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CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

MC LC
1. S LIU TH NGHIM...................................................................................2 TNH TON........................................................................................................2 Tnh ton vi t s hon lu ............................................................................2 1.2. Tnh ton vi t s hon lu R = 3.............................................................5 2. NHN XT V BN LUN..........................................................................8 2.1. Nhn xt v bn lun ca Bi Rng ng.................................................8 2.2. Nhn xt v bn lun ca V Phng Ghil..............................................12 2.3. Nhn xt v bn lun ca Nguyn Thanh Huy.........................................14 2.4. Nhn xt v bn lun ca Ng Ch Tim.................................................20 2.5. Nhn xt v bn lun ca Nguyn Trung Tn..........................................22

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

CHNG CT LIN TC
1. S LIU TH NGHIM
Bng 1: Kt qu th nghim R= 1 3 Nhp liu Nhit 30C ru 50 Nhit 29C ru 50 Sn phm y Nhit 33C ru 49 Nhit 32C ru 49 Sn phm nh Nhit 31.5C ru 97 Nhit 33C ru 99

R=3

TNH TON
Tnh ton vi t s hon lu R = 1 3

1.1.1. Lng sn phm nh v y thu c Chn cn bn tnh trong 1 gi Khi lng ring ca nc 15C: 999.68 kg/m3 Khi lng ring ca ru tinh khit 15C: 793.25 kg/m3 Bng 2: Gi tr iu kin chun 15C
3 Sn phm nh RD = 1

ru 90.4 43.8 41.3

x 0.745 0.195 0.179

x 0.533 0.087 0.079

M 38.86 23.46 23.012

hh (kg/m3) 877.910 977.548 979.542

Nhp liu Sn phm y Trong :

ru c xc nh bng cch tra bng chuyn i ru v 15C Cng thc chuyn t ru sang phn mol: x= 1 M 1 a 1+ N R R M N a x x+ MR (1 x ) MN

Cng thc chuyn t phn mol sang phn khi lng: x=

Khi lng phn t trung bnh ca hn hp:

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

M = x R M R + (1 x R ) M N Cng thc xc nh khi lng ring ca hn hp: 1 x 1 xA = R + hh R B Sut lng mol ca dng nhp liu l: F= F VF 977.548 5 10 3 = = 0.208 kmol M hh 23.46

Gi D (kmol), W (kmol) ln lt l sut lng mol ca dng sn phm nh v dng sn phm y. Cn bng vt cht cho ton h thng ta c:
F = D + W = 0.208

(1) (2)

Cn bng vt cht cho ru trong ton h thng:


0.195 F = 0.745 D + 0.179 W = 0.195 0.208 = 0.041

Gii h (1) v (2) ta c: D = 6.65710-3 kmol W = 0.201 kmol 1.1.2. Phn ct 1.1.2.1. T s hon lu Nhit cung cp cho thit b ni un: QR = 483 W = 1738.8 kJ/h Nhit cung cp cho thit b ngng t: QC = GCt = 10010-3995.9194.18(30.8 - 30.1) = 291.406 kJ/h Qi = QR - QC = 1738.8 - 291.406 = 1447.394 kJ/h Khi lng dng sn phm nh: mD = DMhh = 6.65710-338.86 = 0.259 kg/h n nhit ha hi ca nc 15C: 2297 kJ/kg n nhit ha hi ca ru tinh khit: 204 kcal/kg = 854.148 kJ/kg T s hon lu cc b: R i = Ri = Qi x D m D rR + (1 x D ) m D rN

1447.394 = 4.573 0.745 0.259 854.148 + (1 0.745) 0.259 2297

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

T s hon lu tng: R = R D + R i =

1 + 4.573 = 4.906 3

1.1.2.2. Phng trnh ng lm vic phn ct y= R x 4.906 0.745 x+ D = x+ = 0.831x + 0.126 R +1 R + 1 4.906 + 1 4.906 + 1 (I)

1.1.3. Phn chng Chn cn bn tnh trong 1 gi Sut lng dng lng i trong phn chng: L = F + L = F + R D = 0.208 + 4.906 6.657 10 3 = 0.241 kmol Phng trnh ng lm vic phn chng: y= L W 0.241 0.201 x xW = x 0.179 LW LW 0.241 0.201 0.241 0.201 (II) Bng 3: S liu ng cn bng ca h ru - nc x 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 y 0 33.2 44.2 53.1 57.6 61.4 65.4 69.9 75.3 81.8 89.8 100 T (I), (II) v bng s liu ng cn bng ta v trn cng mt th v xc nh s mm l thuyt:
1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0
xW xD y x

y = 6.025x 0.8995

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

Hnh 1: th xc nh s mm l thuyt T (Hnh 1) suy ra s mm l thuyt l 4

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

1.1.4. Hiu sut tng qut ca thp E0 = 3 100 = 7.5% 7

1.2. Tnh ton vi t s hon lu R = 3 1.2.1. Lng sn phm nh v y thu c Chn cn bn tnh trong 1 gi Khi lng ring ca nc 15C: 999.68 kg/m3 Khi lng ring ca ru tinh khit 15C: 793.25 kg/m3 Bng 4: Gi tr iu kin chun 15C R=3 Sn phm nh Nhp liu Sn phm y ru 91.8 44.3 41.3 x 0.777 0.198 0.179 x 0.576 0.088 0.079 x= M 39.756 23.544 23.012 hh (kg/m3) 869.367 977.299 979.542

Cng thc chuyn t ru sang phn mol:

1 M 1 a 1+ N R R M N a x= x x+ MR (1 x ) MN

Cng thc chuyn t phn mol sang phn khi lng:

Khi lng phn t trung bnh ca hn hp: M = x R M R + (1 x R ) M N Cng thc xc nh khi lng ring ca hn hp: 1 x 1 xA = R + hh R B Sut lng mol ca dng nhp liu l: F= F VF 977.299 5 10 3 = = 0.208 kmol M hh 23.544

Gi D (kmol), W (kmol) ln lt l sut lng mol ca dng sn phm nh v dng sn phm y. Cn bng vt cht cho ton h thng ta c: F = D + W = 0.208 kmol Cn bng vt cht cho ru trong ton h thng: 0.198F = 0.777D + 0.179W = 0.1980.208 = 0.041 kmol
Nhm 2C

(1) (2)

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

Gii h (1) v (2) ta c: D = 6.30110-3 kmol W = 0.202 kmol 1.2.2. Phn ct 1.2.2.1. Tnh t s hon lu Nhit cung cp cho thit b ni un: QR = 483 W = 1738.8 kJ/h Nhit cung cp cho thit b ngng t: QC = GCt = 10010-3995.6754.18(31.4 - 30.5) = 374.573 kJ/h Qi = QR - QC = 1738.8 - 374.573 = 1364.227 kJ/h Khi lng dng sn phm nh: mD = DMhh = 6.30110-339.756 = 0.251 kg/h n nhit ha hi ca nc 15C: 2297 kJ/kg n nhit ha hi ca ru tinh khit: 204 kcal/kg = 854.148 kJ/kg T s hon lu cc b: Ri = Qi x D m D rR + (1 x D ) m D rN 1364.227 = 4.622 0.777 0.251 854.148 + (1 0.777) 0.251 2297

Ri =

T s hon lu tng: R = RD + Ri = 3 + 4.622 = 7.622 1.2.2.2. Phng trnh ng lm vic phn ct


y= x R 7.622 0.777 x+ D = x+ = 0.884 x + 0.09 R +1 R + 1 7.622 + 1 7.622 + 1

(I)

1.2.3. Phn chng Chn cn bn tnh trong 1 gi Sut lng dng lng i trong phn chng: L = F + L = F + R D = 0.208 + 7.622 6.301 10 3 = 0.256 kmol Phng trnh ng lm vic phn chng: y= L W 0.256 0.202 x xW = x 0.179 LW LW 0.256 0.202 0.256 0.202 (II)

y = 4.741x 0.67

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

Bng 5: S liu ng cn bng ca h ru - nc x 0 5 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 y 0 33.2 44.2 53.1 57.6 61.4 65.4 69.9 75.3 81.8 89.8 100 T (I) & (II) v bng s liu ng cn bng ta v trn cng mt th v xc nh s mm l thuyt:
1.2 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0
xW xD y x

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

Hnh 2: th xc nh s mm l thuyt khi R = 3 T (Hnh 2) suy ra s mm l thuyt l 5


1.2.4. Hiu sut tng qut ca thp E0 = 4 100 = 10% 40

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

2. NHN XT V BN LUN
2.1. Nhn xt v bn lun ca Bi Rng ng 2.1.1. Phn bit chng ct lin tc v chng ct gin on CHNG CT GIN ON CHNG CT LIN TC Nhp liu a vo lin tc. Chng ct lin tc bao gm c phn chng v phn luyn Hn hp nhp liu c a vo gia thp ti mm nhp liu. y l im c bn nhp ra thit b chng ct lin tc S dng nhiu mm chp, ct chng ct cao Nng sn phm nh khng i theo thi gian Tit kim thi gian khi tin hnh chng ct vi lng ln hn hp nhp liu C ni un v b phn gia nhit ring. Tit kim c nhit lng cho qu trnh gia nhit Nng sut cao do hot ng lin tc

Nhp liu a vo tng m, gin


on. Chng ct gin on ch ng vi phn luyn ca chng ct lin tc Hn hp nhp liu c a trc tip vo ni un ln thp S dng t s mm chp, ct chng ct thp Nng sn phm nh thay i theo thi gian Mt nhiu thi gian chng ct vi lng ln hn hp nhp liu Ch c ni un, khng c b phn gia nhit. Tn km nng lng gia nhit cho hn hp nhp liu. Nng sut thp do phi vn hnh theo m gin on

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

2.1.2. H ng ph l g ? c im? Cch khc phc? H ng ph l h gm cc cu t c nhit si gn bng nhau. c im ca h ng ph: Ti im ng ph, pha lng v pha hi c cng mt thnh phn cu t, do nu un si hn hp ng ph th pha hi sau khi ngng t s c thnh phn ging nh pha lng ban u. Khng th phn ring hon ton cc cu t ny bng phng php chng ct thng thng Khc phc: Thm vo hn hp ng ph mt cu t th ba, cu t ny s to hn hp ng ph vi 1 trong 2 cu t ban u. T ta c th tch cu t cn li ra khi hn hp. V d: tch hn hp ng ph etanol nc th ta cho mt lng nh benzen vo. Dng cht ht m cho vo h ht bt nc (nu chng ct h c nc). Kt hp phng php chng ct vi phng php hp ph ry phn t bng zeolit 3A gi cc phn t nc c kch thc nh trong cc mao qun zeolit i qua. Sau gia nhit ui nc trong mao qun zeolit bay ra. Chng ct p sut chn khng. 2.1.3. V sao t s hon lu cng ln th nng sn phm nh cng cao? T s hon lu cng ln th lng lng sn phm nh c a v cng cao. Hi t thp chng ct i ln thit b ngng t tip xc vi lng lng hon lu ny. Do s tip xc gia pha hi v pha lng, cu t etanol trong hi s li ko mt lng etanol trong dung dch hon lu, ng thi hi nc trong pha hi s c gi li mt phn trong dung dch hon lu. Lng hi sau khi tip xc vi dung dch hon lu s c nng cu t etanol cao hn, ng thi gim nng cu t nc. Do khi c ngng t, nng sn phm nh cng tng ln. Qu trnh tip tc, sn phm nh ny s c hon lu li, tng ng s c nng cu t etanol cao hn dng hon lu ban u. C th s tip xc pha hi v pha lng km s li cun cu t c bay hi cao din ra lin tc, nng sn phm nh thu c cng cao.

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

2.1.4. Thit b ngng t c phi lc no cng t trn cao? C th t ch khc c khng nh gn mt t chng hn ? Thit b ngng t thng l mt thit b trao i nhit ng chm. N c th c t trn nh thp dng hon lu c th t chy vo mm trn cng ca thp. Nhng trong thc t, thit b ngng t ng chn thng rt nng v tin trong vic xy dng v lm v sinh, thit b ngng t thng c t gn mt t v dng bm a dng hon lu v nh thp. iu ny cn gip cho vic iu khin lu lng hon lu d dng. 2.1.5. Cc b phn trong thit b chng ct lin tc: Thng cao v: Thng cao v trong thit b chng ct lin tc dng cha mt lng hn hp u nhm n nh cho lu lng dng nhp liu trong qu trnh chng ct. Trnh hin tng ln bt kh do hot dng ca bm nu s dng bm, bm trc tip dung dch ct vo thp. Hoc trong trng hp bm b trc trc, trong thi gian sa cha, thay i bm ta vn m bo cho thp hot ng lin tc c nh vo thng cao v. nhn bit c thng cao v y hay ht dung dch nhp liu ta c th s dng nguyn tc bnh thng nhau o, bng cch lp t bn ngoi thnh thng ct cht lng trong sut thng vi thng, qua ct cht lng c th bit trng thi nhp liu trong thng. ng chy trn: Trong trng hp, hn hp nhp liu c bm qu nhiu vo thng cao v, khi cn c ng chy trn a nhin liu tr v thng cha ban u, gip n nh lng nhp liu bn trong thng cao v. Trnh c hin tng lng dung dch ct chy ra ngoi lm h hng thit b, hoc khng an ton cho phng th nghim. Nu hn hp trong thng cao v bm y th ta gim lu lng ca bm. Ngoi ra, c th dng r le t ng bm cht lng khi gn ht dung dch trong bnh cao v v t ngt khi dung dch trong bnh y thay cho ng chy trn. Dng r le t ng ta s tit kim c chi ph vn hnh bm. Tuy nhin, y l thit b t ng, chi ph lp t cao, lu ngy s xy ra s c. Bn cnh , ng chy trn rt

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

bn vng v n nh, chi ph lp t thp nhng li tn chi ph vn hnh bm hn khi hn hp trong thng cao v bm y m bm vn cn hot ng. in tr bo n: Cng dng ca in tr bo n l n nh nhit trong thp. Trong qu trnh chng ct cng ln cao hi cng d mt nhit, nhit trn thp s nh hn nhit bn di thp (do trao i nhit vi mi trng, vi thit b), nn cn phi cung cp thm nhit hi khng b ngng t gia ng i. Nu dng in tr bo n nh th nghim th cn phi c ng bo n. Trong bi, dng ng thy tinh dy bc bn ngoi va bo v in tr va bo v cc mm trn thp. Trong thc t, dng bc cch nhit thay th cho in tr bo n v: Ch tn chi ph trang b ban u khng cn tn chi ph vn hnh, gia nhit nh in tr bo n. Hn na n cn cch nhit trit vi mi trng.

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

2.2. Nhn xt v bn lun ca V Phng Ghil 2.2.1. Thp chng ct

Chng ct l qu trnh dng nhit tch mt hn hp lng ra thnh cc cu t ring bit da vo bay hi khc nhau ca cc cu t trong hn hp cng mt nhit o. Trong nhiu trng hp c mt t l nht nh ca hn hp hai cht lng m khng th tip tc tch bng phng php chng ct c na. Cc hn hp ny c gi l hn hp ng ph. Nu mun tng nng ca cn phi dng n cc phng php tinh ct c bit khc. C th s dng cc loi thp chng ct sau: Thp chng ct dng mm xuyn l hoc mm a li Thp chng ct dng mm chp Thp m (thp chng ct dng vt chm)
2.2.2. Nhn xt v u khuyt im ca tng loi thp

Thp mm xuyn l u im: ch to n gin, v sinh d dng, tr lc thp hn thp chp, t tn kim loi hn thp chp. Nhc im: yu cu lp t cao: mm lp phi rt phng, i vi nhng thp c ng knh qu ln, ln hn 2.4 m t dng mm xuyn l v khi cht lng phn phi khng u trn mm.

Thp chp

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

u im: hiu sut truyn khi cao, n nh, t tiu hao nng lng hn nn c s mm t hn. Nhc im: ch to phc tp, tr lc ln. Thp m u im: ch to n gin, tr lc thp Nhc im: hiu sut thp, km n nh do s phn b cc pha theo tit din thp khng u, s dng thp chm khng cho php ta kim sot qu trnh chng ct theo khng gian thp trong khi thp mm th qu trnh th hin qua tng mm mt cch r rng, thp chm kh ch to c kch thc ln qui m cng nghip.
2.2.3. Ph k

nh ngha: Ph k l mt dng c o lng xc nh khi lng ring ca mt cht lng. N thng c lm bng thy tinh c hnh tr v mt u c qu bng cha thy ngn hay kim loi nng gi n nm thng ng. Cch o: Cht lng (ru) c rt vo ng ong, v ph k c th nh vo trong ng cho n khi n ni l lng. V tr m b mt cht lng tip xc vi ph k c nh du v c so snh trn thang o bng di vch t nm trong ph k. Khi lng ring ca cht lng c c trc tip trn thang o cng l ru. Nguyn l: Nguyn tc hot ng ca ph k da vo lc y csimt. Ph k ni cn bng khi trng lc ca n b cn bng bi trng lng ca th tch cht lng b n chim ch. Nu khi lng ring cht lng cng nh, th tch chim cng ln v ph k cng chm su. Trong cc cht lng nh nh du ha, xng v cn, ph k chm su hn cc cht lng nng nh sa, axt.

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

2.3. Nhn xt v bn lun ca Nguyn Thanh Huy 2.3.1. Chng ct l g? Sn phm trong qu trnh chng ct? Chng ct l qu trnh dng phn ring hn hp lng cng nh hn hp lng kh thnh cc cu t ring bit da vo bay hi khc nhau ca cc cu t trong hn hp (ngha l khi cng mt nhit , p sut hi bo ha ca cc cu t khc nhau). Trong qu trnh chng ct, pha mi c to nn bng s bc hi hoc ngng t. Sn phm nh ch yu gm cu t c bay hi ln v mt phn rt t cu t c bay hi b. Sn phm y ch yu gm cu t c bay hi b v mt phn rt t cu t c bay hi ln. 2.3.2. Phn loi cc phng php chng ct? Chng ct n gin: tch hn hp cc cu t c bay hi rt khc nhau, thng dng tch s b hoc lm sch, loi b cc tp cht. Chng ct bng hi nc trc tip: tch hn hp cha cc cu t kh bay hi v tp cht khng bay hi, thng dng khi cht c tch khng tan vo nc. Chng ct: phng php ph bin nht tch hon ton hn hp cc cu t d bay hi c tnh cht ha tan mt phn hoc hon ton vo nhau. 2.3.3. La chn p sut trong qu trnh chng ct? Chng ct p sut cao khi cc cu t khng ha lng nhit thng v khng b phn hy nhit cao. Chng ct p sut thp khi hn hp c nhit si qu cao hoc d b phn hy nhit cao. Trong bi th nghim thc hin qu trnh chng ct p sut kh quyn.

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

2.3.4. Phn bit chng ct v c c? Trong qu trnh chng ct th dung mi v cht tan u bay hi ngha l cc cu t u hin din trong c hai pha nhng vi t l khc nhau. Trong qu trnh c c th ch c dung mi bay hi cn cht tan khng bay hi. 2.3.5. So snh gia chng ct lin tc v chng ct gin on Chng ct gin on Nhp liu theo m nn tn nhiu thi gian v nng lng gia nhit. Gia nhit trc tip ( s dng J1 un si hn hp ru nc) Chng ct lin tc Nhp liu lin tc, tit kim c thi gian v nng lng. Gia nhit gin tip (dng du gia nhit)

Nng sn phm nh khng cao


bng chng ct lin tc v thay i theo thi gian. Nng sn phm nh khng tinh khit do nh hng ca nc trong dng hon lu. Nng sn phm y thay i (gim hn theo thi gian).

Nng sn phm nh khng i


trong qu trnh chng ct (khi sut lng nhp liu n nh). Nng sn phm nh tinh khit hn. Nng sn phm y khng khc my so vi ban u.

Nng sut lm vic thp.


Nhp liu y thp nn c xem nh phn luyn ca thp chng ct lin tc.

Nng sut lm vic cao. Nhp liu thn thp v chng


ct lin tc nn thp chng ct lin tc c on chng v on ct.

2.3.6. c im ca h chng ct ru nc? im c bit ca h hai cu t ru nc l h ng ph. Khi chng ct im ng ph, thnh phn cc cu t trong pha hi ging vi thnh phn cc cu t trong pha lng. Trong bi th nghim ta c th tip tc chng ct hn hp khi t im ng ph bng cch hon lu dng sn phm nh, nhng hiu sut t c s rt thp.

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

H ng phi: bay hi tng i cua cac cu t cua trong hn hp gn nh nhau (nhit si gn bng nhau) mt ap sut nht inh, gy kho khn cho vic tin hanh qua trinh chng ct binh thng. Cc phng php chng ct qua im ng ph: Dung cu t phn ly: thm cu t phn ly vo co tac dung lam tng bay hi tng i cua mt cu t trong hn hp cn chng ct. C 2 trng hp: Cu t phn ly co bay hi be khi thm vao inh thap se tao thanh hn hp gm cu t phn ly v cu t kh bay hi, hn hp mi ny c bay hi khc nhau nn d dng tch theo phng php chng luyn thng thng. Hay ni cch khc cch y l qu trnh gii phng cu t d bay hi, gi l phng php chng luyn trch ly. Cu t phn ly c bay hi ln hn cc cu t trong hn hp, khi thm vo n s kt hp vi cu t c bay hi ln. Kt qu chng luyn sn phm nh l hn hp ng ph, cn sn phm y l cu t kh bay hi. Khi thm cu t phn ly vo to hn hp ng ph nn gi l phng php chng ct ng ph. Thay i p sut chng ct: cc p sut khc nhau th s thay i bay hi tng i ca cc cu t khng l nh nhau. Do ta c th tng hoc gim p sut thay i bay hi tng i ca cc cu t trong hn hp, v thng ta s gim p sut. Ry phn t: Phng php dng cht hp ph chn lc Zeolit da vo s chnh lch p sut hp ph, cho hn hp vo thp hp th vi cht hp ph ch hp ph chn lc cc cu t c kch thc bng hoc nh hn kch thc l ry. Ht m: vi cc h c nc ta c th dng cc cht ht m loi nc ra khi hn hp nhng hiu sut khng cao v mt phn cu t cn li dnh trn cc cht ht m. 2.3.7. Chc nng ca thng cao v? Thng cao v dng n nh dng nhp liu vo thp chng ct lin tc. H thng c th khng dng thng cao v nhng n vn rt cn thit m bo dng nhp liu n nh lin tc v x l s c (nu bm b hng th qu trnh nhp liu cng khng b nh hng).
Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

Thng cao v c t trn cao to th nng a dng cht lng vo thp theo nguyn tc chnh lch ct p. Lu lng nhp liu c th c iu chnh bng van sau thng cao v. Thng cao v c thit k mt ng chy trn gi p sut thy tnh y thng khng i. 2.3.8. T s hon lu l g? ngha ca t s hon lu T s hon lu cc b: l t s ca nng lng cn tch tr trong pha hi v lng nhit pha hi nh ra khi chuyn t dng hi sang lng si. Vi hn hp l tng ta xem khng c lng nhit d tha (vic ngng t pha hi l hon ton) nn t s hon lu cc b xem nh bng 0. T s hon lu ngoi: l t s ca dng hon lu v sn phm nh. Vi mt qu trnh vn hnh thit b chng ct l khng i ta c th thay i s mm l thuyt (nh hng ti hiu sut lm vic ca thp) bng vic thay i t s hon lu ngoi. T s hon lu ca h thng l tng ca 2 t s hon lu trn. T s hon lu ti thiu: vi s mm l v cc cho mt qu trnh chng ct xc nh trc v tng ng nhit ti ca ni un v thit b ngng t l ti thiu. T s hon lu ti u: l t s dng thit k ng vi chi ph l thp nht. ngha ca hon lu: Hon lu s lm tng nng cu t d bay hi mi mm xy ra qu trnh trao i gia dng hi t di ln v pha lng. Do qua mi mm nng cu t d bay hi tng. Nu khng c pha lng hon lu mi mm s lm kh mm th khng cn s trao i gia pha lng v pha hi cho nn nng cu t d bay hi khng i lm gim hiu sut chng ct. Vic hon lu sn phm nh gim nng sut nhng lm tng hiu sut ca c qu trnh. 2.3.9. Nguyn tc hot ng ca ph k? Ph k l dng c o khi lng ring ca cht lng. bi ny dng o ru.

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

Hot ng da vo lc y Acsimet. Ph k ni cn bng khi trng lng ca n c cn bng bi trng lng ca th tch cht lng b n chim ch. Nu khi lng ring cht lng nh th th tch chim ch cng ln v ph k cng chm su. 2.3.10. Ti sao nng cu t d bay hi cng ln nh thp cng cao? Trn mi mm xy ra hin tng ngng tu v bay hi. Mt phn cu t d bay hi chuyn t pha lng vo pha hi v mt phn khc chuyn t hi sang lng. Qu trnh bc hi v ngng t lp li nhiu ln, trn mi mm nng cu t d bay hi tng dn. Nn cui cng trn nh thp thu c sn phm nh c nng cu t d bay hi cao v di y thp thu c sn phm y c nng cu t kh bay hi cao. 2.3.11. Thit b chng ct: Yu cu chung cho cc thit b chng ct l din tch b mt tip xc pha phi ln, iu ny ph thuc vo mc phn tn ca lu cht ny vo lu cht kia. Phn loi thit b chng ct: Nu pha kh phn tn vo pha lng ta c cc loi thp mm. Nu pha lng phn tn vo pha kh ta c thp chm, thp phun Thp mm: thn thp hnh tr, thng ng, trong thp c gn cc mm, trn pha lng v pha hi c tip xc nhau. Thp mm c th dng cho qu trnh chng ct v hp th. Thp mm chp: trn mm c gn chp v ng chy chuyn. ng chy chuyn c th c tit din hnh trn, vin phn, mt ng hay nhiu ng tu thuc vo sut lng pha lng. Chp c th c hnh trn v c rnh xung quanh pha kh i qua. Thp mm xuyn l: trn mm c nhiu l hay rnh. Pha kh i t di ln qua cc l trn mm v phn tn vo lp cht lng chuyn ng t trn xung theo cc ng chy chuyn.

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

Thp chm: thp hnh tr gm nhiu bc ni nhau bng mt bch hay hn. Vt chm c y trong thp theo mt trong hai phng php: xp ngu nhin hay xp th t. u khuyt im ca tng loi thp: Thp chm vi u im n gin, tr lc thp nhng thit b nng n nh km v cho hiu sut thp Thp mm xuyn l cho hiu sut tng i cao, hot ng li kh n nh nhng tr lc li kh cao, yu cu lp t khc khe (a phi lp t thng) Thp mm chp c hiu sut cao, hot ng li n nh nhng cu trc phc tp, tr lc ln v n khng lm vic vi cht lng bn.

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

2.4. Nhn xt v bn lun ca Ng Ch Tim 2.4.1. Khc phc hin tng ngp lt khc phc hin tng ngp lt ta c thay i mt s thng s sau: Gim lng nhit cung cp cho ni un (gim cng sut ca in tr) nhm lm gim lng hi sinh ra iu lm gim p sut hi ko theo pha lng d dng i xung khi hin tng ngp lt c th c khc phc. Nu cn khc phc hin tng ngp lt mt cch nhanh chng th ta c th tt in tr v i cho n khi cht lng chy xung hon ton th ta tin hnh gia nhit tr li. Tuy nhin, tt in tr lm gin on qu trnh, cn thi gian thp hot ng n nh tr li v b tn tht nhit. Gim lng hon lu nhm lm gim lng dng lng i trong thp. T kt qu tnh ton ta thy t s hon lu cc b thng ln hn t s hon lu t nh thp. Tuy nhin, t s hon lu cc b kh kim sot nu iu kin bnh thng th ta khng th h thp t s hon lu tng xung di t s hon lu cc b c. c kim sot c ta c th bc cch nhit cho thp (c th bc bng xp cch nhit bn ngoi hay thit k thp c hai lp v a cht n cch nhit vo). Mt phng php khc c th s dng chnh l dng in tr bo n nhit cho sut chiu di thp. Tuy nhin, phng php ny t c s dng v tiu tn nng lng nhiu do tn tht nhit ra mi trng bn ngoi. Nu thp chng ct c h thng ly sn phm trch ngang th ta cng c th x p ti nhng v tr ny. Tuy nhin, nn cn ch n cht ang s dng c c hay khng nu c th tuyt i khng c s dng phng php ny. 2.4.2. Mt s phng php kim sot qu trnh: Kim sot hin tng ngp lt: trong thc t ta khng th quan st c qu trnh xy ra bn trong thp chng ct, nn c th kim sot c hin tng ngp lt trong thp ta c th lp p k pha trn ni un, nu p sut o c ln hn p sut hi theo thit k th xy ra hin tng ngp lt trong thp. Mc khc, do trong qu trnh ngp lt th p sut tng nn ko theo nhit cng tng. V vy ta c th o nhit
Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

y thp kim tra, nu nhit y thp cao hn nhit si ca hn hp p sut thit k th hin tng ngp lt cng xy ra. Kim sot trng thi ca dng hon lu v lu lng nc lm mt: trnh hin tng dng hi b ngng t do dng hon lu c nhit thp v m bo hi c ngng t hon ton th ta c th kim sot c hai thng s bng cch lp mt sensor o nhit ca dng lng sau khi i qua thit b ngng t. Nu nhit dng lng ngng thp hn hoc cao hn nhit si ca dung dch th ta thay i lu lng dng nc lm mt dng lng hon lu trng thi lng si. 2.4.3. H thng chng ct gin on Trong h thng chng ct gin on, nu ta gi t s hon lu khng i th nng sn phm nh gim theo thi gian. Li dng tnh cht ny ta c th thu c sn phm c nng khc nhau ty theo yu cu c th, bng cch t nhiu thng cha sn phm v ta tin hnh thu sn phm theo thi gian. Do , trong hu ht cc thp chng ct gin on khng c dng sn phm trch ngang. Khi lm gim tnh phc tp ca thp v cng hn ch s nh hng ca vic trnh ngang n hot ng ca thp.

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

2.5. Nhn xt v bn lun ca Nguyn Trung Tn 2.5.1. Chc nng ca thit b lm ngui E2 Chc nng ca thit b E2 l lm ngui v ngng t hon ton hi cn ng li trong ng. Sn phm nh sau khi c ngng t thit b E1 th mt phn cn tn ti trng thi lng bo ha nn cn phi lm ngui xung nhit thng trc khi tn tr trnh tht thot do bay hi. 2.5.2. Chc nng ca thng cao v Thng cao v dng n nh dng nhp liu vo thp chng ct lin tc. H thng c th khng dng thng cao v nhng n vn rt cn thit m bo dng nhp liu n nh lin tc v s qun l h thng cht ch hn. Trong h thng chng ct lin tc phng th nghim, bm mng c s dng bm nguyn liu t thng nhp liu ln thng cao v. Do s hot ng ca bm mng theo chu k nn nu dng bm mng bm thng vo thp chng ct th dng nhp liu khng u. Mt khc n cng lm gim ti cho bm, gip cho bm khng lm vic lin tc dn n h bm. Ngoi ra trong h thng cn c thm mt thng cao v th hai c dng thay th ngay khi thng th nht xy ra s c, m bo qu trnh vn hnh lin tc. 2.5.3. Ti sao phi t in tr J bn hng bnh cha nhp liu? t in tr bn hng gip vic un si hn hp nhp liu ng u v n nh hn. Hn hp c nhp liu lin tc chy qua in tr do s chy i lu. Cht lng sau khi c un nng bng in tr chuyn ng ln trn v i qua bnh cha, phn cht lng c nhit thp hn trong bnh cha chuyn ng xung di v i qua in tr. Cht lng chy theo vng tun hon. Nh vy, nhit cht lng tng ln u n v n nh. Nu t in tr trc tip vo bnh C1 th s khng to c s chy tun hon ca dng cht lng. Phn cht lng gn in tr c nhit cao hn v nm pha trn ca

Nhm 2C

CNHD: Lng Hunh V Thanh b

Phc trnh th nghim qu trnh v thit

hn hp, d gy hin tng un nng cc b, phn cht lng pha di c nhit d thp hn.

Ngoi ra, thc t ta thng t d cng sut cp nhit ca in tr J v trong qu trnh hot ng th p sut y thp tng cao do cht lng b ha hi, to s chnh lch p sut gia nh v y. V vy cht lng bnh ng nhp liu c nhit si tng ln theo thi gian do p sut tng nn ta cn cung cp nhit lng d m bo qu trnh hot ng lin tc.

Nhm 2C