This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Physics SPM 2008
CHAPTER 6: WAVES
Waves are generated by oscillating/vibrating systems An oscillation is the back-and-forth movement of an oscillating system through a fixed path
6.1.1 Wave Fronts
• • Wave fronts are the lines or surfaces connecting the particles moving at the same phase and are at the same distance from a wave source. Wave fronts are always perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
Chapter 6: Waves
Page 1 of 15
3 Amplitude. f = number of oscillations time taken f = 1 T Chapter 6: Waves Page 2 of 15 .1.1. T = time taken number of oscillations • Frequency is the number of complete oscillations in one second [Hz] Frequency. Period and Frequency • Amplitude is the maximum displacement of an object from its equilibrium position [m] • Period is the time taken for a particle to make one complete oscillation [s] Period. E.Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008 6.2 Types of Waves Transverse Waves Longitudinal Waves Transverse waves are waves which oscillate perpendicular to the direction of propagation.g: Sound waves 6.g: Light waves Longitudinal waves are waves which oscillate parallel to the direction of propagation. E.
5 Wave Equation v = fλ where v = velocity of the wave [m s-1] f = frequency of the wave [Hz] λ = wavelength [m] 6.1.Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008 6.1.1. External damping: Loss of heat energy because of friction with the air Internal damping: Loss of heat energy because of the compression and tension of the molecules in the system Chapter 6: Waves Page 3 of 15 .4 Graphs Displacement-time graph Amplitude Amplitude Displacement-distance graph 6.6 Damping and Resonance • An oscillating system which has a reducing amplitude over time is said to be undergoing damping. Damping is due to lost energy through friction and heat.
The other pendulums are forced to oscillate at the same frequency as pendulum X. its energy is transferred to the other pendulums through the string. An object vibrating at resonance has the maximum amplitude because it is receiving maximum energy from the external system Barton’s Pendulum • • • When the control pendulum X is oscillated. 6. pendulum D will oscillate at resonance and will have the maximum amplitude.Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008 • • • A system that is forced to oscillate continuously with provided external energy is said to be undergoing forced oscillation Natural frequency is the frequency of a system that is left to oscillate freely without an external force An object that is forced to oscillate at its natural frequency is said to be vibrating at resonance. Chapter 6: Waves Page 4 of 15 .1. Because pendulum D has the same natural frequency as X (same length).7 Ripple tank All water wave phenomena are observed through ripple tanks.
1 Reflection of Waves The angle of incidence = The angle of reflection Chapter 6: Waves Page 5 of 15 .Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008 Formation of wave shadows on the screen 6.2 Wave Reflection 6.2.
2.2 Patterns of water wave reflections Plane waves Circular waves Chapter 6: Waves Page 6 of 15 .Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008 6.
the waves refract away from normal Chapter 6: Waves Page 7 of 15 .2.3 Applications • Embankments to protect the ports.Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008 6. beaches.3. λ1 > λ2 • • When traveling from deep to shallow.1 Water wave refraction • • Water travels faster in deep waters and slower in shallow waters Therefore. etc 6. the waves refract towards normal When traveling from shallow to deep.3 Wave Refraction 6. the wavelength of water waves in deep water is bigger than the wavelength in shallow water.
the wave fronts begin to curve to follow the shape of the beachline. as per A1B1C1D1 due to the same water depths As the waves approach the beachline. as per A2B2C2D2 and A3B3C3D3 Energy from A1B1 is focused on the peninsula at A3B3 causing the peninsula to be hit by strong waves Energy from B1C1 is spread out through the bay at B3C3 causing the water at the bay to be calmer • • • • 6.3. As sound travels from cold air to hot air. Sound refraction at night At night.Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008 6. hence the sound wave curves upwards.4 Sound wave refraction Sound refraction in the daytime In the day.3.3 Water wave refraction at the seaside • • As the wind blows the sea towards the beach.3. As sound travels from hot air to cold air. Page 8 of 15 Chapter 6: Waves . the air above the ground is colder than the air higher in the atmosphere.2 Water wave refraction patterns 6. its speed increases until a point where the angle of incidence is greater than the critical angle and total internal reflection occurs. hence the sound wave curves downeards. its speed decreases and refracts towards normal. the wave fronts are almost in a straight line. the air above the ground is hotter than the air higher in the atmosphere. the decreasing depth causes the speed of the water waves to slow down The refraction effect causes the wave fronts to curve to be almost parallel to the beach In the middle of the sea.
4 Wave Diffraction 6.4.2 Applications of diffraction • Embankment to protect ports Chapter 6: Waves Page 9 of 15 .Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008 6.1 Wave diffraction • Diffraction is more visible when: The wavelength of the wave is bigger The obstacle is smaller than the wavelength The aperture is smaller than the wavelength Smaller aperture Diffraction is more obvious Bigger aperture Diffraction is less obvious Smaller obstacle Diffraction is more obvious Bigger obstacle Diffraction is less obvious Round obstacle 6.4.
The superposition effects creates interference Constructive interference Destructive interference 6.5.5. Two wave sources which are coherent have the same frequency and the same phase or phase difference.1 Principle of superposition • • • The principle of superposition state that when two waves propagate through the same point at the same time.Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008 6.5 Wave Interference 6.2 Interference pattern Chapter 6: Waves Page 10 of 15 . the displacement at that point is the vector sum of the displacement of each individual wave.
5.5.Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008 6.4 Different frequencies Low frequency (large wavelength) Value of x is larger High frequency (small wavelength) Value of x is smaller 6.3 Interference equation λ= ax D where λ = wavelength [m] a = distance between sources [m] x = distance between two successive antinodal/nodal lines [m] D = distance between a and x [m] 6.5 Different distance between the sources Larger distance between the sources Value of x is smaller Smaller distance between the sources Value of x is larger Chapter 6: Waves Page 11 of 15 .5.
2 Amplitude and Loudness • • The loudness of sound is dependent on the amplitude of the wave. Sound waves are mechanical waves. the louder the sound.3 Frequency and Pitch • • The pitch of sound is dependent on the frequency of the wave.6.6.6. 6. The higher the amplitude.6. 6. The medium undergoes compression and rarefaction to transfer the energy of the sound waves from one point to another. Each note consists of a fundamental frequency that is mixed with weaker frequencies called overtones. 6. and yet they are easily discernible from one another.6 • • • Sound Waves Sound waves are longitudinal waves. the higher the pitch.5 Frequency ranges Frequency too low for human ears Below 20 Hz Infrasonic / Subsonic Frequency audible to human ears 20 – 20 000 Hz Audio frequency Ultrasonic / Supersonic Frequency too high for human ears Above 20 000 Hz 6. therefore they need a medium to propagate. Speed of sound increases with temperature 6.1 Speed of sound • • Speed of sound is fastest in solids.Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008 6. The higher the frequency.6.6 Noise • • Sounds with frequencies which change randomly are known as noise Exposure to noise for an extended period of time can create psychological and physical problems Page 12 of 15 Chapter 6: Waves . followed by liquids. 6. then gases.6. This is because of the quality or timbre of the note produced by the individual musical instruments. Quality of sound depends on the shape of the sound waves generated by the musical instruments.4 Quality of Sound • • • • Different musical instruments can produce notes of the same loudness and pitch.
in railway tracks Ultrasonic drill – to cut holes in glass and steel High frequency vibration – to clean instruments and fragile items • • • 6.Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008 6.7 Application of sound wave phenomena • • Echoes (Sound wave reflection) In an auditorium.g. echoes must be taken into account to ensure good acoustics Hyperbolic shape of sound waves Ampitheatres are usually designed in a hyperbole to enable better sound travel Sonar Supersonic waves used to measure the ocean depths and to detect objects in the ocean The transmitter releases an ultrasonic pulse which echoes off the ocean bed or object and is detected by a hydrophone Ultrasonic waves in medicine Diagnostics – to create a picture or an image of an internal organ.7. E. E.g.7 • Electromagnetic Waves Electromagnetic waves are electrical and magnetic fields oscillating perpendicular to each other around a single axis 6. foetus in mother’s womb Ultrasonic drill – to cut a decaying part of the tooth Ultrasonic waves in industries Ultrasonic echoes – to detect flaws in a metal structure.6.1 Characteristics Electromagnetic waves have the following characteristics: • Transverse wave • Fulfills the wave equation v=fλ • Travels at the same speed (speed through vacuum: c = 3 × 108 m s-1) • Does not need a medium to propagate • Can be polarized Polaroid is a type of material which allows waves to penetrate through in one plane only Polarization Chapter 6: Waves Page 13 of 15 . concert hall or music studio.
7. f (Hz) → • • • The sun Mercury vapour lamps Extremely hot objects The sun Light bulbs Fire • • Absorbed by glass and the ozone layer Enables chemical reactions.Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008 6. fusion) Characteristic • • • High energy High penetration Extremely dangerous Uses • • • • • X-ray • X-ray tubes: highvelocity electrons hitting heavy metal targets • • • High energy High penetration Extremely dangerous • • • Kill cancer cells Sterilization Food preservation Kill agricultural pests Detect flaws or worn parts in car engines Detect bone flaws or fractures Detect structural or machine flaws Investigate crystal structures and elements in a material Examine bags at the airport Treats the skin with the right exposure (for Vitamin D) Detects counterfeit money • Ultraviolet ray WAVELENGTH.2 Electromagnetic Wave Spectrum Electromagnetic wave Gamma ray Source • Nuclear reaction (fission. skin burns. skin cancer Consists of seven colours with their own respective wavelengths and frequencies • • Visible light • • • • • • • • • Infrared ray • • • • • Microwave The sun Heater Hot or burning items Klystroms • • Heat ray Enables a hot feeling • • • • Enables vision Enables photography Photosynthesis Optic fibre to see inside tissues and organs Laser light in optic fibre for communication Physiotherapy Pictures of internal organs Satellite pictures • Penetrates the atmosphere Radiowave • UHF • VHF • SW • MW • LW Chapter 6: Waves Electrical currents oscillating at the transmitting aerial Communication – satellite. MW & LW • Radio broadcast Page 14 of 15 . λ (m) ← FREQUENCY. radar • Cooking VHF & UHF • Radio and television SW.
Hoo Sze Yen Physics SPM 2008 6.8 Wave Phenomena Changing characteristics Unchanged: • Speed • Frequency • Wavelength Change: • Amplitude Water waves Sound waves Light waves Phenomena Reflection i r Incident ray normal Reflected ray Refraction Unchanged: • Frequency Change: • Speed • Wavelength • Amplitude Carbon dioxide: Converges the sound waves (louder) Helium: Diverges the sound waves (softer) Results using single-slit slide: Diffraction Unchanged: • Speed • Frequency • Wavelength Change: • Amplitude Unchanged: • Speed • Frequency • Wavelength Change: • Amplitude Ray box Slide Screen Interference Results using Young double-slit: Chapter 6: Waves Page 15 of 15 .
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.