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Nerve Olfactory (CN I


Branches and Location Pass through foramina of the cribriform plate

Innervation Special visceral afferent


Optic (CN II)

Travels through optic canal

Vision, afferents for pupillary reflex.

Oculomotor (CN III)

Superior orbital fissure

Trochlear (CN IV)

Superior orbital fissure

Motor to extraocular musc and levator palpebrae (not lateral rectus or sup oblique). Preganglionic parasympathetic fibers that synapse at ciliary ganglion. From here post ganglionics to sphincter pupillae (miosis), and ciliary musc. (lense accommodation) Superior oblique muscle

Trigeminal (CN V)

Opthalmic V1 – superior orbital fissure

1. nasociliary 2. frontal 3. lacrimal – parasympathetic fibers from facial n.

PHARYNGEAL ARCH 1 - musc of mastication - mylohyoid - ant belly of digastric - tensor veli palatini - tensor tympani

Maxillary V2 – foramen rotundum and inferior orbital fissure

1. zygomaticofacial 2. zygomaticotemporal 3. infraorbital 1. meningeal – enters via foramn spinosum. 2. motor to musc of mastication (temporalis, massater, lateral and medial pterigoid musc.) 3. buccal 4. auriculotemporal – formed by 2 roots that encircle the middle meningeal a. Sensory for TMJ, carries parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers to parotid from otic ganglion, sensory to auricle and temporal region. 5. lingual – is joined by chorda tympani, provides general sensory for the ant 2/3 of tongue. 6. inf alveolar – a) nerve to mylohyoid and ant belly of digastric b) inferior dental branch which continues as mental n. once exits at mental foramen. Lateral rectus

Mandibular V3 – passes through the foramen ovale

Abducens (CN VI)

Superior orbital fissure

Facial (CN VII)

Pre-stylomastoid formen -

Post-stylomastoid foramen – all are motor

Vestibulochoclear (CN VIII)

Enters bone at internal acoustic meatus

1. parasympathetic fibers to pterygopalatine ganglion via greater petrosal n. which joins the deep petrosal n. (sympathetic) to form the Vidian n. 2. parasympathetic fibers to submandibular ganglion via chorda tympani. 3. special sensory from ant 2/3 of tongue via chorda tympani 4. motor to stapedius 1. temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical branches. (musc of facial expression) 2. posterior auricular to auricular musc and occipitalis. 3. stylohyoid musc 4. post. belly of digastric musc. Cochlea (organ of corti) Ampulla of smicirucular ducts, utricle, saccule Forms tympanic plexus with sympa from carotid plexus and branch from facial n. Provides sensory from tympanic cavity, mastoid air cells and auditory tube. Continues on as lesser petrosal n. to otic ganglion. Pharyngeal plexus with vagus and branches from sympathetic trunk

PHARYNGEAL ARCH 2 - muscles of facial expression - post belly of digastric - stylohyoid - stapedius

Glossophryngeal (CN IX)

Through jugular foramen 1. tympanic n.

PHARYNGEAL ARCH 3 -stylophryngeus

2. pharyngeal branch

3. carotid sinus branch

Afferent limb of the carotid sinus. The carotid body is innervated by the vagus.

4. stylopharyngeus branch

Motor to stylopharyngeus

5. Lingual branch

Sensory and taste from posterior 1/3 of the tongue

Vagus (CN X)

External laryngeal

Cricothyroid and inf pharyngeal constrictor musc.

PHARYNGEAL ARCH 4 - musc of soft palate (not tensor veli palatine) - musc of pharynx (except stylophryngeus) - cricopharyngeus - cricothyroid musc

Internal laryngeal - pierces thyrohyoid membrane

Sensory fibers from above the larynx above the vocal chords and taste from epiglottis.

PHARYNGEAL ARCH 6 - intrinsic musc of larynx (not cricothyroid - upper musc of esophagus

Recurrent laryngeal – enters below cricopharyngeus.

Auricular branch

All intrinsic muscles of the larynx except the cricothyroid; sensory fibers to the laryngeal mucous membrane inferior to the vocal folds Joined by fibers from CN IX to innervate the external acoustic meatus.

Motor (pharyngeal)

All musc of pharynx except sylopharyngeus and all musc of the palate except tensor veli palatini. Palatoglossus also. 1)cranial branch is somatic motor: striated muscles of soft palate, larynx and pharynx via fibers that join CN X; 2)spinal branch is branchial motor, supplies sternocleidomastoid and trapezius, and runs superficial to the investing layer of the deep cervical fascia All intrinsic and extrinsic musc of the tongue except palatoglossus (vagus). Carries fibers from C1 to geniohyoid and thyrohyoid. Sensory to scalp behind auricle

Accessory (CN XI)

Hypoglossal (CN XII)

Originates from 2 locations. 1)cervical portion (this branch enter cranium at foramen magnum) and 2)cranial protion medulla. They join to form the accessory n. proper which exits at jugular foramen and then splits. Through hypoglossal canal, travels lateral to hyoglossus

Cervical Plexus (C1-4)

Lesser Occicpital (C2) – ascends parallel to SCM

Greater Auricular (C2-3) – crosses the SCM superficially

Sensory to skin behind auricle and over the parotid gland.

Transverse cervical (C2-3) – crosses SCM below greater auricular Supraclavicular (C3-4) – also emerges posterior to the SCM.

Sensory to anterior cervical triangle.

Sensory to skin over clavicle and shoulder.

Ansa cervicalis (C1-3) – joins the hypoglossal n.

Motor to all infrahyoid strap muscles except thyrohyoid.

Phrenic (C3-5) – ant surface of ant scalene

Motor, sensory, sympathetic fibers to diaphragm

Sympthetic trunk

Superior cervical ganglion – origin of the internal carotid plexus, pharyngeal branches that join the glossopharyngeal and vagus. Middle cervical ganglion

Cell bodies of postganglionic fibers to head, neck and heart.


Inferior cervical ganglion (fuses with thoracic ganglion to form the stellate ganglion) Ciliary Ganglion -Receives preganglionic parasympathetic fibers from oculomotor -Receives postganglionic sympa fibers (from sup cervical G) -Receives preganglionc parasympathetic fibers from facial n. (via greater petrosal and vidian) -Receives post-G sympa fibers from sup. cervica G -Receives pre-G parasympathetic fibers glossopharyngeal (via tympanic plexus, lesser petrosal) -Recieves pre-G parasympa fibers from chorda tympani


-Sends postganglionics to sphincter pupillae and ciliary musc via the short ciliary n. -pass through ganglion to short ciliary n. or bypass it via long ciliary n. to dilator pupillae -sends postganglionics to nasal, palatine, and lacrimal glands. -pass through ganglion and distribute with parasympathetics -send post-Gs to parotid gland via the auriculotemporal n.

Ptarygopalatine Ganglion

Otic Ganglion

Submandibular Ganglion

-sends post-Gs to submandibular and sublingual glands