

belt

-

ia

Greeting

the king,

my

lord

9
//w

.

Marduk

illt

iStar

sa

May Nabu,

Marduk

(and) Itar

of

Arba

- ilu

a

-

na

sarri

beli

-

ia

Arbela

unto

the king,

my

lord,

//^

-

ru

-

In

ina

nmi

XXIX

KAN

ma

-

sar

-

tu

be propitious.

On

the 29 th day

a

watch

ni

-

ia

-

sa

-

ar

bi

-

it

ta

-

mar

-

ti

we
.6.

kept.

At the house

of observation

A4f

tTffi

'?

HF- <
ilu

-ET
la

irpitu

Sin

ni

-

mur

(there were) clouds.

The moon
^y
iimu

we

did not see.

is.

>3 ^
ar & u

y

Sabatu
Sebat,

I
the
i

t^ KAN
day,

i

9

.

<y^
Urn
-

^
mu

The month

st

the

eponymy

T

-II

m

^v

<

1

Bel-harran-$adu(u}-a of Bel-harran-Sadua.

LUNAR OBSERVATIONS
Reporting a lunar eclipse.
[K 88.]

285

4.

-.

~
a
-

K&
'"'*'

-EET
/#&7r

-II
/*// -

W
m

2

-

^T
;w/

-t
-

na

ka

To
y
"'
/7

the chief gardener,

my

lord,

thy servant

f

t

^ ^-

3.
t7 "' tl/

"

4
e&rete(te)

Nabii-him-i<Mimi

rob

-

Xa

Nabu-um-iddina,

the chief (of the astronomers)

of

|V "

Marduk

a

-

na

Nineveh.

May Nabu

(and)

Marduk

unto

^/z' -

*iz

M

-

ru

-

bu

umu

XIV

KAN

the chief gardener,

my
9.

lord,

be propitious.

On

the i4th day

^TT
sa

-Hf-<<<
ilu

masartu
a

Sin

ni

-

ta

-

sar

watch

of

the

moon

we

kept.

ilu

Sin

atald

is -

sa

-

kan

The moon

was

eclipsed.

REPORTS FROM ASSYRIAN ASTROLOGERS.
i.

From

Nabu-ahe-erba.
[K 692.]

enuma

Sin
the

ina

arl u !

Kislimu
Kislev,

umu

XXX

KAN

When
<Tinnammar
is

moon

in

the

month

on the 3oth day,
3.

.s?5
sar

^T
Mar
-

EiMM
tu

-tTM
ina

KI

kakki

seen,

the king

of the Western land

with

(his)

arms

sumkutu(tu]
r(shall achieve)
I
\

sa

m

ilu

Nadu

-

ahe P l

-

erba

From

Nabu-ahe-erba.

a conquest.

/

2.

From

the chief astrologer.
[K 6 9 3.]

enuma

Sin
the

ina

namun'-Su
its

kima
as

umu

I KAN

When

moon

in

appearance

ontheistday,

umu
(so)

XX VIII KAN innammar
on the 28th day
is

limuttim(tim)
(there will be) evil fortune

Mar
for the

-

tu

KI

seen,

Western land.

REPORTS FROM ASSYRIAN ASTROLOGERS
3.

287
4.

T

<
Sin

*T
umu

ciiiima

XXVIII KAN

mt&
is
" Ia!u

<Tinnammar
'

<M
dumku

When

the

moon

on the 28th day

l

seen,

Akkadi
for

K1

limnttu
evil fortune

Mar

-

lu

Kl

U
From

Akkad,

for the

Western

land.

ETamelu

TJ
_

^TT
asu

j,^

the chief astrologer.

3.

From Akkulanu.
[K 694-]

enumaumu

XVI
1

^A ^

.

Sin

u

Samas
the sun

itti

a -ha

-

mt$

When
<y^

on the
3

6th day

y~~
l

.

.

innamru F

^ ^
sarru

the

moon and

with

one another

y ana

^^
nukurta
hostility
-

mitte
uma'ar(ar)
will direct,

sarri

are seen,

king

against

king

Sarru

ina

ekalli -

$u

a

na

mi

-

na

-

at

the king

in

his palace

for

the space of

<MTI
ar
a
-

A
hi

4.

tTTT* t^TTT
u
-

ta

-

sar

$epa

ll

nakiri

month

will be besieged,

the feet

^

e
,

vl
a
-

5.

ESS^amslu nakiru

ina

VI
mati-Su
his land
Sal - ta - nis

na
/

mati-$u
his land
\ l( will

into

the

enemy

in

triumphantly

come),/

288

REPORTS FROM ASSYRIAN ASTROLOGERS
6

ittallaku P

l

y enuma

.

Sin
the

ma
in
the

ar b u

Duzi

lu

-

u

will march.

When

moon

month Tammuz

either

^T
umu

<W tEE
XV
KA *

7
illi

XIV

KAN

lu

-

u

umu

on the i4th day

or

on the 15th day

with

llli

SaittXi

la

innamir(irj

sarru

ma
in

ekalli

-

su

the sun

has not been seen,

the king

his palace

u

-

ta

-

sar

umu

XVI ^^
the i6th day

<Tshould
it

r ET
be seen,

innammar-ma

will be besieged.

On

<I^f
dumku
((there will be)
\

V
matu
/

^=TT
Subarti

^l

limuttu

forSubartu,

evil fortune

prosperity

-

tu

sa

for

Akkad

and

the Western land.

From

-

-

-

n

Akkulanu.

SOME ANCIENT BABYLONIAN LAWS.
[K 251.]

TH3U
Sum
-

ma

ma

-

ru

a

-

na

a

-

bi

-

Su

If

a son

to

his father

TJ
a
-

&
fo'

[tET s0TT]
#/
-

-TI* tHTT
ik
.

^
bi

ta

ta

"Thou

art not

my

father"

says,

ga

-

la

-

ab

-

Su

ab

-

bu

-

ut

-

turn

they shall

brand him,

in fetters

I
i

<1

-

Sa

-

ak

-

kan -hi

u

a

-

na

kaspi
silver

place

him
2.

and

for

*s ET
Sum
-

ET -TTI
ma
-

TJ
a
-

^T
na
to

-

din-Su

ma

ri

sell

him

(as a slave).

If

a son

um
his

-

mi - Su

ul

um
art

-

mi

at

-

ti

ik

-

ta

-

bi

mother

"Thou

not

my

mother"

says,
19

290

SOME ANCIENT BABYLONIAN LAWS

ffz# -

ut

-

ta

-

as

-

su

u

-

gal

-

bu

-

ma

his face

they shall

brand and

TJ -ET S3fc a - la - am
the city

tTTTt ff
u
-

A-TTT
-

sa

ah

.

fi< tffl ha - ru - Su

JT

<HEJI
u

they shall forbid him

and

*TTTT
i
-

-TTT^
u
-

* IS*
se
-

JT
$u

3.

e=^
Sum
-

ET
ma

na

biti

su

-

from the house

they shall drive him.

If

EMTI^T
a
-

<tT* ET -TTI
ul

bu

ana
to

ma

-

ri

-

su

ma

-

ri

at

-

ta

a father

his son

"Thou

art

not

my

son"

ik

-

ta

-

bi

ma

biti

u

i

-

ga
wall

-

rum

says,

from house

and

^TTT
i
-

[-ET]
-

4.

ET
Sum
-

te

-

el

la

ma

^:TTT um - mu
a

^
-

T ana
to

he must depart.

If

mother

ET
ma

HfU JT
-

<tT*
ul

ET
ma
-

T^
a

-TTI
-

-ET ^TTT
at
ta

ri

-

Su

ri

her son

"Thou

art not

my

son"

.

<
u

eTTT
u
-

ik

-

ta

-

bi

ina

biti

na

-

a

-

ti

says,

from

house

and

household

stuff

E ^T i^TTT
i
te
-

s.

*s ET
Sum
-

aS
-

-gTT s^TTT
Sa
-

el

ma

ta

he must depart.
I.

If

a wife

mu-ut-ta-as-su

=

muttat-su.

LEGAL RELATIONS OF HUSBAND AND WIFE

2gi

-TI^TT
mu
-

us

-

su

pE-TT^SmET ma zi
i
-

<-T^
ul

^
mu
-

T<
ti

ir -

her husband

hates

and

"Not

my husband

at

-

ta

ik

-

ta

-

bi

a

-

na

na

-

a

-

ru

art

thou"

says,

into

the river

i -

na

-

ad

-

du

-

Su

Sum -ma
If

mu
a

-

tu

a

-

na

let

them throw

her.

husband

to

aS

-

Sa

-

ti -

Su

ul

aS

-

Sa

-

ti

at

-

ta

his wife

"Thou

art

not

my

wife"

ik

-

ta

-

bi

I /2 J

ma

-

na

kaspi

i

-

Sak

-

kal

says,

/2

maneh
T
a
-

of silver

he shall pay.

7

.

^
3fw/w
-

ET
ma

*Tme
a
-

t
lum

<MTI 0T
ar
-

da

If

man

a slave

tiT *T
i -

^Hfff ^TTT
ih
ta
-

IH
lik

gu

-

ur

ma
and

im

-

tu

-

ut

hires

he

dies,

(or) gets lost,

!!T
z'/

* <MTI -&
pa
-

-

ta

-

ba

-

ta

it

ta

-

ar

-

ka

(or) runs away,

(or) disappears,

w or
i.

/w

-

ta

-

ra
sick,

-

su

i

-

di

-

Su

Sa

falls

as his hire

for

mu-us-su

=

mut-su.

19*

292

SOME ANCIENT BABYLONIAN LAWS
ET
/#
-

=TTT=
-

tffi
tan

HFx

TTT
7^4
-

T
^-

HF-

/2
J

^

*
$e
-

r
-

am

one day

/2

(a

measure

of)

corn

i-

ma

-

an

-

da

-

ad

he shall measure out.
i.

Rev., Col.

Ill,

1.

23

Col. IV,

1.

22.

PROVERBS AND SAYINGS.
TJ
a
is
-

.

sa

-

al

-

tu

far

ki

-

na

-

tu

-

ti

Hostility

among

(one's) servants,

kar

-si

a

-

ka

-

li

a

-

$ar

pa

-

h' -

$u

-

ti

slander

where

with

oil

^
one

-

/a - a$
is

- h'

u-bar

-

ru

ina

alt

Sa

-

nim

-

ma

anointed.

A

servant

in

another city

ri
is

-

e -

$u

ib

-

ru

-

turn

Sa

u
is

-

ma

-

ag

-

tan

a high officer.

Friendship

for a day,

T T!
ki
-

-K
-

3

4.

y

na

-

tu

-

tu

Sa

da
is

-

ra

-

a

ti

ana

service

for ever.

With

ka

-la

da
is

-

mi

-

ik

u

u

-

la

-

pa

every one
i.

he friendly
2 - Mid.,
1.

and
3. Ibid.,

into an alliance

Sm.

61,

11.

1215.

i6f.

11.

911.

294

PROVERBS AND SAYINGS

-ETJ3
la
-

bi

-

alpu

na

-

ka

-

ri

Sam

-

me

enters.

The ox

of an

enemy

weeds

ET
ik
-

J3
-

-TTI
-

^TT
-

kal
eat,

ra

-

ma

m

bi

ri

iS

doth

ones
6.

own

ox

in a fat pasture

HPF-

ni

-

il

ina

na

-

ri

b

-

ba

-

Si -

>

lies.

By

a stream

thou

art,

but

da

-

ad

-

da
3

-

ru

ap

-

pu

-

na

-

ma

ina in

thy water

stinketh

exceedingly

;

/^^'

-

n'

-

/

/3

- h' -

ma

su

-

lu

-

up

-

pa

-

ka

a plantation

thou hast been, but

thy date

-

da

-

nu
is

$a

Sarri

(was)

gall.

To

give

the king's (privilege),

/

-

w<5

-

3w
is

$a

$a

-

ki

-

i

na

-

da

-

nu

to

make

joyful

(the privilege) of the ruler.

To

give

V
fistheking'sl
\ (privilege), /

to

mu - ku show favour
-

a
s
(

-

ba

-

rak

-

ku
\

(the privilege)

\of the governor./
6f.
11.

i.

K

4347, Obv., Col.
4.
1.

Ill,

1.

2.

807
24.
5.

19,

i3o,

11.68.

"(is)
1.

a stink".
7.

K
7

4347, Rev.,
f.

19

tu-ub-bu

=

3. Literally, 6.

tubbu.

Sm.

61,

5

f.

7*M.,

TEXTS
TO BE TRANSLITERATED AND TRANSLATED

Inscription of Tiglathpileser
Engraved on the rock near the source of the

I.

Tigris.

-TTI

T

T?

T

v

-

ET

T
mi
From
T

Inscription of Assur-nasir-pal.
his statue in the British

Museum.

Ei-

tm^ET-

i

=n?^-

298

INSCRIPTION OF ASHURBANIPAL

v

=T

T

Hunting-inscriptions of Ashurbanipal.
i.

From

a relief in the British

Museum, representing
dead
lions.

the king pouring a

libation over four

T

-

I

=yrrt=

v

T

INSCRIPTION OF RAMMAN-NIRARI

III

299

2.

From

a relief in the Louvre, representing the king seizing a lion by the ear and slaying it.

.

IT

^T

m
-

HF-

A

fr

T?

I

v Hf- A <ET

MKIH ^11
T

TTT

A-*f
TT

^T

I

Inscription of
From

Ramman-nirari

III.

a stone slab in the British

Museum.

[51-92,

35.]

I
3

v-

V Sr!

t^I

-HF-WTT

^T^TIET

^

<

-ET

T<

V

3oo

INSCRIPTION OF RAMMAN-NIRARI

III

=

3

T^

-e=T

TTT

<tt

*?

A
Hf-

7

1

<

^.^

-ffi

^T.^-Hf- ^T
-HP

T ~Y

-f

-Afl-

<

<^T

-III

^^
I

*

> v

-

v

JET

v
T
yy

-m
<Tti^ ET

<

HF-

V-

Hf-

tyyyy

A^ ^!T^ v

T

Hf-

-< -TZI

-t

-

-HZ
y

-yyz

-^yy

w

<

SENNACHERIB'S FOURTH CAMPAIGN

3oi

The

subjugation of Babylonia by Sennacherib in his fourth campaign.
From
a cylinder in the British
[No. 12174.]

Museum.

coi. HI,

i.

4*

t

in

-TT^

tyyyy

y

1.

I.

e.,

2.

I. e.,

matu Bitla-kin. amelu Kal-da-ai, the Chaldean.

3o2

SENNACHERIB'S FOURTH CAMPAIGN

* iMTT

^

v ^yy

j

-III

tn

=m=

T?

v

yyy

i

T-

i

<*

rflg
Tl II

SET

<M!I

^T<

-^

T

-

ASHURBANIPAL'S CONQUEST OF ELAM

3o3

liH^KI

v

-t

The conquest
From a

of

Elam by Ashurbanipal.
Museum.

cylinder in the British
[No. 12168.]

Col. v, 1.90

f

<\V

&T

-

-tTT

tEB

T

T< I

v

^

*

^
Tl

v
tyyyt
-TTI

tCTTT

i~f A

304

ASHURBANI PAL'S CONQUEST OF ELAM

ro 4

<TT

I

T

tCTTT

t^f ^TT

^ v

V
tyyyy

<y-yil
-'

-<

-c

THE SACK OF SUSA

3o5

.

MfF

-II -II

-.-Hf-T

I

I

TJTI

v

t^

ET

-ey -yyi

<MTI

-!<

^

^

-yyi

--TT

T-tTTT=

20

3o6
>~CTY?T
>-^j_LJ

INSCRIPTION OF ESARHADDON
fA*~< -V^.

te-rw

A

TT
1

1

A >~<l< |\

Ty

T

/

^

>7^~

J

Z 33

^T^TT C^T!

/YY AT T <|| ^T TW**\jj

<ff

-yy^

y

v
.

Jl

l>

.

vi,

i.

^yy

^^
2

y

v

<^y
T

ey <jgf

< ~T<

If

<T*

^^

V

^THH-

JlTT

Inscription of Esarhaddon recording the restoration of Eanna, the temple of the goddess Ishtar.
From
a cylinder in the British
[81

Museum.

6

7,

209.]

E^TT

^s:

-HP

If

<cT

DEDICATION TO ISHTAR

3oy

HFTI

*TI

^T<

TI<T

ET--K
ET=TTT

T

HF-

A

l

-Hf
I

v JT

F -TH

-TTI I
TTT

II

-HF-=TTTTTI

HF- <^T!

<

-HF-

<W

HF- 1-

ET- I20*

3o8

INSCRIPTION OF ESARHADDON

~f

I

TI

4

<
!<

-HF-<W

-*fT-

*TI*

-^T!

I

-

v Hf-A

tTTTT

T

<

-III efi -<T<

<

ET

IHI

JT
tyyyy Ey^

TITLES AND GENEALOGY OF THE KING

3og

T

T--TTI

jy
y

=yyy<

w
I

~f

<

E^

y

-tir

^r tS^

-Hf-<w

3 io

INSCRIPTION OF ESARHADDON

33

=yyy

34

<MTI/

fc

y

^<

y

y{v

^

v

IHI

TTI

-fflf

W

T^I
-<y<

tt

^ JT

Hf-T
i.

Reading uncertain; u-si-bi-ma,

if

correct,

=

ustZpi-ma.

INSCRIPTION OF

NABOMDUS

DtU

^
-tfcj
4,

TJ

TT

Inscription of Nabonidus commemorating the restoration of the temple of the Moon-god at Ur.

On

four cylinders in the British

Museum.
1692.]

[K 1689,

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1690,

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VOCABULARY

VOCABULARY.

a-a
ai
si

interj.

:

"alas!"; employed as subs.
:

:

"grief, pain".

particle of -prohibition

"not".

Cf. Hebr.

^.
Hebr/X.

interrogative particle interrogative

:

"where?".
:

Hebr. ^.
Cf.

\iu

pronoun "who, which ?".
ia-a-bu.

aibu

"enemy"
"father".
"flood,

:

sometimes written
Ideogr.

Hebr. D^K.

abu

S^J.

Hebr. SK.

abubu
abubis

deluge";

Marduk's

weapon,

"thunder-

bolt ')".
\

abubanis
abbuttu

}
\

adv.

:

'like a

deluge".

"fetter".
Pret. ebuk,

Hebr. nb#i

abaku
abiktu

sing, dbuk

:

"to carry off (as spoil)".

"defeat".

Ideogr. ^[>~ ^|~.
abkal
:

abkallu

cons

:r.

st.

"spokesman, director".

Ideogr.

abalu

Pret

ubil,

ubla

;

Prec.

lubil,

hbil

:

"to bring, carry,

conduct; to dispense (commands); to prompt,
ur$ e (with tibbu "the heart" as subject)
(th
;

to lay

hand upon)".
Part, muttabbilu

Cf. Hebr.

^DIH,

Hif. of

b^

Ifteal,

:

"to bring, carry".
:

Shafel, iret. uSabil, uSebil; Imper. subil

"to bring,

cause fo bring, send".

3i8

VOCABULARY
Ishtafal, Pret. uMabil,
ult'ebil,

usibil

:

"to cause to bring,

to send".

biltu

constr.

st. bilat

:

"tribute, taxes;

burden, weight;

ta-

lent".

Ideogr.

^f^TCf
Ideogr. Ideogr.

abullu

"great gate, city-gate".
constr.
st.

jfl^ E|>-.
fr"^f-

abnu
abru

aban

:

"stone".

Hebr.

pX

"wing, pinion". Hebr. "Dl*.

abarakku "governor".
abatu
Prec.
li'abit;

Pres. i'abat,

Mat

:

"to destroy;
^IDSI.
:

to

be

destroyed, disappear".
Piel,

Hebr.

Pret. u'abbit,

ubbit;

Part, mu'abbit

"to destroy,

annihilate".
Nifal, Pret. innabit
Ittafal, Pres. ittabat
:

"to
:

fly,
fly,

escape".

"to

run away".
:

aga

fern. sing, agata,

demonstrative pronoun

"this";

the

form aga
cases.

is

also used for all

numbers genders and

agu
agu

"crown,

tiara, diadem",.

"stream, river".
Pret. igug
fern. sing,
:

agagu
aggu
aggis

"to be angry".
:

aggatu

"angry, furious

'.

adv. "angrily, in wrath".

uggatu

"anger".

agammu a S aPP u
agaru
agurru
adi

"swamp"
"wing of
Pret. igur

;

written with determ.
a bird".
:

J^'J^J.

Hebr.

D3^l.

"to hire".
.*

see igaru.

"up

to,

to,

until;

together with";

adi mati

"how

long?".

Ideogr.

^J.

Hebr. 1$.

adu adu adu

adv.

"now".

"age, long period of time".

"to

fix,

ordain".

VOCABULARY
Piel,

3 19

Pret. uaddi\

Inf.

uddu

:

"to

fix

in place;

to or-

dain, appoint; to determine".

adu

plur.

cide

:

"ordinance,

command".

adaguru

"vessel for incense".

admu udmu
adannu
adannis

"the young (of birds, serpents
"generation, race".

etc.)".

"a fixed time".
adv. "exceedingly, vigorously".
the

Ideogr.

Adaru
adaru
adattu

month Adar.
:

Ideogr.

>%H^ ^.
"dwelling".

Hebr.

Pret. edur
(i.

"to fear".
:

e.

<z<fcatf adantti),. plur.

ahu

"brother"; ahu ..... ahu "the one ..... the other".
Ideogr.

E^.

Hebr. HK.

ahamis
ahu ahu
ahazu

adv. "together"; ana ahamti "together, to one another";
itti

ahamti "with one another".

"side; bank of a river; shore of the sea".
fern, ahitu
:

"hostile".

Pret. ihuz

;

Pres. ihhaz

:

"to hold,

seize

;

to

learn

;

to begin". Hebr. ttlX.

Shafel, Pret. usahiz\ Pres.
Nifal, Pres. innahaz
:

uUhaz

:

"to cause to take".

"to be taken".
ahuldpi kibu "to proclaim forgive-

ahulapi

adv.

"how long?";

ness (to

some one)".
Hebr.
"111$.

[aharu]

"to be behind".

aharru u the West-wind".
Hebr. niHK.
aAri/
fern. plur. ahratu
:

Ideogr.

^Jft. ^yj^
ina

^^J.

Cf.

"future";

ahrdt

ume "in the

future".

Cf. Hebr.

jntjg, nn.CjS2 sing. takal\

akalu

Pret. z^/;

Pres. z^j/,
:

Part. 5^7,

masc.

plur. dkiluti
teal, Pret.

"to eat".
:

Ideogr. ^-Effij.

Hebr.

zM^/

"to eat".

aAra

Vood".

Ideogr.
:

^.
Ideogr.

alu

U Ur.

aldni

"city".

^TT-

320

VOCABULARY
Pret.
ulid',

aladu

Pres. ullad

:

"to bear,

bring forth"; fern,
in travail,

part, alittu (for alidtii)

"woman

mother".

Hebr. lh\
Ifteal, Pret. ittalad
:

"to spawn".
:

Piel, fern. part, mu'allidatu

"to bear".

ilittu

"child, offspring".
Pret.
illik,

alaku

2 masc. sing,
Pres.
illak,
i

tallik,

i

sing. a-lik\ Prec.
;

i

sing.
al-ka
;

lullik

;

sing, allak

Imper.

a-lik,

Part. alik\

Perm.

3 plur. a/-&z

:

"to go, to

come";

alaku
alik

risilt

(or ana rlsui]
alik

"to go to the help of";

idi

"ally";

pdni "leader;

predecessor".

Ideogr. J^J.
Ifteal,

Hebr.

$*.
ittalak

.

^

.

^
"to

.

Pret.

and Pres.

"to go, walk, proceed".

Ideogr.
Iftaneal,

J^J J^J.
Pret.

and Pres.

ittanalak

go along or

round".
Shafel, Pret. uSalik
:

"to cause to go"
in ruins".

;

karmuta Zuluku

"to cause to

fall

alaktu

"path".

alikutu "going, advance". allaku "active, quickly-moving".

malaku
alalu alalu
ul

"going, course".
Pret. ilul
:

"to bind, |o hang, to hang up".

"to be void, to be nothing".

negative

:

"not".

ullu
[alalu]
alilu

"denial, nay".

"to be strong".
"strong".
"strong, powerful".

allalu
ellatu
allallu

"might, forces; family relatives".
a brightly-coloured bird.

alpu

"ox".

Ideogr.

^y^.

Hebr.

f\b%.

amu

"to speak".

VOCABULARY
Ishtafal, Pret.

321

and Pres. uUami

:

with

libbu

"to think,

direct the attention to".

amatu
atmu mamitu amelu
\

constr.

st.

amat

:

"word,

command

;

thing".

Ideogr.

"word, speech".
"ban, curse; oath, compact".
plur.

ameluti

:

"man";

for

amel urki see

araku.

amilu

I

Ideogr. ^yyyy.

amelutu

"mankind".
"instead of".

ammaku
ammlni

"why ?".
"earth".
Pret. emur,
imur',
;

ammatu amaru

Pres. immar\
to find
;

Imper. amur,
(in

fern.

amri

:

"to see

to read
J*~.

an inscrip-

tion)". Ideogr. ^|~,
Ifteal,

$>-

Pret. itamar

:

"to see".
Pres. innammar;
Inf.

Nifal, Pret. innamir;

ndmuru

:

"to be seen

;

to be found".
bit

tamartu

"observation";
inter j.
:

tdmarti "observatory".

amassa amtu
ana

"help !"(?).
st.

constr.

amat

:

"maid, handmaid". Ideogr.

/

'\*-

V.

Hebr.

rm
Ideogr.
:

prep. "to".
constr.
st.

J.
silli

anu

an "receptacle, place"; an

"dungeon".

Anu
Anutu
[anahu] tanlhu
\

the god of heaven.
>"divinity".

Anumutu]

"to sigh, lament".
"sighing, sorrow".
"full of sighs".

Hebr. rQX.

sunuhu
[anahu]

Pret. enah;

Pres. innah

\

"to

grow weary;

to de-

cay"

;

la

dnihu "unwearied".

anhutu

"ruin".
21

322

VOCABULARY
personal pronoun
"lead".
:

anaku anaku

"I".

Hebr. Hebr.

Ideogr. *->f- *~T|.

anumma
[ananu]

"verily, indeed".

"to be gracious".
Ifteal,
inf.

Hebr.
:

pfi.

Inf.

utnennu
as

"to

weep, pray, supplicate";
supplication".
Cf.

used

subs,

"prayer,

Hebr. [irinn.

annu
unninu
[ananu]

"mercy, grace

;

consent, yea".

"prayer, supplication".
"to be hostile".

anantu

"opposition, fight, attack".
"sin, error, wickedness". "sin, fault, transgression".

annu annunu
aninu
anini
\

ninu
nini

personal pronoun

:

"we". Hebr.

annu

anrii

(gen.),

anna (ace.)

;

fern,

anmtu,

anriiti

(gen.),

anriita

(ace.); masc. plur. annuti, annutu\

fern, anndti,

demonstrative pronoun "this".

annusim
anakati

adv.

"now".
"she-camels".
Ideogr.

(fern, plur.)

asu

"physician".

asamu asmu
simtu

"to be adorned".

^

\}

^\.

"adorned",
constr.
st. simat',

plur. simati

:

"ornament, adornment,

honour";

la simati

"property or position unlaw-

fully held".

Ideogr. |>-

^|.
<?.

asmaru
[ape]

"lance"

;

written with determ.
Cf. Hebr. HS;.

l|,

g.

*>"

as-mar-e.

"to shine forth".

Shafel, Pret. u^dpu, u$epi\

Imper. Supa; Perm, supu
call into

:

"to cause to

come

forth,

being, create,

make;

to

make

bright; to praise, glorify".

VOCABULARY

323

"to cause to appear; to

make

bright, to adorn;

to be called into being, to be created".

supu
apalu
aplu

"bright, brilliant, glorious".
Pret.
~ipul\
st.

Pres. ippal
apil
:

:

"to answer".
Ideogr. J^,

constr.

"son".

^r^^5|.
Cf.

apsu

"ocean, abyss".
e.
(*'.

appu

anpii)

:

Ideogr. *-j^y| t^^=J. "countenance; top (of a tree)".

Hebr.

*]g,

Dm

appunnama
apparu

adv.

:

"mightily, exceedingly; on a huge scale, of
stature".
:

huge

plur. appare, apparati

"reed-bed, swamp".

apsanu
asu

"yoke".
Pret.
usi',

Pres.
;

ussi-,

Part. dsu\ "to

come or go

forth,

to escape

to

come

forth (from the mouth), to be

decreed".
Shafel,
Inf.

Hebr. K^\
Part, musesu,
fern,

Pret. u&st;
Siisu
:

mu^e-m-at;

"to

cause

to

come
to

or

go

forth,

to
.

send forth, to bring out;
to
let

allow to esto

cape,

go;

to

drive

out;

take

one-

self off".

situ

"exit;

that

which comes forth;
offspring"
;

offspring";

si-it

lib-bi-ia

"my

sit

pi "that

which comes
;

forth

from the mouth, speech, word"

sit

SamSi

"the rising of the sun, the east".
si'atu
\

"eternity"

;

um

si'ati

"days of old"

;

u-mu sa-a-H

satu

|

"eternity".

assaru

substantive
edit

of uncertain

meaning

:

kima as-sa-ri

ippar&d "like an assaru alone he fled".
Cf. Hebr. nnjT.

[aku]

"to fear, to reverence".
Iftaal, Pret. utakku
:

"to be obedient".

alfsu

"obstinate, rebellious".

akaru

"to be precious".

Hebr. *lp\
21*

VOCABULARY
akru
fern, akartu
:

"precious, costly".

sukuru
akrabu

masc. plur. $ukuruti\ "costly"; $u-ku-ru-tim Sarruu-tu "treasure of the

kingdom".

"scorpion". Ideogr. *-*] |

^.

Hebr.
f
!

akrab-amelu
<x

"scorpion

-

man".

Ideogr.

*~-]

'aru

am

Pret. 'ir

:

"to set out"

;

$a-ad la '-a-ri "an in-

accessible mountain".
Piel
:

"to send

;

to rule"

;

Part, mu't'rru "ruler".

urtu

"command".
"leadership".
plur.
t'ereti
:

mu'irrutu
tertu

"law,

command;

divine

oracle;

will, design".

aru
arba'u

Pret. ura
fern,

:

"to bring, carry, carry away".
irbitta
:

irbitti,

"four".

Ideogr.

nz,

^

.

Hebr. $2^$.

ribu

"fourth".

Ideogr. TJJ'.

aribu

"raven".

Hebr. 2*$.
written with determ.

argamannu
aradu

"red purple, crimson";

I^IlE

:

"crimson wool".
:

Hebr.

]fcr\$.

Pret. iirid; Pres. urrad

"to go

down;

to

swoop

down". Hebr. TV.
Shafel,
Pret. u&rid',

Perm. Zurud

:

"to

bring

down".

ardu
ardutu

constr.

st. arad',

plur. ardani

:

"slave, servant".

Ideogr.

^^|.
araji
:

"servitude, submission, vassalage".
constr.
st.

arhu

"month".

Ideogr.

>%^f.

Hebr. HT.

arhisam
arhis

adv.

:

"monthly".

"quickly, speedily".
Pret. erik
Piel,
:

araku

"to be long".

Hebr.
:

TplK.

Pret. urrik;

Pres. urrak

"to lengthen;

VOCABULARY
to

be

very

long"

;

urrak time "he

will

have a

long

life"

(cf.

Hebr.

D^

T^COIdeogr.

[araku] arki

"to be behind".

"behind,

beneath,
;

after".
;

l?JE^.
employfuture".
*

arku

"situated behind

future"

fern. plur. arkatu,

*f.

ed

as

subs, "the

back,

the

rear;

the

*"

Ideogr. Jl^JE^r.

arkis

"backwards, back".
"afterwards".

arkanu
arallu

"the lower world, Hades". "battering-ram".
constr.
st.

arammu
arnu

aran
:

:

"sin".
to be or

araku
urku
urkitu

Prec. link

"to be green;

become

pale".

(

Hebr. pT.
amel urki
\

"gardener".

Ideogr.

"green herb".
Pret. irur
:

araru
irritu

"to curse".

Hebr.

"curse".

araru
arurtu
arattu

"to be hot, to burn''.

Hebr. Tin.

"drought".

"mighty".
Pret.

asabu

&;

Pres. uttab] Part. a$(t)bu\ Perm.ah'd, 3 plur.
:

,

a$-bi,

at-ba
3tt^.

"to

sit;

to

dwell".

Ideogr. JEJ.

Hebr.
Ifteal,
tatib

Pres. ittasab;
:

Imper.
;

ttiab,

plur. tti-ba;

Perm.

"to
Pret.

sit

down
:

to dwell".

Shafel,

uMib

"to

make

to

sit,

to

seat;

to

cause to inhabit, to settle (trans.)".
Ishtafal, Pret.

uMe&b "to cause to dwell".
Dtflfc.

musabu
subtu

"dwelling". Cf. Hebr.
constr.
st.

Subat

:

"dwelling".

Ideogr.

^JEJ JE|.

Cf.

Hebr.

DS^-

asamsutu

"tempest, hurricane".

326

VOCABULARY
"bread".
"to be gracious, to favour". Cf. Hebr.
Piel, Inf.

asnan
asaru

uHuru employed
"shrine".

as subs, "pardon".

asm
asirtu
esreti

"shrine, sanctuary".
pluri atrati
(P^ ur
:

"shrines, temples".

asaru
asru
asris

Pret. Jh'r;

Perm.

3

plur. asru

:

"to

bow down,

humble oneself".
"meek, submissive".

"humbly".
constr.
st.

asru

afar; plur. asrdti: "place". Cf. Hebr.

"Ittfg.

asar
asris

"in; where; during".
"against".
"first in

asaridu

rank

;

chief, leader, prince"

;

aplu asaridu

"son of highest rank". Ideogr.

^

asasu
ussu

"to found". Cf. Hebr.
Piel, Pret. ush's
:

"to found".

"foundation".
"to be sorrowful".
Piel
:

asasu
asustu
assu,

"to afflict"

;

Perm. uSSuS

"afflicted".

"trouble, sorrow".

assum

"in
in

order

to;

because of;

since";
relative

sometimes
:

combination

with

the

assu

sa

assatu
atu

"wife".

Ideogr.

E

Hebr

-

H^.
-/)
:

"to see".
Piel, Pret. uttu (written

/-/,

"to perceive

;

to choose, elect",

itutu

"the chosen, elect",
"eclipse".

atalu

Ideogr.

>H^ ^^.

atmu
ataru

see aniu.

"to exceed, to abound". Hebr. 1JT, ^inij.
Shafel, Imper.
siitir
:

"to

make preeminent".

VOCABULARY
atru
constr.
st.

32 7

atar; fern, atartu

"abounding

in".

suturu
atta

"mighty, glorious".
fern.
atti\

masc. plur. attunu;

personal

pronoun

:

"thou, you". Hebr. HfiK, fiK,

atta'u

a
fang(?)".
in

attu

phrase at-tu-u-a "as for me".

e

particle of prohibition

:

"not". Cf. Hebr.

^.

eberu

Pret.

ebtr,

ibir

:

"to pass over, cross, traverse, pass

through".;

bir-ki-ki e-bi-ri-e-ti (Part. fern, plur.)

"thy

striding knees".

Hebr. *DJJ.

ebirtu

"further bank, opposite side (of a river)".

ebirtan

"on the other

side,

beyond".

nibartu
nibirtu

"crossing (over a river)".

"opposite side (of a sea or river)".

egu egu
egirtu

"to

sin,
:

go astray".
"to delay, be slack".

Pret. egi
"letter".

Hebr.

rnj.
Hebr. nilK.

edu
edis

^one, alone".
adv. "alone".

edu

"flood".
see idu.

Cf. Hebr. *1K.

edu
edesu

"to be new".

Hebr.

ttflH.
Inf.

Piel, Pret. uddft;

Part, muddti;

udduSu

:

"to re-

new".

iddissa

essu
essutu

new".

Ideogr.

"newness"; ana eHuti "anew".
Pret.
ezib,

ezebu

izib

:

"to leave, abandon".
;

Hebr.

D1JJ.

Shafel,

Inf.

tuzubu "to save"

Suzubu ina "to pre-

serve from".

328

VOCABULARY
Pret. ezuz,
izuz;

ezezu

Perm.

3

plur. iz-zu

:

"to be angry,

furious".
Ifteal,

Cf. Hebr.
iteziz
:

njj.

Pret.
;

"to be angry",

izzu
-

fern, izzitu

"angry, terrible",

izzis

"angrily, in wrath",

uzzu
efu

"anger, wrath",
"to be

dark";

bit

e-ti-e

(Inf.)

"house of darkness".

Cf. Hebr.

ntfSJ.

etutu

"darkness".
Pret.
etir,

eteru

itir

:

"to protect, save, spare"

;

with prep.

ina "to spare from".

Hebr.
i

^IftJ?.
:

Nifal, Pret.

innitir-,

Prec.

sing, lunnitir

"to be saved",

eku, iku

"starving, in want",

ekutu
ekallu

"want, need",
plur. ekallali
:

"palace".

Ideogr.

fc:TT

T ^V-.

Hebr.

ekemu
ekurru
elu

Pret. *&>,

F&iw (3 sing, i-kzm

;

3 plur. e-ki-i-mu)

:

"to

capture, take

away
:

from, detach".

plur. ekurre, ekurrati
Pret.
eli\
ili-,

"temple".
:

Pres.

^//i*

"to be high

;

to

go or come
Hebr. rh%.

up, to ascend;
Ifteal, Pret.
iteli,

to depart,

make

off".
:

itela-,

Part, mut-tal-lu

"to be exalted;

to

go up; to emerge; to depart".
:

Piel, Pret. ulli

"to raise".

Shafel, Pret.
raise,

u&eli, lift

uMa;
to

Prec.

Itieli;

Imper.
to

Suli

:

"to
to

to

up;

bring in;

carry up;

drive away".
Ishtafal, Pret.
uSteli,
ult'eli
:

"to bring up or out".

eli

"over, upon; against; beside, in addition to; unto";

ana

eh,

ina

eli

"to"

;

also written e-la "beside, with

the exception of".

Ideogr.
fern, eldti

^^T^f.
:

Cf. Hebr. bj?.
shrill,

elu

fern, elitu
elati

;

plur.

eluti,

"high

;

loud"

;

"the zenith".

VOCABULARY
elis

32 9

"above".
"distant (of time)";

ullu

gddu

ulld "for

ever";

ultu

ulld

"from of old".

ullanu
ellu

"distance"
fern,
ellitu
;

;

ultu

ulldnumma "when, as soon as".
elluti,

plur.

fern,

elleti

:

"bright,

pure'".

Ideogr.
teliltu

^|.

"purification".

ellamu
ellamu
ellatu

"front"; ellamu'a "over against me". Cf. Hebr. D^IS,

adj. "in

front, before".

see \alalu~]. a brightly-shining precious stone,

elmisu

"diamond

(?)".

Cf.

Heb.
elippu

ttT^'pn.

elesu

^y *~\}}. "to rejoice". Hebr. yb%.
Ifteal, Pret.
itelis
:

"ship". Ideogr.

*

"to rejoice",

ulsu

"joy, exultation",

emu emu ema emu

"father-in-law". Hebr. DPI.
"place, space".

among"; also written e-ijn. Pret. emi\ Perm, emi "to be like".
"in,
:

Cf. Hebr. !"!$?.

,

Ifteal,

Pret. itemi

:

"to

become

like".

Shafel, Pret. u$emi\ "to

make

like,

reduce to a state of".

emedu

Pret. emid\ Imper.

2.

fern. sing, en-di-im-ma

= emdi-ma

:

"to stand; to lay upon; to cast

down, subdue".

Hebr. 1&J7.
Ifteal, Pret. itemid
:

"to take a course (of a ship)".

Piel, Pret.

ummid

:

"to set up, erect".
:

Nifal, Pret. innimid

"to advance",

nimedu

"dwelling"; kussu

riimedi "seat",

emeku

"to be deep". Hebr.

emku
enku
"wise".

33o

VOCABULARY
"might, power"; plur. emuke, emuka "forces",
b~it

emuku

nimeki nimeku "wisdom"; temeku "fervent prayer",

"the Abyss".

enu, inu

"time"; as conj. "when".

enuma
inuma
enu
"when". Ideogr.
Pret. eni
:

J.

"to

make

void,

make

of no effect
Ideogr.

;

to vanCf.

quish,

overcome, humble".
PUJJ.

^^J^.

Hebr.

Nifal, Pret. in-nin-na-a, in-nin-nu-u

:

"to be annulled".
vjy.

enu
eninna

fern, enitu

:

"lowly".

Cf.

Hebr. 1^,

"now; thereupon".
"to be weak, to decay". Cf. Hebr. $3K.

enesu

ensu
[eseku ?]
eseru

"weak".
"to distress (?)";
Pret.
est'r
:

i-si-ik-sa.

"to enclose,

imprison,

besiege

;

to

take

captive". Hebr.
Iftaal,

1p.
:

Pres. utasar
st. epir\

"to be enclosed, besieged".

epiru

constr.

plur. epire, eprdti: "dust". Ideogr. ^~^TT.

epru

Hebr. ^SJJ.
Pret. lpu$\ Pres. ippu$\ Imper. epus, ip-$a\ Part,
epfifu
:

epesu

"to do, make"; pa epesu "to open the mouth, to

speak"; Urruta eprtu "to rule a kingdom, exercise
sovereignty".
Iftaal,

Ideogr. ^y~.
itepus
:
:

Pret.

t'tapuS,

"to

Shafel, Pret. uUptt

"to cause to
:

make; to deal with". make or build".

epistu

plur.

epSeti,

ip-^a-tu

"deed, action; insignia (of doip-*it limuiti
t'epus-,

minion); occurrence";

"evil fate".
epus',

epesu

Pret. tpu$,

3

fern.

sing,

Imper.

"to be-

witch"; Part,

epifu,

fern. ept'Mu

"wizard, witch".

Ishtafal, Part. fern. muMeptitu "witch, sorceress".

ipsu

"witchcraft".

VOCABULARY

33l

esenu
esepu
eseru

Pret. <?>/, isin

:

"to smell".

"to add to, increase".
Piel, Pret. ussip
:

"to add to".

"to bind, to enclose". Cf. Hebr.
Piel
:

?

u-sir.
:

usurtu eseru

plur. usurdti

"boundary, end".

"to form". Hebr.
Piel,
Inf.

^T.
:

ussuru

"to make, fashion",

usurtu

plur. usurdti'. "sculpture, relief"; usurti salmi

"image,

statue".

Ideogr.
ekil
:

:J

^^-

eklu

const, shekel,

"field, estate, territory". Ideogr.

T?

meri, iri
:

era

Pret.

"to be pregnant, to conceive". Hebr.

rnn.

era

"copper". Id'eogr. ^I^TTPret. erub,
irub',
;

erebu

Pres.

irrub',

Imper.

erub',

Part. ~eribu\

"to enter
Cf. Hebr.
Ifteal,

to set (of the sun)".

Ideogr. ^gfEj.

n^JJ.
:

Pret. iterub

"to enter".
:

Shafel, Pret. u$erib\ Imper. Surib
to bring in".
Ishtafal, Pret. usterib
:

"to

make

enter,

"to

make
the
-

enter",

ereb samsi "the

setting

of

the
-

sun,

west".

Ideogr.

Hf- ^T I If
niribu
"entrance".
Pret. eriba, er-ba
:

Cf Hebr yyi> **yp"to increase".

erebu
erinu

Ideogr. ^>^yT.
Cf.

"cedar". Ideogr.

^] Jg[J^ppf.

Hebr.

J^.

eresu
eristu

"to desire, wish for".
constr.
st. trfat

"desire". Hebr.

meristu
meriltu
"wish, desire; desired object",

eresu
iresu
"smell, sweet savour".

332

VOCABULARY
"to trouble, disturb"; Perm.
plur. eSati
:

esu
esitu

*&',

tit

"troubled".

"trouble, disturbance".

tesu

"ruin; hurricane".

esgallu
[eseru]

"mansion".
Pret. isir
:

"to be straight". Hebr. *\1$\
susir
:

Shafel,
"led".

Imper.

"to

direct";

Perm. Sutur

Ishtafal, Pret. u*tttir\
Inf. tutesuru
:

Prec. UWSir;

Part.

muWSiru;

"to direct, lead",
:

isaru

fern. iSartu,

isirtu

"right,

righteous".

Hebr.

^ItT^

mesaru
misaru
esertu
"righteousness".
constr.
st.

Hebr.
:

^ItJ^S.

eXerif

"ten";

for iSten

eSrit

see

isten.

Ideogr. ^. Hebr.

n^.

esreti

see see

asaru.

essu
edesu.

essutu
etellu
"lord"; fern.
etillu
^A7/z'/w

"lady, queen".
ittik\

eteku

Pret.

etik, itik',

Pres.

Imper.

etik

:

"to go, march,

advance; to traverse; to go through or into, to
transgress". Hebr. pflj.
Ifteal,

Pret.

itetik,

etetik

:

"to go, march".
itti
:

Shafel, Imper. $utik\

with prep,

"to cause to

depart from, to

remove from".

metiku

"course".

i

precative particle

:

"come!"

ibbu
ibru

"bright",
"friend". Hebr.

ibrutu

"friendship".

VOCABULARY
igaru
plur. t'garu,
t'gare,

333

igarati:

"wall". Ideogr. ^JJ J ^fcl5<.

Cf. Hebr. 13PI.

agurru "brickwork".
idu
plur. iddj
iddti
;

"hand;

side;

might, strength;
idi,

pos-

session;

hire, price for hire";

idd "at the side

of". Ideogr.

ES^J. Hebr. T.
idi\

idu,

edu

Pret.

1di\

Perm.
of,

Part,

idu

:

"to

know,

take

knowledge

understand;

to see, choose, elect";

ma
iddu
iddisu

la idi

Iftaal,

"without knowing, unwittingly". Hebr. JH\ Pret. utaddi "to be known, to be recognised".
:

"pitch, bitumen". Ideogr.

see edesu.

iddissu
idlu
idirtu

"man,

lord, hero".

Ideogr.

:]

"grief, misery".
\

izzu
izzis

see ezezu.
}

iku iku

"small water-channel".
see

eku.

ikdu
ikkibu

"strong, mighty, courageous".
"sin, fault".

ikkaru
iklitu

"gardener". Ideogr. "darkness".

EvfJ

*~E^

&]]]]

^

>--

=

bit

ikliti

(?)

"dark

chamber". Cf. Hebr.

ikribu
ilu

see

karabu.
He
:

plur. Hani,

"god".

Ideogr. >->^-

j

rarely

written

tyy", plur.
,

yy~ fff~-

Hebr. hx.
:

iltu

constr.

st. ilat\

plur.

ilati

"goddess",

.

Hutu

"godhead, divinity",
"bond,
fetter".

illurtu
ilittu
'iltu

see aladu.

"bann, curse",
see istanu.

iltanu

334

VOCABULARY
"evil wind, hurricane".

imhullu

immu
immeru imnu
imeru
izzrfu

"day".

"lamb, sheep". Ideogr.

^f| *"^|-

Hebr.

"right hand, right". Hebr. pj\ "ass". Ideogr. Hebr. *l1toPT-

^T^:

const,

st.

/OTa/

"breath, spittle, foam, poison".

Cf.

Hebr. n&H.

ina

prep, "in, by, through, during, in the time of"; some-

times written m. Ideogr. >
112

.>

)t >

;J

,

u

see

ewu.
:

inu

plur. *a, z<?

"eye; part, share". Ideogr. ^|>~; in plur. frequently written <|*ff. Hebr. pg.
st. iw/3
:

.mbu

constr.

"fruit;

manly

strength, virility".

inuma
inanna
inanni
\

see eww.

?
I

"now".

inannu
islru

see isku. see epe.su.

ipsu
isu, issu

"wood,

Jsu

pg. "scanty, "few". Cf. Hebr.
plur. issurdti
:

tree".

Hebr.

ph.

issuru

"bird". Ideogr. ^JJ. issuris adv. "like a bird".
plur. subs, used adverbially
:

irtati

"swiftly".

irnittu

"triumph, victory".
"cloud, clouds".
plur. urpdti
:

irpitu

urpatu
irsitu
j'rnYw

"cloud".
Ideogr. ^Jg[. Hebr.

"earth
see

;

district".

p

v

K.

araru.

iresu
irsu
irtu
if

see eresu.

"couch". Ideogr.
constr.
st. irat
:

j

^^^^.

Hebr.

"breast". Ideogr.
:

iati

personal pronoun

"me".

VOCABULARY
isu
Pret. (with

meaning of

Pres. also) iti

:

"to have,

possess

;

to be". Ideogr.
:

^.
;

Cf. Hebr. tf ?.

isdu

constr.
itid

st. ih'J
stir/it'

"foundation

lower or hinder part";

"the horizon".

isdahhu
ispatu
isku, isku

"bridle (?)".

"quiver". Hebr.

HS^X.
Cf. Hebr.

"portion, possession, property".

iskatu
isaru

"chain, fetter".
see [eseru].

issakku
isatu
"fire". Ideogr.

t; Mis

t >.
also

the ide g r

-

for Gibil the Fire-god,
tialu "fire".

employed

for

Hebr. t^K.

istu

prep, "from"; adv. "after"; #/# //^z "from, out of".

istanu
iltanu
isten

"north, north-wind". Ideogr.

A JT.
>

"one". Ideogr.

J,

which with phon. compl.

s

frequently written

^-\\.

Cf. Hebr. Dttty,

isten esrit "eleven". Cf. Hebr.
istenis istar
adv. "together".

"goddess".

Ideogr.

Cf.

Hebr.
iati

n^

see iasi.

itu

"boundary; ordinance, law".
"prudent".
see atu.
plur.
itati
:

itpesu
itutu
ittu
itti

"side". Cf. Hebr.

D.

prep. "with". Ideogr. ^Jgf.

U
u
u'a

copula
interj.
:

:

"and"; written ^, <y^^Qf. Cf. Hebr. ^
"alas";

1.

employed

as subs, "grief, pain".

336

VOCABULARY
"finger; peak, summit". Ideogr. ^EJ "servant".
see

ubanu
ubaru

^JJ.

uggatu
ugallu

agagu.

"storm, hurricane".
see

udmu
uzzu

admu.
uzun
"ear; mind, attention"

,

see ezezu.
constr.
st.
:

uznu

(cf. bo$u,

sakanu).

Ideogr.
.

^[^,
|]S.

in plur. frequently writ-

ten

^|>ff
:

Hebr.

uhhu uknu uksu
ul ullu ullu

plur. uhhe

"trick (?)".

"lapis lazuli".

Ideogr. J^;<^

^ ^.

"longing".
see alalu.

demonstrative pronoun
see elu.

:

"that".

ullu

ullanu ulinnu
a garment.

Ideogr.

ulapu
ulsu
ultu

"bond, alliance". Cf. Hebr.
see elesu.

prep, "from"; adv. "after, since".

Ideogr. ^^||y.

uma umu umu

adv.

"now".

"storm". Ideogr. ^J.
plur. iime
:

"day"; ina umisu^ina umeSuma, inu umisu,
"then,
at

inumtium

that

time";

i$tu

umimma

"henceforth".

Ideogr. ^J.

Hebr. D1\

umisam umussu
umatan

adv. "daily".

umagtan

adv. "for a day".
"beast".

umamu umma ummu

adv. "thus"; introduces direct speech.

"mother". Ideogr.

Nt>->fT-

Hebr. DK.

VOCABULARY

33y

ummanu ummanu
-

"craftsman"; also mar ummani. Hebr. |EK. plur. ummdne, ummdndti "tribe, people; host, forces,
:

troops".

Ideogr.

^,

^ ^Jf
sakanu.

umman manda
ummatu
unlku
"host".
plur.

"tribal hordes".

uriik'eti',

"kid".
full

unkenna
unninu

"the whole;

strength";

see

Ideogr.

see \ananu\.

unku
unutu
usurtu

"signet-ring; sealed letter".
plur. undti: ','furniture,

household

stuff".

see eseru.

uru

"enclosure, field". Cf. Hebr. nn.K.
constr.
st.

*

urhu
urkarinnu
urpatu

uruh: "road". Hebr. Fnfc.

a precious

wood. Ideogr.

see irpitu,

urku
urkitu
see aralcu.
]

urru
urfu

"light, day".
see.

Ideogr.

^J ^|J. Hebr.
1]^. channel for the blood,

'aru.

usu
usultu

a precious
plur.

wood. Ideogr.
"blood-vessel,

^ij

uUati\

artery".

usumgallu

"monster-viper". Ideogr.

Ej^

^-^-yjy^.

usmanu
ussu

"camp". Cf. Hebr. njbtt^Dsee asasu.

ba'u

Pret.

and Pres.

iba

:

"to come, reach, go". Hebr. 813.

Piel-Shafel,

Pret. utta'i:

"to storm against, plunge

down upon".
babu
plur. bdbdti, bdbdni\ "gate". Ideogr.
tf-]r.

22

338
biblu
constr.
st.

VOCABULARY
bibil:

"inclination,

desire";

bibil

libbi

"prompting, desire of the heart",

bubutu

"hunger, famine

;

food, bread",

buhalu
batalu
batlu

"male beast",
"to cease". Hebr. btS3.
fern, batiltu
:

"discontinued, at an end"

;

Id batlu

"unceasing".
batiltu
plur.
&Z//0/2':

"discontinuance, discharge"; see rasu.
Pres.
ibaki-,

baku

Pret. ibki\

Perm,

baki,

3 plur. baku

:

"to weep". Hebr. H?3.
Iftaal,

Inf. bitakku "affliction",

bikitu

"weeping".

bakru

"young of the camel".
constr.
st.

bukru
balu

bukur

:

"first-born". Hebr.

^"D^J.
pfesi.

"not to be, fade, go to ruin". Hebr.

Piel,Pret.&i///: "to destroy, bring to an end, cut off".

bala

balu
belu
belu

Prep, "without".
Pret.
ibely

ipil

:

"to conquer, subdue, rule".
bel ade
bel

plur.

bele:

"lord";

"one who

is is

faithful
faithful
;

to

commands";
;

mamiti "one

who

to an oath"
bel kussi

bel sallmi "ally,

confederate"

la

"one with no claim to the throne"

;

bel narkabati

"commander

of the chariots", writ-

ten

Hebr. beltu
constr.
st.

belit:

"lady".

Ideogr.

"jE: ?

belutu

"lordship, rule, authority, dominion".

Belutu

the

power or dominion of the god Bel

;

written

bel-pahati "governor". Ideogr. "four-footed beast; bulu "divine command". billudu

cattle".

VOCABULARY
balatu
Pret. iblut\

33 9
"to live".
Ideogr.
bullit-,

Pres. ibalut:

^.
Inf.

Piel, Pret. uballit-, Pres. uballat;
bullutu
;

Imper.

"to cause to live, give

life to,

quicken,

raise to life".
Iftaal,

Pret. ubtallit: "to

keep alive".

balatu
baltu

"life".

Ideogr. >~<T<
baltuti:

*-|.
bal-tu-su-un ik-tu-da kata
11 -

masc. plur.

"living, alive".

baltutu

"state of being alive";
ai

"my hands

captured (them) alive".
:

[balkatu]

Shafel, Pres. u&abalkat
Nifal, Pret. ibbalkit
:

"to tear down".
fall

"to

upon

;

invade

;

revolt

against".

Ideogr.

^^-J^.
to confound".

\balalu]

"to pour out".
Piel,
Inf.

Hebr. bb%.
:

bullulu

"to smelt

;

balru
biltu

"side, bank".

see abalu.
Pret.
ibni\
;

banu

Pres.

ibani\
fern,

Imper.
banat
:

bini\

Part,

bant,

bdnu

Perm,

bani,

"to build, make,

form, create, beget".
.Nifal, Pret.

Ideogr. J^I.

Hebr. PIJ.
formed,

and Pres.

ibbani\ "to

be

built,

created
Ittafal,

;

to be laid (of a net)".
ittabni'.

Pret.

"to be created, restored".
building, structure".

binutu

"creation, product

;

bunu bunnannu nabmtu banu

"formation, origin, beginning".

"form".
"creation, creature".
"bright, beautiful
Pret. ibkum
; ;

rich, precious".
:

bakamu
baru

Imper. bukum
3

"to tear in pieces".

ba'aru, baru Pret. ibar\ Pres.

plur. ibarru: "to catch".

Pret. ibri\ Pres. ibari: "to see, gaze

upon".

Shafel, Pret. utabri: "to cause to see".

baru
biru

"seer".

Ideogr.
;

^

>*~.

"glance

midst"

;

ma

blri

"between, in the midst".
22*

840
birtu
constr.
birit
st.

VOCABULARY
birit
:

"glance

;

midst
;

;

clearness

(?')"

;

ma

"between, among"
(?)",
2.

me
is

birtu

"water of clear-

ness

e.

water that
;
.

clear.

tabritu

"sight,

wonder" plur

tabrdti':

"marvellous treasures".
K^IS.

baru

"to be superabundant".

Cf. Hebr. 8*13,

Piel-Ishtafal, Pres. u$tabarri\ "to be sated, to

abound

with".
biris
adv. "in luxuriant pasturage".

barbaru
birku

"leopard" or "jackal".
plur. birkd, birke
:

Ideogr.
;

JVJ

>Jf:

E^JT-

"knee"
1j^3

tar-bit bir-ki-ia

"my

off-

spring".

Hebr.

[baramu] birmu

Piel

:

"to

weave coloured threads".
Ideogr.

"brightly-coloured cloth, variegated stuff".

^Jx&J.
baraku
birku
biritu
Pret. ibrik
:

Hebr. Din?.

bitrumu "brightly-coloured".
"to flash (of lightning), to blast".

"lightning".
"fetters".

Hebr. p^3.

basu

Pret.

MM

;

Pres.
;

tbati

(rarely
;

written

ipasi)

;

Part.

bd^Uj

ba$i

Perm,
Ideogr.
:

bati

"to

be

;

to

be inclined,

directed".
Shafel,

^|T^.
"to

Pret. uSabtt
in

cause

to

be,
hitta

to

create"

(Ideogr. JJ^,

proper names);

subsu "to

commit

sin".

Ishtafal, Pret. uMabSi: "to

make, create".

busu

"property, possessions".
Pret.
ititim
:

basamu

Ideogr. ^EJ, "to build, form, prepare".
:

^

^

J.

Piel, Pret.

ubaHim

"to form".

basmu
bitu

"viper".

"house

;

temple"

;

bit

Hi "temple"

;

bit

durdni in op-

position to aldni:

"walled or
;

fortified cities"; bit

nakamti "treasure-house"
troops".
Ideogr.
.

bit tukldti

"stations

for

Hebr. JTS.

VOCABULARY
bithallu

341

"saddle-horse";

sometimes written with determ.

batnu

word of uncertain meaning.
Pret. ibtuk
Piel,
:

bataku

"to rend, tear
:

;

to cut off,

separate".
Cf.

Pret. ubattik

"to cut

through,

sever".

Hebr. prD.
Nifal, Pret. ilbatik
:

"to be destroyed".
close
a

batku

"cleft,

fissure,

breach"; batka sabdtu "to

breach, restore".

butaku

"destruction".
$ub-tak-ti,

subtaktu "flood";, written
ru-htm-ti.

which can also be read

bitrumu

see

\baramu].

gabbu
gabru

"all, the

whole".

"answer, reply".
Pret. igbu$
:

gabasu
gabsu
gibsu

"to be firm, hard, proud".

"mighty".
constr.
st.

gtbft

:

"multitude".
Ideogr.

gugallu

"ruler, director".

>^2^

El^"-

gadu
guzalu

prep, "up to

;

together with".
.

"messenger, servant, minister". Ideogr. \*-^ |y J
"stibium".
Piel, Pres. ugalldb
\

guhlu
[galabu]

"to brand".

gallu

"evil

demon,
:

devil".
"terrible".

galtu

fern, galittu

gamalu

Pret. igmil

;

Imper. gimil
of)";

:

"to complete

;

to spare Cf.

(the

life

with ina "to spare

from".

Hebr. bty.

gimillu

"mercy, sparing of

life"; gimillu turru "to requite,

take vengeance", see taru.

gitmalu

"perfect".

3 42

VOCABULARY
"camel".
EfflJ.

gammalu
gama.ru

Ideogr.

Hebr.
:

Pret. -igmur

"to complete, bring to an end".

Cf.

Hebr.
Ifteal,

*m
gitmum employed
"to
as

Inf.

subs, "perfection,

excellence".
Piel, Part,

mugammiru

:

carry out, achieve".

gamru
gimru
gimirtu

constr.
constr.

st.

gamir: "perfect".
gimir
;
:

st.

"entirety,

the

whole"

;

kal gimri

"everything
constr.
st.

the world".

gimrat', plur. gimreti'. "entirety, the

whole";

ki^at kal gimreti "the

whole of the world".

ginu

"appointed offering".
"district (?)".

gunu gappu
gipa.ru
ga.ru

"wing, feather".
"piece of land, field".
plur. gdre
:

"enemy, opponent".

Cf. Hebr. ,TI3, PP13.

girru

"way

;

campaign, expedition".

gisparru

"snare, trap".

gasaru
gasru
gisru

"to strengthen, fortify".

Cf. Hebr.

"mighty".
fern, gtiirtu
:

"strong, powerful".

ma.gsa.ru "might, strength".

gitmalu

see ga.ma.lu.

[da'abu]
da.ba.bu

Part. dcCibu
Pret. idbub
;

:

"to

overwhelm

(?)".
:

Pres. iddbub, idibub
;

"to speak, converse,
itti
. . .
.

proclaim

to plan, intrigue";

tobuti dabobu

"to establish friendly relations with". Cf. Hebr.

dibbu

"speech, message".

Cf. Hebr.

VOCABULARY
dabru
masc. plur. dabruti
Pret. idgul\
\

3 43

"mighty".
"to look
at,

dagalu

Imper. dugul:

behold";

ddgil pdni "subject of, tributary to".

Shafel, Pret. u$adgil\

Perm. Sudgul: with pdnu "to

entrust to".

daddaru

"stink".
plur. dadme
:

dadmu
Du'uzu

"dwelling, habitation".
Ideogr. E-^**^

the

month Tammuz.

^J.

Hebr.

daku
tiduku

Pret. iduk
Ifteal,

:

"to slay". Ideogr.

<.

Cf. Hebr.

^.

Pret. idduk\ "to slay".

"battle".
Pret. idki\ "to

diku

dakkassu
dalabu

summon, assemble". word of uncertain meaning.
"to
:

"to be in trouble".
Piel, Part, mudallibu
:

afflict,

oppress".

dalibtu

plur. dalbati, da-al-pa-a-te

"affliction".
;

dalahu

"to confuse, to disorder"
subs, "trouble";

Inf. daldhu

employed

as

&J$:

^^,

**ru dalihu "dis-

turbing wind, whirlwind". Hebr. fth^.
Shafel, Inf. Sudluhu

"to confound, destroy".

dalihtu

plur. dalhtiti: "disturbance".

dalalu

Pret. idlul

:

"to

bow down, humble
hh^.

oneself,

wor-

ship".

Cf. Hebr.

dallalu

"cripple".
"service, work, task".
constr.
st.

dullu
daltu

dalat;

plur. dalati:
r\b^..

"door".

Ideogr.

^

*]].

Hebr.

damu
dimu
dimtu

"blood".
plur. dimd
"tears,

Ideogr.
:

M.

Hebr. n !.
1

"tear".

Cf. Hebr. pfc^.

weeping".
:

Hebr. njD^.

damamu dumamu

Pres.

idammum

"to lament, moan".

"howling, lamentation".

344

VOCABULARY
"column, obelisk".
"to be friendly, favourable, propitious".
Ideogr.

dimmu damaku

Piel,

Inf.

dummuku

:

"to

make

favourable

;

show

favour".

damku

fern, damikiu-, plur. damkuti, fern, damkati'. "friendly,

good, favourable health-giving (of water-supply);
;

trusty (of warriors)".

Ideogr. damkati

^|>-^.
"good
deeds".

damiktu

"mercy,
Ideogr.

favour";

plur.
-

<!-*f
good

<|^f
;

dumku
dunku
dimtu dimtu

}

"favour,

fortune

comeliness".

Ideogr.

}

^|^f
plur. dimati'. "pole, post".

see

dimu.
;

danu
dinu

Pret. idln

Pres. idan

:

"to judge".

"judgment".
"judge".

Hebr.

p*!.

daianu

Ideogr. ^|^f= >^^-.

Cf. Hebr.

p^.

dananu

"to be strong".
Piel, Pret. udannin
;

Inf.

dunnunu

:

"to strengthen,

make

fast".

dananu dannu
dannis

"might, power".
fern, dannatu', plur. danniiti,

fem.dannati: "strong,

mighty".

Ideogr.

^JJf

g||
;
<?.

^.
also written with

adv. "very much, exceedingly"

phonetic complement

is, i.

dannis. Ideogr.
affliction

^jy^.

dannatu

"foundation,

base;

distress,

(ideogr.

dannutu

"strength, strong point, fortress"
tress,

;

alt

dannuti "for-

stronghold".

dandannu dunku
dapnu
dapinu

"strong, all-powerful".
see

damaku.

"strong, mighty".

"strong".

VOCABULARY

345

duppu
diparu

"tablet".

Ideogr.

t
Ideogr.

plur. dipdrdii\ "torch". plur.

^
Ideogr.
:*"]

dupsimtu
dupsarru

dupTimdti

:

"destiny- tablet".

"scribe"

;

usually written

e'

am * lu

dup-$ar.
;

daru

fern,

ddrilu

plur. ddruti, fern, ddrdti

:

"lasting, conti-

nual,

everlasting";
;

##

ddrdti

"for

ever,

continu-

ously"

/ara

ddrdti

"an everlasting shrine". Ideogr.

daris
cfuru

adj. "eternal"

;

a0
"the

ddrt'S

"for ever".
lit.

plur.

durdm: "wall"; dur appi
i.

"the wall of the
bitu.

face",

e.

cheek";

see

also

Ideogr.

dirratu

"whip
Part.
Cf.

(?)".

durussu

"foundation".
ddt'S
:

dasu

"to

tread

under

foot,

crush,

destroy".

Hebr.

tfn
Hebr. M*\.
:

[dasu]

"to abound, be luxuriant".
Piel-Shafel,
Pret.

ut-das-U-a

"to cause to have in

abundance, to endow with".

[zabu]

Pret. izub

:

"to melt, dissolve".

Hebr.

SIT.

zazu
zahalu

"to divide".
Piel, Pres.

uzaz

:

"to divide".

a bright stone or metal.
Pret. zis^wr;

zakaru

Pres. izakar:
;

"to name, call upon, pro-

claim, speak, tell"
i.

$uma zakdru "to name a name",
Cf. Hebr. IDT.

e.

"to bear a name, to exist".

Piel,

Perm, zukkur

:

"to

name"

;

$u-ma

la

zuk-ku-ru

"they were not named, did not exist".

346

VOCABULARY
constr.
st.

zikru

zikir:

"name, speech, word, mention,
zikru kardu "valiant hero".

renown".

Hebr. ^pt.
Ideogr.

zikaru
|

"male; man";
?!?],
plur.

zikru
zikritu

\

-r|.

Hebr.

"fit.

zikreti'.

"women

of

the

palace".

Ideogr.

zalpu
zaliptu

"wicked".
constr.
st.

zalpat

\

"wickedness, iniquity".

zamu
zumbu zamaru
zamaru

Piel "to exclude

from"

;

Perm, zummu "excluded

from".
(i.
e.

zubbu}

:

"fly".

Hebr. sn|.
*)&!.

"to sing".

Hebr.

"song".
plur. zammere
:

zammeru
zammertu

"singer, musician".

Ideogr.

E^^
-

jitplur. zammereti'.

"female musician".

Ideogr.

M*
zumru
zinu
zinu
constr.
st.

zumur, rarely zumir

:

"body".

"to be angry".

"angry".
"to rain".
Shafel, Pres. usaznan
:

zananu

"to cause to rain".

zananu zananutu
ziku

"to provide for, care for, support".

"provision, abundance".
Pret. izik
:

"to blow, storm, rage".
zuk
:

zuku
zakapu
zikkuratu
[zakatu]

constr.

st.

"foot-soldiers"

;

zuk Sepe

"foot-

soldiers, infantry".

Pret. izkup, iskup

:

"to place, set up, erect". Hebr.

T
"peak of a mountain
;

temple-tower".

"to be sharp, pointed".

zaktu
zifrtu

"sharp, pointed".

"spur".

VOCABULARY
zaru
Pret.
iz~ir\

347

Pres. izirri:

"to hate, conceive a hatred

for"; Part, za'iru
Piel,

"enemy".

Hebr.

lit.

Imper. zir: "to abandon".

zirutu
[zaru]

plur. zlrdti\ "hatred".
Part, zaru
:

"to beget".

Cf. Hebr. ST]J.
p*lj.

zeru

"seed, descendants". Ideogr. >~c, >^. Hebr.

zarabu
zarbis

"to be oppressed".
Piel, Pret. uzarrib
:

"to oppress, afflict".

adv. "in trouble".
constr.
Nifal,
st.

zurbu
[zarbabu]

zurub
3

:

"trouble, affliction".
plur.

Perm.

nazarbubu

:

"to

fume,

to

be

furious".

H
habasu
habatu
3 plur.

Perm.

(?)

ha-ba-su:

"to

be

filled,

swelled

out

(?)".
;

Pret. ihbut

Pres. ihabat
:

:

"to plunder".
;

hubtu
hegallu

constr.

st.

hubut

"booty

captives".

"abundance".
.Pret. ihdi\

Ideogr. ^ifc

Hfl^'
as

hadu

"to rejoice";
Inf.

with prep, ana "to rejoice

in

or at";

hadu

employed

subs.

"joy".

Hebr. .Tin.

hadis
hidutu

adv. "joyfully".
plur. hidoti\ "joy".

Ideogr.

^^J|.
Ideogr.

hazanu
hatu
hatu

plur.

hazdndti'.

"ruler,

governor".

Pret.

z'AF/

:

"to see, survey".
?7///i':

Pret. ihti; Pres.

"to sin".

Hebr.

"sin"
hititu
plur.

;

^/

>z/

snner.

hitdti'.

"sin, iniquity".

"sceptre".

Ideogr.

[ha/u]

Pret.

/:

|

^

^J

T^J

g^.
Cf.

"to tremble, quiver".

Hebr.

348

VOCABULARY
"army, host".
plur. halse,

haialtu

Cf. Hebr. b?!l.
"fort,
-

halsu

halsani;

entrenchment"; written
-

*TT
halaku

*+:

Cf Hebr r^o-fc"to be destroyed
;

Pret. ihlik

to

flee".

Ideogr.

Ifteal,

Pret. Malik: "to be lost".
;

Piel, Pret. uhallik
fyulluku
:

Prec.

lihallik

;

Part, muhalliku

;

Inf.

"to destroy, cast down".

sahluktu
\hamu~]

"destruction".

Perm.

2

fern.

sing, hamati: "to be of
(?)".
:

good cheer,

be comforted

hamatu
hitmutis

Pret. ihmut

;

Imper. humut

"to hasten".

adv. "swiftly, in haste".
Pret. ihmut
Piel, Pres.
Ishtafal,
:

hamatu

"to burn".

uhammat: "to make glow, to light up". Part. muVahmitu "to flame, burn".
:
:

hamamu
hamiru hansu hasasu

Pret.

ihmum

"to rule, direct".

see ha'iru.
"fifth".

Ideogr.
:

lj!jf.

Hebr. ^fcfr
plan,

Pret. ihsus

"to

think, conceive,

invent

;

to

recollect, to set in the
Ifteal,

memory".
Msas)
:

Imper.

hissas

(for

"to understand".

hasisu
hipu

"wisdom, understanding".
Pret. ihpi: "to shatter, destroy; to split".
Ifteal,

Pret. ihtepi

:

"to shatter".
:

Piel, Part, muhippi, muhip

"to shatter, destroy".

hasbu

subs, of uncertain meaning.
Pret. ihik
:

haku
haru

"to mingle together (intrans.)".

Pret. ihri\ "to dig".
Iftaal,

Pret. uhtarri'. "to dig".

Shafel, Pret. uSafrri "to cause to dig out".

ha'iru

hamiru.

"spouse, husband".

VOCABULARY
hirtu
"spouse, wife".
"desert".

3 49

hiratu

huribtu

Hebr.

."

harbasu
[harmatu]

"power

of striking icrror, fury".

"to destroy".
Shafel, Part, mutyarmitu
:

"to destroy".
"to overpower, destroy".

[harmamu] hurasu
harranu

Shafel,

Prec.

lilharmim

:

"gold".

Ideogr.

^r ^Jf^-

Hebr. p*lH.

"way, road".
plur. hursani'.

Ideogr. p\^.

hursu
hirtu

"mountain, wooded highland".

Cf.

Hebr.
\

hiratu

see ha'iru.
}

hasu hasahu husahu husahhu
hasalu
hitmutis

Pret. t&JX

:

"to hasten, set out, go".
:

Hebr.

Pret. ifrSuA, ihtih
\

"to long

for, desire".

}
}

"hunger, famine".
"destroyer".
see

hamatu.
Hebr.

hatanu

.

"son-in-law".

tabu

Pret.

itib

;

Pres.

itab,
Dltfi.

itib

:

"to be good, well-pleas-

ing".
Piel,

Hebr.

Part,

mufibu:
st.

"to
joy".

make

joyful";

Inf.

tubbu

a
tub)
;

(constr.

tabu

fern,

tobtu

:

"good, pleasant

loud (of the voice)".

tabis

"joyfully, cheerfully".
plur. tdbtdti
(?)
:

tabtu
tibu

"benefit".

"to sink".
Iftaal,

Hebr. jntp.
"to

Pret. uttibbi:

make

sink,

duck under".

350

VOCABULARY
"to slaughter".

tabahu

Hebr.
:

Piel, Pres. utabbah

"to slaughter".
itihhi
:

tahu, tehu Pret.

ithi\

Pres.

itehi,

"to

draw near, ap-

proach".
titu, tittu

"clay,

mud,

earth".

temu
taradu

"understanding, mind;

account, instructions, com-

mand".

Hebr.

DJJtD.

"to drive away, hunt".
Piel, Pres. utarrad
:

Cf. Hebr.

"to hunt".

K
ki
conj. "as,

when,

after, since,

for".

Hebr.

^3.

prep, "like, according to".

ki'am

adv. "thus".

kima
kime kabasu

prep, "like, as, according to

;

corresponding

to,

in

place of"; adv. "as soon as". Ideogr.
"just as".
Pret. ikbus
:

^vJJ.

"to tread".

Cf. Hebr.

DD3.
:

Piel, Pret. ukabbis; Part, mukabbisu

"to tread down,

trample on".
Shafel,
Inf.

sukbusu

:

"to cause to tread

down,

to

batter (of siege-engines)",

kibsu
kibru
kibratu

constr.

st.
st.

kibis

:

"footstep, tread",
:

constr.

kibir
:

"bank
;

(of a river)",

plur. kibrati

"region

quarter of heaven".

Ideogr.

trfc.

Hebr.

rnM.
Hebr. "153:

kabatu

"to be heavy, weighty".
Piel, Pret. ukabbti, ukebit
Iftaal, Pret.

"to honour".

uktebit:

"to honour",

kabtu
kabittu

fem. kabitiu

:

"heavy, weighty, pre-eminent,
kabtat
:

with pron. suffixes

"spirit,

mind

;

midst

(?)".

kibatu

"abundance, great quantity".

VOCABULARY
kudurru
\

351

kuduru
kiki

"boundary, frontier".
J

Cf.

Hebr. "HS, TTTO.

adv. "so, to such an extent".

kakku kukku kakkabu
kikkisu

"arm, weapon".
"darkness".

Ideogr.

:J

JEJ.

plur. kakkabdni: "star".

Ideogr.

zi^*^-.

Hebr.

"reed-house".
"to hold".
Piel, Part.

kalu
kalu

Hebr. SlD.

*&"/
#/a
;

:

"to hold

;

to hold high, raise".
:

Pret.

i/fc/if,

Pres. *&?//, ikalld
;

"to hold back,
refuse".

restrain,

prevent

to

withhold,

Hebr.

Pret. i/a

;

Pres. z&z//a

:

"to cease,

come

to

an end".

Hebr. nba.

kalu

constr.
"all,

st.

kal\ "all, the whole".
;

Ideogr. Jfl.

kalamu
kalis

everything

of every kind".

"altogether, completely".
constr.
st.

kalbu
kalbannati
[kalalu]

kaldb

:

"dog, hound".

Ideogr. JJ^J JEJ.

Hebr. SS?.
(plur.) siege-engines.

"to be complete".
Shafel,
Pret.

Cf. Hebr. Part,

bbz.
;

uSaklil;

musaklilu

Inf.

suklulu

:

"to complete".
Ishtafal,

Part.

muUaklilu,

fern.

muS-tak-K-la-at

:

"to

carry out,

fulfil".

kullatu
kilallan
...
;/
\

"totality, all, the

whole"; also written
sides".

kul-la-ia-an.

_

"both; on both
see kalu.

kalamu
[kalamu]
[kalmu]

Piel, Pret. ukallim

;

Inf.

kullumu

:

"to cause to see,

show

to, display".

Nifal, Pret. ikkilmi'. "to look upon".

352

VOCABULARY
see kalu.
Pret. ikmi, ikmu\

kalis

kamu

Pres. ikammi\

"to conquer, over-

come, take captive".

kamu
kamutu
kamatu
ki'am
I

plur. kamuti:

"bound, captive".
ilki

"captivity, condition of imprisonment"; kamiitsu u as a prisoner he took him".

"enclosure".

kima kime kimu

\
}

see ki.

"family".

kimtu

"family".
Pret. ikmil\ "to be angry".

kamalu
kimiltu

"anger, wrath".
"thy, thine".
Pret. ikmis
Iftaal,
:

kummu
kamasu

"to

bow
:

oneself, to

bow down".

Pret. uktammis

"to

be bowed down, over-

whelmed".
Ishtafal,

Pret. uUakmis

:

"to cause to

bow down".
<?.

kamaru kamaru
kamaris
[kamaru]

"to strike

down"

;

Inf.

used as subs.,

g. ka-mar-

su-nu as-kun "I struck
"net".

them down".

adv. "in a net or snare".
Piel, Inf.

kummuru

:

"to

make
:

plentiful".

Iftaal, Prec. lik-tam-me-m

"to

be

made

plentiful".

kamatu kamutu
kimtu
[kanu]

]

}
J

see see

kamu.
kimu.
:

Piel-Shafel, Pret. u$km

"to

humble

oneself,

make

obeisance".

kanu

Pret. ikun

;

Pres. ikdn

;

Perm,

kan, ken

:

"to stand,

be established,
-

be firm, endure".
-

Ideogr.

^|,

Hebr

13

-

VOCABULARY
Piel,

353
;

Pret. ukin

;

Part, mukinnu
st.

Perm, kun
fix,

;

Inf.

kunnu,

constr.
fast,

kun

:

"to

set,

make

firm,

hold
kun
Iftaal,

found,

establish,

appoint,

arrange";

libbi

"truth, constancy".
:

Pret. uktin

"to

set,

fix,

arrange".

kaianu
kaian

"continuous, enduring, imperishable".

kaiana

adv. "continuously".

kaianamma
kinu
klnis
kittu
\kanu~]
"firm, sure, established, true". Ideogr.
>-

Hebr.

[3.

adv. "truly, legitimately, carefully".
"right, justice".
Piel, Pret. ukanni'. "to
;

prepare carefully".

kinatutu "service

servants".
:

kanaku kunukku kananu

Pret. iknuk

"to seal".

"seal".

Ideogr.

fj~^ ^JTT.

"to crouch down".
Piel
:

"to

press

down"

;

Perm, kunnun "bowed,

crouching".

kanSsu

Pret. iknu$
Ifteal,

:

"to

bow down,

submit".

Perm,

kitnutu "subject".

Piel, Pret. ukanniS'. "to force into

submission".
:

Shafel,

Pret. u$akni$,

utiknti

;

Part. mu'Sakntiu

"to

cause to submit, bring into subjection",

kansu
kasu

adj., plur. kanSuti'.

"subject",

"to bind, take captive".
Ifteal,

Pret.

iktasi'.

"to bind, fetter".

Iftaal, Pret. uktassa: "to
e.

be bound"; ideogr.
(?).

]*"(?),

g.

T

>rTTY

==

uktassa

/rasffu

"fetter,

bonds".
:

kasu

Pret. iksu

"to cover, to hide oneself". Hebr. HD3.

Iftaal, Pres. uktassi:

"to serve as a hiding-place for".

354

VOCABULARY
adv. "in confinement".

kisukkis

Kislimu

the

month
;

Kislev. Ideogr.

*-y^

^^>-. Hebr.
:J

kussu

"throne"
*~-

kissu riimedi "seat".

Ideogr.

"- W,

^J.
st.

Cf. Hebr.

KD3.

kaspu

constr.

kasap

:

"silver,

money". Ideogr.

^^

^J.

Hebr.

J^D?.

kusapu
kusarikku

subs, of uncertain meaning.

"ram

(?)"

;

plur. written ku-sa-rik-ki.

kapadu kappu
kippati

Pret. ikpud', "to plan, think, consider,
e.

ponder on".

(2. kanpu] "wing". Hebr. ^33. (plur.) "the ends (of heaven and earth)". Cf. Hebr.

kappu
kaparru

"hand".

Hebr.

r]3.

"sheep-boy".

kupru
kissu

"bitumen". Ideogr.

.

Cf. Hebr.

"dwelling, hall".
"wall".
Ideogr.

karu
[karu]

"to fetch, bring".
Ifteal,

Pret. ikteri

:

"to

summon".

kiretu
Iriru

"banquet".

Cf. Hebr. JTIS.

"plantation, garden".
Pret. ikrub\

Ideogr. ^:J
:

karabu

Pres. ikarrab
to".
:

"to be propitious, bless,

pay homage
Ifteal,

Pret. iktarab
to".

"to be propitious, to pay ho-

mage
ikribu

"prayer".
"to cast
"ruin". adv. "like a ruin".

karamu karmu
karmis

down, overthrow".

karmutu karmatu karanu

"ruin"

;

for karmuta Suluku see

alaku.

"food, sustenance, support".

wne

Ideogr.

VOCABULARY

355

kurunnu
karru

"sesame-wine".

Ideogr.

"costly raiment".
"belly".
Cf. Hebr.

karsu
karasu

karasu
kisibbu

"destruction".
"seal".
Pret. ik$ud\

kasadu

Pres. ika$ad\
to,

Imper. kuhid

'.

"to reach,

come up
seize,

draw

near,
to

approach,

come;

to

take,

attain

to;

conquer, overcome".

Ideogr.
Piel,

V:

Imper. kuHid

"to attain
:

to,

secure".
;

Shafel, Pret. ttSakttd
to

"to cause to attain

to cause

conquer";

with katu "to cause the hand to

conquer, to deliver into the hand".
kisittu

"booty; possession; prisoners".

kisadu
[kasapu]

"neck

;

bank of
;

a river".
kisip
:

Ideogr. J^Lt^.

Pret. ik&ip

Imper.

"to enchant, cast a spell

upon".

Hebr.

F|l$3.

kispu

"enchantment, sorcery".
"sorcerer".

Hebr.

kassapu
kassaptu
[kasaru]

Ideogr.

^^
*>-:V<y

^^3.

^^TT'

Hebr

'

"sorceress".
Pret. iksir
:

Ideogr.

^^|
(?)".

"to repair, set up again".
:

kasasu
kissatu

Pret. #&tf

"to assemble, collect

"host, totality, the world".

Ideogr.

kasusu
kisittu

"darling, beloved".
see

kasadu.
"wood,
forest".

fcstu

plur. fa'Sa/u
fern, kati,

katu

kasu kasa
kitu

kd$i\

plur. katunu,

kaSunu, personal pro

noun
"cloth".

:

"thee, you".

Ideogr. Jg[ ^J-,

856

VOCABULARY
Pret.

katamu

iktum

:

"to

cover;

to

close

(the

lips);

to

overwhelm".
Piel, Inf. kuttumu
:

"to cover completely".

kuttumu
kitru

"covered, hidden".
"alliance".
"gift> present".

katru

la
\le'u]
li'u

negative particle
Pres.
ili'i
:

:

"not".

Hebr. $h.

"to be able".
li'at'.

fern. constr.st.

"strong, mighty, powerful"; lali'u
s*ij

"impotent, weak, unable". Ideogr.
litu

^1^6*

"strength, might; triumph, victory".
"full extent (?)".

la'atu
[IS'u]

"to wish".
"will, pleasure, determination".

multa'utu
lu

precative particle; particle of emphasis used with
3

and

i

pers. sing,
;

and

plur.

Hebr.

f?.
lit
. . .

lu

conj. "or"
lu
,

lu

... lu
. . .

...,/......,
or
.

u

.

.

"either

.

.".

lu
littu

"wild ox".

"wild cow".

[lababu]

Perm.

3

fern. sing, labbat,

3 masc. plur. labbu

:

"to

be angry, to rage".

libbatu
libbu

"anger".
"heart;

womb, bowels, courage";
in the

ina
libbi

libbi,

libbi,

libbu "in,

midst of"; ana

"against".

Ideogr. ^jyy.

Hebr.

^, M^.

liblibbu

"offspring, descendant".

lubultu

see labasu.

labanu
libittu

"to lay or cast
plur.
libndti
:

flat".

"brick".

Ideogr.

^t-

Cf. Hebr.

VOCABULARY
labaru
Pret. ilbur,
ilbir
:

857
old".
:

"to

grow

Shafel,

Pret.

u$albir\

Pres. u^albar
to

"to
old".

cause

to

become
labaris
labiru

old, to prolong;
;

grow

adv. "into old age"
fern, labirtu^

labariS alaku "to
labiruti,

become
:

old".

plur. masc.

fern, labirdti

"old,

former"; ki-ma la-bi-ri-im-ma "as of old".

labasu

Perm,

labti,
;

3

plur. lab-$u

:

"to

clothe

oneself,

be

clothed"

ulapa labatu "to enter into an alliance".

Hebr. Vlb.
Ifteal,

Perm,

litbu*

:

"to be clothed".
:

Shafel, Pret. uSalbiS

"to clothe".

lubasu
lubustu]
lubultu
} J

"garment".
"garment".

nalbasu "robe, garment".
labuttu
libittu
"ruler, governor".

see

labanu.

litu

"hostage".
"fulness,
life".

lalu

abundance";

la-li-e

baldti

"the fulness of

lilatu

"evening".

Hebr.

rfo*h.
lami,

lamu

Pret. ilmi, ilme\

Perm,

3

masc. plur. lamu

:

"to

surround, catch, besiege".
Shafel, Pres. u$almi\ Inf. tulmu
\

"to enclose, catch".

limu
lim limetu
limitu
1

"period; eponymy".

"thousand".

}
}

"neighbourhood
Pret. ilmad\

.

lamadu

Imper. Kmad,

li-mid-da

\

"to learn,

to

perceive"; lam-du (Perm. 3 plur.) "trained". Hebr.

Piel, Pret.

ulammid

:

"to teach".

Hebr.

limenu

"to be evil".

358

VOCABULARY
fern. limuttu\

limnu
limnis
limuttu

plur. masc. limnuti,

fern, limneti

\

"evil,

wicked, hostile".

Ideogr. ^

adv. "evilly, terribly".
"evil,

misfortune".
st.

Ideogr.
"evil,

lumnu lumasu lasamu
liplipi

constr.

lumun
:

'.

wickedness, evil purpose".

plur. lu-ma-si

certain stars.

"to gallop".

"descendant".
Pret.
ilput
:

Ideogr.

*]]]

^|^ ^J*.
destroy".

lapatu

"to

turn,

overturn,

Hebr.

Shafel, Pret. uSalpit

:

"to destroy".

salputu
laku, liku

"destruction; misfortune".
Pret.
liki\
ilki,

ilkd\

Prec.

lilki\

Pres.

ilekki,
'.

ilikki\

Imper.

Part,

liku,

fern, li-ka-at,

K-kat

"to take, catch,

receive".
Ifteal,

Ideogr. +~<\(.
ilteki'.

Hebr. HpS.

Pret.
lisdndti

"to take possession of".

lisanu

plur.

:

"tongue,

speech,

nation".

Ideogr.

^Tr^f.
la'atu
see litu
littu
[jfe'u].

Hebr.

see la.

M
ma
ma.
ma.
enclitic particle of

emphasis

:

the forms me, me, mi

and mu

also occur.
:

enclitic particle

"and".
;

adv. "thus, as
plur. me
:

follows"

introduces direct speech.

mu
magaru
migru

Pret. imgur

"water". Ideogr. Cf. Hebr. l, *fo, Q^D. J^. "to render obedience to, to gratify" ;
:

Part, mdgiru, plur. mdgire "obedient".

constr.

st.

migir

:

"darling, favourite".

magsaru

see

gasaru.

VOCABULARY
ma'adu
|

359
:

Pret. im'id, imid\

Pres. imciid
to

"to

be

numerous,

madu

\

many, much,
fern,

swarm".

Cf. Hebr.

*1K.
'.

ma'adu

maattu,

maitu\

plur. ma'aduti,

fem. ma'addti

madu
ma'adis

"many, much".
adv. "greatly, exceedingly,

much"

;

ana ma'adif "in

great numbers".

mu'du

plur. mu'de
',

'.

"abundance".
Pres. imandad'. "to measure". Hebr. Yl_D.

madadu
madatu
see

nadanu.

madattu

mehu mahazu mahhu
mahhutas

"storm, .tempest".
"city,

town".
:

Cf. Hebr. nil,

fem. mahhutu

"prophet, prophetess".

adv. "like one possessed".
ina muhhi, ana

muhhu
muhhu
mahasu

muhhi

'.

"on, upon; concerning;

to,

towards; against",
"skull".
Pret. imhas\ Pres. imahhas
Ifteal,
:

"to smite". Hebr.
:

pfljjp.

Pret.

imdahis,

imdahhis

"to

fight"_^
;

Part.

plur. mundahhise, mundahse "warriors"

Inf.

mithusu

employed

as subs, "battle, attack".

maharu

Pret.

imhur\

Imper. muhur

:

"to

correspond

to,

rival;

to oppose, fight;

to

go or

come

before;

to pray to; to take to be
first,

from; to receive favourably;
;

to

"opponent, rival"

have preeminence" Part, mahiru la mahdr (Inf.), la mahra, la
;

mahri "invincible".
Ifteal,

Perm, mithur

:

"to correspond to, to

lie

over

against".
Piel, Pret. umahhir, umahir\ Prec. limahhir
\

"to

come

before;

to

bring

before,

offer";
e.

Inf.

muhhuru

employed

as subs, "offering",

g.

muh-hu-ru u-

ma-hir "I offered an offering (libation)".

36o

VOCABULARY
Shafel, Pret. usamhir
Ishtafal, Pret.
:

"to seek out,
:

visit,

punish".

uMamhir
:

"to

set,

place".

Nifal, Pres.

immahar

"to be equalled".

maharis

"against; in greater degree than, surpassing".
constr.
ina
st.

mahru

mahar

'.

"front"

;

mahri, mahar, ana mahri,

mahri "in front

of, before,
;

against"

;

adi mahri
;

"into the presence of"

dlik

mahri "predecessor"

Sarru $u-ut mah-ri, $ar ma-har "a former king".

Ideogr. <J>-.

mahru
mihru
mihirtu

fern, mahritu',

plur. rnasc. mahruti, mahrutu

:

"first,

former".
"battle, storm".

"front"

;

constr.

st.

mihrit, mihrat

employed

as prep.

"before, over against".

muhru
mitharis

constr.

st.

muhur

:

"homage".

adv. "together".
"battle".

tamharu
mittu

"club

(?)".

Ideogr.

]

Jgf

^.
Cf.

meku maksu
makkuru
namkuru
nakkuru
main
\

word of uncertain meaning.
"bond,
fetter".

"property, possessions".

Ideogr.

Hebr.

"property".
J

Pret. imli

:

"to

fill

;

to be full, to be full of, to
btt.

be

fulfilled".

Hebr.

Ifteal, Pret. imtali'.

"to be filled with".
umalli, u-mal-lu-u, u-ma-al-la-a
fill
:

Piel, Pret.

and Pres. up"
;

"to

fill

with katu "to

the hands with,

deliver into the hands of, invest with".
Iftaal, Pret. um-ta-al-la
:

"to
:

fill

with".

Piel-Shafel, .Pret. utmalli

"to

fill".

VOCABULARY

36l
ma!,

main
malu
milu

constr.

st.

mal
as

:

"fulness"

;

mala,
tihl$.

mala $a "as

many

as,
:

much

as".

Hebr.

fern, malltu

"full".

Hebr. &6fc.

"flood, stream".
"sailor".
Pret.
imlik

malahu

Ideogr.
:

^J
counsel,
to

|gf
e.

Hebr. n^2.
maldku
mi-lik-Xu

malaku

"to

take

counsel";
g.

milku
mil-ku

"to

come

a

decision",
a

(Perm.)
-!|^pj.

"he came to

decision".

Cf.

Hebr.
Ifteal,

Pret. imtalik

:

"to take counsel

with

one-

self"; 'with negative "not to take counsel with

oneself, to be ill-advised".

maliku

\

constr.

st.

malik

:

"prince

;

arbiter,

counsellor".

malku
malkutu
milku

}

Hebr.
"rule,

T^ft.
;

malikutu

empire

position of counsellor".

"lordship, dominion".
constr.
st.

milik

:

"counsel".

malaku
millu

see alaku.

"troop, gang
plur. melamme

(?)".
:

melammu
malmalis

"brightness,

splendour, majesty".

adv. "into

two

parts, asunder".

mulmullu malasu
multa'utu

"dart, spear, javelin".
Pret. imlus
:

"to pluck out".

see [le'u], see

mama
mima
\

manma.
minma.

mimma mimmu mamman

see
}

see see

minmu.

manman.
amu.
;

mummu
mamitu

"uproar, confusion".
see

manu

Pret. imnu

Pres. imanu, imani

:

"to count, reckon,

362
allot
(Inf.)

VOCABULARY
;

to

recite

(an

incantation)"

;

ana Id

mam

"without number".

Hebr.

njfc.

menu
minutu

"number".
plur. mindii:

"number;

space, period".
j *~*~\-

manu
minu
mandattu

"maneh"
"what
see

;

generally written
;

Hebr.

njtt.
:

gen. mine, mini
?".

ace. mind, interrogative

pronoun

nadanu.
nazazu.

manzazu
manzaltu
see
see

manahtu
lanama

nahu.
pronoun
:

indefinite

"anyone"; with negative "no

one".
indefinite
indefinite

pronoun

:

"anyone, any".

ever"

;

pronoun "anything, everything, whatmimma sumsu "everything that bears a
:

name,
jects,

i.

e.

that exists

;

everything, various ob-

of every kind".

minmu

indefinite
}

pronoun

:

"anything, whatever,
of, a little of",
e.

all

of";

mimmu
manman

\

"something "early dawn".
indefinite

also

g.

mimmu

Sen

pronoun: "anyone"; with negative "no

mamman
mannu
minutu

one".
interrogative
see

pronoun
wash".

:

"who

?

whom

?".

manu.
wash
"to

misu
[masaku]

Pret. imsi\ "to

Piel, Prec. limissi: "to

clean, purify".

Shafel,

Pres.

uSamsak

:

withhold,

keep back,

conceal".
Ishtafal, Pres.

uMamsak: "to be kept back, hindered".

musaru musaru

"inscription".

VOCABULARY
[masu]
Perm, mix
:

363
to be less (?)". to be

"to be

little,
;

masu
[masaru]
[masaru] misru

Perm. mast: "to be wide
Piel, Pret. umassir
:

enough,

sufficient".

"to divide".
:

Nifal,

Pret. tmmasir
st.

"to be banded together
'.

(?)".
;

constr.

misir

;

plur. misratu, misrcti

"boundary

section

;

territory".

massaru massartu masartu makatu

see

nasaru.

Pret. imkut-. "to
Ifteal,

fall,

fall

upon".

Pret. imtakuf. "to fall". Part, nmsamkitu'. "to

Shafel, Pret. utamkit, u$imkit\

overthrow"

;

Inf.

sumkntu (ideogr. ^JTT) employed

as subs, "conquest",

makittu

"ruins".
constr.
st.

miktu

mikit

:

"chasm, abyss".
jtUfc-

.

maru

TJ if Piel, Pret. uma'ir ; Pres. uma'ar,

"to send".

T

^

-

^^^
:

"^H?
;

umdr

"to send

to rule

;

to

command,
umta'ir

to

commission"; Inf.mu'uru

employed
Iftaal, Pret.

as subs, "rule, lordship". Ideogr. JEJJ^:

"to

command,

enjoin upon",

tamartu

"present, gift",
plur. mare
\

maru
martu

"son"; mar man' "grandson"; mare
Ideogr.
;

ali

"townsfolk".
constr.
st.

&,
:

^^

J^J.

mdrat

plur. mdrdti

"daughter". Ideogr.

marutu

"sonship".

Ideogr.
;

mar-sipri "messenger, envoy"
meriltu
-TTIsee eresu.
T

written

F

Eyffj J^ I^II>

miranu

"power

(?)".
:

marasu marsu

Pret. imras

"to be steep, difficult
marsuti'.

;

to be strong".

masc. plur.

"steep;

difficult,

grievous".

VOCABULARY

marasu

Perm, man's

:

"to be sick".
:

Ifteal, Pres. imtaras

"to be or
;

fall

sick".

Shafel

:

"to

make

sick"

Perm, sumrus

"sick, af-

flicted".

marsu
marsis

"sick, woeful, afflicted".

adv. "afflicted, in tribulation".

mararu

"to be bitter".
Shafel,

Hebr. ^Hfc.
:

Pret. usamrir

"to

make

bitter, to

cause

to rage (of weapons)".

mariu
namurratu
mu'irrutu

"gall".
constr.

Cf. Hebr. .TTl.!?, fTtlfc.
st.

namurraf. "anger, rage".

see 'aru.
fern,

marsu
meristu

maruttu

:

"evil"

;

the

fern,

maruttu

is

also

employed
see eresu. see

as subs, "sorrow".

martu

mararu.
:

masu

Pret. imtt

"to forget".
:

Nifal, Pret. imma$i

"to be forgotten".

musu
musitu

"night".
plur. mu$ati
:

"night".

musabu masadu

see

asabu.

"to overcome".
Iftaal,

um-das-^ad

:

meaning uncertain.

masdu masahu masku
masalu

word

of uncertain meaning.
:

Pret. imtuh constr.
st.

"to measure".
:

md&ak

"skin, hide".

Ideogr.

*^yj.

"to be like".
Piel,

Cf. Hebr. btyto).
:

Pret.
Inf.

umaSh'l

"to
:

make

like,

to

imitate".
to

Shafel,

sumSulu

"to

make

like,

divide

into equal parts".

mislu
tamsllu

constr.

st.

mtiil

:

"half".

"likeness, image".
constr.
st.

maslu

masal

'.

"whole".

VOCABULARY
[masaru]
Piel, Pret.

umaHir; Free.

lime$ir\ Pres.

umaHar; Imper.
;

muHtr
let
Iftaal,

:

"to leave, forsake, abandon

to loose, to

go

free; to permit, allow; to cease".

Pret.

umdaMir

:

"to

let

loose".

mesaru
misaru

1

see [eseru].
\

musaru
musitu
mati

see
see

musaru.

musu.
Tlfc.

"when?"; adi mati "how long? when?". Hebr. matima "whensoever" ana matima "for ever, always". "land". matu Ideogr. plur. matdti Hebr. matu Pret. imut\ Pres. imat "to die".
;
:

:

Ifteal, Pres. imtut

:

"to die".
\

mitu

plur. mituti, mi-tu-ta-an

"dead".

mutu mutu
mitharis
mitlutu

"death".

"man, husband".
see

Cf. Hebr.

fi.

maharu.

"might, power".
see mati.
.

matima matku
metiku

"sweet drink, mead".
see eteku.

Cf. Hebr.

muttu
iMutas

"front".

"before".
face".

muttatu "countenance,

N
ni
enclitic
particle,

appended

to

verbs

especially

in

relative sentences.

[ne'u]

Pret. in?

:

"to stop, restrain, hinder".

Hebr.

fcfl3.

nitu

"enclosure".
Pret. ibbi\
call,

nabu

Pres. inambi\
to

Imper.

ibi\

Perm, nabi

:

"to

name;

command;

to appoint, proclaim";

366

VOCABULARY
nabu "to
Cf. Hebr. S23.
Ifteal,

be

named, bear

a

name,

exist".

Pret. ittabi

:

"to name, call by name".

Piel, Pret. imambt,

unamba

I

"to cry aloud, lament",

nibu
nibittu

"number",
constr.
st. nibit
:

"name chosen
;

one, elect"

;

nibit

sumi

"mention of the name, name",

nibhu

"enclosure

(?)".
:

nabalu

Pret. ibbul, ibul
Ifteal, Pret.

"to destroy".
ittabal\

and Pres.

"to destroy; to steal (?)".

"talon, claw (of an eagle)",

"flame",
see

banu.

see eberu. see

nabu.
:

plur. nage

"region, district, land".
'.

constr.

st.

nagab
\

"the whole".

Pres. inagag

"to cry, to bellow".
;

Prec. 3 plur. li-na-du
praise".
Ifteal,

Pres. ina'ad, i-na-du

:

"to exalt,

Pret. ttta'id

:

"to exalt, glorify; to exalt one-

self"; Part, mutta'idu "arrogant".

"exalted".

Ideogr.

^^ ^ ^E-/
Imper.
idi\

plur. tanadatu

'.

"glory, honour".

"glory, honour".
Pret. iddi\

Pres. inadi\
cast,

Perm, nadi

'.

"to*

throw,
set

cast
(a

down;

to lay (a foundation), to

or place

dwelling),
;

to

found (a"^rine);

to dispense

(commands)

to raise (a cry), to re-

cite a spell or incantation
Ifteal, Pret. iltadi
:

(ideogr. ^^i

"to lay, bring upon".

VOCABULARY
Iftaneal, Pret. ittanamdi
:

36 7
"to utter (a spell)".

Nifal, Pret. innadi

'.

"to be cast".
maddin,
inamdin,

nadanu

Pret.

iddin',

Pres.

iddan

:

"to

give, deliver, grant, allow; to sell; to

make,
Ideogr.

create"
fcjrf
Ifteal,

;

nadan

(Inf.)

Satti

"yearly

gift".

Cf. Hebr.
\

JJU
"to hand over".

Pret. ittadin

nudunnu
mandattu
madattu

"gift".

"tax, tribute".

madatu
nadru
plur. masc. nadruti Pret. izziz\
:

"fierce".

nazazu

Pres. izzaz\

Imper.

iziz\

"to stand,

stand

up,

take
:

one's

stand".

Ideogr. J^|.

Ifteal, Pret. ittaziz

"to stand, take one's stand".
\

Shafel, Pret. utaziz, uSeziz, u$ziz
fix,

"to

set, set

up,

establish".
station,

manzazu

"place,

resting-place"

;

man-za-az

bdbj

e-kur

"that

stood

before

the

gatfi--ef^frie

temple".

manzaltu
sezuzu

e.
(*'.

manzaztu)

\

"place, position".
:

masc. plur. rezuzuti
/Tret, inuh
:

"erect, reared

on end".
PPIJ.

nahu

"to rest; to be appeased". Hebr.
uriih\ Prec. linih\ Inf.

\Piel, Pret.
to rest,

nuhhu

:

"to bring

compose,

pacify; to overpower, con-

quer".

nihu

fern, nlhtu

:

"quiet, peaceful".

mhtu manahtu
nihesu

"rest".

"couch".
Pret. ihhis;

Pres. inahhis,

inamhis

\

"to subside;

to go, depart".
Ifteal, Pret. ittehis
:

"to retreat".

nuhsu

"abundance".

368

VOCABULARY
Pret. ittul\

natalu

Pres. inatal,

inattal

:

"to look,

behold,

gaze, look up, glance".
Ifteal,

Pres.

and

Pret. itiatal
:

:

"to look upon, see".

Iftaneal, Pres. ittanatal

"to gaze".

nitlu

constr.

st. nitil

:

"look, sight".

nakkuru
nikiltu

see

makkuru.
:

plur. nikldti

"cunning

;

cunning plan, device". Cf.

Hebr.

b^,

[nakamu]

"to heap up".
Piel
:

"to heap up, hoard"; Perm, nukkum "stored,

heaped up".

nakmu
nakamtu
nakasu

"heaped up, hoarded".
plur. nakamdti
:

"treasure"

;

bit

nakamti, plur. bit na-

kamati, "treasure-house".

Pret. ikkis

:

"to cut

off,

to cut

down".
:

Piel, Pret. unakkis', Imper. nukkis
off".

"to cut

off,

tear

niksu

constr.

st. nikis

'.

"cutting off; breach".
to be hostile". Cf. Hebr.

nakaru

"to be altered

;

Iftaneal, Pres. ittandkar
Piel, Pret. unakkir
\

'.

"to be hostile".
:

Pres. unakkar

"to alter, change

(trans.)".
Iftaal,

Pres. uttakkar

:

"to be altered".

nakaru
nakiru

"hostile; foe".
plur. nakir'e
fern, nakirtu
'.

"enemy,
"hostile"

foe".
;

Ideogr. A^-,

ESS

^V'

nakru
nakris

:

as subs,

"enemy".

Ideogr.

adv. "as a foe, with hostile intent".
"hostility". Ideogr. -jt-

nukurtu
[nalu]

A-.
Cf. Hebr. brtt,

Perm,

nil: "to lie, lie

down".

nalbasu
\_namu~\

see labasu.
Piel, Pret.

unammi

:

"to destroy".

L

VOCABULARY

nimedu

see

emedu.

namkuru nimeku namaru

see see

makkuru.
emeku.
:

Pret. immir
Piel, Pret.

"to shine, be bright".
;

unammir

Pres.

unammar

;

Imper. num-

mir

:

"to

make
:

bright, to give light to".

namru
namirtu

fern,

namirtu

"bright".

"brightness, light".

namrirru

"brightness".
"beast".
see

nammassu
nini
\

mnu

aninu.
Ideogr.

}

nunu nun-amelu
nindabu

"fish".

^<.

"fish-man".

Ideogr.

^ K$f?

*"

"offering, free-will offering". Ideogr.

Cf. Hebr.

Him
Hebr.

nannaru
nisu

"light".
Pret.
issi
:

"to retreat, recede from".
(?)".
:

nisiggu

"spoil from hunting
Pret. issuh\

nasahu

Pres. inassah

"to tear

away

or out,

to carry off,

remove".

Hebr. fipl

nasaku
nismatu

Pret. issuk "to set in position, to grasp (a
:

weapon)".

"will, purpose".

nasaku nasku
nisilftu

"to glorify, extol".
"lordly, magnificent".

"splendour, costliness";
abne "precious stones".

nisikti,

abne

nisikti,

nisikti

napahu

Pret. ippuh

:

"to flame or shine forth";
ilu

ideogr.

V,
napharu
see

'

g- napaha(ho)

$am$i(Si) "sun-rise, the

east".

Cf. Hebr.

HSJ.

paharu.
Cf. Hebr.

napasu

"to breathe, breathe freely".
Piel, Inf.

#}.

nuppuSu

:

"to

let

breathe, to give ease to".
24

37o

VOCABULARY
with pron. suffixes napsat;
living creature, person".
plur. napsati
:

napistu

"lite;

Ideogr. >~JJ^. Hebr.

nappasu
naptanu nasu

"air-hole,

window".

see

patanu.
st.

constr.

nas

:

"portion of an eagle's wing, wing-

feathers".

\nasalu]

"to sink(?)".
Shafel, Pret. utamsil
:

"to cause to sink".
:

Ishtafal, Pret. ultamsil

"to cause to sink".

nasmadu
nasaru.

see

samadu.
;

Pret. issur
tect".
Ifteal,

Imper. usur

'.

"to watch,

keep, pro-

Ideogr. Kffi<-

Hebr

-

"1^3:

Pret. ittasar\

with massartu as object

"to

keep
nisirtu

a watch".
bit nisirti

"watching, guarding; store, treasure";
"treasure-house";
secret".

amat

nisirti

"hidden

w^ord,

massaru
massartu

"watchman".
"watch".
Pret. inuk
Pret. ikki
:

masartu

Ideogr.
:

^J

naku
naku

"to lament, wail". "to pour out (a libation), to offer (an
Ideogr.
:

offering)".
Ifteal.

>->^S

Cf. Hebr.

n^?.
bel nike

Pret.
:

ittaki

"to offer".
;

niku

plur. nike

"libation

offering, sacrifice"

;

"sacrificer".

Ideogr.
JEJJ.

<^^, sometimes

written

with determ.

nak-me nakbu
nakaru

"irrigator".

Ideogr.

EJ^ ]} *--]
Sp_J.
:

"depth".

Cf. Hebr.
;

Pret. zkkur, ikur

Imper. ukur
1J5J.

"to destroy,

pull

down".

Cf. Hebr.

VOCABULARY naru naru
neru
nlru
plur. narati
:

3y
Ideogr. TlTJ.

I

"stream, river".

Hebr.

Pret. mar, imr\

Imper. nir

\

"to slay, destroy, van-

quish".

"destroyer".
"inscribed tablet of stone".

naru
nlru

"yoke".
"light".

Ideogr.

j

lE^TT^f.

nuru
narabu

Piel, Part, mu-nir-bu "destroyer".

nurbu
narbu
nirbu
niribu

constr.

st.

nurub

:

"fragment, piece".

see rabu.

see erebu.

narkabtu

see
see

rakabu.

naramu
naramtu
niraru

ramu.
;

"helper"
e.

occurs

in

a

number

of proper names,

g. Ramman-nirari.

niasi
niati

\

personal pronoun
j

:

"us".
to slip".
st.

nasu
nasu

Pret. inu$

:

"to totter, be in ruins

;

Pret. i$$i; Imper. ih'i Part, nasu, constr.

na$\ Perm.

nah'
to

:

"to raise, bear up;
off,

to bear,

carry,

bring;

carry

capture"

;

with tamharu "to
Kttt.

make

ready for battle".
Ifteal,

Hebr.

Pret. itta$i\

"to raise, bring;

to

raise,

cast

(the eyes)".

nisu

"raising, invocation"

;

rii$

kati "raising

of the hand,

invocation, prayer".

nisittu

constr.

st. ntiit

:

"darling".

nesu
nisu

"lion".

Ideogr. JV-J ^fcEjJ.
;

"people"
Ideogr.

plur. m'Se

:

"peoples

;

men, mankind".

^f
24*

372

VOCABULARY
"to bite".
Piel, Pres.

nasaku nasaku

Hebr.

TptfJ.
'.

unaHak

"to bite, tear".

Pret. iHik
Piel, Pret.

:

"to kiss".
<tf&2
:

Hebr.

"to kiss".
:

Nifal,

Pret.

3

plur. in-nis-ku
(?)".

"to press on, jostle

one another

nasru
nisittu

"eagle".. see

Ideogr.

EE^J

*-JJ.

Hebr.

^5.

nasu.

niati

see niasi.

natu

"to strike".
Piel, Pret. unatti
:

"to smash, shatter".

nitu

see ne'u.
Ifteal,

nataku

Pret. ittatak; Prec. littatuk

:

"to dissolve, melt,

disappear". Cf. Hebr. 1JJU

siba
fern, sibittu
\

"seven".

sibi

Ideogr.

.

.

Hebr.

tfSttf.

siba

"seventh".
see

Ideogr.

^
oneself
in

sabasu

sabasu.

sagu sadu
sadaru
sidru

"to starve^ be in want".
Pret.
<&/
:

"to destroy".
:

Perm,

sadir

"to

set

battle

array;

to

carry on

(a rebellion)",

"line of battle".

Cf. Hebr.

Tip.
\

[sahu]

Perm,

sihi,

3 fern. sing, si-ha-ti

"to disappear, cease;

to revolt".
Piel, Pret. usahhi
:

"to destroy, blot out, overthrow",

sihu

"revolt, rebellion".
Pret. ishul:. "to pierce",

sahalu

sahmastu
sahapu

"rebellion".
Pret. ishup
:

"to overwhelm".

Hebr.

VOCABULARY

373
to

saharu

Pret. ishur

:

"to turn, turn towards;
Cf. Hebr.
issahra;
*)!"JD.

surround,

harass, infest".
Ifteal,

Pret. issahur,

Pres. i-sah-hu-ra

:

"to

return".
Piel, Pret. usahhir;

Imper.

suhhir',

Perm, suhhur;

Inf.

suhhuru
Ishtafal,

\

"to turn, to turn towards".
uStathir
:

Pret. uMashir,

"to

cause

to

sur-

round, to surround with".
Nifal,
Inf.

nashuru

:

"to be turned, to turn oneself

(from anger)".
Ittanafal, -Pres. ittanashar
:

"to turn oneself towards",

sihru.

constr.

st.

sihir

:

a precious stone,
;

sihirtu

"enclosing wall
ana
sihirttiu

neighbourhood
its

;

full extent,

whole"

;

"in

full

extent",

sukkallu

"minister, servant".
"bolt".

Ideogr. t^jy^-

sikkuru

Ideogr.

^y

^yy^ ^^.
:

Cf. Hebr. nStD?.

sakapu
[salu] [salu]

Pret. iskip\

Pres. isakip

"to cast
to rest".

down, overthrow;

to cast oneself
Pret. is-lu-u
:

down,

"to cast off (a yoke)".

Cf. Hebr.
Inf.

nbp.
sullii.
:

Piel, Pret. usalli\

Pres. u-sal-la, u-sal-lu\

"to pray".

taslitu
\

teslltu

"prayer, supplication".
I

salamu
salimu
salimis

Pret. islim

;

Imper.

silim

:

"to deal favourablv

be gracious".

"mercy;

alliance, confederacy",

ay,

remove

"favourably, mercifully",
subs,

salmu

of uncertain

meaning,

occurrin.-",

a-$ar sa-al-me.

suluppu
sal at u

"date".

Ideogr.
/alty,
\

"household".
plur. summdti

ring

(?)".

summatu

"dove".

Ideogr.

>-

3 74

VOCABULARY
see

simtu
sinuntu
sinnis
j

asamu.
Ideogr.

"swallow".

sinnistu

"female, wife".
Pret. isnik
:

Ideogr.

"jj-.

]

sanaku sunku
sisu

"to oppress

;

to

hold

fast".

"want, hunger".
plur.
stse
:

"horse".

Ideogr.

^T^ V ^TT'
Perm,

Cf

"

Hebr. DID.

sipu

"to pray", "to
loose,
scatter,

sapahu

bring to naught"

;

sapih

"loosened".
Piel,

Pret. usappih;

Part, musappih,

mu-si-pi-ih

:

"to

scatter,

break

up,
:

shatter".

Cf. Hebr.

USD.

Nifal, Pret. issapih

"to be scattered".
:

sapanu
sippu

Pret. ispun

;

Pres. isapan

"to cover, overwhelm, cast
Cf. Hebr.

down, overcome, subdue".
plur. sippe
'.

JSD.

"threshold",

saparu
saparis

"net",

"in a net".
Pret. iskur, tikur
:

sakaru

"to speak, to
:

command".

Ittafal, Pret. ittatkar

"to speak".
'.

constr. st

sikir,

sekar

"word, command".

"drink-offering, libation".

"to oppose, resist".

Hebr. Tip.

sidru

'sweet drink, mead",
sixth".

[sahu]
Ideogr. ffi f
:

Hebr. *&$.

sihu

asc. plur. sittuti

"the others, the rest",
Ideogr.

sahalu

^egular offering".

sahmastu
sahapu

VOCABULARY

375

pa
pagru padu
pidu

"mouth word, command".
;

Ideogr.

^^z-.
Hebr.

Hebr.
*"|j.

,1S.

constr.
Part,

st.

pagar
\

:

"body, corpse".
la

padu

"to loose, to free";

padu "unsparing,

without mercy".

Hebr. ITl^-

"purchase-money",

padanu
puzru
pihu
pihu

"way, path".
constr. st.puzur; plur. puzrati
Pret.
iphi',
:

"secret, concealment".

Imper. pihi
:

:

"to close, shut".

Ifteal,

Pr.et. iptehi

"to shut",

"to steer"; Part, p'ehu "steersman, pilot",
"district, province, territory"; bel pahati

"governor".

pahatu
pihatu

Ideogr.

-J^.
Ideogr.

"governor".

f^ ^JI^Ideogr.

Cf Hebr
-

-

HPIS.

"district, province".

^1^^.

paharu

"to collect (intrans.)".
Ifteal,

Pret. iptahar Pret. upahhir,

:

"to collect (intrans.)".
u-pi-hi-ir
:

Piel,

"to collect

(trans.)

;

to strengthen".

Ideogr. J^J^T-

puhru

constr.

st. puhur'."

whole; assemblage; might, strength,
Ideogr.

support; host, forces".

^^

puhuru napharu
patu
pataru

f.

puhurtu

:

"united",
Ideogr.

"entirety, the whole".

"boundary, border, limit; all"; pat gimri "entirety,
the whole, the entire extent".
Pret. iptur\

Ideogr. E^EK.

Pres. ipattar

:

"to tear away, remove".

Hebr.

-)tOS.
'.

Nifal, Pret. ippatir

"to be torn away",
Ideogr. ^^-fyj.

patru

constr.

st.

patar

:

"dagger".

paku
palu

"misery

(?)".

"reign, year of reign;

symbol of

royalty, ring (?)".

Ideogr. >->-y<6.

3y6
[pelu]
Piel-Shafel,
Ideogr.

VOCABULARY
Pret. uspel
:

"to

conquer,

overcome".

*-A|*.
"to fear, be afraid; to reverence".
:

pulu

"stone, stone-block".
Pret. iplah
:

palahu
palhis

Ifteal, Pret. iptalati

"to fear".

adv. "with fear".
"fear".
constr.
st.

*

pulhu
puluhtu
[palku]

pulhat', plur. pulhati

\

"fear, terror".

"to be wide".
Shafel, Pret. ut-pal-ki
:

"to open wide".
;

palku
pallukku
[palasu]

masc. plur. palkuti
"circuit,

:

"wide

fat".

boundary".

Cf. Hebr.

T|s.
'

Nifal, Pret. ippdlis\

Pres. ippolas;

Imper. napKs\
;

Inf.

naplusu
pity".
Ittafal,

:

"to look upon, behold

to look

upon

in

Inf. itaplusu

"to gaze upon".

pilsu
[paltu]

"mine
Nifal,

(in

siege-operations)".
3

Pret. ippdlti,

plur. ip-pdl-tu-u

:

"to

be

de-

feated".

panu

constr.

st.

pan

:

"face, countenance, front"; pan, ina
;

pan, ana pani "before"

ina

pana "formerly"

;

sar

pa-ni "a former king"
Ideogr. <J>-.

;

lapan (Hebr.

*)h) "before".

Hebr. D'OS.
i-na

pananu
paltadu

adv. "formerly";
Pret. ipkid;
to

pa-na-a-nu-um-ma "formerly".
:

Imper. pikid
or

"to inspect;
to
(for

to

control;

entrust

commend

safe -keeping)".

Hebr.
Ifteal,

*!.
:

Pret. iptekid

"to appoint".

[pakalu]

Piel

:

"to

make mighty"; Perm, pukkul "mighty".
"mule". Ideogr.

paru
[paru]

plur. pare:

Imper. puru'

:

"to cut off".
:

Piel, Pret. uparri'

"to cut

off,

sever".

VOCABULARY
pir'u
"offspring, descendant".
plur. pirdni, pirati
:

877
Ideogr.

piru
[parcfu]

"elephant".
:

Ideogr.
bright".

Shafel, Part, mu^-par-du

"to

make

parzillu

"iron".
Shafel,

Ideogr.

>>$-

>j-.

Hebr.

bH3.
:

[paraku]

Pret. uSaprik,

with
to

ma pan

"to bring upon
to;
to

with violence,
force towards".

cause

happen

display

parku
[parku]

"bolt (of a door)".
Nifal, Pret. ipparku-, Inf. naparku
:

"to cease; to dis-

appear, depart".
Ittafal,

Pret. ittaparka

:

"to disappear".
:

parakku
parasu

plur. parabke, parakkani

"shrine,

room, chamber".

Ideogr. Effi.
Pret. iprus
:

"to divide

;

to determine, decide". Ideogr.

>^.
Nifal,

Cf.

Hebr. D^S.
Pres. ipparas
:

Pret. ipparis\

"to be decided;

to stop, cease".

purussu
piristu

"decision".

Ideogr.

^^ >^-.
statute,

"decision".
constr.
st.

parsu
[pararu]

paras

:

"command,

ordinance".

Ideogr. ^f=
Piel,

>->Jf-.

Pret. uparrir;

Part, muparriru

:

"to

break

in

pieces, shatter".
Iftaal, Pret. uptarrir

Cf. Hebr. TllS.
:

"to be broken, to be shattered".
Part, muppartu
:

[parasu]

Nifal,

Pret. ipparft\

"to

fly,

to fly

along".
Ittafal,

Part. muttapriSu

:

"to fly".

[parsadu]

Nifal, Pret. tpparSid;

Inf.
;

napariudu
ina
kate

:

"to

fly,

to es-

cape, to disappear"

naparfudu "to dis-

appear".

pasahu
pasafu

Pret. jpSafr

:

"to be appeased, to be satisfied".
:

Shafel, Pret. utaptih

"to appease, to satisfy".
:

Pret. ip*it\ Pres. ipa&t

"to blot out, deface, destroy".

VOCABULARY
[pasaku]
"to be strong; to be grievous".
"tribulation, affliction".

sapsaku

supsuku
pasaru

"troubled, afflicted".
Pret. ipsur
:

"to loosen
:

;

to

subdue (wrath)".
be

Piel, Prec. lipa^sir

"to loosen, dissolve".
:

Nifal,

Prec. lippasir

"to

loosened,

to

be laid

open".

pasasu

Pret. ip^us

:

"to anoint".
ip-pa-a'S-'si
:

Nifal, Pres.

"to be anointed".

pasisutu "anointing with

oil,

trade of anointing".

passuru
pitu

"dish".
Pret.
ipti,

Ideogr.
iptd
:

z|

^|^:^<~y|.
ipatti, ipeti, ipitti;

;

Pres.

Imper.

ptti,

ptta;

Part, petu
to".

"to open;

to declare,

divulge, reveal

Hebr. nnS.
gate), porter".

petu

"opener (of a
"face, front".

Ideogr. Evffj

^~ ^^.

putu

patanu
naptanu
pitpanu

"to eat".
"feast".

"bow"

;

sometimes written with determ.
:

zj.

pataku
pitku
pattu

Pret. iptik

"to make, create
:

;

to

make

or mix (wine)".

constr.

st. pitik
:

"structure".

plur. pat-tu-te

word of uncertain meaning.

sabu

plur. sabe

:

"warrior"
"archers"
;

;

in

plur. "people,

mankind";
Ideogr.

sdbe kasti

sabe tiduki "warriors".

^fE^ff^f
[sabu]
Piel, Imper. subbt
:

Cf. Hebr. X=5:.

"to look
:

at,

behold".

sabaru
sabatu

Shafel, Pret. u^asbir
Pret.
isbat-,
:

"to inform, to acquaint with".
isabbat',

Pres. isabat,

Imper.
fast,
;

sabat',

Part.
;

sdbit

"to hold,

grasp, hold
;

take,

capture

to undertake (work)

to exorcise"

harrdna sabatu

VOCABULARY

3 79

"to take the road, set out"; with $adu as object "to take to the mountains"
;

ina kdta sabit (Perm.)

"taken in the hands",
ar-ka-ti "that

i.

e.

"in captivity"

;

sa-bit

was behind".
:

Ifteal, Pret. issabat\ Inf. tisbut (for sitbut]

"to take;

to begin"

;

with harranu as object "to set out".
:

Piel, Pret. usabbit

"to take, capture".
:

Shafel,
to

Pret. uSasbtt
;

"to cause to take (a road),
to

despatch

to

cause

take

(a

habitation),

to station, to settle".
Ishtafal, Pret. uUasbit
:

"to cause to take (a road)

;

to cause to take (a position), to post". Nifal, Pres. issabat
:

"to be held fast".

sibittu

"captivity, durance".

subatu

"garment".
Pret.
isiid
:

Ideogr. JEJ.

sadu

"to glow".
(?)".
:

suhu
seheru

"wish, desire

Perm,

i

sing, si-ih-ri-ku

"to be small, young".
:

Piel, Pret. usahhir', Pres. usahhar

"to diminish, to

lessen; to deprive of, exclude from".
Iftaal, Pret. ussahhir
:

"to depart

(?)".

sahru
sihru

masc. plur.

sihruti

:

"small, petty, young".

Ideogr.

suhntuQ)
silu
silu

"youth".
plur.
file
:

"rib

;

side".

Hebr. yS^,, yb$.

"to fight".
"hostility, battle".

saltu

sulatu
[salalu]

"battle".

"to overshadow".
Piel, Pret. usallil
:

Hebr. bb%.
"to set as a covering, to spread

out".

sillu

"shade, shadow, shelter". Ideogr.

l

^rl. Hebr. b#.

38o

VOCABULARY
constr.
st.

salmu
salmu

salam^

plur. salmanu,

salmani

\

"image".

Ideogr.

^/<^^^, ^-.
i.
<?.

Hebr.

D^.
;

fern, salifhtu', fern. plur. salmati'.

"dark, black"

salmdt
Cf.

kakkadi "the black-headed",

"mankind".

Hebr.

saltu
|

see silu.

salatu

]

sumu samadu

"thirst".

Hebr.
:

Pret. ismid

"to yoke,
fern. sing.

harness,
Zandat,

equip,

gird

on"

;

Perm. 3
"girt,

3

masc. plur. sandu
1)3^.

equipped".
:

Cf. Hebr.

simittu

plur. simdati

"yoke".

Ideogr. J^.

Hebr.

nasmadu
senu
[senu~]

"yoke".
plur. sine
:

"sheep".
:

Cf. Hebr.
fill

|K^.

Pret. isan, ism
"lapis lazuli".

"to

with".

sipru

Ideogr.

supru susu
sissu

"claw".

Cf. Hebr.

"marsh, marshland".

"bond, fetter"; sometimes written with determ.^lT.
"field,

seru
siru

plain, desert".
:

Ideogr.

^>f- ^fc,

j^^f

fern, sirtu

"high, exalted, august". Ideogr.

^E^
upon";

sirutu
sir

"supremacy, majesty".
Prep, "on, upon, over; against"; ana
sin's

sir "to,

"to"

;

si'-ru-us-Su

"upon him",

si-ru-us-su-un

"upon them".
siru
"serpent".
Pres. isarrah
(?)

Ideogr.

^^r.
Hebr. rTl.
(?)".

Ideogr.
:

^^^<.

sarahu
sirlalu

"to cry aloud, chant".
:

written sir-la-la

portion of a temple, "facade

sirmahu
sarapu
sirpu
sirritu

"monster-serpent".
Pret. isrup
:

"to

dye with";

Perm.

3

fern.

sing.

sarpat, 3 masc. plur. sarpu "dyed with".

word of uncertain meaning,
plur. sirreti
:

"affliction".

Cf. Hebr.

VOCABULARY
"colossal serpent, dragon". Ideogr.
see slru.

38i

see asu.

K
a measure.

[ka'u]

Piel, Pres. uka

:

"to wait".

Hebr. HJp.

kabu
kibu

Pret. ikbi; Pres. ikdbbi; Imper. kibi\ Part. kabu\
kabt, Mbi,\

Perm.
Ideogr.

"to speak, proclaim,

command".

Ifteal,

Pret.

and Pres.

iktabi

:

"to speak, say".

kibltu

"word, command".
plur. kubbe, kube
:

Ideogr. ^Ez

kubbu kubu
kablu

"cry".
:

constr.

st.

kabal

"midst;
-

battle,
-

assault,

storm".

Ideogr.

E<2<lf

Cf Hebr ^5p:

kablu

adj.,

fern, kablitu;

fern. plur. kablati

"in the midst";

ina kabldt "in the

midst of".
"before",

kudmu
kalu

"front";

as

prep,

kud-me-^u-nu "before

them".
Pres. ikallu

Cf. Hebr.
:

D^.
Hebr. nSf?.

"to burn".

kulu
kalalu
killatu

"cry".
Piel
plur.
:

Hebr. Sip.
"to abuse, disgrace".
Cf. Hebr.

killdti

:

"sin, transgression, offence".

kullultu "iniquity".

kamu
kanu

Pret. ikmu\ Part,

kdmu

:

"to burn".

"reed".

Ideogr.

-J|^.

Hebr.

HjjJ.

kannu
kinnu

"frontier (?)".

"nest; family, household".
Pret. ikup
:

Hebr.

fp.

kapu

"to

fall

in,

become ruined".

382

VOCABULARY
Pret. ikip
Ifteal,
:

kapu
klpu

"to entrust to".
:

Pret. iktipa

"to entrust to".
prefect"
;

plur.

kipdni

:

"governor,

written

with

determ.

yyyy.

kuppu
kasaru

"chest, basket; cage"; usur kuppi "a caged bird".
Pret. iksur
Ifteal,
:

"to bind
kissur
:

;

to seize, take".
e.

Perm,

(i.

kitsur)

:

"to form".

Iftaal, Pret. uktassir

"to collect, to rally (intrans.)".
(?).

Ideogr.

^Jf jjEj^
:

kisru

constr.

st. kisir

"might; battalion";

cf. rab-kisir.

kakkadu kakkaru
karabu
kirebu
|

"head".

Ideogr.
soil
;

^||^:

J^J.

Cf. Hebr.

"ground,
Pret. ikrib

land".

:

"to approach,
kitrub
:

draw near". Hebr. draw near
as

D*"lp.

\

Ifteal,

Perm,
;

"to

for battle,

to

attack"

Inf. kitrubu

employed

subs, "attack,

assault".
Ishtafal, Pret. ustakrib
:

"to bring near".

kirbu

constr.
ina

st.

kirib

:

"midst, interior;

bowels";

kirtb,

kirib

"within".

Hebr.

S*1fJ.

[karadu]

"to be strong".
fern, karittu
:

kardu
karradu
karradutu

"strong, valiant, heroic, courageous".

"strong, brave, valiant".
"strength, valour".

Ideogr.

kurdu
lizuradu

"might, power".
plur. kurdd'e
:

"strong, valiant; hero, warrior".

karadu

Pret. ikrid

:

"to come, arrive".
Ideogr. "T^yf-

karnu
karasu
karsu
karuru

"horn"

;

part of a chariot.

Hebr.

rt?
"to break
off,
;

to bite off".

Hebr. JHJ5.

"slander"

karsi akdlu "to slander".

"drying up, abatement".

VOCABULARY

383
"to give, present,

kasu
kistu

Pret.

?/&/.?;

Imper. &!$;
Inf. kdhi

Part. kdi$

:

bestow";
"gift".

employed

as subs. "gift".

kastu

plur. kaSd/i

:

"bow".
:

Ideogr.

:J

K^J-

Hebr. n$[3.

katu
katu

plur. kdte, kdtd Pret.
ikti
:

"hand".
to an

"to

come
:

Ideogr. ^E|. end ; to be accomplished".

Piel, Prec. likattd

"to bring to an end, destroy".
:

Shafel, Pret. utikti

"to bring to an end".

re'u
re'u

"to pasture

;

to rule".

Hebr.

"shepherd".

Ideogr.

t^jgj,

re'utu
rifu

"shepherding, rule",
"pasture, pasturage".

ru'a
\rabu~]

"companion, neighbour".
"to be wide, broad".

Hebr.

$Tl.

Hebr.

211"!.

rebitu

"wide space or square
Pret.
z'rfo'
:

(in a city)".

Cf. Hebr.

rabu

"to be great;
:

to

increase".

Hebr.

!

Ifteal, Pret. irtabi

"to be or

become

great".
;

Piel, Pret. urabbi

:

"to

make

great, raise to authority

to rear, bring up".
Iftaal,

Pret. irtabbi

:

"to praise, magnify".
u^arbi
:

Shafel, Pret.
nify
;

and Pres.

"to

make

great,

mag-

to raise to power".
:

Piel-Shafel, Pret. utrabbi

"to

make

great, to raise to

power".

rabu

}

fern. rabitu\

plur. rabuti, fern, rabdti

:

"great", ideogr.
officer,

rabiu]
rabis

Ej*~;
ideogr.

employed
VTTT El*"

as
*

subs,
r

"high

noble",

rab Sikkatutu

see

sikkatu.

"greatly, gloriously, majestically".
fern,

rubu

rubdtu

:

"great,

exalted"

;

employed

as

subs.

"noble, prince".

Ideogr.

384

VOCABULARY
"greatness, loftiness, might"
iStar".
;

rubutu

rubut ISfar "the

mighty

narbu
nirbu
"greatness".
fern, surbutu
:

surbu
tarbitu

"great".

"child, offspring".

rab-asu

"chief

astrologer".
(lit.

Ideogr.
Ideogr.

rab-esreti "chief"

"chief of ten").

rab-kisir

"captain".

Ideogr.
Ideogr.

ryfy

^r
Ej>-

*">-]

tab- ____
ribu

an

officer.

vp^
:

*".

see arba'u.

[rababu]

Piel-Shafel, Prec. Itimbbib "to
Cf. Hebr.

make great or mighty".
lie

ran.
3 plur. rabsu
:

rabasu

Perm, mbis,
to

"to

in wait,

lurk

;

cower down".

Hebr. j^*l.

\ragagu]

"to be wicked".

raggu
targigu

"wicked".
"sinner, wicked
constr.
st.

man".
;

rigmu
[radu]

rigim

plur. rigme

:

"cry,

lamentation

;

din, clash (of arms)".
Pret. irdi
:

"to go, march".
:

Ifteal, Pret. irtedi

"to go".
:

Shafel,
to

Pret.

and Pres. utardi
flow,
to

"to cause to go;
itself"
;

cause

to

make discharge

urha Surdu "to take the road".
[racfu]
Piel, Pret. uraddi
:

"to add".
:

Piel-Shafel, Pret. utraddi

"to add".

ruhu
rahasu

"spell, sorcery".

Pret. irhus

:

"to trust

to,

to

put hope in"

;

em-

ployed with prep.

eli.

rahasu
rihsu

Pret. irhis\ Part, rahisu

:

"to overwhelm".

constr.

st. rihis

:

"downpour".

VOCABULARY
rakabu
Pret. irkab
:

$85

"to ride; to

mount

a chariot".

Hebr.

=*!
Shafel,
Pret.
uSarkib
:

"to

cause

to

embark (on

a ship)".
Ishtafal,

Pret. ustarkib

:

"to sling on

(a

weapon)".

rakbu

"messenger".
"riding, chariot".
plur. narkabdti
:

rukubu
narkabtu

"chariot".

Ideogr.

:T

]p<Y.

Cf.

Hebr.

HDS^.
Hebr. D5*J.
r//&/j
: :

rakasu

"to bind".
Ifteal,

Perm.

"to bind "to
fix,

fast,

set in

order".

Piel,

Pret. urakkis

to

cast

up (entrenchbounds".

ments)".

riksu

constr.

st. rikis

:

"band, bond

;

barrier,

markasu ramu

"bolt (of a door)".
Pret. irdm, irim\ Pres. z'rdm, in relative clause iram-

mu, in letters from Tell el-Amarna ira'am, iraham
Part, rd'imu
:

;

"to

love"

;

with double ace. "to

grant to".

Ideogr. tXjgigif-

Hebr. CITl.

remu
riminu
\

.

"mercy".
fern,

nmnu
naramu

rimmtu

:

"merciful

.

)

"love, affection; darling".

naramtu

"darling".
Pret. irmi, irmd;
to cast

ramu

Pres. irami',

Part,

rdmu

:

"to cast,

down;

to set or take up one's dwelling,
Cf. Hebr.
Ptfc'"!.

to inhabit".

Ifteal, Pret. irtame, with tubtu as object

:

"to set one's

dwelling".
Shafel, Imper. surma, with Subtu as object: "to cause
to inhabit".

Piel-Shafel,

Pret. u^-ram-ma

:

"to cause

to

dwell

or inhabit".
25

386

VOCABULARY
Pret. irmu
Piel,
:

ramu
rimu

"to be loosened".
:

Imper. ru-um-me
:

"to loose; to forbear".
Ideogr.

plur. rimdni
fern,

"wild ox".

^A

.

Hebr.

rumu ramaku

rumtu

:

"high, exalted".
:

Pret. irmuk\ Pres. irammuk Pret.

"to pour out".

ramamu
ramanu ramnu
resu

irmum
Pret.

:

"to thunder".

Ifteal,
\

and

Pres. irtamam

:

"to thunder".

"self".

\

"to crush".
Piel, Prec. lira' is
:

"to crush, shatter, destroy".

rusu
rasabu

"poison".
Piel, Pret. urassib
:

"to slay".

rapasu

"to be broad".
Piel, Pret. urappis', Pres. urappas; Part, murappisu
:

"to

broaden, to increase",

rapsu

fern, rapastu, rapaltu

:

"broad, great, wide-spreading".

Ideogr. ^y^-J.

ritpasu "broad, great",
risu
"helper",

risutu

"help".
Pret. irsip
Pret. trek
: :

rasapu
[reku]

"to

fit

together,

to

build".

Hebr.

Fjin.

"to be distant".

Hebr. prn.

ruku

fern, riiktu;

plur. masc. rukuti, fern, rukati, ruketi: "dis-

tant (of time and
ruki "afar off".

place);

broad, extensive";

ina

Ideogr. ^>-flPf.
:

rifcu

masc. plur.

rikuti

"empty"

;

rikutisunu

kussidasunuti

"their failure secure".

Hebr.
risi
:

pn.
"to have, possess";
;

rasu

Pret. irU\ Pres.

irasi',

Imper.

rema,
batilta

or salima,

or taiara, rasu "to have mercy"

rasu "to take one's discharge, to desert".
:

Shafel, Pret. usarsi, u$ar$a

"to cause to have"

;

batilta

$ursu "to cause to cease, to discontinue":

VOCABULARY
marsitu "possession".
[resu]
Pret. iri$
Ifteal,
:

38y

"to rejoice, to be glad".
:

Pret. irtiS

"to rejoice, to be glad".

risatu

(pur.) "exultation, shouts of joy".

resu

"head, summit; beginning,

dawn

(of the day); chief,

high

officer".

Ideogr.

^]]^-

Hebr.

tf*Cl.

restu

'"chief, principal, of highest rank; primeval".

resutu

"slavery, service".

rasubbatu "might".
[rasadu]
Shafel,
Pret.

uUrtid

:

"to

found,

establish,

make

firm, strengthen".

russu
re'utu
rltu
\

"lordly, sumptuous".
see re'u.
]

"spittle, slaver; breath".
!

Ideogr.

^Tr^T.

ritpasu

see

rapasu.

s
sa
relative

pronoun "who, which"

;

genitive particle

;

employed
[se'u]

as conj. "for, since",

Pret. *? Y; Pres. z'&Y; Imper.

^Y; Perm. &Y: "to
heed
to
for".

see,

survey
Ifteal,

;

to seek, to take
t'X/e'i
:

Hebr. njj^to

Pret.

"to

seek,

seek out,

care

for".
Iftaneal, Pret. titoni'i, t'Meni't; Pres. istend
:

"to seek,

to look carefully; to look after, to care for".

seu su su
sebu

"corn, grain".
fern.

Ideogr.

^.
personal

H;

plur. masc. Xunu, Sun, fem. $tna;
:

pronoun

"he, she, they".
Zuniiti,

fem. 37; plur. masc. Sunu,
"that".

fem. Smart, Mnartna:

Pret. t$M: "to be satisfied with".

Hebr.
25*

388

VOCABULARY
"girdle".

sibbu
sibtu

"rod, sceptre
Pret. isbus
:

;

pestilence".
;

Hebr.
with kisddu "to avert

sabasu
sabasu
sabaru

"to be angry"

the neck (in anger)".
Pret.
isbir-,

Pres. iSdbir

:

"to

break,

to

shatter".

Hebr.

nattf.
titebir,

Ifteal, Pret.

iltebir

:

"to break". "to break".

Piel, Pret. uUbbir, uhbir
Ittafal,

:

Pret.

iltrtbir

:

"to be broken",

sabru

"wound".
Pret. iSbuS:

Hebr. "O^.
"to hinder",

sabasu
subtu

see
see

asabu.
bataku.

subtaktu
sigaru

"bolt (of a door)".
Pret. tigti
:

sagasu sadu
sadu
sadu
\_sudu~]

"to slay, destroy",

"to be high; to rise".
plur. sade, tadani
:

"mountain".

Ideogr. ^k.

the East, the East-wind. Ideogr.
constr.
st.

4^fl;

V E^H*
sud lamhari

sud

:

"highness, supremacy"

"generalship in battle",

sud-saku
[sidu]

"officer"; written
plur. side Pret.
:

^fr ^EJ

^J
:

^||^.
"to drag, to draw
;

"gift, present".
ildud-,

sadadu
siddu
sidu
sada.hu
[sadalu]

i'sdud,

Imper. $udud
(?)".

to
\

have patience
:

plur. h'de

"district".

I

Pres. tiaddih

:

"to advance".

"to be wide".
Piel, Part. muSamdtfu
:

"to widen, to increase".
\

sadlu

fern. Sadtltu;

masc. plur. Xadluti

"wide, of broad

extent".

sidimmu
sezuzu

(?)

"raging hound".
see

Ideogr.

nazazu.

VOCABULARY
[sahu]
Pres.
Ifteal,
fSa/i/u
:

38 9
(in

"to

wade
:

slime)".

[sahadu]

Pret. titahid

"to prance, to rear".
tear off";

sahatu

Pret. tihut;

Imper.Mt//: "to

Perm.

Uh-tu "taken off (of a diadem)".

Cf. Hebr.

sahluktu

see

halaku.
:

suharruru
saharratu
sahtu.

Pret. utyarir
side".

"to be or become narrow, to sub-

"grief".

"humble, submissive".
Pret. tiut; Prec.
to
i

satu

sing.

Mut\

Pres. iSdt

:

"to drag,
fclttf.

draw, to bear

(a yoke)".
:

Cf. Hebr.

satatu

Pret.

#//; Imper.
V/r
:

fo/fc/

"to tear".

sataru
satru

Pret. i?/wr,

"to write, inscribe".
;

"written, inscribed"

Xumu

tatru "inscribed

name,

record of name".

sifru

constr.

st.

&tir

:

"writing, inscription"

;

ft/ir

sumi

"record of name".

sukiidu

"spear".
\

sakkanakku sakkanaku
sikkatu

"governor, viceroy";
Ideogr.

also

written

sa-ka-an-ki.

]

^^ ^^T> Etw ^^ ^^|.
triumph";
abstract
rab
sikkati

"conquest,

"conqueror",

whence the

noun

rab sikkaluti

"migh-

tiness in battle,

prowess in the

fight".

sakanu

Pret. *'-&&;

Pres. tSakkan; lmp&r. su&un, 2 masc.
:

plur. $uk-na-a

"to

set,

place,

set up,

set in
(a li-

position,

establish,

appoint;
to

to
(a

make

bation or offering);

send

deluge);

to

raise (the voice); to execute (a

with

double

ace.

"to

place

punishment)"; something on
lita

someone";
kdnu
"to

abikta takanu

"to defeat";

$a-

triumph,

prove victorious";

uzna

3go

VOCABULARY
sakanu "to direct the
attention"
;

lisana

sakanu

"to prepare for a feast"; puhra sakanu "to give

support to"

;

ana

risuti

.... Sakanu "to come
Saktn,

to the help of";

Perm.

sak-nu "situated,

placed".

Ideogr.^.

Cf. Hebr.

fyf.
Inf. sit-

Ifteal, Pret. titakan, isakan-,

Imper. Sitakan;
fix,

kunu

:

"to place, lay

;

to establish,

set up,

found";
"to

abikta sitkunu
;

"to defeat";

atala sitkunu

be eclipsed"

puhra or unkenna sitkunu "to
;

exert one's full strength"

Perm,

sitkun

"drawn

up

(of line of battle)".

Iftaneal, Pret. istanakan "to

make".

Shafel, Imper.

suskin

:

"to cause to be established,

to set, to place".
Nifal, Pret. issakin
;

Inf.

naskunu

:

"to be established

;

to be done, to be accomplished; to take place";

with prep.
Ittafal,

////

"to be allied with".
////
:

Pres. ittaskan, with prep.

"to be allied

with".

saknu
siknu
sikittu

"governor, director".

con str.

st. $ikin

:

"image; construction". Ideogr.^.

plur. siknati
(constr. st.)

:

"creature".
"creature, being".

suknat
sukuttu

:

"equipment, pomp".
"place,
site"
;

maskanu
sakaru
sa'alu

a$ar ma^kanisu "the

place

where

it

stood".

"to

be drunk"
"OttJ.
:

;

3

masc. plur. Perm.

(?)

ti-ik-ru.

Hebr.

Pret. iS'al

"to ask"

;

with sulmu "to greet".

Hebr.

Ifteal,

Pret. i$-ta-al
:

:

"to ask; to seek for".
or.

Piel, Pres. u$a'al

"to cry

clamour

for,

to de-

mand".

VOCABULARY
tasiltu
plur. tahldti
:

3gi

"joy, festal joy".
.

suluhhu
[salatu]
saltis
.

"command,

decree".

"to have power".
\

Hebr.

toSttf.

saltanis

"triumphantly".
J

sullutu
[salatu]

"triumphant".
Piel, Pret.
&*////
:

"to pierce".
off,

salalu
sallatu
sallatis

Pret.

$//

:

"to carry

to plunder".

Hebr.

"spoil, booty".

adv. "as spoil, as prisoners".
Pret. isltm
:

salamu

"to be complete, intact;

to be

comHebr.

pleted,

to

come

to

pass;

to

prosper".

Piel,

Pres. u$allam\

Inf.

tullumn

:

"to keep intact,

to preserve; to cause to prosper, to restore the

fortunes of".

salmu
salamtu
salimtu

constr.

st.

Salam

:

"dead body, corpse".

"corpse".

"completeness, entirety; prosperity, immunity from
disaster"
;

ma

Zalimti

"thoroughly".

salmes
adv. "safe and sound".

salmis

sulmu

constr.

st.

sulum "prosperity, safety, peace; greeting;
:

the setting (of the sun), the west". Ideogr.

^J^.

sulmanu
sulmanis
salputu
salsu

"present, gift".
adv. "in peace",
see lapatu.
fern.

Cf. Hebr.

jbStT.

Multu
;

:

"third".
;

.Hebr.

^^.
:

Pret. tiim

Imper. Sim

Perm. $dm
Hebr.

"to establish

;

to determine, decree".
Ifteal, Pret. tifim,
iltim
:

Qlt?.

"to determine, decree; to

lay upon".
Piel, Part,

mu^immu

:

"to determine, decree".

392

VOCABULARY
plur. simati
:

simtu

"destiny, lot; affair, business".

samu

plur. Um~e

:

"heaven".

Ideogr. >~>^-.

Cf. Hebr.

ow.
samamu
semu
"heaven".
Pret. i$mi\
Xemt,

Pres.

iSimi,

isimmi;
:

Imper. Stmi; Perm.

3 fern. sing, semat

"to hear". Hebr.

semu
tasmu

"obedient; favourable, propitious".
"prosperity, success".

sumu
sumelu

"name".
"left".

Ideogr.

^.

Hebr. p#.

Hebr. btitip.

sammu summa
samnu
[samaru]

"plant, herb, weed".
conj.

"when,
st.

if".
:

constr.

saman

"oil".

Ideogr. ^yy~

z

Hebr.
Ifteal,

Jfctf.
:

Pret. istammar

"to keep, preserve

;

to re-

verence".

Hebr.

^ifcttf.

[samaru]

"to be violent".
"violent; rapid, turbulent (of a river)".

samru
sitmuris

sumurratu "whirlwind".
adv. "furiously".

samsu samutu
simtu
[sano]

"the sun".
"rain".
see

Ideogr. >->j- ^|.

Hebr.

tfttttf.

samu.
tint, is-ni:

Pret.

"to repeat, to do a second time"

:

ft-ni-

ip-kid

"he again inspected". Hebr.
usanna',

njtT.

Piel,
Inf.

Pret. usanm,

Imper. sunni,

sunna;

tunnu
:

:

"to repeat, to relate".

sanu
sin a

fern,

sanutu

"second".

Ideogr. TT.

Hebr. *y$.

"two"; ma

linasu "into halves".

Ideogr. JJ. Hebr.

sanltu
[sanu]

"repetition

;

time, times".

Ideogr. J.

"to be otherwise, different".

Hebr.

VOCABULARY
Piel,

3g3
distort";

Pret. ufanni

:

"to alter,

Sunnu hunt

"to lose one's senses".
Iftaal, Pret.

usanni

(i. e.

uManni}

:

"to alter, distort".

sanu

fern, tariitu "other,

another".

sangu
sangutu

"priest".

Ideogr.

^J

"priesthood".
see

Ideogr.

sunuhu sananu

anahu.
tiannan
:

Pres.

"to

equal,

to

rival";

Part.

Saninu

"rival".
Nifal, Pres.

Ideogr.

<J^i Jf
:

i^anan
:

"to be equalled".
"tooth, tusk;

sinnu

plur. $mna, Sinnati

ivory";

Xmni piri

"ivory".

Ideogr.

^^f.

Hebr. |^.

sanunkatu "queen".
sanltu
see [sanu].
Pret. ?',
plur. ^/^,
i/y
;

sasu

Pres.
:

z'^wz',

zWj'

:

"to cry, to speak".

sepu

^/a

"foot".

Ideogr.

^E.

supu
siipu

a siege-engine.
see [apu].

[sapaAu]

"to scatter"; Perm.
Nifal,
Inf.

z/>/z

"scattered".

naspuhu
:

:

"to be scattered, ruined".

sapaku
sapalu
saplu

.

Pret. tipuk

"to pour out".
:

Hebr.

^StT.

Ifteal, Pret. i&tapdk

"to pour out".
^Bttf.

"to be low".

Hebr.
:

Shafel, Inf. Xufyulu
constr.
st.

"to abase".
;

Sapal:

"under part"

sapal, ina

^///'"beneath,

under".

saplu
saplis

fern. Mpiltu

:

"low, lower".

adv. "below".
Pret. z'^wr
Ifteal,
:

saparu

"to send, to send to".
:

Pret. iltapra

"to send".
:

Iftaneal, Pret. titanapar

"to send".

sipru

constr.

st.

$ipir
;

\

"message;

work,

craft;

concern,

matter"

for

mar-sipri

see

maru.

Ideogr.

3g4

VOCABULARY
Pret. usparir
:

suparruru

"to spread (a net)".

sapsaku

\

supsuku
saptu
sipatu
siptu

\
J

see

[pasaku].
st.

constr.
"fleece,

sapat

:

"lip".

Hebr. HS'y.

wool".
st. Sipat
:

Ideogr.

TETTf

.

constr.

"incantation".

Ideogr. ^~^f--

saku

"to be high".
Piel,

Pret.

usakki

:

"to

make

high,

to

raise,

to

carry up".
Shafel, Pret.

and Pres. uM&i;

Inf. suskil

:

"to exalt".

saku
susku

fem*fa&u/u: "high, lofty"; employed as subs, "ruler".

"high, exalted".
"to drink". Shafel
Inf.

saku

SuHu

:

"to

cause

to

drink".

Hebr.

maskitu "drinking watering (of sakalu Pret. rtkul; Pres. iSakkal
;
:

cattle)".

Cf. Hebr.

"to weigh, to pay". Hebr.

Ifteal,

Perm,

h'/kul

:

"to balance, to be equal".

sukultu

"weight".
see

Ideogr.

^JEJ
.

J^"(?).

sukuru
saru
[saru]

akaru.
Ideogr. ^fcfff

"wind".

Hebr. nj?^.

"to go, to pass, to pass over".

Hebr.

masaru
[saru]

"wheel".
"to grow, to increase".

mesru
seru
Slru

"wealth, possessions".

"morning, dawn".
"flesh,

Hebr. ^IH^.

body".

Ideogr.

t^v.

Hebr.

suru

"reed, rush".
see rabu.

surbu sarbabu
[sarahu]

"dread

(?)".

"to be mighty".

VOCABULARY
Ifteal,

3g5
Part.

Imper. Mrah

:

"to

show oneself strong";

muStarhu,
Piel,
Inf.

multarhu "mighty".
:

Zurruhu

"to

make mighty

;

to increase, to

augment".

sarhu

"strong, mighty".
fern. Saru/jtu
:

saruhu
siris

"mighty".

see seras.
Pret. tirup
:

sarapu saraku

"to

burn".

Ideogr.

Jg^.
:

Hebr.

Pret. i$nik\

Pres. i$arrak\

Imper. Suruk,

rp_^. "to present,

bestow upon".
siriktu
"gift, present".

sarru

constr.

st.

far; plur. Sarrdni: "king". Ideogr.

^j^, ^.

sarratu "queen". sarrutu "kingdom, kingship, royalty". word of uncertain meaning. surisu

sursu
sursis

"root".

Hebr. tt^tT.

adv. "from the roots".
"hair".
constr.

sartu
sertu

st.

Hebr. -|^t?. Ideogr. JEJjE. Sent "sin punishment".
:

;

sasu

fern. $d$a

;

plur. sdtunu, $d$un

;

3 pers. sing,

and

plur.

of the independent personal pronoun (in the gen.

and

ace.):

"him, her, they"; rarely used forsuatu,

Sdtu.

susu

"sixty".
"fight, battle".

sasmu sasmes
susku
satu

"to the fight".
see

saku.

Pret.

Mi

:

"to drink".

Hebr.

Pirittf.

mastitu "drink".
satu
[setu]

Hebr. n^l^tt.
(?)".

"to sweat (?)"; Inf. employed as subs, "sweat
Pres. iUt
:

"to escape".

setu

"net, snare".
'

suatu
satu

)

fern.

$iati\

plur. masc. Suatunu,

Sd/unu,
:

fern. Xuatina,

I

tdtina;

demonstrative pronoun

"that".

VOCABULARY
sutu, sut
genitive particle;
relative

pronoun "who, which";

employed

as conjunction "since".

sutu
sitmuris

the South-wind.
see

Ideogr.

x&^ff ^JyyJ H3J-

[samaru].

suturu
sattu

see ataru.
constr.
e.

st.

M

:

"duration

;

eternity"

;

ina sat "during",

g. ina sat must

"during the night".
:

sattu

(i.

e.